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Sample records for airway squamous metaplasia

  1. Interleukin-13–Induced Mucous Metaplasia Increases Susceptibility of Human Airway Epithelium to Rhinovirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Infection of airway epithelium by rhinovirus is the most common cause of asthma exacerbations. Even in mild asthma, airway epithelium exhibits mucous metaplasia, which increases with increasing severity of the disease. We previously showed that squamous cultures of human airway epithelium manifest rhinoviral infection at levels many times higher than in well-differentiated cultures of a mucociliary phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that mucous metaplasia is also associated with increas...

  2. Interleukin-13-induced mucous metaplasia increases susceptibility of human airway epithelium to rhinovirus infection.

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    Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E; Boushey, Homer A; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H

    2010-12-01

    Infection of airway epithelium by rhinovirus is the most common cause of asthma exacerbations. Even in mild asthma, airway epithelium exhibits mucous metaplasia, which increases with increasing severity of the disease. We previously showed that squamous cultures of human airway epithelium manifest rhinoviral infection at levels many times higher than in well-differentiated cultures of a mucociliary phenotype. Here we tested the hypothesis that mucous metaplasia is also associated with increased levels of rhinoviral infection. Mucous metaplasia was induced with IL-13, which doubled the numbers of goblet cells. In both control (mucociliary) and IL-13- treated (mucous metaplastic) cultures, goblet cells were preferentially infected by rhinovirus. IL-13 doubled the numbers of infected cells by increasing the numbers of infected goblet cells. Furthermore, IL-13 increased both the maturity of goblet cells and the probability that a goblet cell would be infected. The infection of cells other than goblet cells was unaltered by IL-13. Treatment with IL-13 did not alter the levels of rhinovirus receptor ICAM-1, nor did the proliferative effects of IL-13 enhance infection, because rhinovirus did not colocalize with dividing cells. However, the induction of mucous metaplasia caused changes in the apical membrane structure, notably a marked decrease in overall ciliation, and an increase in the overall flatness of the apical surface. We conclude that mucous metaplasia in asthma increases the susceptibility of airway epithelium to infection by rhinovirus because of changes in the overall architecture of the apical surface.

  3. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

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    Santos Renato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.

  4. Proinflammatory cytokines induce bronchial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia in smokers: implications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy.

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    Herfs, Michael; Hubert, Pascale; Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Vandevenne, Patricia; Renoux, Virginie; Habraken, Yvette; Cataldo, Didier; Boniver, Jacques; Delvenne, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Tracheobronchial squamous metaplasia is common in smokers, and is associated with both airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increased risk of lung cancer. Although this reversible epithelial replacement is almost always observed in association with chronic inflammation, the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of squamous metaplasia remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the implication of cigarette smoke-mediated proinflammatory cytokine up-regulation in the development and treatment of tracheobronchial epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Using immunohistological techniques, we showed a higher epithelial expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as well as an activation of NF-κB and activator protein-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in the respiratory tract of smoking patients, compared with the normal ciliated epithelium of nonsmoking patients. In addition, we demonstrated that these signaling pathways strongly influence the proliferation and differentiation state of in vitro-generated normal human airway epithelial basal cells. Finally, we exposed mice to cigarette smoke for 16 weeks, and demonstrated that anti-TNF-α (etanercept), anti-IL-1β (anakinra), and/or anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab) therapies significantly reduced epithelial hyperplasia and the development of squamous metaplasia. These data highlight the importance of soluble inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of tracheobronchial squamous metaplasia. Therefore, the administration of proinflammatory cytokine antagonists may have clinical applications in the management of patients with COPD.

  5. Renal Pelviceal Keratinizing Squamous Metaplasia with Sparing of Pyramidal Zones

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    Richard H. Siderits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaplastic changes in the urothelium of the upper urinary tract are relatively infrequent. Metaplasia may present as either squamous or less often glandular differentiation. The process may be associated with chronic inflammation or associated chronic infections. There may be malignant transformation to either squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma. The demarcation of the metaplastic process in the minor calyces has not been well documented to date. We report the case of a 74-year-old female patient who presented with a history of chronic renal disease and acute pyohydronephrosis. The patient underwent a nephroureterectomy which revealed keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia throughout the renal pelvis and upper urinary tract with abrupt termination of metaplasia at the junction of the renal pelvis and the minor calyx (pyramidal zone. Immunohistochemical evaluation documents metaplastic urothelium stained positive for CK5, before converting sharply to simple cuboidal epithelium in the minor calyx (pyramidal zones which stained positive CK7. At the junction of the metaplastic components and low cuboidal lined minor calyceal surfaces, the underlying stroma showed loss of ureteral muscularis mucosa with transition to renal parenchymal type stroma. We believe that this observation is unique and potentially relevant to the etiology and pathophysiology of pelviceal metaplasia.

  6. Human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in squamous metaplastic epithelium of bronchial airways.

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    Aarbiou, J.; Schadewijk, A. van; Stolk, J.; Sont, J.K.; Boer, W.I.; Rabe, K.F.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Mauad, T.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze a possible contribution of human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) to the induction of airway epithelial changes such as squamous cell metaplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presence of these molecules and the num

  7. Extensive squamous metaplasia in a benign phyllodes tumor: A rare case report

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    Harsh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumors (PTs with extensive squamous metaplasia is an uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising of <1% of all breast neoplasm′s. In this article, we report a case of a 55-year-old female patient admitted to the General Surgery Department with a rapidly enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed to be as benign PT with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are known, but infrequent in these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within PT is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malignant subtypes. There are only a few cases reported in the literature. We therefore, aimed to present this case in view of its extremely rare nature.

  8. Incidentally Discovered Extensive Squamous Metaplasia within Borderline Phyllodes Tumor: Presentation of a Rare Tumor.

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    Uğraş, Nesrin; Tolunay, Şahsine; Öz Atalay, Fatma; Gökgöz, Şehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. We therefore aimed to present the case with its microscopic findings. In this article, we report a 59-year-old female admitted to the general surgery department with a rapidly, enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as borderline phyllodes tumor with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are infrequent in the stromal and epithelial component of these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within phyllodes tumor is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malign subtypes.

  9. Clinical and pathological presentation of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

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    Á.M. Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Squamous metaplasia of rete ovarii is characterized by replacement of the normal cuboidal epithelium of rete ovarii by a keratinized stratified scamous epithelium, leading to accumulation of keratinized material within the tubules and cystic dilatation of rete ovarii. The present study decribes a case of scamous metaplasia of rete ovarii in a 10 year old Zebu cow, including clinical, surgical, ultrasonographic, histopathological and hormonal findings. At first ultrasound examination the cow had lightly asymmetric ovaries with follicles presenting echogenicity similar to luteinized follicular cysts. After transvaginal follicular aspiration creamy yellowish sanguineous-purulent content was recovered. After unilateral ovariectomy the ovary was sectioned and brownish viscous material drained from cystic cavity. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosid of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii. Progesterone concentrations assessed by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay within different time periods after ovariectomy showed that pathology did not compromise normal luteal ovarian activity in a contralateral reminiscent ovary.

  10. Microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Chun Cai; Di Liu; Kai-Hua Liu; Hai-Ping Zhang; Shan Zhong; Ning-Sao Xia

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the microsatellite alterations in phenotypically normal esophageal squamous epithelium and metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.METHODS: Forty-one specimens were obtained from esophageal cancer (EC) patients. Histopathological assessment identified 23 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 18 adenocarcinomas (ADC), including only 8 ADC with Barrett esophageal columnar epithelium (metaplasia) and dysplasia adjacent to ADC. Paraffinembedded normal squamous epithelium, Barrett esophageal columnar epithelium (metaplasia), dysplasia and esophageal tumor tissues were dissected from the surrounding tissues under microscopic guidance. DNA was extracted using proteinase K digestion buffer, and DNA was diluted at 1:100, 1:1000, 1:5000, 1:10000 and 1:50000, respectively. Seven microsatellite markers (D2S123, D3S1616, D3S1300, D5S346, D17S787, D18S58 and BATRII loci) were used in this study. Un-dilution and dilution polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed, and microsatellite analysis was carried out.RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was found in microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of un-diluted DNA between SCC and ADC. The levels of MSI and LOH were high in the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence of diluted DNA. The more the diluted DNA was, the higher the rates of MSI and LOH were at the above 7 loci, especially at D3S1616, D5S346, D2S123, D3S1300 and D18S58 loci.CONCLUSION: The sequence of metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma is associated with microsatellite alterations, including MSI and LOH. The MSI and LOH may be the early genetic events during esophageal carcinogenesis, and genetic alterations at the D3S1616, D5S346 and D3S123 loci may play a role in the progress of microsatellite alterations.

  11. The loss of Hoxa5 function promotes Notch-dependent goblet cell metaplasia in lung airways

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    Olivier Boucherat

    2012-05-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors controlling complex developmental processes in various organs. Little is known, however, about how HOX proteins control cell fate. Herein, we demonstrate that the goblet cell metaplasia observed in lung airways from Hoxa5−/− mice originates from the transdifferentiation of Clara cells. Reduced CC10 expression in Hoxa5−/− embryos indicates that altered cell specification occurs prior to birth. The loss of Hoxa5 function does not preclude airway repair after naphthalene exposure, but the regenerated epithelium presents goblet cell metaplasia and less CC10-positive cells, demonstrating the essential role of Hoxa5 for correct differentiation. Goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice is a FOXA2-independent process. However, it is associated with increased Notch signaling activity. Consistent with these findings, expression levels of activated NOTCH1 and the effector gene HEY2 are enhanced in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In vivo administration of a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuates goblet cell metaplasia in Hoxa5−/− mice, highlighting the contribution of Notch signaling to the phenotype and suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy to inhibit goblet cell differentiation and mucus overproduction in airway diseases. In summary, the loss of Hoxa5 function in lung mesenchyme impacts on epithelial cell fate by modulating Notch signaling.

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report

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    GOULART, Maria Carolina Vaz; FREITAS-FARIA, Patrícia; GOULART, Gláuter Rodrigues; de OLIVEIRA, Adriano Macedo; CARLOS-BREGNI, Roman; SOARES, Cleverson Teixeira; LARA, Vanessa Soares

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation. PMID:21552721

  13. DUOX1 mediates persistent epithelial EGFR activation, mucous cell metaplasia, and airway remodeling during allergic asthma

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    Habibovic, Aida; Hristova, Milena; Heppner, David E.; Danyal, Karamatullah; Ather, Jennifer L.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M.W.; Irvin, Charles G.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Lundblad, Lennart K.; Dixon, Anne E.; Geiszt, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of EGFR ligands such as amphiregulin as well as constitutive EGFR activation in cultured nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic subjects compared with nonasthmatic controls and in lung tissues of mice during house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) allergic inflammation. EGFR activation was associated with cysteine oxidation within EGFR and the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src, and both amphiregulin production and oxidative EGFR activation were diminished by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of the epithelial NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). DUOX1 deficiency also attenuated several EGFR-dependent features of HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation, including neutrophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production (IL-33, IL-13), mucous metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and central airway resistance. Moreover, targeted inhibition of airway DUOX1 in mice with previously established HDM-induced allergic inflammation, by intratracheal administration of DUOX1-targeted siRNA or pharmacological NADPH oxidase inhibitors, reversed most of these outcomes. Our findings indicate an important function for DUOX1 in allergic inflammation related to persistent EGFR activation and suggest that DUOX1 targeting may represent an attractive strategy in asthma management.

  14. Ascorbic acid inhibits the squamous metaplasia that results from treatment of tracheal explants with asbestos or benzo[a]pyrene-coated asbestos.

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    Holtz, G; Bresnick, E

    1988-01-01

    Hamster tracheal explants were maintained in culture in the presence or absence of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), crocidolite asbestos, or BP-coated crocidolite. Dose-dependent squamous metaplasia was observed in the treated samples. L-Ascorbic acid and DL-alpha-tocopherol were able to partially protect the tracheal explants from the metaplastic response induced by crocidolite. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced the extent of metaplasia observed in hamster tracheal explants that were exposed to BP-crocidolite.

  15. Conservative Management of Unusual Keratinising Squamous Metaplasia of the Bladder in a 28-Year-Old Female and Overview of the Literature

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    Fernando Vázquez Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder is rare and is usually associated with urinary tract infections and chronic irritation. It is considered a precancerous condition of squamous cell carcinoma, especially when more than 50% of the bladder surface is affected. Medical treatment cannot eradicate this lesion. When it is limited to a small area of the bladder, transurethral resection is possible. Annual cystoscopy with multiple biopsies as well as annual upper tract imaging is proposed in the follow up of these patients. We present a preliminary 2-year followup report of a keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder in a 28-year-old female patient with no previous risk factors.

  16. Tiotropium attenuates IL-13-induced goblet cell metaplasia of human airway epithelial cells

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    Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Bouwman, Susanne; van den Berge, Maarten; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that acetylcholine is both a neurotransmitter and acts as a local mediator, produced by airway cells including epithelial cells. In vivo studies have demonstrated an indirect role for acetylcholine in epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we aimed to investigate direct

  17. Improvement in bronchial squamous metaplasia in smokers treated with folate and vitamin B/sub 12/: report of a preliminary randomized, double-blind intervention trial

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    Heimburger, D.C.; Alexander, C.B.; Birch, R.; Butterworth, C.E. Jr.; Bailey, W.C.; Krumdieck, C.L.

    1988-03-11

    To test whether changes in folate and vitamin B/sub 12/ nutrition modify the severity of potentially premalignant lesions identified by cytology in sputum samples of smokers, the authors conducted a randomized, controlled prospective intervention trial in smokers with bronchial squamous metaplasia. Seventy-three men with a history of 20 or more pack-years of cigarette smoking who had metaplasia on one or more sputum samples were stratified according to smoking level and randomly assigned to four months' treatment with either placebo or 10 mg of folate plus 500 ..mu..g of hydroxocobalamin. Direct cytological comparison of the two groups after four months showed significantly greater reduction of atypia in the supplemented group. This provides preliminary evidence that atypical bronchial squamous metaplasia may be reduced by supplementation with folate and vitamin B/sub 12/. However, the significance of these findings is tempered by substantial spontaneous variation in sputum cytologies, the small study population, the short duration of the trial, and the supraphysiological doses of folate and B/sub 12/ used. The results should not be construed as pointing to a potential way of preventing lung cancer in individuals who continue to smoke or as supporting self-medication with large doses of folate or B/sub 12/ by smokers.

  18. p16INK4A immunohistochemistry is superior to HPV in situ hybridization for the detection of high-risk HPV in atypical squamous metaplasia.

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    Kong, Christina S; Balzer, Bonnie L; Troxell, Megan L; Patterson, Bruce K; Longacre, Teri A

    2007-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) assays for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays for surrogate markers such as p16 can be useful in detecting HR-HPV in cervical dysplasia, but the use of these markers in problematic cervical biopsies has not been well-established. We evaluated 3 chromogenic ISH assays (Ventana INFORM HPVII and HPVIII and DakoCytomation GenPoint) in conjunction with p16 IHC and HPV polymerase chain reaction in a study set consisting of 12 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 16 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 30 benign cervix samples. A test set of 28 cases of atypical squamous metaplasia were also evaluated withVentana HPVIII ISH and p16 IHC. In the study set, the sensitivity of the DakoCytomation ISH assay (which detects HPV subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) was similar to the Ventana HPVII assay but less than that of the Ventana HPVIII ISH assay (both of which detect HPV subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 66) and less than p16 IHC (55.6% vs. 53.6 vs. 69.2% vs. 82.1%). All HPV ISH assays exhibited 100% specificity. p16 reactivity consisted of 2 patterns: focal strong and diffuse strong. Because focal strong p16 reactivity was identified in benign squamous epithelium (6.7% cases) and dysplastic epithelium, it was considered an equivocal result and only diffuse strong reactivity was considered to be specific for the presence of HR-HPV. In the squamous intraepithelial lesions study set, the difference in sensitivity between Ventana HPVIII ISH and p16 was not statistically significant. However, in the atypical squamous metaplasia test set cases, p16 reactivity (focal strong and diffuse strong) was significantly more sensitive than Ventana HPVIII ISH in correlating with the presence of human papillomavirus as detected by polymerase chain reaction (83.3% vs. 33.3% P=0.004). Because focal strong p16 reactivity is less specific, cases with this

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanin causes airway goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion by inactivating the transcriptional factor FoxA2.

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    Hao, Yonghua; Kuang, Zhizhou; Walling, Brent E; Bhatia, Shikha; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Chen, Yin; Gaskins, H Rex; Lau, Gee W

    2012-03-01

    The redox-active exotoxin pyocyanin (PCN) can be recovered in 100 µM concentrations in the sputa of bronchiectasis patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). However, the importance of PCN within bronchiectatic airways colonized by PA remains unrecognized. Recently, we have shown that PCN is required for chronic PA lung infection in mice, and that chronic instillation of PCN induces goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH), pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema and influx of immune cells in mouse airways. Many of these pathological features are strikingly similar to the mouse airways devoid of functional FoxA2, a transcriptional repressor of GCH and mucus biosynthesis. In this study, we postulate that PCN causes and exacerbates GCH and mucus hypersecretion in bronchiectatic airways chronically infected by PA by inactivating FoxA2. We demonstrate that PCN represses the expression of FoxA2 in mouse airways and in bronchial epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface or conventionally, resulting in GCH, increased MUC5B mucin gene expression and mucus hypersecretion. Immunohistochemical and inhibitor studies indicate that PCN upregulates the expression of Stat6 and EGFR, both of which in turn repress the expression of FoxA2. These studies demonstrate that PCN induces GCH and mucus hypersecretion by inactivating FoxA2.

  20. Endometrial metaplasias and reactive changes: a spectrum of altered differentiation.

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    Nicolae, Alina; Preda, Ovidiu; Nogales, Francisco F

    2011-02-01

    Endometrial metaplasias and changes (EMCs) are conditions frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. The aim of this review is to update current issues and provide a classification with a practical clinicopathological approach. Hormonal or irritative stimuli are the main inducing factors of EMCs, although some metaplasias have a mutational origin. EMCs vary from reactive, degenerative lesions to those able to associate with malignancy or those having a preneoplastic potential. The most common types of EMCs are ciliated tubal metaplasia (CTM) and mucinous metaplasia (MM), which occur in simple and complex glands, and possibly these architectural changes hold the same prognostic significance as they do in hyperplastic endometrioid lesions. Immunohistochemically, CTM is positive for LhS28, bcl-2, PAX2 and p16(INK4A). Complex CTM is likely to be a precursor of ciliated endometrioid-type carcinomas. MMs should be evaluated architecturally, taking into account that their atypicality is minimal. The differentiation between complex MM and mucinous carcinoma may be extremely difficult. Surface complex, papillary MM in endometrial polyps can be considered as benign. Intestinal-type endometrial MM is rare and its presence should prompt further investigation of associated lesions in the endocervix. Endometrial squamous metaplasia (ESS) is often linked to chronic irritative situations. It should be differentiated from secondary involvement by a human papilomavirus-related cervical lesion. Morular metaplasia is a mutational phenomenon with a distinct phenotype that helps to differentiate it from ESS. Morules are benign, hormonally inert structures that are often markers of complex endometrioid glandular architecture, and they are associated with an attenuated malignancy. Endometrial reactive changes are commonly associated with desquamation or hormonal imbalance. The frequent, p16(INK4A) positive, benign surface papillary syncytial change may be misdiagnosed, in some cases, as

  1. Airway epithelial repair, regeneration, and remodeling after injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Puchelle, Edith; Zahm, Jean-Marie; Tournier, Jean-Marie; Coraux, Christelle

    2006-11-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are generally associated with several causes, including pollutants, viruses, bacteria that are responsible for an excess of inflammatory mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines released by activated epithelial and inflammatory cells. The normal response of the airway surface epithelium to injury includes a succession of cellular events, varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium then has to repair and regenerate to restore its functions, through several mechanisms, including basal cell spreading and migration, followed by proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. In COPD, the remodeling of the airway epithelium, such as squamous metaplasia and mucous hyperplasia that occur during injury, may considerably disturb the innate immune functions of the airway epithelium. In vitro and in vivo models of airway epithelial wound repair and regeneration allow the study of the spatiotemporal modulation of cellular and molecular interaction factors-namely, the proinflammatory cytokines, the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors, and the intercellular adhesion molecules. These factors may be markedly altered during exacerbation periods of COPD and their dysregulation may induce remodeling of the airway mucosa and a leakiness of the airway surface epithelium. More knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration may pave the way to cytoprotective and regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional, well-differentiated airway epithelium in COPD.

  2. [Chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia].

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    Castillo, T; Navarrete, J; Celestina, A

    1989-01-01

    Much has been written about gastric mucosae behavior and the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to learn something more about these matters in peruvian population. We selected 100 patients with endoscopically no localized lesions between 30 to 70 years of age. We took 8 samples of gastric mucosae in each patient which were carefully examined for the presence of inflammatory changes, settle the line type between antral and fundic mucosae and the frequency of intestinal metaplasia finding. The results showed disagreement between endoscopic and histological findings, so we conclude it is better to diagnose chronic gastritis on the basis of histological parameters. The line between antral and fundic mucosae was of the close type one found in 87% of all cases and it advanced proximally with increasing age. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 46% of the whole number of patients and the rate of occurrence increased in 50% over 50 years age. These findings will let us compare future investigations of gastric mucosae behavior with localized benign or malign lesions.

  3. Old dilemma: asthma with irreversible airway obstruction or COPD.

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    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Vonk, Judith M; Bulkmans, Nicole; Fleischeuer, Ruth; Gouw, Annette; Grünberg, Katrien; Mauad, Thais; Popper, Helmut; Felipe-Silva, Aloisio; Vrugt, Bart; Wright, Joanne L; Yang, Hui-Min; Kocks, Janwillem W H; Hylkema, Machteld N; Postma, Dirkje S; Timens, Wim; Ten Hacken, Nick H T

    2015-11-01

    Older asthmatic patients may develop fixed airway obstruction and clinical signs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the added value of pathological evaluation of bronchial biopsies to help differentiate asthma from COPD, taking into account smoking, age, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use. Asthma and COPD patients (24 of each category) were matched for ICS use, age, FEV(1), and smoking habits. Five pulmonary and five general pathologists examined bronchial biopsies using an interactive website, without knowing patient information. They were asked to diagnose asthma or COPD on biopsy findings in both a pairwise and randomly mixed order of cases during four different phases, with intervals of 4-6 weeks, covering a maximal period of 36 weeks. Clinically concordant diagnoses of asthma or COPD varied between 63 %-73 %, without important differences between pairwise vs randomly mixed examination or between general vs pulmonary pathologists. The highest percentage of concordant diagnoses was in young asthmatic patients without ICS use and in COPD patients with ICS use. In non ICS users with fixed airway obstruction, a COPD diagnosis was favored if abnormal presence of glands, squamous metaplasia, and submucosal infiltrate was present and an asthma diagnosis in case of abnormal presence of goblet cells. In ICS users with fixed airway obstruction, abnormal presence of submucosal infiltrates, basement membrane thickening, eosinophils, and glands was associated with asthma. Histological characteristics in bronchial biopsies are reproducibly recognized by pathologists, yet the differentiation by histopathology between asthma and COPD is difficult without information about ICS use.

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of Literature

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    Brijbassie, Alan; Stelow, Edward; Shami, Vanessa M

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare tumor with the normal pancreas being entirely devoid of squamous cells. It, however, has been noted that during inflammatory episodes, squamous metaplasia of ductal columnar cells has been observed; however, transformation to SCC is rare. We herein describe a case of pancreatic SCC and provide a review of existing literature.

  5. Esophageal leukoplakia or epidermoid metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 patients.

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    Singhi, Aatur D; Arnold, Christina A; Crowder, Clinton D; Lam-Himlin, Dora M; Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common, painless disorder of the oral mucosa. It predominantly affects middle-aged to elderly men and has a strong association with tobacco smoking and alcohol intake. Concomitant histological findings of hyperorthokeratosis and a well-developed granular cell layer, termed orthokeratotic dysplasia, are often associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma. In contrast, analogous lesions within the esophagus, termed esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, are rarely encountered and poorly described in the literature. To better characterize the clinicopathological features of this entity, we have collected 25 cases from 18 patients. Patients ranged in age from 37 to 81 years (mean, 61.5 years), with a slight female predominance (10/18, 56%). On presentation, a majority of patients complained of dysphagia (10/18, 56%). Past medical history was significant for tobacco smoking or long history of second-hand smoke in 11 (61%) patients and alcohol intake in 7 (39%) patients. Seventeen (94%) patients with esophageal epidermoid metaplasia were located within the middle-to-distal esophagus. Histologically, all cases were sharply demarcated and characterized by epithelial hyperplasia, a thickened basal layer, acanthotic midzone, a prominent granular cell layer, and superficial hyperorthokeratosis. Adjacent high-grade squamous dysplasia and/or squamous cell carcinoma were seen in 3 out of 18 (17%) patients. Follow-up information was available for 13 out of 18 (72%) patients and ranged from 2 to 8.3 years (mean, 2.3 years). Seven of the 13 (54%) patients had persistent disease; however, none of them developed squamous dysplasia or squamous cell carcinoma. In an effort to assess the incidence of esophageal epidermoid metaplasia, 198 consecutive esophageal biopsies were prospectively surveyed over a 6-month period at three academic institutions. No cases were identified within this time frame. In summary, esophageal epidermoid metaplasia is a rare

  6. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  7. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  8. Melanotic oncocytic metaplasia of nasopharynx: a case report with review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuan; LU Zhao-hui; L(U) Wei; CHEN Jie

    2010-01-01

    @@ Oncocytic metaplasia is a well-established pathological entity that may occur in many organs; including salivary glands, thyroid, parathyroid and kidney. The occurrence of oncocytic metaplasia in the nasopharynx is uncommon and metaplasia with melanin pigmentation is extremely rare, no more than twenty cases having been reported to date.

  9. Aural carcinoma with chondroid metaplasia at metastatic sites in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Mariarita; Malatesta, Daniela; Marinelli, Alessia; Di Lorenzo, Pierluigi; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2011-08-01

    A case of aural carcinoma with chondroid metaplasia at metastatic foci in an 8-year-old male pug is described. Multiple metastases in both lungs and the right submandibular, parotid, retropharyngeal, cervical and prescapular lymph nodes were detected. Histologically, the skin of the right ear canal appeared to be diffusely infiltrated by cords and nests of neoplastic epithelial cells, showing multifocal contiguity with the overlying hyperplastic squamous epithelium. Most of the carcinomatous cells were arranged in a glandular-like pattern, with formation of lumens containing epithelial cells attached to the peripheral cell layer by elongated intercellular bridges. Scattered foci of keratinization with central accumulations of compact, laminated keratin were also observed, and histochemical stains failed to detect mucinous secretory material. Even though histological and histochemical findings were compatible with a diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma, CAM5.2 immunostaining was detectable in the majority, although not all, neoplastic cells, confirming a diagnosis of poorly differentiated ceruminous gland carcinoma. Pulmonary metastatic nodules revealed multifocal areas of cartilaginous metaplasia with apparent transition of carcinomatous cells to chondroid cells, showing nuclear atypia and focal cytokeratin immunostaining. Carcinomatous cells surrounding chondroid areas also revealed focal vimentin and S100 immunoreactivity. Histological evidence of transition between the two components, as well as the presence of intermediate cells displaying both epithelial and mesenchymal immunohistochemical features, strongly indicated a final diagnosis of carcinosarcoma, in which chondrosarcomatous elements were derived from carcinoma cells.

  10. Osseous metaplasia within a canine insulinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczarka, Emily M; Russell, Duncan S; Santangelo, Kelly S; Aeffner, Famke; Burkhard, Mary Jo

    2014-03-01

    An 11-year-old male castrated mixed-breed dog was presented for exercise intolerance, tetraparesis, and persistent hypoglycemia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed 2 nodules within the right limb of the pancreas. Cytology from one nodule was consistent with a carcinoma of neuroendocrine origin, with a primary differential diagnosis of insulinoma. Histologic evaluation and immunohistochemistry for synaptophysin and insulin confirmed the diagnosis of insulinoma. Additionally, there was a solitary nodule of mineralized compact bone composing approximately 60% of the mass. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of osseous metaplasia within an insulinoma (islet cell carcinoma).

  11. Phenotypic modification of human airway epithelial cells in air-liquid interface culture induced by exposure to the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Johnny L; Brighton, Luisa E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent tobacco-specific carcinogen. We used an air-liquid interface epithelial cell culture system to model changes associated with NNK exposure relative to pathologies documented in human tobacco-related illnesses. Although in vitro systems exhibit certain limitations, they often offer accentuation of subtle pathologies. While the distribution of cell types in control cultures typically favors the ciliated cell phenotype, NNK-exposed cultures transitioned to non-ciliated cell phenotypes as well as reflecting features consistent with squamous metaplasia. We conclude that NNK impacts normal growth and differentiation of human airway epithelium in a short interval of time in vitro.

  12. The gene expression profile of cardia intestinal metaplasia is similar to that of Barrett's esophagus, not gastric intestinal metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D S; DeMeester, S R; Tanaka, K; Marjoram, P; Kuramochi, H; Vallbohmer, D; Danenberg, K; Chandrasoma, P T; DeMeester, T R; Hagen, J A

    2011-09-01

    The etiology and significance of cardia intestinal metaplasia (CIM) is disputed. CIM may represent a form of Barrett's esophagus due to reflux or could reflect generalized gastric intestinal metaplasia due to Helicobacter pylori. The aim of this study was to utilize gene expression data to compare CIM to Barrett's and gastric intestinal metaplasia. Endoscopic biopsies were classified by endoscopic and histologic criteria as CIM (n= 33), Barrett's (n= 25), or gastric intestinal metaplasia of the antrum or body (n= 18). The squamocolumnar and gastroesophageal junctions were aligned in CIM patients and patients with diffuse gastric intestinal metaplasia were excluded. H. pylori was tested for in the biopsies of all patients. After laser-capture microdissection, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression of a panel of nine genes that has been shown to differentiate Barrett's from other foregut mucosa. Cluster analysis with linear discriminant analysis of the expression data was used to classify each sample into groups based solely on similarity of gene expression. Cluster analysis was performed for three groups (CIM vs. Barrett's vs. gastric intestinal metaplasia) and two groups (CIM + Barrett's vs. gastric intestinal metaplasia). There was no difference in H. pylori infection among groups (P= 0.66). Clustering into three groups resulted in frequent misclassification between CIM and Barrett's while misclassification of gastric intestinal metaplasia was uncommon. The CIM and Barrett's groups were then combined for two group clustering and linear discriminant analysis correctly predicted 95% of CIM and Barrett's samples and 83% of gastric intestinal metaplasia samples based on gene expression alone. In conclusion, the gene expression profiles of CIM and Barrett's esophagus were similar in 95% of biopsies and differed significantly from that of gastric intestinal metaplasia. The indistinguishable gene

  13. Tracheal dysplasia precedes bronchial dysplasia in mouse model of N-nitroso trischloroethylurea induced squamous cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Ghosh

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC is the second leading cause of lung cancer death in the US and has a 5-year survival rate of only 16%. Histological changes in the bronchial epithelium termed dysplasia are precursors to invasive SCC. However, the cellular mechanisms that cause dysplasia are unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, we used topical application of N-nitroso-tris chloroethylurea (NTCU for 32 weeks to induce squamous dysplasia and SCC in mice. At 32 weeks the predominant cell type in the dysplastic airways was Keratin (K 5 and K14 expressing basal cells. Notably, basal cells are extremely rare in the normal mouse bronchial epithelium but are abundant in the trachea. We therefore evaluated time-dependent changes in tracheal and bronchial histopathology after NTCU exposure (4, 8, 12, 16, 25 and 32 weeks. We show that tracheal dysplasia occurs significantly earlier than that of the bronchial epithelium (12 weeks vs. 25 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of K5+/K14+ tracheal basal cells and a complete loss of secretory (Club cell secretory protein expressing CCSP+ and ciliated cells. TUNEL staining of NTCU treated tissues confirmed that the loss of CCSP+ and ciliated cells was not due to apoptosis. However, mitotic index (measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed that NTCU treatment increased proliferation of K5+ basal cells in the trachea, and altered bronchial mitotic population from CCSP+ to K5+ basal cells. Thus, we demonstrate that NTCU-induced lung epithelial dysplasia starts in the tracheal epithelium, and is followed by basal cell metaplasia of the bronchial epithelium. This analysis extends our knowledge of the NTCU-SCC model by defining the early changes in epithelial cell phenotypes in distinct airway locations, and this may assist in identifying new targets for future chemoprevention studies.

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  15. PRP and Metaplasia in repaired tendon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Seyed-Forootan; Hamid Karimi; Ahmad-Reza Dayani

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate effects ofPRP injection in strengthening of repaired tendon.Methods:This study was conducted in animal lab of our hospital on20 rats.The animals were divided into two groups randomly and distal third of leftAchillis tendons were cut and then repaired with Vicryl2/0.The first group was control group and in the second group0.5 cc ofPRP was injected into the repair site.After4 weeks all of the rats were executed and70% of tendons were sent randomly for tensilometry and the force that required to rupture the tendons were measured.In next stage the tendons were sent for pathological exam.Results:The force that was needed to rupture the tendon were not significantly different in the two groups.Neovascularization were more prevalent inPRP group but not statistically significant.There were two cases ofCartilage Metaplasia inPRP group.Conclusion:It seems that usingPRP has no effect on strengthening the tendons repair and may have some adverse effects.It usage needs further studies to evaluate their probable adverse side effects.

  16. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  17. Human apolipoprotein E genotypes differentially modify house dust mite-induced airway disease in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Xianglan; Dai, Cuilian; Fredriksson, Karin

    2012-01-01

    with reductions in lung mRNA levels of Th2 and Th17 cytokines, as well as chemokines (CCL7, CCL11, CCL24). huApoE4 mice had an intermediate phenotype, with attenuated AHR and IgE production, compared with muApoE mice, whereas airway inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia were not reduced. In contrast, HDM...

  18. CDX1 is an important molecular mediator of Barrett's metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, N A C S; Wilding, J; Bartlett, S;

    2005-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of Barrett's metaplasia (BM) of the esophagus is poorly understood. The change to an intestinal phenotype occurs on a background of esophagitis due to refluxing acid and bile. CDX1, an important regulator of normal intestinal development, was studied as a potential key...

  19. Sonographic appearance of renal transplant osseous metaplasia: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, R.; Common, A.A. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sugar, L. [Univ. of Toronto, St. Michael' s Hospital, Dept. of Pathology, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of pathologically proven osseous metaplasia occurring in renal allograft 7 years after transplantation, appearing as multiple, echogenic, band-like lesions with acoustic shadowing on ultra-sonography (US). To our knowledge, such a case has not yet been described in the literature. (author)

  20. Atypical presentation of primary renal squamous cell cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renal squamous cell cancer is one of the rare primary urothelial tumors with only a handful of cases reported in literature. Because of high grade, advanced and late presentation, they herald a grave prognosis. They are frequently associated with calculus disease, smoking, phenacetin consumption and foci of squamous metaplasia due to chronic irritation. Nephroureterectomy is the treatment of choice for such tumors. We hereby present a case of 59 year old female who presented with squamous cell cancer of renal pelvis. The case presented here is different from what has already been reported in literature, as the patient had no antecedent risk factors for renal squamous cell carcinoma.-------------------------------------------------Cite this article as: Pahwa M, Pahwa AR, Girotra M, Chawla A. Atypical presentation of primary renal squamous cell cancer: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:02015.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.5

  1. Osseous metaplasia in gliosarcoma: an unusual histologic finding. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gliosarcoma (GS is a malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system that has coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. GSs are rarely related to osseous metaplasia. The authors report a case of GS in a male patient presenting apathy and catatonia. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive process affecting the left frontal lobe. At microscopy, a malignant glioma constituted by highly atypical glial cells intermingled with spindle-shaped cells was identified. The lesion showed areas of necrosis with pseudopalisading formation, focus of osseous metaplasia, and positive immunoexpression of S100, CD99 and vimentin in both elements. Only the sarcomatous component exhibited negative immunoexpression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. The diagnosis of GS was then established.

  2. Osseous metaplasia in gliosarcoma : an unusual histologic finding : case report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gliosarcoma (GS) is a malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system that has coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. GSs are rarely related to osseous metaplasia. The authors report a case of GS in a male patient presenting apathy and catatonia. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging showed an expansive process affecting the left frontal lobe. At microscopy, a malignant glioma constituted by highly atypical glial cells intermingled with spindle-shaped cells was identified. The...

  3. Research on genesis of adipocytic metaplasia in uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sośnik, Henryk; Jeleń, Michał; Kosiński, Mariusz; Sośnik, Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    The genesis of lipoleiomyoma has not been explained yet. Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on 17 lipoleiomyomas in women aged 43-82 (mean age: 51 ±9 years). Four types of myomas were distinguished: 1) pure leiomyoma, 2) fibroleiomyoma, 3) hyalinizing leiomyoma, 4) strongly hyalinized myoma, along with three degrees of progression of adipocytic metaplasia: 1) up to 25% of lipocytes, 2) up to 50% of lipocytes, and 3) over 50% of lipocytes in the analyzed sample, along with three degrees of progression of adipocytic metaplasia: 1) up to 25% of lipocytes, 2) up to 50% of lipocytes, and 3) over 50% of lipocytes in the analyzed sample. A positive correlation was found between the age of women and rate of development of metaplasia (r = 0.51, p = 0.035) as well as with activity of the estrogen receptor in the primary tumor (r = 0.53, p = 0.03). New mucous perivascular tissue was reported among 11.8% of patients and on this basis lipocytes were formed. The appearance of subendothelial granular cells of large blood vessels with a positive reaction for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD68 was reported in 17.7%. Results of immunohistochemical research seem to confirm that lipocytes de novo come from the primal pluripotent cells of the tumor stroma and not from the fatty degeneration of myocytes.

  4. Metaplasia intestinal especializada de esôfago distal na doença do refluxo gastroesofágico: prevalência e aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos Specialized intestinal metaplasia of distal esophagus in the gastroesophageal reflux disease: prevalence and clinical-demographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiber C. Caum

    2003-12-01

    , esofagite mais intensa e sem associação com tabaco ou álcool.BACKGROUND: Specialized intestinal metaplasia can be categorized according endoscopic and histological findings in long segment Barrett, short segment Barrett and specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardia. Barrett's esophagus is an acquired disease that is found in about 10%-13% of patients undergoing endoscopy for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and it is well established as predisposing to esophageal adenocarcinoma. The columnar epithelium with goblet cells replaces the normal squamous epithelium. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical-demographic characteristics of specialized intestinal metaplasia of distal esophagus in the gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: From April to October 2002, 402 patients referred to upper endoscopy due gastroesophageal reflux disease were evaluated through of a symptom questionnaire about clinical and demographic features and submitted to upper endoscopy with four-quadrant biopsies 1 cm below escamocolumnar junction. RESULTS: Eighteen point four percent of patients had specialized intestinal metaplasia, 0.5% long segment Barrett esophagus, 3.2% short segment Barrett's esophagus and 14.7% specialized intestinal metaplasia of cardia. Patients with Barrett's esophagus showed a tendency to be male and specialized metaplasia of cardia to be female. All patients with Barrett's esophagus were white. There was not association between symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and specialized intestinal metaplasia, but patients with Barrett's esophagus showed a tendency to have symptoms over 5 years and had more hiatal hernia and esophagitis. The use of alcohol and tobacco was not related to the presence of specialized intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Barrett's esophagus was more related to the male gender, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms for 5 years or longer, more intense esophagitis and hiatal hernia, but was not related to the use of

  5. The airway epithelium is central to the pathogenesis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2008-03-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disorder principally involving the conducting airways and characterised by infiltration of the airway wall with a range of inflammatory cells driven in large part by activation of Th2-type lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. However a key component of asthma is the structural change that involves all of the elements of the airway wall. Here evidence is presented to suggest that the airway epithelium in asthma is fundamentally abnormal with increased susceptibility to environmental injury and impaired repair associated with activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU). In addition to adopting an activated phenotype, the barrier function of the epithelium is impaired through defective tight junction formation thereby facilitating penetration of potentially toxic or damaging environmental insults. Activated and repairing epithelial cells generate a range of growth factors that are involved in the early life origins of this disease as well as its progression in the form of mucous metaplasia and airway wall remodeling. By placing the epithelium at the forefront of asthma pathogenesis, different approaches to treatment can be devised focused more on protecting vulnerable airways against environmental injury rather than focusing on suppressing airway inflammation or manipulating the immune response.

  6. Metaplasia mieloide do baço na Ancilostomose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesquizamos, no figado e baço de dez casos puros de ancilostomose, elementos hemocitopoieticos; verificamos o peso do baço em 23 casos de individuos com idades compreendidas entre 3 e 60 anos; não encontramos, em nenhum caso, celulas hemoformadoras no figado. Em sete casos, encontramos, no baço, elementos da série vermelha em adiantado estado de evolução (eritroblastos ortocromaticos de nucleo picnotico. Em alguns destes casos observamos megacariocitos e numerosos mielocitos eosinofilos. Os tres casos que não apresentavam metaplasia mieloide no baço, eram os de individuos acima de 50 anos de idade. Entretanto, em outro caso de um individuo com 59 anos esta metaplasia foi verificada. Em individuos acima de 20 anos, o peso médio do baço, em nove casos, mostrou-se igual ao peso normal. Em 14 casos, compreendidos entre 3 e 14 anos, o peso deste orgão foi sempre sensivelmente mais elevado que nos normais de idade correspondente. Estes resultados sugerem a possibilidade de ser a metaplasia mieloide responsavel pelos aumentos de pezo nos baços de individuos jovens, vitimados pela anemia ancilostomica. A notavel proliferação dos eritroblastos ortocromaticos mostra que o grão e a rapidez da regeneração sanguinea, após a administração de ferro, são devidos, essencialmente, á grande quantidade de hemoglobina já preformada no baço e na medula ossea dos organismos ancilostomados.

  7. Mid-Esophagus Columnar Metaplasia: What Is the Biopathogenic Pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Inês; Rodrigues, Rita Vale; Bettencourt, António; Barros, Rita; Camilo, Vânia; Dias Pereira, António; Almeida, Raquel; Chaves, Paula

    2016-10-05

    We report a case of metaplastic columnar epithelium in the mid-esophagus in a patient with history of caustic ingestion. A cardiac-type gastric phenotype, with early signs of intestinalization, was confirmed by immunohistochemistry studies (MUC5AC, MUC6, SOX2, and CDX2). Nonmetaplastic mucosa had histologic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux. In this case, esophageal reepithelization seems to have been modulated by acidic gastroesophageal reflux, which might activate transcription factors leading to phenotypic reprogramming of the regenerative epithelium. Most interestingly, it is a clinical example showcasing the origin of columnar metaplasia from stem cells located within the esophageal epithelium.

  8. Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallbohmer Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidylate synthase (TS is known to have a unique 28 bp tandemly repeated sequence in the promoter region, and the majorities of subjects have a heterozygous double repeat/triple repeat genotype in their non-cancerous tissue. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH at the TS locus is known to occur in cancer patients, but there is no evidence that it is present in precancerous tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM and dysplasia. Methods One hundred twenty-three samples (including 37 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, 29 with IM, 13 with dysplasia, and 44 with BA were obtained from 100 patients. Biopsies were obtained from the lower esophageal mucosa/IM/dysplasia/BA, when available. Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control. All tissues were analyzed for the TS genotype and TS mRNA expression using the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method after laser-capture microdissection. Results Among the patients with informative heterozygous genotype in their control samples, no sample with LOH at the TS locus was observed in the lower esophageal mucosa in GERD patients (0/22 samples. However, 6 out of 21 samples (28.6% had LOH in IM, 2 of 7 (28.6% in dysplasia, and 10 of 25 (40.0% in BA. No significant difference in TS mRNA expression levels was observed between TS genotypes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that LOH is a relatively frequent and early event in the IM-BA sequence.

  9. A pSMAD/CDX2 Complex Is Essential for the Intestinalization of Epithelial Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Mari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial metaplasias are poorly understood. Barrett's esophagus is a premalignant metaplastic change of the esophageal epithelium into columnar epithelium, occurring in patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mechanisms behind the development of the intestinal subtype, which is associated with the highest cancer risk, are unclear. In humans, it has been suggested that a nonspecialized columnar metaplasia precedes the development of intestinal metaplasia. Here, we propose that a complex made up of at least two factors needs to be activated simultaneously to drive the expression of intestinal type of genes. Using unique animal models and robust in vitro assays, we show that the nonspecialized columnar metaplasia is a precursor of intestinal metaplasia and that pSMAD/CDX2 interaction is essential for the switch toward an intestinal phenotype.

  10. Alimentary factors in the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia in functional dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gamarra Taborda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intestinal metaplasia of the stomach is a lesion in which metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells occurs for an intestinal phenotype. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a lesion associated with an increase in the risk of gastric carcinoma development. Epidemiologic studies indicate a relation between dietary habits and stomach cancer development, some habits increasing the risk for it, and others have a protective effect, suggesting that antioxidants, such as vitamins A, C, and E, decrease the risk of this type of cancer. The relationship of these alimentary factors and intestinal metaplasia is unknown. METHODS: It is a case-control, observational study in which 320 patients with functional dyspepsia, divided in two groups, were assessed. The case I group (individuals with intestinal metaplasia had their dietary pattern compared to that of the control group, constituted of individuals similar to those in the case group but without intestinal metaplasia, through a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The analysis of the dietary pattern of functional dyspeptic patients with intestinal metaplasia, and its comparison with those without intestinal metaplasia, showed a higher frequency of canned and smoked foods consumption in the first group and, on the other hand, a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables in patients without intestinal metaplasia. No effect of salt consumption was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest changes in the diet, with a decrease in the consumption of smoked and canned foods, and an increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, can lead to a diminution of gastric intestinal metaplasia cases.

  11. The origin of pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach: Chief cells emerge from the Mist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldenring, James R., E-mail: jim.goldenring@vanderbilt.edu [Nashville Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Departments of Surgery and Cell and Developmental Biology, Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Nam, Ki Taek [Nashville Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Departments of Surgery and Cell and Developmental Biology, Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Mills, Jason C. [Divison of Gastroenterology, Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.

  12. Airway management in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid M Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma has assumed epidemic proportion. 10% of global road accident deaths occur in India. Hypoxia and airway mismanagement are known to contribute up to 34% of pre-hospital deaths in these patients. A high degree of suspicion for actual or impending airway obstruction should be assumed in all trauma patients. Objective signs of airway compromise include agitation, obtundation, cyanosis, abnormal breath sound and deviated trachea. If time permits, one should carry out a brief airway assessment prior to undertaking definitive airway management in these patients. Simple techniques for establishing and maintaining airway patency include jaw thrust maneuver and/or use of oro- and nas-opharyngeal airways. All attempts must be made to perform definitive airway management whenever airway is compromised that is not amenable to simple strategies. The selection of airway device and route- oral or -nasal, for tracheal intubation should be based on nature of patient injury, experience and skill level.

  13. Microsatellite Instability in Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAOYun; ZHANGXiao-yong; LIUPing

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the changeable patterns of microsatellite instability(MSI)in intestinal metaplasia(IM)and gastric cancer(GC)and the role of MSI in gastric carcinogenesis. Methods: Silver staining single strand confornmtion polymorphism-polymeriase chain reaction(PCR-SSCP)wus used to screen MSI nmrkers at 5 loci in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of GC ( n = 30), IM ( n = 40) and corresponding normal gastric tissues. Resu/ts: The abnormal shifting of the single-strand DNA was identified in 7 (23.3%) out of GC and in 8 (20%) out of IM samples. Three ( 10 % ) tumors and one ( 2.5 % ) IM displayed high- frequency MSI ( two or more loci altered ). Low- frequencySI(one loci altered) was detected in 4( 13.3% )of the tmnors and in 7( 17.5% ) IM samples. GC with MSI was associated with distal location of the tumors but age,sex, differenl~ation, lymph nodes metastasis and TNM stage( P = 0.044).MSI was more likely detected in moderate-grade IM than in mild, grade IM tissues(34.8% versus 0; P = 0.013) ; and MSI had a tendency to be easily detected in female with IM. Conc/u,6~ : The progressive accmnulation of MSI in areas ofIM may contribute to GC development, represen~_g an importmlt molecular event in the multistep gastric ~~.

  14. Radiation therapy for symptomatic hepatomegaly in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tefferi, A.; Jimenez, T.; Gray, L.A.; Mesa, R.A. [Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, M.G. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, MN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Objective: To describe the experience with liver irradiation in advanced cases of myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM). Methods: Over a 20-yr period, 14 patients with MMM were treated with a total of 25 courses of liver, abdominal, or abdominal and pelvic irradiation for symptomatic hepatomegaly with (5 patients) or without (9 patients) ascites. All 14 patients had advanced disease and 11 (79%) had previous splenectomy. The median radiation therapy (RT) dose per course was 150 cGy (range 50-1000) administered at a median of six fractions. Four patients received two to six courses. Results. Twelve of the 14 patients (86%) had a transient (median 3 months) subjective response from RT. However, in only 35% of these was there a transient (median 3 months) decrease in palpable liver size. Four of the five patients with ascites experienced a short-term response from RT. Eight of the 13 patients suitable for evaluation (62%) had treatment-associated cytopenia, often in the form of anemia and/or thrombocytopenia. At last follow-up, 10 patients (71%) had died after a median of 7 months (range 0.1-23) and 4 were alive at 3, 20, 33, and 57 months after RT. Conclusions: Low-dose abdominal RT for symptomatic hepatomegaly or ascites associated with advanced-stage MMM is myelosuppressive and provides only temporary and mainly subjective and short-lived relief. (au)

  15. Endoscopic treatment of Barrett's esophagus: From metaplasia to intramucosal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennat, Jennifer; Waxman, Irving

    2010-08-14

    The annual incidence of adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus (BE) is approximately 0.5%. Through a process of gradual transformation from low-grade dysplasia to high-grade dysplasia (HGD), adenocarcinoma can develop in the setting of BE. The clinical importance of appropriate identification and treatment of BE in its various stages, from intestinal metaplasia to intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) hinges on the dramatically different prognostic status between early neoplasia and more advanced stages. Once a patient has symptoms of adenocarcinoma, there is usually locally advanced disease with an approximate 5-year survival rate of about 20%. Esophagectomy has been the gold standard treatment for BE with HGD, due to the suspected risk of harboring occult invasive carcinoma, which was traditionally estimated to be as high as 40%. In recent years, the paradigm of BE early neoplasia management has recently evolved, and endoscopic therapies (endoscopic mucosal resection, radiofrequency ablation, and cryotherapy) have entered the clinical forefront as acceptable non-surgical alternatives for HGD and IMC. The goal of endoscopic therapy for HGD or IMC is to ablate all BE epithelium (both dysplastic and non-dysplastic) due to risk of synchronous/metachronous lesion development in the remaining BE segment.

  16. Duodenal-content reflux into the esophagus leads to expression of Cdx2 and Muc2 in areas of squamous epithelium in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera, Manuel; Pera, Miguel; de Bolós, Carmen; Brito, Maria J; Palacín, Antonio; Grande, Luis; Cardesa, Antonio; Poulsom, Richard

    2007-07-01

    The molecular events responsible for the transdifferentiation of epithelial cells of the esophagus to a columnar cell type are not well understood. Cdx2 has been detected in Barrett's esophagus, so we sought evidence of Cdx2 expression during the process of transdifferentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium into a glandular phenotype. Thirty-two rats underwent an esophago-jejunostomy to produce esophagitis of 20, 25, 30, or 35 weeks of duration. The spectrum of esophageal lesions induced by chronic reflux was examined for expression of Cdx2 and Muc2 by immunohistochemistry. Five animals developed glandular metaplasia and adenosquamous carcinoma, two developed only glandular metaplasia, and two had adenosquamous carcinoma alone. Nuclear Cdx2 expression was detected in 57% (four of seven) and 43% (three of seven) of foci of glandular metaplasia and adenosquamous carcinomas, respectively. Cdx2 staining was detectable in some squamous and some mucus secreting cells. Perinuclear and perivacuolar staining of Muc2 was detected focally in 71% (five of seven) and 57% (four of seven) of areas with glandular metaplasia and adenosquamous carcinoma, respectively. We show that duodenal-content reflux into the esophagus switches on the expression of Cdx2 protein in esophageal keratinocytic cells, promoting a mucinous transdifferentiation process with secretion of intestinal mucin Muc2.

  17. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    -20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter......Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema...... in causing airway narrowing, the latter most likely due to loss of elastic recoil of surrounding tissue....

  18. p16 is Consistently Expressed in Endometrial Tubal Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Horree

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell cycle proteins and HIF-1α with downstream factors are often abberrantly expressed in (preneoplastic tissue. Methods: Paraffin-embedded specimens of inactive endometrium with TM (n=15, ovarian inclusion cysts (n=6, cervix with TM (tubal metaplasia (n=3, Fallopian tubes (n=7, cycling endometrium (n=9 and a ciliated cell tumor of the ovary were stained for p16 and LhS28. 39 Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas and 5 serous endometrial carcinomas were stained for p16. Additionally, inactive endometrium (n=15 was immunohistochemically stained for p21, p27, p53, cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, HIF-1α, CAIX, Glut-1 and MIB-1. Results: A mosaic pattern of expression of p16 was seen throughout in all cases of endometrial TM (15/15, in 2/6 of the ovarian inclusion cysts with TM, in all (3/3 cervical TM and focal in 5/7 of Fallopian tube cases. Mosaic expression was also seen in a ciliated cell tumor of the ovary and in 18/39 of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, and diffuse p16 expression was seen in 5/5 serous carcinomas. In comparison with normal endometrium, TM areas in the endometrium showed significantly increased expression of HIF-1α, cyclin E, p21 and cyclin A, and decreased expression of p27. Membranous expression of CAIX and Glut-1 was only seen in TM areas, pointing to functional HIF-1α. Conclusion: As p16 is consistently expressed in TM, less and only patchy expressed in the normal Fallopian tube, is paralleled by aberrant expression of cell cycle proteins, HIF-1α, CAIX and Glut-1 and resembles the pattern of p16 expression frequently seen in endometrial carcinomas, we propose endometrial TM to be a potential premalignant endometrial lesion.

  19. Absence of Na +/sugar cotransport activity in Barrett's metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa J Murray; Owen Tully; David S Rudolph; Marysue Whitby; Mary C Valenzano; Giancarlo Mercogliano; James J Thornton; James M Mullin

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the presence of Na+-dependent,active,sugar transport in Barrett's epithelia as an intestinal biomarker,based on the well-documented,morphological intestinal phenotype of Barrett's esophagus (BE).METHODS:We examined uptake of the nonmeta-bolizable glucose analogue,alpha-methyl-D-glucoside (AMG),a substrate for the entire sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) family of transport proteins.During upper endoscopy,patients with BE or with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)allowed for duodenal,gastric fundic,and esophageal mucosal biopsies to be taken.Biopsies were incubated in bicarbonate-buffered saline (KRB) containing 0.1 mmol/L 14C-AMG for 60 min at 20℃.Characterized by abundant SGLT,duodenum served as a positive control while gastric fundus and normal esophagus,known to lack SGLT,sewed as negative controls.RESULTS:Duodenal biopsies accumulated 249.84± 35.49 (SEM) picomoles AMG/μg DNA (n = 12),gastric fundus biopsies 36.20 ± 6.62 (n = 12),normal esophagus 12.10 ± 0.59 (n = 3) and Barrett's metaplasia 29.79 ± 5.77 (n = 8).There was a statistical difference (P<0.01) between biopsies from duodenum and each other biopsy site but there was no statistically significant difference between normal esophagus and BE biopsies.0.5 mmol/L phlorizin (PZ) inhibited AMG uptake into duodenal mucosa by over 89%,but had no significant effect on AMG uptake into gastric fundus,normal esophagus,or Barrett's tissue.In the absence of Na+ (all Na+ salts replaced by Li+ salts),AMG uptake in duodenum was decreased by over 90%,while uptake into gastric,esophageal or Barrett's tissue was statistically unaffected.CONCLUSION:Despite the intestinal enterocyte phenotype of BE,Na+-dependent,sugar transport activity is not present in bhese cells.

  20. Pulmonary cystic keratinizing squamous cell lesions of rats after inhalation/instillation of different particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Mohr, U; Dungworth, D L

    1997-12-01

    Cystic keratinizing squamous cell lesions from three inhalation studies (Study A, B, C) and one intratracheal instillation study (Study D) in rats were reclassified and a certain number of lesions examined immunohistochemically for PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) as a marker of cellular proliferation. The following classification was used: squamous cell metaplasia with marked keratinization, keratinizing cyst, cystic keratinizing epithelioma, cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. In study A (inhalation of coal oven exhaust and subcutaneous injection of a high dose of DB (ah)A) 49.3% of rats developed cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas. Inhalation of coal oven exhaust gas together with intratracheal instillation of crocidolite or subcutaneous injection of a low dose DB(ah)A (dibenz(ah)anthracene) resulted in cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas in 23% to 24% of the rats. High incidences of cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the range of 31.9% to 76.4% were observed in rats of Study B1 after a 10-months exposure to tar/pitch condensation aerosol (different B(a)P (benzo(a)pyrene) concentrations) with added carbon black in some groups. After a 20-months exposure period to the same inhalation atmospheres (Study B2) the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas was increased up to 95.8%. Exposure of rats to various concentrations of unfiltered diesel exhaust (Study C) resulted in incidences of cystic keratinizing epitheliomas ranging from 2.5% (2.5 mg/m3) to 10.7% (7.5 mg/m3). Epitheliomas were also observed in 16.2% of carbon black and 16.0% of titanium dioxide exposed rats. Only a few cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas occurred. In the intratrachel instillation study (Study D) increased incidences of cystic keratinizing epitheliomas occurred in rats exposed to native diesel exhaust particles (16.7%), high dose of extracted diesel exhaust particles

  1. Mucin histochemistry of stomach in metaplasia and adenocarcinoma: An observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakas Kumar Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a variable pattern of occurrence of gastric carcinomas world-wide, partially reflecting the frequency of various changes of gastric mucosa from, which such neoplasm occur. Many cases of gastric carcinoma originate in the background of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori. Subsequent intestinal metaplasia (IM can be morphologically classified by routine and special histopathological stains. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted over the 2 years at NRSMC & H, Kolkata. Aims of the present study were to search for evidences of H. pylori infection, classification of different metaplastic and/or malignant changes, identification of types of mucin by mucin histochemistry and their interrelationship in gastrectomy and gastric biopsy specimens (total 70. After obtaining clinical history, radiological and endoscopic findings were noted. After macroscopic study of the specimen, hematoxylene and eosin, southgate mucicarmine, periodic acid schiff-alcian blue (PAS-AB and gomori aldehyde fuchsin (GAF/AB staining were performed to classify gastric carcinoma and metaplastic changes and to correlate with staining patterns of mucin. Results: The overall male to female ratio was 2.89:1. Age ranged from 22 years to 78 years and the commonest age group of gastric carcinomas being 41-50 years (26 cases, 37.1%. Gastric adenocarcinoma was found in 61 (87.1% cases (22.9% were of intestinal type and 77.1% of diffuse type and only IM was found in 9 (12.9% cases. Overall the rapid urease test was positive in 18 (25.7% cases majority of which showing either pure IM or IM associated with intestinal type of gastric carcinoma. All diffuse types of gastric carcinoma (47 cases, 77.1% were showed PAS positive staining (indicating neutral mucin whereas in 15 (65.2% cases of IM columnar cells stained with AB (representing acidic mucin. GAF/AB stain revealed Type II IM in 10 (43.5% cases and Type III IM in 4 (17.4% cases. Conclusion

  2. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland in association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eslam; Y; Wassal; Mouhammed; Amir; Habra; Rafael; Vicens; Priya; Rao; Khaled; M; Elsayes

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome(BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome associated with increased risk to develop malignancies including adrenocortical carcinoma. Ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland is a rare tumorlike mesenchymal lesion in BWS patients that lacks detailed radiological description. We report a 17-yearold female patient with BWS, associated with bilateral Wilms tumor, hepatic hemangiomatosis, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and a phyllodes tumor of the right breast. Surveillance abdominal ultrasound identified a right adrenal mass that was further characterized by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Radiologically, this mass displayed features that overlap with adrenocortical carcinoma and pheochromocytoma but after pathological examination this proved to be an ovarian thecal metaplasia of the adrenal gland. Adrenal masses in BWS should raise the suspicion for adrenocortical carcinoma though other adrenal tumors including ovarian thecal metaplasia can be seen in these patients.

  3. Hacking cell differentiation: transcriptional rerouting in reprogramming, lineage infidelity and metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalo, Gonçalo; Leutz, Achim

    2013-08-01

    Initiating neoplastic cell transformation events are of paramount importance for the comprehension of regeneration and vanguard oncogenic processes but are difficult to characterize and frequently clinically overlooked. In epithelia, pre-neoplastic transformation stages are often distinguished by the appearance of phenotypic features of another differentiated tissue, termed metaplasia. In haemato/lymphopoietic malignancies, cell lineage ambiguity is increasingly recorded. Both, metaplasia and biphenotypic leukaemia/lymphoma represent examples of dysregulated cell differentiation that reflect a history of trans-differentiation and/or epigenetic reprogramming. Here we compare the similarity between molecular events of experimental cell trans-differentiation as an emerging therapeutic concept, with lineage confusion, as in metaplasia and dysplasia forecasting tumour development.

  4. Combined sellar fibrosarcoma and prolactinoma with neuronal metaplasia: report of a case unassociated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Mario; Giannini, Caterina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Restall, Paul; Eagleton, Carl; Law, Andrew J; Kovacs, Kalman

    2004-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a primary pituitary fibrosarcoma causally unrelated to radiotherapy, admixed in association with a prolactin cell pituitary adenoma showing neuronal metaplasia. These unique findings were associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Primary fibrosarcoma involving the sella is a very rare tumor. The majority of cases have been associated with prior irradiation of either a pituitary adenoma or a craniopharyngioma. Pituitary adenoma with neuronal metaplasia is also rare and usually occurs in the setting of acromegaly. Despite the intimate association of both elements in our lesion, no transition of adenoma to sarcoma was demonstrable by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization studies.

  5. Hepatocyte metaplasia in experimental chagasic pancreatitis: preliminary report Metaplasia hepatocítica em pancreatite chagásica experimental: nota prévia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning the study of chronic pathologic changes in pancreas of hamsters experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Vic strain, hepatocyte metaplasia was observed in one animal from infected group. This is the first report of oncocytes in Chagas' disease, which could be due to aberrant regenerative response to pancreas inflammatory process.Iniciando estudo de alterações patológicas crônicas no pâncreas de hamsters experimentalmente infectados com a cepa Vic de Trypanosoma cruzi, metaplasia oncocítica foi observada em um dos animais infectados. Este é o primeiro relato de oncocitos na doença de Chagas, que poderiam decorrer de resposta regenerativa aberrante ao processo inflamatório pancreático.

  6. C4.4A as a biomarker in pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The high prevalence and mortality of lung cancer, together with a poor 5-year survival of only approximately 15%, emphasize the need for prognostic and predictive factors to improve patient treatment. C4.4A, a member of the Ly6/uPAR family of membrane proteins, qualifies as such a potential...... informative biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer. Under normal physiological conditions, it is primarily expressed in suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia. Consequently, it is absent from healthy bronchial and alveolar tissue, but nevertheless appears at early stages in the progression...... to invasive carcinomas of the lung, i.e., in bronchial hyperplasia/metaplasia and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. In the stages leading to pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, expression is sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas, and this pertains to the normal presence of C4.4A...

  7. Embryological signaling pathways in Barrett's metaplasia development and malignant transformation; mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, K; Meijer, C; van den Berg, A; Peters, F T M; Kruyt, F A E; Kleibeuker, J H

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's metaplasia of the esophagus (BE) is the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), a deadly disease with a 5-year overall survival of less than 20%. The molecular mechanisms of BE development and its transformation to EAC are poorly understood and current surveillance and treatme

  8. Prolonged measurement of lower oesophageal sphincter function in patients with intestinal metaplasia at the oesophagogastric junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, C; Timmer, R; Breumelhof, R; Seldenrijk, CA; Smout, AJPM

    2001-01-01

    Background and aims-It has been shown that gastro-oesophageal reflux plays a role in the pathogenesis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) limited to the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ), similar to the pathogenesis of IM in long segments of columnar lined oesophagus. The aim of this study was to examine lo

  9. Combined alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of carotene,...

  10. Transgenic overexpression of cdx1b induces metaplastic changes of gene expression in zebrafish esophageal squamous epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Hao; Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Chengjin; Cole, Gregory J; Lee, Ju-Ahng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2013-06-01

    Cdx2 has been suggested to play an important role in Barrett's esophagus or intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the esophagus. To investigate whether transgenic overexpression of cdx1b, the functional equivalent of mammalian Cdx2 in zebrafish, may lead to IM of zebrafish esophageal squamous epithelium, a transgenic zebrafish system was developed by expressing cdx1b gene under the control of zebrafish keratin 5 promoter (krt5p). Gene expression in the esophageal squamous epithelium of wild-type and transgenic zebrafish was analyzed by Affymetrix microarray and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Morphology, mucin expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by hematoxylin & eosin (HE) staining, Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) Alcian blue staining, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining, and TUNEL assay as well. cdx1b was found to be overexpressed in the nuclei of esophageal squamous epithelial cells of the transgenic zebrafish. Ectopic expression of cdx1b disturbed the development of this epithelium in larval zebrafish and induced metaplastic changes in gene expression in the esophageal squamous epithelial cells of adult zebrafish, that is, up-regulation of intestinal differentiation markers and down-regulation of squamous differentiation markers. However, cdx1b failed to induce histological IM, or to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in the squamous epithelium of adult transgenic zebrafish.

  11. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Soleas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990. In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium.

  12. Airway management in trauma

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    Rao B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway Management for the victims of major trauma is the first priority in the care of the trauma victim and is a core skill in emergency medicine and critical care. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard for trauma airway management. Airway management in trauma patients is not just the capability to insert an oral/nasal airway or endotracheal tube beyond the vocal cords. The five components integral to modern, sophisticated airway management in trauma patients include equipment, pharmacologic adjuncts, manual techniques, physical circumstances, and patient profile. A trauma patient may require airway management in a variety of physical circumstances. Whereas, the commonly used airway management algorithms may not suffice in all these situations, the construction of a truly complete decision tree is also virtually impossible. There is consensus that it is not the intervention per se but rather the conditions, skills, and performance that might be the possible variables that affect outcome. Paramedics have only limited experience and on-the-job skills for invasive airway management. Difficult airway management is best left for the experienced physicians to handle.

  13. Pycnogenol Ameliorates Asthmatic Airway Inflammation and Inhibits the Function of Goblet Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoe; Han, Bo; Chen, Xing; Wu, Qiaoling; Wang, Lijun; Li, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is utilized in the treatment of various diseases ranging from chronic inflammation to circulatory diseases, but its efficacy and functional mechanism in pediatric asthma continue to remain obscure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and molecular mechanism of PYC on regulation of asthmatic airway inflammation. We found that PYC with tail intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg or intragastric administration of 100 mg/kg all reduced ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway injury. Pharmacokinetics of PYC was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography assay, indicating that PYC was quickly absorbed into the blood after intragastric administration, and PYC metabolism was later improved gradually with increase of time after PYC administration. PYC has a higher bioavailability of 71.96%, and it was more easily absorbed by the body. PYC inhibited the number of total inflammatory cells and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of OVA-induced mice. PYC inhibited IL-13 secretion from the Th2 cells, thereby causing a reduction in expression of the signaling molecules in JAK/STAT6 pathway in airway epithelial cells. STAT6 silence suppressed IL-13-increased acetylcholine level. STAT6 overexpression promoted expression of goblet cell metaplasia-associated molecules (FOXA3, SPDEF, and Muc5ac). PYC suppressed OVA-induced expression of FOXA3, SPDEF, and Muc5ac in lung. Our findings indicate that PYC has a higher bioavailability and it prevents emergence of OVA-induced airway injury and airway inflammation in mice by inhibiting IL-13/JAK/STAT6 pathway and blocking release of acetylcholine to reduce goblet cell metaplasia.

  14. Intratracheal Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulates Tachykinin System, Suppresses Airway Remodeling and Reduces Airway Hyperresponsiveness in an Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Urbanek

    Full Text Available The need for new options for chronic lung diseases promotes the research on stem cells for lung repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can modulate lung inflammation, but the data on cellular processes involved in early airway remodeling and the potential involvement of neuropeptides are scarce.To elucidate the mechanisms by which local administration of MSCs interferes with pathophysiological features of airway hyperresponsiveness in an animal model.GFP-tagged mouse MSCs were intratracheally delivered in the ovalbumin mouse model with subsequent functional tests, the analysis of cytokine levels, neuropeptide expression and histological evaluation of MSCs fate and airway pathology. Additionally, MSCs were exposed to pro-inflammatory factors in vitro.Functional improvement was observed after MSC administration. Although MSCs did not adopt lung cell phenotypes, cell therapy positively affected airway remodeling reducing the hyperplastic phase of the gain in bronchial smooth muscle mass, decreasing the proliferation of epithelium in which mucus metaplasia was also lowered. Decrease of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-13 and increase of interleukin-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage was also observed. Exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines, MSCs upregulated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Moreover, asthma-related in vivo upregulation of pro-inflammatory neurokinin 1 and neurokinin 2 receptors was counteracted by MSCs that also determined a partial restoration of VIP, a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory properties.Intratracheally administered MSCs positively modulate airway remodeling, reduce inflammation and improve function, demonstrating their ability to promote tissue homeostasis in the course of experimental allergic asthma. Because of a limited tissue retention, the functional impact of MSCs may be attributed to their immunomodulatory response combined with the interference of neuropeptide system activation and tissue

  15. Intestinal metaplasia in gallbladder correlates with high amylase levels in bile in patients with a morphologically normal pancreaticobiliary duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hirotsugu; Mutoh, Hiroyuki; Ido, Kenichi; Satoh, Shin; Kumagai, Machio; Hayakawa, Hiroko; Tamada, Kiichi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2009-12-01

    We reported previously that intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder is strongly associated with expression of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor Cdx2. It has been documented that occult pancreatobiliary reflux, even in the absence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction, is associated with elevated risk of biliary malignancy. We ascertained the correlation between intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder and occult pancreatobiliary reflux. In 196 patients with a normal pancreaticobiliary ductal arrangement who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we performed intraoperative cholangiography and measured amylase levels in bile sampled from the gallbladder. The cutoff value for high cystic amylase was defined as a biliary amylase level higher than the normal upper limit of serum amylase (215 IU/L). We also retrospectively reviewed the cholecystectomized tissue specimens to investigate the presence of intestinal metaplasia and expression of Cdx2. Then, we explored the relationship between intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder and occult choledocho-pancreatic reflux. Intestinal metaplasia was found in 16.8% (33/196) of the gallbladders. The prevalence of choledocho-pancreatic reflux revealed by intraoperative cholangiography was not significantly different between cases with intestinal metaplasia (5/33, 15.2%) and those without (25/163, 15.3%; P = .81). However, in cases with intestinal metaplasia, the rate of high cystic amylase (13/33, 39.4%) was significantly higher compared with cases without intestinal metaplasia (26/163, 16.0%, P = .005). In conclusion, intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder is significantly correlated with high amylase levels in bile in patients with a morphologically normal pancreaticobiliary ductal arrangement.

  16. Indirect airway challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, GF; O'Connor, B; Anderson, SD; Chung, F; Cockcroft, DW; Dahlen, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, FE; Holgate, ST; Inman, M; Lotvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, DS; Riedler, J

    2003-01-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Di

  17. Pediatric airway nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2010-02-01

    Pediatric disorders that involve actual or potential airway compromise are among the most challenging cases that emergency department providers face. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of common and uncommon conditions in infants and children who may present with airway obstruction.

  18. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Carolina Barbosa de Sousa; Balassiano, Laila Klotz de Almeida; Pinto, Julyana Calegari; de Souza, Flávia Crespo Schueler; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Treu, Curt Mafra

    2016-01-01

    Although subungual squamous cell carcinoma is rare, it is the most common primary malignant neoplasms in this location. The higher incidence occurs in the fingernails, but involvement of the toenails is also possible. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma often looks like other more common benign lesions, such as fungal infection, onychomycosis, or viral wart. These factors, together with a general lack of awareness of this disease among physicians, often result in delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it is underdiagnosed, with few reports in the literature. The authors present a case of a man with a diagnosis of subungual squamous cell carcinoma in the hallux, without bone involvement, which was submitted to the appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:28099608

  19. Histochemical studies on intestinal metaplasia adjacent to gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in subjects at high-incidence area in Henan, north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    She-Gan Gao; Hua-Qin Guo; Jun-Kuan Wang; Xiao-Shan Feng; Bao-Gen Ma; Li-Dong Wang; Zong-Min Fan; Ji-Lin Li; Xin He; Rui-Feng Guo; Dong-Ling Xie; Xin-Wei He; Shan-Shan Gao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the histochemical type and pattern of intestinal metaplasia (IM) adjacent to gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) and distal gastric cancer (GC) in Linzhou, Henan Province, China.METHODS: Alcian-blue-periodic acid Schiff and high iron diamine-Alcian blue histochemical methods were performed on 142 cases of IM, including 49 cases of GCA and 93 cases of GC. All the patients were from Linzhou, Henan Province, China, the highest incidence area for both GCA and squamous cell carcinoma. Radio- or chemotherapy was not applied to these patients before surgery.RESULTS: The detection rate of IM in tissues adjacent to GCA tissues was 44.9%, which was significantly lower than that in GC tissues (80.64%, P<0.01). The rates of both incomplete small intestinal and colonic IM types identified by histochemistry in GCA tissues (31.82% and 63.64%, respectively) were significantly higher than those in GC (5.33% and 21.33%, respectively, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: IM in GCA and GC should be considered as a separate entity. Further research is needed to evaluate whether neoplastic progression of IM is related to its mucin profile in GCA.

  20. The staging of gastritis with the OLGA system by using intestinal metaplasia as an accurate alternative for atrophic gastritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Lisette G.; de Vries, Annemarie C.; Haringsma, Jelle; Ter Borg, Frank; de Vries, Richard A.; Bruno, Marco J.; van Dekken, Herman; Meijer, Jos; van Grieken, Nicole C. T.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The OLGA (operative link on gastritis assessment) staging system is based on severity of atrophic gastritis (AG). AG remains a difficult histopathologic diagnosis with low interobserver agreement, whereas intestinal metaplasia (IM) is associated with high interobserver agreement. Objecti

  1. Response criteria for myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: results of an initiative of the European Myelofibrosis Network (EUMNET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barosi, Giovanni; Bordessoule, Dominique; Briere, Jean;

    2005-01-01

    The European Myelofibrosis Network (EUMNET), a European research network on myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM), has developed a definition of response for the disease by using clinicohematologic, histologic, and cytogenetic criteria. A core set of 5 clinicohematologic criteria was selected...

  2. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition.

  3. Activating GNAS and KRAS mutations in gastric foveolar metaplasia, gastric heterotopia, and adenocarcinoma of the duodenum

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubara, A.; Ogawa, R; Suzuki, H; Oda, I.; Taniguchi, H; Kanai, Y.; Kushima, R; Sekine, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterotopic gastric-type epithelium, including gastric foveolar metaplasia (GFM) and gastric heterotopia (GH), is a common finding in duodenal biopsy specimens; however, there is still controversy regarding their histogenetic backgrounds. Methods: We analysed a total of 177 duodenal lesions, including 66 GFM lesions, 81 GH lesions, and 30 adenocarcinomas, for the presence of GNAS, KRAS, and BRAF mutations. Results: Activating GNAS mutations were identified in 27 GFM lesions (41%) ...

  4. Ileal lesions in patients with ulcerative colitis after ileo-rectal anastomosis: Relationship with colonic metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Livia Biancone; Francesco Pallone; Emma Calabrese; Giampiero Palmieri; Carmelina Petruzziello; Sara Onali; Giuseppe Sigismondo Sica; Marta Cossignani; Giovanna Condino; Kiron Moy Das

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To assess whether in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with ileo-rectal anastomosis (IRA),ileal lesions may develop in the neo-terminal-ileum and their possible relation with phenotypic changes towards colonic epithelium.METHODS:A total of 19 patients with IRA under regular follow up were enrolled,including 11.UC and 8 controls (6 Crohn's disease,CD;1 familial adenomatous polyposis,FAP;1 colon cancer,colon K).Ileal lesions were identified by ileoscopy with biopsies taken from the ileum (involved and uninvolved) and from the rectal stump.Staining included HE and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against colonic epithelial protein CEP (Das-1) and human tropomyosin isoform 5,hTMS (CG3).Possible relation between development of colonic metaplasia and ileal lesions was investigated.RESULTS:Stenosing adenocarcinoma of the rectal stump was detected in 1 UC patient.The neo-terminal ileum was therefore investigated in 10/11 UC patients.Ileal ulcers were detected in 7/10 UC,associated with colonic metaplasia in 4/7 (57.1%) and Das-1 and CG3 reactivity in 3/4 UC.In controls,recurrence occurred in 4/6 CD,associated with colonic metaplasia in 3/4 and reactivity with Das-1 and CG3 in 2/3.CONCLUSION:Present findings suggest that in UC,ileal lesions associated with changes towards colonic epithelium may develop also after IRA.Changes of the ileal content after colectomy may contribute to the development of colonic metaplasia,leading to ileal lesions both in the pouch and in the neo-terminal ileum after IRA.

  5. Inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms increase the risk of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of interleukin-8 (IL-8 ), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF ) gene polymorphisms, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection, on the risk of developing severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). METHODS: A total of 372 cases were selected from a cohort study in Linqu County, a high risk area for gastric cancer (GC) in northern China. To obtain a sufficient group size, patients with normal or superficial gastritis were included. Based on...

  6. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  7. Emergency airway puncture - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100113.htm Emergency airway puncture - series—Normal anatomy To ... larynx is a tubular structure in the neck, through which air passes to the lungs. The thryoid and cricoid cartilage form the narrowest ...

  8. Emergency airway puncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inserted into the throat, just below the Adam's apple (cricoid cartilage), into the airway. In a hospital, ... Choking Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  9. Airway management in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration.

  10. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a mouse model of secondary allergen challenge: neutrophil elastase inhibition attenuates allergic airway responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koga Hikari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic asthma is often associated with neutrophilic infiltration in the airways. Neutrophils contain elastase, a potent secretagogue in the airways, nonetheless the role for neutrophil elastase as well as neutrophilic inflammation in allergen-induced airway responses is not well defined. In this study, we have investigated the impact of neutrophil elastase inhibition on the development of allergic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in previously sensitized and challenged mice. Methods BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged (primary with ovalbumin (OVA. Six weeks later, a single OVA aerosol (secondary challenge was delivered and airway inflammation and airway responses were monitored 6 and 48 hrs later. An inhibitor of neutrophil elastase was administered prior to secondary challenge. Results Mice developed a two-phase airway inflammatory response after secondary allergen challenge, one neutrophilic at 6 hr and the other eosinophilic, at 48 hr. PAR-2 expression in the lung tissues was enhanced following secondary challenge, and that PAR-2 intracellular expression on peribronchial lymph node (PBLN T cells was also increased following allergen challenge of sensitized mice. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase significantly attenuated AHR, goblet cell metaplasia, and inflammatory cell accumulation in the airways following secondary OVA challenge. Levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, and eotaxin in BAL fluid 6 hr after secondary allergen challenge were significantly suppressed by the treatment. At 48 hr, treatment with the neutrophil elastase inhibitor significantly reduced the levels of IL-13 and TGF-β1 in the BAL fluid. In parallel, in vitro IL-13 production was significantly inhibited in spleen cells from sensitized mice. Conclusion These data indicate that neutrophil elastase plays an important role in the development of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness, and would suggest that the

  11. Simvastatin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced airway mucus hypersecretion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Xue-mei; WANG Bai-ding; WEN Fu-qiang; FENG Yu-lin; HUANG Xiang-yang; XIAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    Background Mucus hypersecretion in the respiratory tract and goblet cell metaplasia in the airway epithelium contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with airway inflammatory diseases.This study aimed to examine the effect and mechanisms of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion in rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods Mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intra-tracheal instillation of LPS.Rats treated with or without LPS were administered intra-peritoneally simvastatin (5 and 20 mg/kg) for 4 days.Expression of Muc5ac,RhoA and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) p38 in lung were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),immunohistochemistry or Western blotting.Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)were assayed by an enzyme-linked lectin assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results Simvastatin attenuated LPS-induced goblet cell hyperplasia in bronchial epithelium and Muc5ac hypersecretion at both the gene and protein levels in lung (P<0.05).Moreover,simvastatin inhibited neutrophil accumulation and the increased concentration of TNF-α and IL-8 in BALF follows LPS stimulation (P<0.05).The higher dose of simvastatin was associated with a more significant reduction in Muc5ac mRNA expression,neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory cytokine release.Simultaneously,the increased expression of RhoA and p38 MAPK were observed in LPS-treated lung (P<0.05).Simvastatin inhibited the expression of RhoA and p38 phosphorylation in lung following LPS stimulation (P<0.05).However,the increased expression of p38 protein in LPS-traated lung was not affected by simvastatin administration.Conclusions Simvastatin attenuates airway mucus hypersecretion and pulmonary inflammatory damage induced by LPS.The inhibitory effect of simvastatin on airway mucus hypersecretion may be through,at least in part,the suppression of neutrophil accumulation and inflammatory cytokine

  12. Anal squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Pablo A; Boutros, Marylise; Berho, Mariana

    2013-12-01

    Diagnosis, follow up, and treatment of anal intraepithelial neoplasia are complex and not standardized. This may be partly caused by poor communication of biopsy and cytology findings between pathologists and clinicians as a result of a disparate and confusing terminology used to classify these lesions. This article focuses on general aspects of epidemiology and on clarifying the current terminology of intraepithelial squamous neoplasia, its relationship with human papilloma virus infection, and the current methods that exist to diagnose and treat this condition.

  13. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  14. Prevention of Barrett's metaplasia in a human model of duodenogastro-oesophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Cade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of Barrett’s esophagus above the anastomosis following esophagogastrectomy has been reported in several studies. In this prospective study we set out to examine the prevalence of this phenomenon in a group of patients who have been strictly adherent to post operative proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy.\tForty-six\tpostoesophagectomy patients were prospectively assessed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Four quadrant biopsies were taken 1 cm proximal to the esophago-gastric anastomosis in all patients and details of endoscopic appearance, biopsy pathology, operative pathology and PPI dose were recorded. All 46 patients had been commenced on a PPI in the immediate postoperative period. Two patients were not taking a PPI regularly. The average time from operation to endoscopy was 3 years (range 0.5 to 9. Mild (Grade 1 erosive oesophagitis was observed in 5 patients. Barrett’s epithelium was not identified in any patient. One patient who was taking a PPI intermittently had macroscopic columnar epithelium for 2 cm above the anastomosis without intestinal metaplasia. One other patient who had no macroscopic abnormality had columnar epithelium without intestinal metaplasia, seen in one of four biopsy specimens. This is the first study to assess for endoscopic evidence of neo-Barrett’s following oesophagogastrectomy, where PPI therapy has been commenced in the immediate postoperative period. Columnar epithelium was present in 2 patients and intestinal metaplasia was not detected in any of the cohort. These outcomes may be due to early commencement of PPI therapy and a high level of compliance.

  15. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will ad

  16. Metaplasia gástrica em duodeno e infecçao pelo Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Raquel Canzi Almada de

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A doenca ulcerosa peptica duodenal e uma condicao multifatorial, na qual a infeccao pelo H elico b a cter p y lo r i tem participacao relevante. O presente trabalho avaliou 52 pacientes com ulcera duodenal (Grupo 1) e 30 com dispepsia nao ulcerosa - endoscopia digestiva alta normal- (Grupo 2), com o objetivo de determinar a prevalencia da metaplasia gastrica superficial (MGS) no duodeno e infeccao gastrica e duodenal pelo H. p y lo r i nesses dois grupos. Durante a avaliacao endoscopi...

  17. Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Cabezón, T.;

    2007-01-01

    . First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas. Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature...... the three markers associated with pure invasive apocrine carcinomas. These studies also revealed p53 positive, non-apocrine putative precancerous lesions as well as novel phenotypes for ME and some luminal cells characterized by the expression of cytokeratin 15. © 2007 Federation of European Biochemical...

  18. Cytogenetic studies in twelve patients with primary myelofibrosis and myeloid metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadja, N; Krulik, M; de Gramont, A; Sirinelli, A; Brissaud, P; Dray, C; Audebert, A A; Debray, J

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome studies on bone marrow and/or peripheral blood cells without phytohemagglutinin were performed on 12 patients with primary myelofibrosis with myeloid meta-plasia (PMMM) between 1980 and 1984. Abnormal clones were found in six patients (50%). In five cases the abnormal clone involved the long arm of chromosome #7, two of which also had partial trisomy of chromosome #1 and trisomy of 9. Additional abnormalities involving chromosomes #3, #5, #11, #13, #15, and #21 were each found once. Review of the literature showed few studies on the cytogenetics of PMMM. No specific chromosomal pattern can be established; however, abnormalities described are nonrandom.

  19. Osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with extramedullary hematopoiesis in follicular adenoma of thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Mohan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Follicular adenomas of the thyroid may be subjected to degenerative changes like hemorrhagic and cystic changes, fibrosis, and calcification. Mature bone formation is a rare phenomenon, but extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH has also been rarely reported in thyroid gland. The combination of mature bone formation and EMH is rarer and has been reported, in a single case report, in a multinodular goitre. We describe a case of follicular adenoma with histologically proven osseous metaplasia and mature bone formation with EMH in a middle- aged woman, which, to our knowledge, is the first case in English language literature.

  20. A novel broadband Raman endoscopy for in vivo diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kan; Bergholt, Mads S.; Wang, Jianfeng; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hongzhi; Ren, Jian-lin; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    We report a novel simultaneous fingerprint (FP) and high-wavenumber (HW) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy developed for in vivo diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach under wide-field endoscopic imaging. The FP/HW Raman endoscopy technique was performed to differentiate IM from normal tissues with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 83%. This study shows the great potential of the FP/HW Raman endoscopic technique for early diagnosis of non-neoplastic gastric disease in vivo during routine endoscopic examination.

  1. Clinical detection studies of Barrett's metaplasia and oesophageal adenocarcinoma by means of laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Annika M.; von Holstein, Christer S.; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Willen, Roger; Walther, Bruno; Svanberg, Katarina

    1995-12-01

    Five patients with Barrett's metaplastic epithelium were investigated by means of laser- induced fluorescence after low-dose i.v. injection (0.35 mg/kg b.w.) of PhotofrinR in connection with endoscopy procedures. The excitation wavelength was 405 nm. Recorded fluorescence spectra were evaluated by forming ratios with the photosensitizer fluorescence as numerator and the autofluorescence as denominator. Two patients had no evidence of malignancy and their fluorescence ratios were consequently rather small, whereas the other three patients had adenocarcinoma and showed considerably higher ratios. The results indicate that laser-induced fluorescence can be used as an aid in detecting malignant transformations in Barrett's metaplasia.

  2. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  3. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    . Airway obstruction can be avoided by paying close attention to the positioning of the head of the child and by keeping the mouth of the child open during mask ventilation. The use of oral and nasopharyngeal airways, laryngeal mask airways, and cuffed endotracheal tubes is discussed with special reference...... to the circumstances in infants. A slightly different technique during laryngoscopy is suggested. The treatment of airway oedema and laryngospasm is described....

  4. Effects of concentrated ambient particles on normal and hypersecretory airways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkema, Jack R; Keeler, Gerald; Wagner, James; Morishita, Masako; Timm, Edward; Hotchkiss, Jon; Marsik, Frank; Dvonch, Timothy; Kaminski, Norbert; Barr, Edward

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that elevated levels of particulate air pollution in urban communities are associated with increases in attacks of asthma based on evidence from hospital admissions and emergency department visits. Principal pathologic features of chronic airway diseases, like asthma, are airway inflammation and mucous hypersecretion with excessive amounts of luminal mucus and increased numbers of mucus-secreting cells in regions of the respiratory tract that normally have few or no mucous cells (ie, mucous cell metaplasia). The overall goal of the present project was to understand the adverse effects of urban air fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter)* on normal airways and airways compromised with airway inflammation and excess mucus. Our project was specifically designed to (1) examine the chemical and physical characteristics of PM2.5 and other airborne pollutants in the outdoor air of a local Detroit community with a high incidence of childhood asthma; (2) determine the effects of this community-based PM2.5 on the airway epithelium in normal rats and rats compromised with preexisting hypersecretory airway diseases (ie, animal models of human allergic airway disease--asthma and chronic bronchitis); and (3) identify the chemical or physical components of PM2.5 that are responsible for PM2.5 -induced airway inflammation and epithelial alterations in these animal models. Two animal models of airway disease were used to examine the effects of PM2.5 exposure on preexisting hypersecretory airways: neutrophilic airway inflammation induced by endotoxin challenge in F344 rats and eosinophilic airway inflammation induced by ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in BN rats. A mobile air monitoring and exposure laboratory equipped with inhalation exposure chambers for animal toxicology studies, air pollution monitors, and particulate collection devices was used in this investigation. The mobile laboratory was parked in a community in southwestern

  5. Distinct PKA and Epac compartmentalization in airway function and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Racke, Kurt; Schmidt, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are obstructive lung diseases characterized by airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Next to inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells, airway mesenchymal cells, including airway smooth muscle cells and (myo)fibro

  6. Tnfluence of various proton pump inhibitors on intestinal metaplasia in noneradicated Helicobacter pylori patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marinko Marusic; Zarko Babic; Mirjana Nesanovic; Mira Lucijanic-Mlinac,; Vesna Stajcar

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is more often found in patients with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection, while eradication of H pylori results in significant reduction in the severity and activity of chronic gastritis. We aimed to determine in patients with unsuccessful eradication of H pylori the role of various proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)having different mechanisms in the resolution of IM.METHODS: We confirmed endoscopically and pathohistologically (Sydney classification) the IM in 335 patients with gastritis before and after medication for eradication of H pylori(Maastricht Protocol 2002). H pylori infection was determined by using histology, urease test and culture. Control endoscopy and histology were done after 30 d and thereafter (within 1 year). Unsuccessful eradication was considered if only one of the three tests (histology, urease and culture) was negative after therapy protocol. We used omeprazole, pantoprazole,lansoprazole in therapy protocols (in combination with two antibiotics).RESULTS: We found no significant difference in resolution of IM by using different PPI between the groups of eradicated and noneradicated patients (P<0.4821 and P<0.4388,respectively).CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference in resolution of intestinal metaplasia by different proton pump inhibitors.

  7. Pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa. Histology, ultrastructure, immunocytochemistry, and clinicopathologic correlations of 101 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doglioni, C; Laurino, L; Dei Tos, A P; De Boni, M; Franzin, G; Braidotti, P; Viale, G

    1993-11-01

    The occasional finding within the gastric mucosa of unidentified epithelial cells with morphological features closely resembling those of pancreatic acinar cells has prompted us to investigate a retrospective series of 8,430 consecutive gastric biopsies and of 126 surgical specimens of gastric resection and total gastrectomy. The aims of the study were to morphologically and immunocytochemically characterize these cells, to define their actual prevalence in a large series of unselected cases, and to assess the clinicopathologic correlates of their occurrence. Pancreatic acinar-like cells characterized by abundant cytoplasm, which was acidophilic and finely granular in the apical and middle portions and basophilic in the basal compartment, have been identified in 101 cases (84 gastric biopsies and 17 gastrectomies). These cells, arranged in nests or in variably sized lobules among the gastric glands, were morphologically indistinguishable from pancreatic acinar cells, both by light and by electron microscopy. Furthermore, they were consistently immunoreactive for pancreatic lipase and trypsinogen and, in 75% of the cases, for pancreatic alpha-amylase. The appearance of these cells within the gastric mucosa was correlated significantly with chronic gastritis (p = 0.032) and with the simultaneous occurrence of intestinal and pyloric types of gastric metaplasia (p = 0.021). The findings indicate that this is a previously unrecognized pancreatic (acinar) metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, clinically and morphologically distinct from pancreatic heterotopia.

  8. Multicentric Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmuradi, Sophia; Mair, Yasmin; Suresh, Lakshmanan; DeSantis, James; Neiders, Mirdza; Aguirre, Alfredo

    2016-09-08

    Squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare benign epithelial odontogenic neoplasm of the jaws. Both intraosseous and peripheral SOTs have been described in the English language literature. While most intraosseous SOTs occur as solitary lesions, a multicentric variant has also been previously described. Although the radiographic and microscopic features are identical for both solitary and multicentric clinical presentations, there are three significant differences between them. More specifically, multicentric SOT presents at an earlier age (third decade of life), has a slightly higher male to female ratio than the solitary type and has a marked predilection for African-Americans. Here we document the eighth reported case of multicentric SOT, which was diagnosed in a 43-year-old African-American male. In addition, we feature focal sebaceous metaplasia, a heretofore unknown microscopic feature of SOT. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings are discussed. The differential diagnosis, biological behavior and management modalities for SOT are also addressed.

  9. Fat metaplasia and backfill are key intermediaries in the development of sacroiliac joint ankylosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Wichuk, Stephanie; Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena

    2014-01-01

    bone in the sacroiliac (SI) joints and may reflect resolution of inflammation and tissue repair at sites of erosions. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that SI joint ankylosis develops following repair of erosions and that tissue characterized by fat metaplasia is a key intermediary...... step in this pathway. METHODS: We used the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) SI structural lesion score (SSS) method to assess fat metaplasia, erosions, backfill, and ankylosis on MRIs of the SI joints in 147 patients with AS monitored for 2 years. Univariate and multivariate...

  10. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Julie L; Burns, Rachel E; Brown, Holly M; LeRoy, Bruce E; Kosarek, Carrie E

    2009-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a relatively common, malignant neoplasm of dogs and cats that can arise in a variety of locations. The gross appearance of SCC can be variable and nonspecific, so definitive diagnosis requires microscopic examination of the tissue (cytology or histology). Several treatment modalities exist, but surgical excision, if possible, is regarded as the best treatment option. Early diagnosis and treatment of SCC are key because small, early-stage tumors are the most amenable to treatment and carry the best prognosis.

  12. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...... pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy....

  13. Advances in prehospital airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pe; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.

  14. Sox9 drives columnar differentiation of esophageal squamous epithelium: a possible role in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Nicholas J; Wang, David H; Croagh, Daniel; Tikoo, Anjali; Fennell, Christina M; Murone, Carmel; Scott, Andrew M; Watkins, D Neil; Phillips, Wayne A

    2012-12-15

    The molecular mechanism underlying the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, remains unknown. Our previous work implicated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a possible driver of BE and suggested that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and Sox9 were downstream mediators. We have utilized a novel in vivo tissue reconstitution model to investigate the relative roles of Bmp4 and Sox9 in driving metaplasia. Epithelia reconstituted from squamous epithelial cells or empty vector-transduced cells had a stratified squamous phenotype, reminiscent of normal esophagus. Expression of Bmp4 in the stromal compartment activated signaling in the epithelium but did not alter the squamous phenotype. In contrast, expression of Sox9 in squamous epithelial cells induced formation of columnar-like epithelium with expression of the columnar differentiation marker cytokeratin 8 and the intestinal-specific glycoprotein A33. In patient tissue, A33 protein was expressed specifically in BE, but not in normal esophagus. Expression of Cdx2, another putative driver of BE, alone had no effect on reconstitution of a squamous epithelium. Furthermore, epithelium coexpressing Cdx2 and Sox9 had a phenotype similar to epithelium expressing Sox9 alone. Our results demonstrate that Sox9 is sufficient to drive columnar differentiation of squamous epithelium and expression of an intestinal differentiation marker, reminiscent of BE. These data suggest that Shh-mediated expression of Sox9 may be an important early event in the development of BE and that the potential for inhibitors of the hedgehog pathway to be used in the treatment of BE and/or esophageal adenocarcinoma could be tested in the near future.

  15. BIO-CHARACTERISTICS OF INTESTINAL METAPLASIA IN THE STOMACH: HYPERPROLIFERATIVE AND USUAL TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yang; ZHANG Lian; PAN Kai-feng; YOU Wei-cheng; LI Ji-you

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Padova and Vienna International Classification, the usual intestinal metaplasia (UIM) of the stomach,including complete and incomplete type, is defined as negative for dysplasia, and hyperproliferative intestinal metaplasia (HIM) as indefinite for dysplasia, but the biological characteristics of these two types of intestinal metaplasia (IM)remain to be studied. Objective: To investigate the biological differences between UIM, HIM and intestinal type gastric cancer (IGC), apanel of biomarkers were detected. Methods: A total of 38 cases of IGC, 41 HIM and 56 UIM adjacent to gastric cancer were studied. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expressions of pS2, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, Ki-67, EGFR, p53 and sulfo-Lewisa in UIM, HIM and IGC. Microsatellite instability (MSI) in UIM, HIM and IGC was detected by using Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC). Results: The pS2 antigen expression in UIM (78.6%) was significantly higher than in HIM and IGC (9.8%, 10.5%), p<0.01. The MUC6, sulfo-Lewisa and EGFR protein expressions were significant increased in HIM (24.4%, 82.9%, 48.7%) and IGC (34.2%, 75.0%, 42.1%) than in UIM (3.6%, 25.5%, 17.9%), p<0.01. Areversed pattern of expressions of MUC2 and MUC5AC was observed in UIM (96.4%, 50.0%) and HIM (82.9%, 36.6%)compared with IGC (52.6%, 13.2%), p<0.05; and the p53 gene expression was increased from UIM (1.8%) to HIM (19.5%) to IGC (57.9%), p<0.01. The Ki-67 labeling index was significantly different among three lesions (UIM: 16%±6%, HIM:45%±9%, IGC: 63%±10%, p<0.01). Conclusion: These findings suggest that there are different bio-characteristics among UIM, HIM and IGC, and HIM may have higher potential to progress to more advanced lesions in comparison with UIM.

  16. Cytochromes P450 are Expressed in Proliferating Cells in Barrett's Metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Steven J.; Morse, Mark A.; Weghorst, Christopher M.; Hyesook Kim; Watkins, Paul B.; Peter Guengerich, F.; Orringer, Mark B.; Beer, David G.

    1999-01-01

    The expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal squamous mucosa was investigated. Esophagectomy specimens from 23 patients were examined for CYP expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9/10, and CYP2E1 by immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 in these tissues was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 12) showed ex...

  17. Upper airway imaging and its role in preoperative airway evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish G Sutagatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (USG is well-known as a fast, safe, and noninvasive technique. Its application for imaging of the airway is now gaining momentum. The upper airway has a complex anatomy, and its assessment forms a vital part of every preanesthetic evaluation. Ultrasound (US imaging can help in upper airway assessment in the preoperative period. There are various approaches to upper airway USG. The technique has its own advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. This simple yet challenging imaging technique is all set to become an important part of routine preoperative airway evaluation. This article reviews the various approaches to upper airway US imaging, interpretation of the images, limitations, and disadvantages of the technique and its varied clinical applications in the preoperative period. The scientific material presented here was hand searched from textbooks and journals, electronically from PubMed, and Google scholar using text words.

  18. Relationship between airway pathophysiology and airway inflammation in older asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Gibson, Peter G; Pretto, Jeffrey J;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma-related morbidity is greater in older compared with younger asthmatics. Airway closure is also greater in older asthmatics, an observation that may be explained by differences in airway inflammation. We hypothesized that in older adult patients with asthma......: Mean patient age was 67 years (confidence interval: 63-71) with a mean FEV1 of 78 % predicted (confidence interval: 70-85%). AHR correlated with sputum eosinophils (r = 0.68, P = 0.005) and eNO (r = 0.71, P ... or eNO. CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with asthma, airway inflammatory cells are linked to abnormal airway physiology. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is associated with AHR while neutrophilic inflammation may be an important determinant of airflow limitation at rest and airway closure during...

  19. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy....... AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers)....

  20. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  1. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.

    1978-11-01

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.

  2. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-02-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp.

  3. Label-free identification of intestinal metaplasia in the stomach using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Wei, J.; Zheng, Z.; Ye, J.; Zeng, S.

    2014-06-01

    The early diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (IM) in the stomach together with effective therapeutic interventions is crucial to reducing the mortality-rates of the patients associated with gastric cancer. However, it is challenging during conventional white-light endoscopy, and histological analysis remains the ‘gold standard’ for the final diagnosis. Here, we describe a label-free imaging method, multiphoton microscopy (MPM), for the identification of IM in the stomach. It was found that multiphoton imaging provides cellular and subcellular details to the identification of IM from normal gastric tissues. In particular, there is significant difference in the population density of goblet cells between normal and IM gastric tissues, providing substantial potential to become a quantitative intrinsic marker for in vivo clinical diagnosis of early gastric lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the potential of MPM for the identification of IM.

  4. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each o...... of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp....... of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type...

  5. Ultrasound of the airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kundra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the role of ultrasound (US in anaesthesia-related airway assessment and procedural interventions is encouraging, though it is still ill defined. US can visualise anatomical structures in the supraglottic, glottic and subglottic regions. The floor of the mouth can be visualised by both transcutaneous view of the neck and also by transoral or sublinguial views. However, imaging the epiglottis can be challenging as it is suspended in air. US may detect signs suggestive of difficult intubation, but the data are limited. Other possible applications in airway management include confirmation of correct endotracheal tube placement, prediction of post-extubation stridor, evaluation of soft tissue masses in the neck prior to intubation, assessment of subglottic diameter for determination of paediatric endotracheal tube size and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. With development of better probes, high-resolution imaging, real-time picture and clinical experience, US has become the potential first-line noninvasive airway assessment tool in anaesthesia and intensive care practice.

  6. [The prognostic value of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal mucosa in patients with Helicobacter pylori positive duodenal bulb ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalko, O V; Konorev, M R

    2008-01-01

    The predictive value of gastric metaplasia in the duodenal mucosa in patients Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with duodenal bulb ulcer (DBU) was investigated. One hundred and twenty four randomly selected patients with DBU were included in this prospective study. The detection of Helicobacter pylori (HP) in the stomach and duodenum was carried out with Giemsa (using standard visual analogue scale), rapid urease test (standard Jatrox-HP test, Rohm Pharma, Germany), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the specific fragment of ureC HP gene (Helicopol II, Lytech, Russia). Regions of gastric metaplasia of the duodenum were confirmed by periodic acid-Schiff and alcian blue (Serva) staining (pH 1.0; 2.5) Duodenal ulcer (DU) complications were registered within 8 to 10 years. Estimation of the predictive factor (gastric metaplasia in the duodenum) was carried out in patients with non-complicated DU (Group 1; n = 73), and with such complications as bleeding, perforation, penetration, pyloroduodenal stenosis (Group 2; n = 51) which were revealed within the 8 to 10 years of observation. Gastric metaplasia in the duodenum was found in 64 or 87.7% of the 73 patients with non-complicated DU and in 5 or 9.8% of the 51 patients with complicated DU within 8 to 10 years of observation. The following facts about the predictive factor for the prognosis of DU complication were found: the sensitivity of 83.6%, the specificity of 92.8%, the predictive accuracy of 88.7%, the relative risk of the predicted outcome of 7.5, the relative risk of a different outcome of 0.11, the odds ration of 65.4. The study revealed a high and significant (p gastric metaplasia in the duodenum as a marker of non-complicated clinical course of DU in HP-positive patients within an 8 to 10-year period.

  7. Low grade urothelial carcinoma mimicking basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia in needle prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Arista-Nasr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose The vast majority of urothelial carcinomas infiltrating the bladder are consistent with high-grade tumors that can be easily recognized as malignant in needle prostatic biopsies. In contrast, the histological changes of low-grade urothelial carcinomas in this kind of biopsy have not been studied. Materials and Methods We describe the clinicopathologic features of two patients with low-grade bladder carcinomas infiltrating the prostate. They reported dysuria and hematuria. Both had a slight elevation of the prostate specific antigen and induration of the prostatic lobes. Needle biopsies were performed. At endoscopy bladder tumors were found in both cases. Results Both biopsies showed nests of basophilic cells and cells with perinuclear clearing and slight atypia infiltrating acini and small prostatic ducts. The stroma exhibited extensive desmoplasia and chronic inflammation. The original diagnosis was basal cell hyperplasia and transitional metaplasia. The bladder tumors also showed low-grade urothelial carcinoma. In one case, the neoplasm infiltrated the lamina propria, and in another, the muscle layer. In both, a transurethral resection was performed for obstructive urinary symptoms. The neoplasms were positive for high molecular weight keratin (34BetaE12 and thrombomodulin. No metastases were found in either of the patients, and one of them has survived for five years. Conclusions The diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma in prostate needle biopsies is difficult and may simulate benign prostate lesions including basal cell hyperplasia and urothelial metaplasia. It is crucial to recognize low-grade urothelial carcinoma in needle biopsies because only an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can improve the prognosis for these patients.

  8. Age, smoking and overweight contribute to the development of intestinal metaplasia of the cardia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Felley; Hanifa Bouzourene; Marianne Bründler G VanMelle; Antoine Hadengue; Pierre Michetti; Gian Dorta; Laurent Spahr; Emiliano Giostra; Jean Louis Frossard

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the role of Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori),gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),age,smoking and body weight on the development of intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia (IMC).METHODS:Two hundred and seventeen patients scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy were enrolled in this study.Endoscopic biopsies from the esophagus,gastroesophageal junction and stomach were evaluated for inflammation,the presence of H.pylori and intestinal metaplasia.The correlation of these factors with the presence of IMC was assessed using logistic regression.RESULTS:IMC was observed in 42% of the patients.Patient age,smoking habit and body mass index (BMI)were found as potential contributors to IMC.The risk of developing IMC can be predicted in theory by combining these factors according to the following formula:Risk of IMC =a + s-2B where a =2,...6 decade of age,s =0for non-smokers or ex-smokers,1 for < 10 cigarettes/d,2 for > 10 cigarettes/d and B =0 for BMI < 25 kg/m2 (BMI < 27 kg/m2 in females),1 for BMI > 25 kg/m2 (BMI > 27 kg/m2 in females).Among potential factors associated with IMC,H.pylori had borderline significance (P =0.07),while GERD showed no significance.CONCLUSION:Age,smoking and BMI are potential factors associated with IMC,whileH.pylori and GERDshow no significant association.IMC can be predicted in theory by logistic regression analysis.

  9. Does Cytokeratin7/20 immunoreactivity help to distinguish Barrett's esophagus from gastric intestinal metaplasia? Results of a prospective study of 75 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, D; Spiethoff, A; Rosenbaum, Anika; Hartmann, D; Eickhoff, A; Jakobs, R; Weickert, U; Rebe, M; Bohrer, M H; Riemann, J F

    2005-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is a recognized risk factor for the development of esophageal dysplasia and carcinoma. Unfortunately, gastric incomplete intestinal metaplasia arising in Short Segment Barrett's esophagus can be indistinguishable histologically on hematoxylin/eosin stains. Distinct patterns of CK 7 and CK 20 immunohistochemical expression have been demonstrated to be both highly sensitive and specific for Barrett's esophagus, but have not been found in gastric metaplasia. The aim of our study was to test whether immunostaining with CK 7/20 helps to distinguish between Barrett's epithelium and gastric incomplete metaplasia. Cases of long segment Barrett's esophagus, short segment Barrett's esophagus, and cases with a normal gastroesophageal junction, as well as specimens with gastric antral intestninal metaplasia, were examined: three patterns were defined. Barrett's pattern (superficial CK 20 staining; superficial and crypt CK 7 staining); gastric pattern (superficial and crypt staining of both markers); other patterns (different from Barrett and gastric types). Seventy-five patients were enrolled in this study, 26 with long segment Barrett's esophagus, 21 with short segment esophagus, 13 with intestinal metaplasia of the cardia, and 18 with antral intestinal metaplasia. The Barrett pattern showed a high specificity of 97%, but a sensitivity of only 30% in patients with short segment Barrett esophagus. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis that CK 7/20 immunostaining can be used for a reliable differentiation between incomplete intestinal metaplasia and Barrett's epithelium.

  10. Anticholinergic treatment in airways diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic airways diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma is increasing. They lead to symptoms such as a cough and shortness of breath, partially through bronchoconstriction. Inhaled anticholinergics are one of a number of treatments designed to treat bronchoconstriction in airways disease. Both short-acting and long-acting agents are now available and this review highlights their efficacy and adverse event profile in chronic airways diseases.

  11. Airway epithelium is a predominant source of endogenous airway GABA and contributes to relaxation of airway smooth muscle tone

    OpenAIRE

    Gallos, George; Townsend, Elizabeth; Yim, Peter; Virag, Laszlo; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Dingbang; Bacchetta, Matthew; Emala, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are characterized by hyperreactive airway responses that predispose patients to episodes of acute airway constriction. Recent studies suggest a complex paradigm of GABAergic signaling in airways that involves GABA-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle. However, the cellular source of airway GABA and mechanisms regulating its release remain unknown. We questioned whether epithelium is a major source of GABA in the airway and whether the ab...

  12. Analysis of airway secretions in a model of sulfur dioxide induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypersecretion and chronic phlegm are major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but animal models of COPD with a defined functional hypersecretion have not been established so far. To identify an animal model of combined morphological signs of airway inflammation and functional hypersecretion, rats were continuously exposed to different levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2, 5 ppm, 10 ppm, 20 ppm, 40 ppm, 80 ppm for 3 (short-term or 20–25 (long-term days. Histology revealed a dose-dependent increase in edema formation and inflammatory cell infiltration in short-term-exposed animals. The submucosal edema was replaced by fibrosis after long-term-exposure. The basal secretory activity was only significantly increased in the 20 ppm group. Also, stimulated secretion was significantly increased only after exposure to 20 ppm. BrdU-assays and AgNOR-analysis demonstrated cellular metaplasia and glandular hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia as the underlying morphological correlate of the hypersecretion. In summary, SO2-exposure can lead to characteristic airway remodeling and changes in mucus secretion in rats. As only long-term exposure to 20 ppm leads to a combination of hypersecretion and airway inflammation, only this mode of exposure should be used to mimic human COPD. Concentrations less or higher than 20 ppm or short term exposure do not induce the respiratory symptom of hypersecretion. The present model may be used to characterize the effects of new compounds on mucus secretion in the background of experimental COPD.

  13. Pharmacology of airway smooth muscle proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Roscioni, Sara S.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Pera, Tonio; Schmidt, Martina; Schaafsma, Dedmer; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle thickening is a pathological feature that contributes significantly to airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Ongoing research efforts aimed at identifying the mechanisms responsible for the increased airway smooth muscle mass have indicated that hyperplasi

  14. Cholinergic regulation of airway inflammation and remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Gosens, Reinoud

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway disease

  15. Ozone increases airway hyperreactivity and mucus hyperproduction in mice previously exposed to allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren T; Matsubara, Shigeki; McConville, Glen

    2010-01-01

    to develop a mouse model to gain insight into the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine (MCh) in mice after exposure to both allergen and ozone. Mice were exposed for 20 min per day for 10 consecutive days to an aerosol of 1% ovalbumin (OVA) or saline followed by a single 3-h...... exposure to clean air or 100, 250, or 500 ppb ozone. Ozone induced AHR in mice previously exposed to OVA when compared to non-exposed (saline) control mice. After a 10-d exposure to OVA, a single exposure to a low (100 ppb) ozone concentration was sufficient to induce AHR. The AHR response was associated...... with goblet-cell metaplasia. Even the lowest concentration of ozone tested, 100 ppb, which may be exceeded in urban environments and in the workplace, resulted in a significant increase in AHR, most prominent 24 h after exposure in the OVA-exposed mice....

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 on allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Pang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hygiene hypothesis demonstrates that the lack of microbial exposure would promote the development of allergic airway disease (AAD. Therefore, the gut microbiota, including Escherichia coli (E. coli, would probably offer a potential strategy for AAD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether E. coli infection is able to suppress the induction of AAD and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Nonpathogenic E. coli ATCC 25922 was infected by gavage before AAD phase in three patterns: 10(8 or 10(6 CFU in neonates or 10(8 CFU in adults. Then mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to induce allergic inflammation in both the upper and lower airways. Hallmarks of AAD, in terms of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, Th2 skewing of the immune response, and levels of T regulate cells (Tregs, were examined by histological analysis, ELISA, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: E. coli, especially neonatally infected with an optimal dose, attenuated allergic responses, including a decrease in nasal rubbing and sneezing, a reduction in eosinophil inflammation and goblet cell metaplasia in subepithelial mucosa, decreased serum levels of OVA-specific IgE, and reduced Th2 (IL-4 cytokines. In contrast, this effect came with an increase of Th1 (IFN-r and IL-2 cytokines, and an enhancement of IL-10-secreting Tregs in paratracheal lymph nodes (PTLN. CONCLUSION: E. coli suppresses allergic responses in mice, probably via a shift from Th1 to Th2 and/or induction of Tregs. Moreover, this infection is age- and dose-dependent, which may open up novel possibilities for new therapeutic interventions.

  17. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  18. Smoking-induced CXCL14 expression in the human airway epithelium links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhiev, Renat; Sackrowitz, Rachel; Fukui, Tomoya; Zuo, Wu-Lin; Chao, Ion Wa; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Downey, Robert J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-09-01

    CXCL14, a recently described epithelial cytokine, plays putative multiple roles in inflammation and carcinogenesis. In the context that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are both smoking-related disorders associated with airway epithelial disorder and inflammation, we hypothesized that the airway epithelium responds to cigarette smoking with altered CXCL14 gene expression, contributing to the disease-relevant phenotype. Using genome-wide microarrays with subsequent immunohistochemical analysis, the data demonstrate that the expression of CXCL14 is up-regulated in the airway epithelium of healthy smokers and further increased in COPD smokers, especially within hyperplastic/metaplastic lesions, in association with multiple genes relevant to epithelial structural integrity and cancer. In vitro experiments revealed that the expression of CXCL14 is induced in the differentiated airway epithelium by cigarette smoke extract, and that epidermal growth factor mediates CXCL14 up-regulation in the airway epithelium through its effects on the basal stem/progenitor cell population. Analyses of two independent lung cancer cohorts revealed a dramatic up-regulation of CXCL14 expression in adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma. High expression of the COPD-associated CXCL14-correlating cluster of genes was linked in lung adenocarcinoma with poor survival. These data suggest that the smoking-induced expression of CXCL14 in the airway epithelium represents a novel potential molecular link between smoking-associated airway epithelial injury, COPD, and lung cancer.

  19. Expression of p53,c-erbB-2 and Ki67 in intestinal metaplasia and gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare two types of classification of intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the stomach and to explore their relationship to gastric carcinoma.METHODS:Forty-seven cases of gastric IM were classified into type or typeaccordingto mucin histochemical staining and compared with a novel classification in which the specimens were classif ied into simple IM (SIM) or atypical IM according to polymorphism in terms of atypical changes of the metaplastic epithelium. Forty-seven IM and thirty-seven gastric carcinoma sa...

  20. Foxa2调控支气管哮喘气道黏液高分泌研究进展%Research progress of Foxa2 regulates asthmatic airway mucus hypersecretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波; 梁娅莎; 罗凤鸣

    2015-01-01

    支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)是一种由多种细胞及细胞组分参与的慢性气道炎症性疾病,以 Th2型气道炎性反应、气道高反应性、气道重塑为其主要特征。叉头状转录因子2(the fork head box transcription factor-2,Foxa2)基因定位于染色体20p11.21,长度是2242 bp,高表达于气道上皮细胞和肺泡Ⅱ型上皮细胞中。在肺发育过程中,Foxa2参与 Th2型气道炎症、黏液生成以及杯状细胞化生调控。本文从 Foxa2与哮喘气道黏液分泌、杯状细胞化生研究进展作一综述。%Bronchial asthma (asthma)is a chronic airway inflammatory disease involved by many cells and cellular components,whose main features are Th2-dominated airway inflammatory reaction, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling.The fork head box transcription factor-2 (Foxa2 )is located on chromosome 20p1 1.21,with the length of 2 242 bp,is highly expressed in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar type Ⅱ epithelial cells.In the process of lung development,Foxa2 regulates Th2-dominated airway inflammatory reaction,mucus formation and goblet cell metaplasia.This review will summarize the role of Foxa2 in asthmatic airway mucus secretion and goblet cell metaplasia.

  1. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  2. Non-sequential narrow band imaging for targeted biopsy and monitoring of gastric intestinal metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rungsun Rerknimitr; Boonlert Imraporn; Naruemon Klaikeaw; Wiriyaporn Ridtitid; Sukprasert Jutaghokiat; Yuwadee Ponauthai; Pradermchai Kongkam; Pinit Kullavanijaya

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of non-sequential narrow band imaging (NBI) for a better recognition of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM). METHODS: Previously diagnosed GIM patients underwent targeted biopsy from areas with and without GIM, as indicated by NBI, twice at an interval of 1 year. The authors compared the endoscopic criteria such as light blue crest (LBC), villous pattern (VP), and large long crest (LLC) with standard histology. The results from two surveillance endoscopies were compared with histology results for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratio of positive test (LR+). The number of early gastric cancer cases detected was also reported. RESULTS: NBI targeted biopsy was performed in 38 and 26 patients during the first and second surveillance endoscopies, respectively. There were 2 early gastric cancers detected in the first endoscopy. No cancer was detected from the second study. Surgical and endoscopic resections were successfully performed in each patient. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and LR+ of all 3 endoscopic criteria during the first/second surveillances were 78.8%/91.3%, 82.5%/89.1%, 72.8%/77.8%, 86.8%/96.1, and 4.51/8.4, respectively. LBC provided the highest LR+ over VP and LLC. CONCLUSION: Non-sequential NBI is useful for GIM targeted biopsy. LBC provides the most sensitive reading. However, the optimal duration between two surveillances requires further study.

  3. Difference of Gene Expression Profiles between Barrett's Esophagus and Cardia Intestinal Metaplasia by Gene Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Ying; LIU Bin

    2006-01-01

    The difference of gene expression profile changes in Barrettes esophagus (BE) and cardia intestinal metaplasia (CIM) epithelium was studied and the novel associated genes were screened in the early stage by cDNA microarray. The cDNA retro-transcribed from equal quantity mRNA from BE and CIM epithelial tissues were labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescence as probes. The mixed probe was hybridized with three pieces BiostarH-40s double dot human whole gene chip. The chips were scanned with a ScanArray 4000. The acquired images were analyzed using GenePix Pro 3.0 software. It was found a total of 141 genes were screened out that exhibited differentially expression more than 2 times in all three chips. It was identified that in gene expression profiles of BE, 74 genes were up-regulated and 67 down-regulated as compared with CIM. The comparison between the difference of gene expression profile changes in BE and CIM epithelia revealed that there existed the difference between BE and CIM at gene level. 141 genes with the expression more than two time were probably related to the occurrence and development of BE and the promotion or progress in adenocarcinoma.

  4. Gastric intestinal metaplasia is associated with gastric dysplasia but is inversely correlated with esophageal dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Justin M; Patrie, James T; Bleibel, Wissam; Frye, Jeanetta W; Sauer, Bryan G; Shami, Vanessa M; Stelow, Edward B; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Wang, Andrew Y

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine which clinical factors might be associated with gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) in a North American population. METHODS Pathology and endoscopy databases at an academic medical center were reviewed to identify patients with and without gastric IM on biopsies for a retrospective cohort study. Patient demographics, insurance status, and other clinical factors were reviewed. RESULTS Four hundred and sixty-eight patients with gastric IM (mean age: 61.0 years ± 14.4 years, 55.5% female) and 171 without gastric IM (mean age: 48.8 years ± 20.8 years, 55.0% female) were compared. The endoscopic appearance of atrophic gastritis correlated with finding gastric IM on histopathology (OR = 2.05, P = 0.051). Gastric IM was associated with histologic findings of chronic gastritis (OR = 2.56, P gastritis are more likely to have gastric IM and should have screening gastric biopsies during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Patients with gastric IM are at increased risk for having gastric dysplasia and cancer, and surveillance EGD with gastric biopsies in these patients might be reasonable. PMID:28250898

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection with intestinal metaplasia: An independent risk factor for colorectal adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ye; Chen, Yi-Na; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Chao; Lin, Chun-Jing; Jin, Yin; Pan, Shuang; Wu, Jian-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    AIM To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection status, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and colorectal adenomas. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed 1641 individuals aged ≥ 40 years who underwent physical examination, laboratory testing, 13C-urea breath testing, gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and an interview to ascertain baseline characteristics and general state of health. Histopathological results were obtained by gastric and colorectal biopsies. RESULTS The prevalence of H. pylori infection and adenomas was 51.5% (845/1641) and 18.1% (297/1641), respectively. H. pylori infection was significantly correlated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas (crude OR = 1.535, 95%CI: 1.044-1.753, P = 0.022; adjusted OR = 1.359, 95%CI: 1.035-1.785, P = 0.028). Individuals with IM had an elevated risk of colorectal adenomas (crude OR = 1.664, 95%CI: 1.216-2.277, P = 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.381, 95%CI: 0.998-1.929, P = 0.059). Stratification based on H. pylori infection stage and IM revealed that IM accompanied by H. pylori infection was significantly associated with an increased risk of adenomas (crude OR = 2.109, 95%CI: 1.383-3.216, P = 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.765, 95%CI: 1.130-2.757, P = 0.012). CONCLUSION H. pylori-related IM is associated with a high risk of colorectal adenomas in Chinese individuals. PMID:28293091

  6. Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: disease overview and non-transplant treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Ruben A; Barosi, Giovanni; Cervantes, Francisco; Reilly, John T; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2006-01-01

    Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM) is currently classified as a classic (i.e. not yet molecularly defined) myeloproliferative disorder (MPD), along with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). All three MPDs represent stem-cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that, in the case of MMM, is accompanied by an intense bone marrow stromal reaction that includes collagen fibrosis, osteosclerosis, and angiogenesis. To date, both the molecular basis of the primary clonal process and the pathogenetic mechanisms that underlie the secondary histological changes remain elusive. Clinically, MMM is characterized by anemia, multi-organ extramedullary hematopoiesis that often involves the spleen and liver, constitutional symptoms, and premature death from either leukemic transformation or other disease complications. Current diagnosis is based on characteristic but not diagnostic bone marrow histological features. Modern therapy remains palliative but allogeneic stem cell transplantation might be curative to a selected group of patients. This chapter reviews both the old and the new therapy with regard to non-transplant treatment options for MMM.

  7. Pericryptal Fibroblast Sheath in Intestinal Metaplasia, Dysplasia and Carcinoma of the Stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-ying Liu; Yu Sun; Zhong-wu Li; Guo-shuang Feng; Wei-cheng You; Ji-you Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the existence of pericryptal fibroblasts sheath (PCFS) in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia (IM), indefinite for dysplasia (I-Dys), low grade dysplasia (L-Dys), high grade dysplasia (H-Dys) and gastric cancer (GC), and its association with gastric carcinogenesis.Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of PCFS in normal gastric mucosa (N=10), IM (N=26), I-Dys (N=16), L-Dys (N=13), H-Dys (N=21) and GC (N=145) using immunohistochemical staining for two smooth muscle markers, alpha smooth muscle actin(α-SMA) and high molecular weight caldesmon (h-CD). The significance of PCFS was discussed, especially in association with gastric carcinogenesis.Results: The PCFS was recognized in 65.4%(17/26) of IM, 62.5%(10/16) of I-Dys and 23.1% (3/13) of L-Dys respectively. No PCFS was detected in H-Dys and GC. The PCFS was gradually reduced in IM, Dys and GC in sequence (P<0.0001).Conclusion: The PCFS is associated with the differentiation of epithelium and involved in gastric carcinogenesis via epithelial-mesenchymal interaction.

  8. Endoscopic mucosal resection of Barrett’s esophagus detects high prevalence of subsquamous intestinal metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick; Yachimski; Chanjuan; Shi; James; C; Slaughter; Mary; Kay; Washington

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To report the prevalence of Subsquamous intestinal metaplasia(SSIM)in patients undergoing endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR)for staging of Barrett’s esophagus(BE).METHODS:Thirty-three patients with BE associated neoplasia underwent EMR at our institution between September 2009 and September 2011;22 of these patients met study inclusion criteria.EMR was targeted at focal abnormalities within the BE segment.EMR was performed in standardized fashion using a cap-assisted band ligation technique,and resection specimens were assessed for the presence of SSIM.Demographic and clinical data were analyzed to determine predictors of SSIM.RESULTS:SSIM was detected in 59%of patients.SSIM was detected in 73%of patients with short segment(<3 cm)BE,and in 45%of patients with longsegment(≥3 cm)BE(P=NS).There was no association between presence/absence of SSIM and age,gender,or stage of BE-associated neoplasia.CONCLUSION:EMR detects SSIM in a majority of patients with BE-associated neoplasia.While the longterm clinical significance of SSIM remains uncertain,these results highlight the importance of EMR as an optimal diagnostic tool for staging of BE and detection of SSIM,and should further limit concerns that SSIM is purely a post-ablation phenomenon.

  9. Portal hypertension secondary to myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: A study of 13 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohannad Abu-Hilal; Jayant Tawaker

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe the clinical presentation and complications of portal hypertension (PH) secondary to myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM).METHODS: Medical records for 123 patients with MMM were reviewed.RESULTS: Thirteen patients with PH secondary to MMM were identified. Median ages at time of MMM and PH diagnosis were 61 and 66 years, respectively. The interval from MMM diagnosis to presentation with one of the PH features ranged from 1 to 11 years. Variceal bleeding and ascites were the most common presentations. Of the eight patients who presented with variceal bleeding, six patients underwent endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with no variceal recurrence or hematological worsening during a 12-mo follow up period.CONCLUSION: Patients with MMM might develop PH. Exact mechanisms leading to PH in MMM are still controversial. As in other etiologies, variceal bleeding and ascites are the most common presentations. Anemia may correlate with, and/or predict, the severity of the PH presentation in these patients. EVL can successfully control variceal bleeding in MMM. Further clinical studies are required.

  10. Adenosquamous Carcinoma and Pure Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Report of two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Terada

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC and pure squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the pancreas are very rare diseases. The author herein reports two cases of ASC and SCC of the pancreas. The first case is ASC. An 80-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and weakness. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a pancreatic body tumor. Distal partial resection of the pancreas and splenectomy were performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 3 × 4 × 4 cm was present in the pancreatic body. Histologically, it was an ASC consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma element (20% in area and SCC element (80%. There was a gradual transition between the two. Many perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were recognized. The patient died of systemic metastasis five months after operation. The second case is an SCC. A 69-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Imaging modalities including CT, MRI and ERCP revealed a tumor in the head of the pancreas. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Grossly, an infiltrative solid tumor measuring 5 × 5 × 6 cm was present. Histologically, the tumor was pure SCC. The SCC was moderately differentiated SCC. A large number of perineural invasions and lymphovascular permeations were present. The patient died of systemic metastasis three months after operation. The author speculates that ASC of the pancreas may be derived from squamous tansdifferentiation of adenocarcinoma element or from pluripotent stem cells, and that SCC of the pancreas may arise from malignant transformation of squamous metaplasia of pancreatic ducts or from pluripotent stem cells.

  11. Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, P.; Sporring, J.; Ashraf, H.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...

  12. Airway complications after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuzak, Michael; Santacruz, Jose F; Gildea, Thomas; Murthy, Sudish C

    2015-01-01

    Airway complications after lung transplantation present a formidable challenge to the lung transplant team, ranging from mere unusual images to fatal events. The exact incidence of complications is wide-ranging depending on the type of event, and there is still evolution of a universal characterization of the airway findings. Management is also wide-ranging. Simple observation or simple balloon bronchoplasty is sufficient in many cases, but vigilance following more severe necrosis is required for late development of both anastomotic and nonanastomotic airway strictures. Furthermore, the impact of coexisting infection, rejection, and medical disease associated with high-level immunosuppression further complicates care.

  13. Ozone-Induced Type 2 Immunity in Nasal Airways. Development and Lymphoid Cell Dependence in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Chee Bing; Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Brooks, Phillip T; Brandenberger, Christina; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Nault, Rance; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation exposures to ozone commonly encountered in photochemical smog cause airway injury and inflammation. Elevated ambient ozone concentrations have been epidemiologically associated with nasal airway activation of neutrophils and eosinophils. In the present study, we elucidated the temporal onset and lymphoid cell dependency of eosinophilic rhinitis and associated epithelial changes in mice repeatedly exposed to ozone. Lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0 or 0.5 parts per million (ppm) ozone for 1, 2, 4, or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Lymphoid cell-deficient, Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice were similarly exposed for 9 weekdays. Nasal tissues were taken at 2 or 24 hours after exposure for morphometric and gene expression analyses. C57BL/6 mice exposed to ozone for 1 day had acute neutrophilic rhinitis, with airway epithelial necrosis and overexpression of mucosal Ccl2 (MCP-1), Ccl11 (eotaxin), Cxcl1 (KC), Cxcl2 (MIP-2), Hmox1, Il1b, Il5, Il6, Il13, and Tnf mRNA. In contrast, 9-day ozone exposure elicited type 2 immune responses in C57BL/6 mice, with mucosal mRNA overexpression of Arg1, Ccl8 (MCP-2), Ccl11, Chil4 (Ym2), Clca1 (Gob5), Il5, Il10, and Il13; increased density of mucosal eosinophils; and nasal epithelial remodeling (e.g., hyperplasia/hypertrophy, mucous cell metaplasia, hyalinosis, and increased YM1/YM2 proteins). Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice exposed to ozone for 9 days, however, had no nasal pathology or overexpression of transcripts related to type 2 immunity. These results provide a plausible paradigm for the activation of eosinophilic inflammation and type 2 immunity found in the nasal airways of nonatopic individuals subjected to episodic exposures to high ambient ozone.

  14. Airway vascular reactivity and vascularisation in human chronic airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Simon R; Boustany, Sarah; Burgess, Janette K; Hirst, Stuart J; Sharma, Hari S; Simcock, David E; Suravaram, Padmini R; Weckmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Altered bronchial vascular reactivity and remodelling including angiogenesis are documented features of asthma and other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Expansion of the bronchial vasculature under these conditions involves both functional (vasodilation, hyperperfusion, increased microvascular

  15. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR GASTRIC METAPLASIA AND CANCER: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el cáncer de estómago ocupa la quinta posición entre los cánceres más frecuentes en el mundo, con 952.000 casos diagnosticados en el 2012. El Ecuador ocupa el 15º lugar entre los países con la incidencia más alta de cáncer gástrico en ambos sexos. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar los factores de protección y de riesgo para cáncer/metaplasia gástrico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio hospitalario de casos y controles en la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador. Se definieron como casos a los pacientes con diagnóstico histológico confirmado de cáncer gástrico (N = 60) o con metaplasia gástrica incompleta (N = 53). Se definieron como controles a los pacientes sin cáncer gástrico o lesiones premalignas (N = 144). A todos los pacientes se les realizó una entrevista personalizada utilizando un cuestionario estructurado para recoger datos sobre hábitos dietéticos, estilo de vida e historia clínica. Resultados: los factores de riesgo asociados significativamente con el diagnóstico de cáncer gástrico/metaplasia fueron el consumo de alimentos recalentados al menos tres veces a la semana, (AOR: 4,57; CI: 2,2 – 9,5) y añadir sal a más del 50% de las comidas (AOR: 1,32; CI: 1,04 – 1,67). Los factores de protección asociados significativamente para no desarrollar cáncer/metaplasia gástrico fueron el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AOR: 0,39; CI 0,19 – 0,83), edad menor a 58 años (AOR: 0,38; CI: 0,18 – 0,79) y haber recibido tratamiento para la infección por H. Pylori (AOR: 0,33; CI: 0,16 – 0,71). Conclusiones: este estudio reporta por primera vez los factores de riesgo y de protección asociados con el cáncer/ metaplasia gástrico en Ecuador.

  16. Airway Epithelium Stimulates Smooth Muscle Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Malavia, Nikita K.; Raub, Christopher B.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Reynold A Panettieri; George, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air–liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (...

  17. Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to NDEA-induced lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dan; Liu, Dengqun; Zhou, Xiangdong; Yang, Shiming; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2013-02-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDCs) have the ability to differentiate into lung epithelial cells in response to damage; however, their role in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) formation is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether BMDC-derived lung epithelial cells could contribute to SCC formation. A model of lung SCC induced with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in recipient female mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive BMDCs from male donors was established. Incorporation of BMDCs in lung tissue was determined using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to detect GFP expression and fluorescence in situ hybridization to Y chromosomes. BMDC appeared at three stages of lung SCC progression: metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma. There was a significantly higher proportion of GFP-positive (GFP(+)) cells within SCC than was found in metaplasia and dysplasia 16 weeks post-transplantation (both P cells in SCC were pancytokeratin-positive (PCK(+)) epithelial cells, and some exhibited proliferative activity as determined by Ki67 staining (9.7 ± 3.92 %). The presence of GFP(+)Ki67(+)PCK(+) cells within SCC nests suggested that some donor BMDCs differentiated into proliferating epithelial cells. Finally, analysis of p63 expression, a marker of SCC cells, indicated that the presence of GFP(+)p63(+) cells (green) in inner parts of the SCC. These findings strongly suggest that BMDC-derived lung epithelial cells could participate in lung SCC formation and partially contribute to tumor growth, which might have significant potential implications for both clinical cancer therapy using BMDCs.

  18. Cytochromes P450 are expressed in proliferating cells in Barrett's metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S J; Morse, M A; Weghorst, C M; Kim, H; Watkins, P B; Guengerich, F P; Orringer, M B; Beer, D G

    1999-06-01

    The expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal squamous mucosa was investigated. Esophagectomy specimens from 23 patients were examined for CYP expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9/10, and CYP2E1 by immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 in these tissues was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 12) showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 proteins, but it was noted that cells within the basal proliferative zone did not express CYPs. Immunohistochemical analysis of Barrett's esophagus (n = 13) showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 that was prominent in the basal glandular regions, which are areas containing a high percentage of actively proliferating cells. Immunohistochemical staining for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the CYPs further supported the colocalization of CYP expression to areas of active cell proliferation in Barrett's esophagus, whereas in the esophageal squamous epithelium, CYP expression is limited to cells that are not proliferating. RT-PCR with amplification product sequence analysis confirmed CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 mRNA expression in Barrett's esophagus. These data suggest that the potential ability of cells in Barrett's esophagus to both activate carcinogens and proliferate may be important risk factors affecting carcinogenesis in this metaplastic tissue.

  19. Cytochromes P450 are Expressed in Proliferating Cells in Barrett's Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Hughes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal squamous mucosa was investigated. Esophagectomy specimens from 23 patients were examined for CYP expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9/10, and CYP2E1 by immunohistochemical analysis, and the expression of CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 in these tissues was further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal squamous mucosa (n = 12 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 proteins, but it was noted that cells within the basal proliferative zone did not express CYPs. Immunohistochemical analysis of Barrett's esophagus (n = 13 showed expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 that was prominent in the basal glandular regions, which are areas containing a high percentage of actively proliferating cells. Immunohistochemical staining for both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and the CYPs further supported the colocalization of CYP expression to areas of active cell proliferation in Barrett's esophagus, whereas in the esophageal squamous epithelium, CYP expression is limited to cells that are not proliferating. RT-PCR with amplification product sequence analysis confirmed CYP1A1, CYP3A4, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, and CYP2C9/10 mRNA expression in Barrett's esophagus. These data suggest that the potential ability of cells in Barrett's esophagus to both activate carcinogens and proliferate may be important risk factors affecting carcinogenesis in this metaplastic tissue.

  20. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  1. A new removable airway stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Amundsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods: To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results: The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions: The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use.

  2. Increased expression of Bcl-2 during mucous cell metaplasia induced by endotoxin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Ray, L.M.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is accompanied by characteristic morphological changes that distinguish apoptosis from other forms of cell death. These changes include DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, cell surface pseudopodia, and finally the cellular collapse into membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies which are rapidly engulfed by macrophages or neighboring cells. Although the morphological features of apoptotic cells are well studied, the biochemical events that control apoptosis are not understood. Programmed cell death is triggered by a variety of pathways that are initiated by different stimuli including noxious agents, DNA damage, the activation of TNF receptors, or the withdrawl of growth factors. The central process of programmed cell death involves a cascade of biochemical events that begins with the initiation of a family of cysteine proteases, including the interleukin-1-{Beta}-converting enzyme, CPP-32, and Apopain. The ratio of Bax, a death-inducer gene, to Bcl-2, an apoptosis suppressor gene, determines whether or not the main apoptotic pathyway is blocked. Apoptosis is suppressed if the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax is > 1, and cells undergo apoptosis if the ratio is < 1. The overexpression of Bcl-2 has been shown to block the apoptotic program triggered by a variety of agents. Therefore, Bcl-2 must be involved in blocking the central pathway of the cell death program. In conclusion, this study showed that high levels of Bcl-2 were detected in some mucous cells at specific time points during mucous cell metaplasia, and this expression was reduced at later time points or was absent after remodeling of this epithelium.

  3. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...... similarity measure is introduced, which indicates how similar the orientation of an airway candidate is to the orientation of the neighboring vessel. We use this vessel orientation similarity measure to overcome regions in the airway tree that have a low response from the appearance model. The proposed...

  4. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...... have become the standard with which to assess emphysema extent but airway abnormalities have so far been more challenging to quantify. Automated methods for analysis are indispensable as the visible airway tree in a CT scan can include several hundreds of individual branches. However, automation...... of scan on airway dimensions in subjects with and without COPD. The results show measured airway dimensions to be affected by differences in the level of inspiration and this dependency is again influenced by COPD. Inspiration level should therefore be accounted for when measuring airways, and airway...

  5. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  6. -765G>C COX-2 polymorphism may be a susceptibility marker for gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carina Pereira; Hugo Sousa; Paula Ferreira; Maria Fragoso; Luís Moreira-Dias; Carlos Lopes; Rui Medeiros; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the -765G> C COX-2 polymorphism and the development of different gastric lesions: atrophy or intestinal metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed involving 320 Portuguese individuals (210 without evidence of neoplastic disease, 73 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas and 37 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) using a PCR-RFLP method. RESULTS: -765C allele was overrepresented in the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (51%) when compared either with the control group (38%) or patients with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia (27%).Callele was found to be very common in our population (0.22), and a multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed nearly 3-fold increased risk for the progression to gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia carrying the -765C allele (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03-6.93; P = 0.04).CONCLUSION: -765C carrier status should be considered as another susceptibility marker for gastric adenocarcinoma development in patients with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia.

  7. Helicobacter pylori with stronger intensity of CagA phosphorylation lead to an increased risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hsiu-Chi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all Taiwanese H. pylori stains are cagA-genopositive and encode CagA protein. In this study, we evaluated whether different intensity of tyrosine phosphorylated-CagA (p-CagA had an impact on the clinical diseases and histological outcomes in this area. Results We enrolled 469 dyspeptic patients and prospectively obtained the gastric biopsy specimens and the H. pylori isolates. These patients were categorized according to the clinical diseases, such as duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, and gastritis with or without intestinal metaplasia. Their gastric specimens were reviewed by the updated Sydney's system. Furthermore, a total of 146 patients were randomly selected from each clinical category for evaluation of their isolates' p-CagA intensity by in vitro AGS cells co-culture. The p-CagA was sparse in 30 (20.5%, weak in 59 (40.5%, and strong in 57 (39% isolates. The isolates from the patients of gastric cancer or gastritis with intestinal metaplasia had stronger p-CagA intensity than those of gastritis without intestinal metaplasia (p ≤ 0.002. Moreover, the patients infected with isolates with strong or weak p-CagA intensity had a higher risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia (p Conclusions Infection with H. pylori stains with stronger p-CagA intensity may lead to an increased risk of gastric intestinal metaplasia and cancer.

  8. Acinar-to-ductal metaplasia accompanies c-myc-induced exocrine pancreatic cancer progression in transgenic rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Paul J; Sandgren, Eric P

    2012-09-01

    Several important characteristics of exocrine pancreatic tumor pathogenesis remain incompletely defined, including identification of the cell of origin. Most human pancreatic neoplasms are ductal adenocarcinomas. However, acinar cells have been proposed as the source of some ductal neoplasms through a process of acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. The oncogenic transcription factor c-myc is associated with human pancreatic neoplasms. Transgenic mice overexpressing c-myc under control of acinar cell-specific elastase (Ela) gene regulatory elements not only develop acinar cell carcinomas but also mixed neoplasms that display both acinar-like neoplastic cells and duct-like neoplastic cells. In this report, we demonstrate that, first, c-myc is sufficient to induce acinar hyperplasia, though neoplastic lesions develop focally. Second, cell proliferation remains elevated in the neoplastic duct cell compartment of mixed neoplasms. Third, the proliferation/apoptosis ratio in cells from all lesion types remains constant, suggesting that differential regulation of these processes is not a feature of cancer progression in this model. Fourth, before the development of mixed neoplasms, there is transcriptional activation of the duct cell-specific cytokeratin-19 gene promoter in multicellular foci of amylase-positive acinar neoplasms. This observation provides direct evidence for metaplasia as the mechanism underlying development of ductal neoplastic cells within the context of an acinar neoplasm and suggests that the stimulus for this transformation acts over a multicellular domain or field within a neoplasm. Finally, focal ductal elements develop in some acinar cell carcinomas in Ela-c-myc transgenic rats, indicating that myc-associated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia is not restricted to the mouse.

  9. Management of Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Carlos E.; Welton, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is ...

  10. Effects of the flavanone combination hesperetin-naringenin, and orange and grapefruit juices, on airway inflammation and remodeling in a murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedrezazadeh, Ensiyeh; Kolahian, Saeed; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Ansarin, Khalil; Pour Moghaddam, Masoud; Sakhinia, Masoud; Sakhinia, Ebrahim; Vafa, Mohammadreza

    2015-04-01

    We investigated whether flavanones, hesperetin-naringenin, orange, and grapefruit juices reduce airway inflammation and remodeling in murine chronic asthma model. To establish chronic asthma, mice received house dust mite (HDM) for 3 days in 2 weeks, followed by twice per week for 4 weeks. Concurrently, during the last 4 weeks, mice received hesperetin plus naringenin (HN), orange plus grapefruit juice (OGJ), orange juice (OJ), or grapefruit juice (GJ); whereas the asthmatic control (AC) group and non-asthmatic control (NC) group consumed water ad libitum. In histopathological examination, no goblet cells metaplasia was observed in the HN, OJ, and GJ groups; also, intra-alveolar macrophages decreased compared with those of the AC group. Hesperetin plus naringenin significantly decreased subepithelial fibrosis, smooth muscle hypertrophy in airways, and lung atelectasis compared with the AC group. Also, there was a reduction of subepithelial fibrosis in airways in OJ and GJ groups compared with AC group, but it was not noticed in OGJ group. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, macrophages numbers decreased in OJ and OGJ groups, whereas eosinophil numbers were increased in OJ group compared with NC group. Our finding revealed that hesperetin plus naringenin ameliorate airway structural remodeling more than orange juice and grapefruit juice in murine model of HDM-induced asthma.

  11. Proton-sensing ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 on dendritic cells is required for airway responses in a murine asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro; Hisada, Takeshi; Nakakura, Takashi; Kamide, Yosuke; Ichimonji, Isao; Tomura, Hideaki; Tobo, Masayuki; Sato, Koichi; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Dobashi, Kunio; Mori, Tetsuya; Harada, Akihiro; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Okajima, Fumikazu

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) stimulation by extracellular protons causes the activation of G proteins and subsequent cellular functions. However, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of OGR1 in airway responses remain largely unknown. In the present study, we show that OGR1-deficient mice are resistant to the cardinal features of asthma, including airway eosinophilia, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and goblet cell metaplasia, in association with a remarkable inhibition of Th2 cytokine and IgE production, in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Intratracheal transfer to wild-type mice of OVA-primed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from OGR1-deficient mice developed lower AHR and eosinophilia after OVA inhalation compared with the transfer of those from wild-type mice. Migration of OVA-pulsed DCs to peribronchial lymph nodes was also inhibited by OGR1 deficiency in the adoption experiments. The presence of functional OGR1 in DCs was confirmed by the expression of OGR1 mRNA and the OGR1-sensitive Ca(2+) response. OVA-induced expression of CCR7, a mature DC chemokine receptor, and migration response to CCR7 ligands in an in vitro Transwell assay were attenuated by OGR1 deficiency. We conclude that OGR1 on DCs is critical for migration to draining lymph nodes, which, in turn, stimulates Th2 phenotype change and subsequent induction of airway inflammation and AHR.

  12. Treating asthma means treating airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuyderduyn, S; Sukkar, M B; Fust, A; Dhaliwal, S; Burgess, J K

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Airway smooth muscle cells are known to be the main effector cells of airway narrowing. In the present paper, studies will be discussed that have led to a novel view of the role of airway smooth muscle

  13. Operative link for gastritis assessment vs operative link on intestinal metaplasia assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo Rugge; Matteo Fassan; Marco Pizzi; Fabio Farinati; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo; Mario Plebani; David Y Graham

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the reliability of gastritis staging systems in ranking gastritis-associated cancer risk in a large series of consecutive patients.METHODS: Gastric mucosal atrophy is the precancerous condition in which intestinal-type gastric cancer (GC) most frequently develops. The operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) staging system ranks the GC risk according to both the topography and the severity of gastric atrophy (as assessed histologically on the basis of the Sydney protocol for gastric mucosal biopsy). Both cross-sectional and long-term follow-up trials have consistently associated OLGA stages Ⅲ-Ⅳ with a higher risk of GC. A recently-proposed modification of the OLGA staging system (OLGIM) basically incorporates the OLGA frame, but replaces the atrophy score with an assessment of intestinal metaplasia (IM) alone. A series of 4552 consecutive biopsy sets (2007-2009) was retrieved and reassessed according to both the OLGA and the OLGIM staging systems. A set of at least 5 biopsy samples was available for all the cases considered.RESULTS: In 4460 of 4552 cases (98.0%), both the high-risk stages (Ⅲ + Ⅳ) and the low-risk stages (0 +Ⅰ + Ⅱ) were assessed applying the OLGA and OLGIM criteria. Among the 243 OLGA high-risk stages, 14 (5.8%) were down-staged to a low risk using OLGIM. The 67 (1.5%) incidentally-found neoplastic lesions (intraepithelial or invasive) were consistently associated with high-risk stages, as assessed by both OLGA and OLGIM (P < 0.001 for both). Two of 34 intestinal-type GCs coexisting with a high-risk OLGA stage (stage Ⅲ) were associated with a low-risk OLGIM stage (stage Ⅱ).CONCLUSION: Gastritis staging systems (both OLGA and OLGIM) convey prognostically important information on the gastritis-associated cancer risk. Because of its clinical impact, the stage of gastritis should be included as a conclusive message in the gastritis histology report. Since it focuses on IM alone, OLGIM staging is less sensitive than

  14. Aggravation of Allergic Airway Inflammation by Cigarette Smoke in Mice Is CD44-Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Kumar

    Full Text Available Although epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoke (CS facilitates the development and exacerbation of allergic asthma, these studies offer limited information on the mechanisms involved. The transmembrane glycoprotein CD44 is involved in cell adhesion and acts as a receptor for hyaluronic acid and osteopontin. We aimed to investigate the role of CD44 in a murine model of CS-facilitated allergic airway inflammation.Wild type (WT and CD44 knock-out (KO mice were exposed simultaneously to house dust mite (HDM extract and CS. Inflammatory cells, hyaluronic acid (HA and osteopontin (OPN levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Proinflammatory mediators, goblet cell metaplasia and peribronchial eosinophilia were assessed in lung tissue. T-helper (Th 1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine production was evaluated in mediastinal lymph node cultures.In WT mice, combined HDM/CS exposure increased the number of inflammatory cells and the levels of HA and OPN in BALF and Th2 cytokine production in mediastinal lymph nodes compared to control groups exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS/CS, HDM/Air or PBS/Air. Furthermore, HDM/CS exposure significantly increased goblet cell metaplasia, peribronchial eosinophilia and inflammatory mediators in the lung. CD44 KO mice exposed to HDM/CS had significantly fewer inflammatory cells in BALF, an attenuated Th2 cytokine production, as well as decreased goblet cells and peribronchial eosinophils compared to WT mice. In contrast, the levels of inflammatory mediators were similar or higher than in WT mice.We demonstrate for the first time that the aggravation of pulmonary inflammation upon combined exposure to allergen and an environmental pollutant is CD44-dependent. Data from this murine model of concomitant exposure to CS and HDM might be of importance for smoking allergic asthmatics.

  15. Multiscale Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    that is trained to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. Vessel and airway orientation information are used in the form of a vessel orientation similarity measure, which indicates how similar the orientation of the an airway candidate is to the orientation of the neighboring vessel. The method...... is evaluated within EXACT’09 on a diverse set of CT scans. Results show a favorable combination of a relatively large portion of the tree detected correctly with very few false positives....

  16. Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Ian P

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The availability of a draft sequence for the human genome will revolutionise research into airway disease. This review deals with two of the most important areas impinging on the treatment of patients: pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Considerable inter-individual variation exists at the DNA level in targets for medication, and variability in response to treatment may, in part, be determined by this genetic variation. Increased knowledge about the human genome might also permit the identification of novel therapeutic targets by expression profiling at the RNA (genomics or protein (proteomics level. This review describes recent advances in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics with regard to airway disease.

  17. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. A case report of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles in the submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Bumjung; Cho, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyung Sik; Park, Hye-Rim; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Nam, Eun Sook

    2016-09-01

    Spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipomatous metaplasia and thick collagen bundles has not yet been described, and there are no published reports on its cytological appearance in fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 49-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the right submandibular area that had been gradually enlarging for a period of 5 years. The cytologic smears showed fascicles of cohesive spindle cells as well as individual bland cells with bipolar naked nuclei in a fibrillary background. Brightly eosinophilic bundles were intermingled with spindle cells and fat-like vacuoles. The FNA results were suggestive of neurogenic tumor. Patient underwent submandibular gland resection. Grossly, the cut surface showed a well-encapsulated, yellowish-white, soft, elastic mass, measuring 2.8 × 1.9 × 1.5 cm. The tumor consisted of uniform bland spindle cells arranged in short fascicles admixed with adipocyte-like cells and transversing thick collagen bundles, which demonstrated immunoreactivity for myoepithelial markers and ultrastructural features characteristic of myoepithelial cells, suggesting the presence of lipomatous metaplasia. The FNA cytology of spindle cell myoepithelioma with extensive lipometaplasia mimicked that of neurogenic tumor or lipomatous mesenchymal tumor. This case represents the first description of submandibular gland myoepithelioma with lipometaplasia, which is characterized by the coexistence of spindle cells, collagen bundles, and fat-like vacuoles in a fibrillary background. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:764-769. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sporadic ganglioneuromatosis of esophagogastric junction in a patient with gastro-esophageal reflux disorder and intestinal metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Siderits; Iman Hanna; Zahid Baig; Janusz J Godyn

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old female with a recurrent history of upper abdominal pain and intermittent dysphagia underwent endoscopic evaluation that demonstrated an irregular and nodular esophago-gastric (EG) junction and grade Ⅰ erosive esophagitis. Biopsies showed prominent intestinal metaplasia of Barrett's type without dysplasia, chronic inflammation and multiple aggregates of large cells within the mucosal lamina propria, some with spindle shaped nuclei. Immunohistochemistry stains for keratins AE-1/AE-3 were negative, while S-100 and NSE were positive.This, together with routine stains, was diagnostic for mucosal ganglioneuromatosis. The background of chronic inflammation with intestinal type metaplasia was consistent with long-term reflux esophagitis. No evidence of achalasia was seen. Biopsies of gastric antrum and fundus were unremarkable, without ganglioneural proliferation. Colonoscopy was unremarkable. No genetic syndromes were identified in the patient including familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia type Ⅱb (MEN Ⅱb). Iansoprazole (Prevacid)was started by oral administration each day with partial relief of symptoms. Subsequent esophagogastroscopy repeated at 4 mo showed normal appearing EG junction. Esophageal manometry revealed a mild nonspecific lower esophageal motility disorder. Mild motor dysfunction is seen with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and we feel that the demonstration of localized ganglioneuromatosis was not likely related etiologically. In the absence of findings that might suggest neural hypertrophy, such as achalasia, the nodular mucosal irregularity seen with this instance of ganglioneuromatosis may, however, have exacerbated the patient's reflux.

  20. Breast Cancer with Cartilaginous and/or Osseous Metaplasia Diagnosed by Lymph Nodal Metastasis:A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakahara,Saki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia is a type of metaplastic carcinomas and is a rare disease. We report the case of a 49 year-old female who underwent right mastectomy for a large breast tumor. Histological examinations revealed a mixed tumor with both stromal and epithelial elements;the stroma showed poor differentiated spindle-shape and multiform cells with a massive osseous matrix, and atypical epithelial cells, which mainly existed on the surface of the cysts, showed nucleic atypia. The tumor was diagnosed as a malignant phyllodes tumor with osteosarcomatous differentiation;it was not identified as a metaplastic carcinoma because of the lack of proof of a cancerous component. Two years after a mastectomy, swelling of the axillary lymph nodes was found and a biopsy was performed. Histological findings for the lymph node indicated a metastasis of the invasive ductal carcinoma. The primary tumor was re-examined and was considered to be the origin of the lymph nodal metastasis. Lymph nodal metastasis of cancer proved that the primary tumor had cancerous potential, and the pathological diagnosis was altered to a breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia.

  1. Functional phenotype of airway myocytes from asthmatic airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    In asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell plays a central role in disease pathogenesis through cellular changes which may impact on its microenvironment and alter ASM response and function. The answer to the long debated question of what makes a 'healthy' ASM cell become 'asthmatic' still remai

  2. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  3. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  4. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  5. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non...... reduction equalling a number needed to treat of 180. Sample size estimation is adjusted for the study design and based on standards for randomization on cluster-level. With an average cluster size of 2,500 patients, 70,000 patients will be enrolled over a 1-year trial period. The database is programmed so...

  6. Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, P.; Sporring, J.; Ashraf, H.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage...

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact. PMID:27678355

  8. The Lung Microbiome and Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated relationships between the composition of the airway microbiota (mixed-species communities of microbes that exist in the respiratory tract) and critical features of immune response and pulmonary function. These studies provide evidence that airway inflammatory status and capacity for repair are coassociated with specific taxonomic features of the airway microbiome. Although directionality has yet to be established, the fact that microbes are known drivers of inflammation and tissue damage suggests that in the context of chronic inflammatory airway disease, the composition and, more importantly, the function, of the pulmonary microbiome represent critical factors in defining airway disease outcomes.

  9. Mucus hypersecretion in the airway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; WEN Fu-qiang; XU Dan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mucus hypersecretion is a distinguishing feature of Chronic intlammation diseases,such as asthma,1chronic bronchitis.2 bronchiectasis3 and cystic fibrosis.4Mucus hypersecretion leads to impairment of mucociliary clearance,abnormal bacterial plantation,mucus plug in the airway,and dysfunction of gas exchange.5

  10. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volum...

  11. Airway nerves: in vitro electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alyson

    2002-06-01

    Recording the activity of single airway sensory fibres or neuronal cell bodies in vitro has allowed detailed characterisation of fibre types and membrane properties. Fibre types can be identified by their conduction velocities and further studied by the application of drugs to their receptive field. C-fibres are sensitive to mechanical stimuli and a range of irritant chemicals (bradykinin, capsaicin, low pH, platelet-activating factor), whereas Adelta-fibres are relatively insensitive to chemical stimuli and appear to correlate to the rapidly adapting receptors identified in airways in vivo. Their site of origin also differs: upper airway C-fibres arise predominantly from the jugular ganglion and Adelta-fibres from the jugular and nodose ganglia. Intracellular recording from cell bodies in the ganglia has revealed a calcium-dependent potassium current common to many putative C-fibre cell bodies. This slow after hyperpolarisation current may be inhibited by stimuli that excite and sensitise C-fibres - this could be an important mechanism underlying the sensitisation of C-fibres in airway irritability.

  12. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed.

  13. Airway remodeling in asthma: what really matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbach, Heinz; Wagner, Christina; Wegmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Airway remodeling is generally quite broadly defined as any change in composition, distribution, thickness, mass or volume and/or number of structural components observed in the airway wall of patients relative to healthy individuals. However, two types of airway remodeling should be distinguished more clearly: (1) physiological airway remodeling, which encompasses structural changes that occur regularly during normal lung development and growth leading to a normal mature airway wall or as an acute and transient response to injury and/or inflammation, which ultimately results in restoration of a normal airway structures; and (2) pathological airway remodeling, which comprises those structural alterations that occur as a result of either disturbed lung development or as a response to chronic injury and/or inflammation leading to persistently altered airway wall structures and function. This review will address a few major aspects: (1) what are reliable quantitative approaches to assess airway remodeling? (2) Are there any indications supporting the notion that airway remodeling can occur as a primary event, i.e., before any inflammatory process was initiated? (3) What is known about airway remodeling being a secondary event to inflammation? And (4), what can we learn from the different animal models ranging from invertebrate to primate models in the study of airway remodeling? Future studies are required addressing particularly pheno-/endotype-specific aspects of airway remodeling using both endotype-specific animal models and "endotyped" human asthmatics. Hopefully, novel in vivo imaging techniques will be further advanced to allow monitoring development, growth and inflammation of the airways already at a very early stage in life.

  14. Nephroid metaplasia of the urinary tract. A survey of the literature, with the contribution of 5 new immunohistochemically studied cases, including one case examined by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F; Nielsen, J B

    1987-01-01

    Nephroid metaplasia is an unusual lesion confined to the lamina propria of the lower urinary tract. It is defined by a characteristic histologic picture of tubular structures, formed by a single layer of cuboidal cells, surrounded by a thick basement membrane. Two main theories concerning the his...

  15. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Hershberger, Pamela A.; Reid, Mary E.; Bogner, Paul N.; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C) (80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the % of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient +NTCU (DN), 22.7 % (p<0.05 compared to vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)); DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared to SN mice, DN mice exhibited a 3-fold increase (p <0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (p <0.05) increase in IL-6 levels, and a 4 -fold (p <0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  16. Squamous cell cancer of the rectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tara Dyson; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a rare malignancy. It appears to be associated with chronic inflammatory conditions and infections. The clear association seen between Human Papilloma Virus and various squamous cancers has not been firmly established for the squamous cell cancer of the rectum. The presentation is nonspecific and patients tend to present with advanced stage disease. Diagnosis relies on endoscopic examination with biopsy of the lesion. Distinction from squamous cell cancer of the anus can be difficult, but can be facilitated by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratins. Staging of the cancer with endoscopic ultrasound and computed tomography provides essential information on prognosis and can guide therapy. At present, surgery remains the main therapeutic option; however recent advances have made chemoradiation a valuable therapeutic addition. Squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is a distinct entity and it is of crucial importance for the practicing Gastroenterologist to be thoroughly familiar with this disease. Compared to adenocarcinoma of the rectum and squamous cell cancer of the anal canal, squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum has different epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis but, most importantly, requires a different therapeutic approach. This review will examine and summarize the available information regarding this disease from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist.

  17. ACANTHOLYTIC SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF PREPUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An uncircumcised 65 year male, with history of phimosis presented with retention of urine and ulceration and bleeding in the prepuce. Circumcision was done under local anesthesia which revealed an ulcero-proliferative growth involving the prepuce and glans. The prepucial skin was sent for histopathological examination. The diagnosis was histopathologically confirmed as Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant, unusual variant of squamous cell carcinoma invading deeper anatomic structures and is associated with a higher incidence of regional metastasis and mortality.

  18. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  19. Altered expression of a putative progenitor cell marker DCAMKL1 in the rat gastric mucosa in regeneration, metaplasia and dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Hiromitsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doublecortin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-like-1 (DCAMKL1 is a candidate marker for progenitor cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Lineage cells in the gastric mucosa are derived from progenitor cells, but this process can be altered after injury. Therefore, we explored DCAMKL1 expression under pathological conditions. Methods An immunohistochemical analysis was performed in rat stomach with acute superficial injury, chronic ulcer, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Results DCAMKL1 was exclusively expressed in immature quiescent cells in the isthmus of normal fundic glands, where putative progenitor cells are thought to reside. DCAMKL1-positive cells and proliferating cells shed into the lumen after superficial injury and re-appeared during the regenerative process, mainly in the superficial mucosa. In the marginal mucosa around the active ulcer, parietal and chief cells diminished, foveolar hyperplasia was evident, and trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2/spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM emerged at the gland base. DCAMKL1 cells re-emerged in the deep mucosa juxtaposed with SPEM and proliferating cells. In the healing ulcer, the TFF2 cell population expanded and seemed to redifferentiate to chief cells, while proliferating cells and DCAMKL1 cells appeared above and below the TFF2 cells to promote healing. SPEM appeared and PCNA cells increased in the intestinalized mucosa, and DCAMKL1 was expressed in the proximity of the PCNA cells in the deep mucosa. DCAMKL1, PCNA and TFF2 were expressed in different dysplastic cells lining dilated glands near SPEM. Conclusion The ultrastructural appearance of DCAMKL1-positive cells and the expression patterns of DCAMKL1 in normal and pathological states indicate that the cells belong to a progenitor cell population. DCAMKL1 expression is closely associated with TFF2/SPEM cells after injury. DCAMKL1 cells repopulate close to proliferating, hyperplastic

  20. Loss of Lrig1 leads to expansion of Brunner glands followed by duodenal adenomas with gastric metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Shi, Chanjuan; Lu, Yuanyuan; Poulin, Emily J; Franklin, Jeffery L; Coffey, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a pan-ErbB negative regulator and intestinal stem cell marker down-regulated in many malignancies. We previously reported that 14 of 16 Lrig1-CreERT2/CreERT2 (Lrig1(-/-)) mice developed duodenal adenomas, providing the first in vivo evidence that Lrig1 acts as a tumor suppressor. We extended this study to a larger cohort and found that 49 of 54 Lrig1(-/-) mice develop duodenal adenomas beginning at 3 months. Most adenomas were histologically low grade and overlaid expanded Brunner glands. There was morphologic and biochemical blurring of the boundary between the epithelium and Brunner glands with glandular coexpression of ErbB2, which is normally restricted to the epithelium, and the Brunner gland marker Mucin6. Some adenomas were high grade with reduced Brunner glands. At age 4 to 5 weeks, before adenoma formation, we observed enhanced proliferation in Brunner glands and, at 2 months, an increase in the size of the Brunner gland compartment. Elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) ligands amphiregulin and β-cellulin, as well as Egfr and phosphorylated Egfr, was detected in adenomas compared with adjacent normal tissue. These adenomas expressed the gastric-specific genes gastrokine1 and mucin5ac, indicating gastric metaplasia. Moreover, we found that a subset of human duodenal tumors exhibited features of LRIG1(-/-) adenomas, including loss of LRIG1, gastric metaplasia (MUCIN5AC and MUCIN6), and increased amphiregulin and Egfr activity.

  1. Coexistence of squamous cell tracheal papilloma and carcinoma treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliouras D

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Paliouras,1 Apostolos Gogakos,1 Thomas Rallis,1 Fotios Chatzinikolaou,2 Christos Asteriou,1 Georgios Tagarakis,3 John Organtzis,4 Kosmas Tsakiridis,5 Drosos Tsavlis,4 Athanasios Zissimopoulos,6 Ioannis Kioumis,4 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,7 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Nikolaos Barbetakis1 1Thoracic Surgery Department, Theagenio Cancer Hospital, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, AHEPA University Hospital, 4Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G. Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 5Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, “Saint Luke” Private Hospital, Panorama, Thessaloniki, 6Nuclear Medicine Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 7Medical Clinic I, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany Background: Papillomatosis presents, most frequently, as multiple lesions of the respiratory tract, which are usually considered benign. Malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma is quite common, although curative approaches vary a lot in modern literature.Case report: We report a case of a 66-year-old male patient with the coexistence of multiple squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma in the upper trachea with severe airway obstruction that was diagnosed through bronchoscopy and treated by performing an urgent tracheostomy, followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was no evidence of recurrence after a 12-month follow-up period.Conclusion: This study underlines the diagnostic and therapeutic value of bronchoscopy as well as multimodality palliative treatment in such cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe an immediate treatment protocol with tracheostomy and concurrent chemotherapy/radiotherapy in a patient with squamous cell tracheal papilloma and carcinoma

  2. Airway injury during emergency transcutaneous airway access: a comparison at cricothyroid and tracheal sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) may be required in emergencies, but inadvertent tracheal cannulation may occur. In this study, we compared airway injury between the tracheal and CTM sites using different techniques for airway access.

  3. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Grothausmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D deficient knock-out mice.

  4. Airway Tree Extraction with Locally Optimal Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract the airway tree from CT images by continually extending the tree with locally optimal paths. This is in contrast to commonly used region growing based approaches that only search the space of the immediate neighbors. The result is a much more robust method...... for tree extraction that can overcome local occlusions. The cost function for obtaining the optimal paths takes into account of an airway probability map as well as measures of airway shape and orientation derived from multi-scale Hessian eigen analysis on the airway probability. Significant improvements...

  5. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  6. AIRWAY VISUALIZATION: EYES SEE WHAT MIND KNOWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, Massimiliano; Frova, Giulio; Zdravković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Airway management is basic for anesthesia practice, and sometimes it can represent a really dramatic scenario for both the patient and the physicians. Laryngoscopy has been the gold standard of airway visualization for more than 60 years, showing its limitations and failure rates with time. New technology has made available an opportunity to move the physician's eye inside patient airways thanks to video laryngoscopy and video assisted airway management technique. Undoubtedly, we have entered a new era of high resolution airway visualization and different approach in airway instrumentation. Nevertheless, each new technology needs time to be tested and considered reliable, and pitfalls and limitations may come out with careful and long lasting analysis, so it is probably not the right time yet to promote video assisted approach as a new gold standard for airway visualization, despite the fact that it certainly offers some new prospects. In any case, whatever the visualization approach, no patient dies because of missed airway visualization or failed intubation, but due to failed ventilation, which remains without doubt the gold standard of any patient safety goal and airway management technique.

  7. Cholinergic Regulation of Airway Inflammation and Remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway diseases. Moreover, it has become apparent that acetylcholine is synthesized by nonneuronal cells and tissues, including inflammatory cells and structural cells. In this paper, we will discuss the regulatory role of acetylcholine in inflammation and remodelling in which we will focus on the role of the airway smooth muscle cell as a target cell for acetylcholine that modulates inflammation and remodelling during respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD.

  8. Ultrasonography in the management of the airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it is described how to use ultrasonography (US) for real-time imaging of the airway from the mouth, over pharynx, larynx, and trachea to the peripheral alveoli, and how to use this in airway management. US has several advantages for imaging of the airway - it is safe, quick...... or the esophagus by placing the ultrasound probe transversely on the neck at the level of the suprasternal notch during intubation, thus confirming intubation without the need for ventilation or circulation. US can be applied before anesthesia induction and diagnose several conditions that affect airway management...

  9. Airway smooth muscle dynamics : a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, S S; Bai, T R; Bates, J H T; Black, J L; Brown, R H; Brusasco, V; Chitano, P; Deng, L; Dowell, M; Eidelman, D H; Fabry, B; Fairbank, N J; Ford, L E; Fredberg, J J; Gerthoffer, W T; Gilbert, S H; Gosens, R; Gunst, S J; Halayko, A J; Ingram, R H; Irvin, C G; James, A L; Janssen, L J; King, G G; Knight, D A; Lauzon, A M; Lakser, O J; Ludwig, M S; Lutchen, K R; Maksym, G N; Martin, J G; Mauad, T; McParland, B E; Mijailovich, S M; Mitchell, H W; Mitchell, R W; Mitzner, W; Murphy, T M; Paré, P D; Pellegrino, R; Sanderson, M J; Schellenberg, R R; Seow, C Y; Silveira, P S P; Smith, P G; Solway, J; Stephens, N L; Sterk, P J; Stewart, A G; Tang, D D; Tepper, R S; Tran, T; Wang, L

    2007-01-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series o

  10. Pim1 kinase protects airway epithelial cells from cigarette smoke-induced damage and airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.; Heijink, Hilde; Gras, R.; den Boef, L. E.; Reinders-Luinge, M.; Pouwels, S. D.; Hylkema, Machteld; van der Toorn, Marco; Brouwer, U.; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Nawijn, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the main risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and can induce airway epithelial cell damage, innate immune responses, and airway inflammation. We hypothesized that cell survival factors might decrease the sensitivity of airway epithelial

  11. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  12. Metaplasia tubária endocervical: conceituação morfológica e importância prática Tubal metaplasia in endocervix: morphological concepts and practical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marques

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. A metaplasia tubária (MT endocervical é uma lesão benigna, classificada como pseudoneoplásica, que tem sido confundida com o adenocarcinoma in situ. Caracteriza-se pela substituição do epitélio mucoso endocervical por três tipos celulares: ciliado, secretor e intercalar. O objetivo deste trabalho é localizar e caracterizar morfologicamente a MT no colo uterino, relacionando-a a outras lesões . MÉTODOS. Os autores selecionaram 18 espécimes de colo uterino com o diagnóstico de MT, obtidos por conização (8 casos ou histerectomia (10 casos. Dividiram a endocérvice em regiões superior, inferior, epitélio de revestimento superficial e glandular, para observar a freqüência da MT nesses locais. Todos os casos estavam associados a outras lesões neoplásicas e não-neoplásicas. RESULTADOS. A MT ocorreu em pacientes de 24 a 72 anos (média= 44 anos. Na maioria (83%, foi encontrada na região endocervical superior. Entretanto, em 61% dos casos, também ocorreu nas porções mais inferiores do canal, tanto no epitélio de revestimento superficial como em glândulas. Em 60%, houve associação da MT com neoplasia intra-epitelial ou invasiva, escamosa ou glandular. CONCLUSÃO. Apesar de ser mais freqüente na porção endocervical superior, a MT também foi identificada nas regiões mais inferiores em mais da metade dos casos estudados, em que pode ser confundida com o adenocarcinoma in situ. Embora comumente associada à neoplasia nesse material, os autores não podem afirmar qual a freqüência geral da MT no colo uterino e enfatizam a importância do reconhecimento morfológico da lesão.OBJECTIVE - Among uterine cervix tumorlike lesions, tubal metaplasia (TM has been confused with endocervical in situ adenocarcinoma. TM is a benign lesion composed of three cellular types: ciliary, secretory and intercalary ( or peg cell . Thus, the main purpose of this work is to localize and characterize tubal metaplasia and its relation to

  13. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, S S; Bai, T R; Bates, J H T; Black, J L; Brown, R H; Brusasco, V; Chitano, P; Deng, L; Dowell, M; Eidelman, D H; Fabry, B; Fairbank, N J; Ford, L E; Fredberg, J J; Gerthoffer, W T; Gilbert, S H; Gosens, R; Gunst, S J; Halayko, A J; Ingram, R H; Irvin, C G; James, A L; Janssen, L J; King, G G; Knight, D A; Lauzon, A M; Lakser, O J; Ludwig, M S; Lutchen, K R; Maksym, G N; Martin, J G; Mauad, T; McParland, B E; Mijailovich, S M; Mitchell, H W; Mitchell, R W; Mitzner, W; Murphy, T M; Paré, P D; Pellegrino, R; Sanderson, M J; Schellenberg, R R; Seow, C Y; Silveira, P S P; Smith, P G; Solway, J; Stephens, N L; Sterk, P J; Stewart, A G; Tang, D D; Tepper, R S; Tran, T; Wang, L

    2007-05-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not "cure" asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored.

  14. Extraction of Airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate 15 different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standar...

  15. Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate 15 different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standard...... or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of 20 chest computed tomography (CT) scans...... from the evaluation showed that no single algorithm could extract more than an average of 74% of the total length of all branches in the reference standard, indicating substantial differences between the algorithms. A fusion scheme that obtained superior results is presented, demonstrating...

  16. Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Metastatic Squamous ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. Fat Metaplasia on Sacroiliac Joint Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Baseline Is Associated with Spinal Radiographic Progression in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kwi Young; Kim, In Je; Yoon, Min A; Hong, Yeon Sik; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between inflammatory and structural lesions in the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) on MRI and spinal progression observed on conventional radiographs in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). Methods One hundred and ten patients who fulfilled the ASAS axSpA criteria were enrolled. All underwent SIJ MRI at baseline and lumbar spine radiographs at baseline and after 2 years. Inflammatory and structural lesions on SIJ MRI were scored using the SPondyloArthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) method. Spinal radiographs were scored using the Stoke AS Spinal Score (SASSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of spinal progression. Results Among the 110 patients, 25 (23%) showed significant radiographic progression (change of SASSS≥2) over 2 years. There was no change in the SASSS over 2 years according to the type of inflammatory lesion. Patients with fat metaplasia or ankyloses on baseline MRI showed a significantly higher SASSS at 2 years than those without (p<0.001). According to univariate logistic regression analysis, age at diagnosis, HLA-B27 positivity, the presence of fat metaplasia, erosion, and ankyloses on SIJ MRI, increased baseline CRP levels, and the presence of syndesmophytes at baseline were associated with spinal progression over 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified syndesmophytes and severe fat metaplasia on baseline SIJ MRI as predictive of spinal radiographic progression (OR, 14.74 and 5.66, respectively). Conclusion Inflammatory lesions in the SIJs on baseline MRI were not associated with spinal radiographic progression. However, fat metaplasia at baseline was significantly associated with spinal progression after 2 years. PMID:26271099

  18. Fat Metaplasia on Sacroiliac Joint Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Baseline Is Associated with Spinal Radiographic Progression in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwi Young Kang

    Full Text Available To study the relationship between inflammatory and structural lesions in the sacroiliac joints (SIJs on MRI and spinal progression observed on conventional radiographs in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA.One hundred and ten patients who fulfilled the ASAS axSpA criteria were enrolled. All underwent SIJ MRI at baseline and lumbar spine radiographs at baseline and after 2 years. Inflammatory and structural lesions on SIJ MRI were scored using the SPondyloArthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC method. Spinal radiographs were scored using the Stoke AS Spinal Score (SASSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of spinal progression.Among the 110 patients, 25 (23% showed significant radiographic progression (change of SASSS≥2 over 2 years. There was no change in the SASSS over 2 years according to the type of inflammatory lesion. Patients with fat metaplasia or ankyloses on baseline MRI showed a significantly higher SASSS at 2 years than those without (p<0.001. According to univariate logistic regression analysis, age at diagnosis, HLA-B27 positivity, the presence of fat metaplasia, erosion, and ankyloses on SIJ MRI, increased baseline CRP levels, and the presence of syndesmophytes at baseline were associated with spinal progression over 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified syndesmophytes and severe fat metaplasia on baseline SIJ MRI as predictive of spinal radiographic progression (OR, 14.74 and 5.66, respectively.Inflammatory lesions in the SIJs on baseline MRI were not associated with spinal radiographic progression. However, fat metaplasia at baseline was significantly associated with spinal progression after 2 years.

  19. Establishment of novel in vitro mouse chief cell and SPEM cultures identifies MAL2 as a marker of metaplasia in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Victoria G; Petersen, Christine P; Mills, Jason C; Tuma, Pamela L; Whitehead, Robert H; Goldenring, James R

    2014-10-15

    Oxyntic atrophy in the stomach leads to chief cell transdifferentiation into spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM). Investigations of preneoplastic metaplasias in the stomach are limited by the sole reliance on in vivo mouse models, owing to the lack of in vitro models for distinct normal mucosal lineages and metaplasias. Utilizing the Immortomouse, in vitro cell models of chief cells and SPEM were developed to study the characteristics of normal chief cells and metaplasia. Chief cells and SPEM cells isolated from Immortomice were cultured and characterized at both the permissive (33°C) and the nonpermissive temperature (39°C). Clones were selected on the basis of their transcriptional expression of specific stomach lineage markers (named ImChief and ImSPEM) and protein expression and growth were analyzed. The transcriptional expression profiles of ImChief and ImSPEM cells were compared further by using gene microarrays. ImChief cells transcriptionally express most chief cell markers and contain pepsinogen C and RAB3D-immunostaining vesicles. ImSPEM cells express the SPEM markers TFF2 and HE4 and constitutively secrete HE4. Whereas ImChief cells cease proliferation at the nonpermissive temperature, ImSPEM cells continue to proliferate at 39°C. Gene expression profiling of ImChief and ImSPEM revealed myelin and lymphocyte protein 2 (MAL2) as a novel marker of SPEM lineages. Our results indicate that the expression and proliferation profiles of the novel ImChief and ImSPEM cell lines resemble in vivo chief and SPEM cell lineages. These cell culture lines provide the first in vitro systems for studying the molecular mechanisms of the metaplastic transition in the stomach.

  20. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Unusual Ball-Valve Laryngeal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sien Hui Tan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC of the larynx, which has not been previously reported, is described. Case Report: A 60-year-old man was presented to the Otolaryngology Department with progressive dyspnoea and dysphagia to solids for over a period of 1 week. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a tumour at the laryngeal aspect of the epiglottis, which prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet each time the patient inspired. This resulted in an inspiratory stridor despite adequate glottic opening and normal mobility of the vocal cords.   Conclusion:  Therefore, in cases where a ball-valve lesion causes intermittent life-threatening airway obstruction, BSCC of the larynx, though rare, must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  1. Genetic factors associated with intestinal metaplasia in a high risk Singapore-Chinese population: a cohort study

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    Salto-Tellez Manuel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal metaplasia (IM is an important precursor lesion in the development of gastric cancer (GC. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic factors previously linked to GC risk for their possible association with IM. A total of 18 polymorphisms in 14 candidate genes were evaluated in a Singapore-Chinese population at high risk of developing GC. Methods Genotype frequencies were compared between individuals presenting with (n = 128 or without (n = 246 IM by both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Carriers of the NQO1 609 T allele showed an association with IM in individuals who were seropositive for Helicobacter pylori (HP+; OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.18-5.80, P = .018. The IL-10 819 C allele was also associated with IM in HP+ individuals (OR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.21-4.43, P = 0.011, while the PTPN11 A allele was associated with IM in HP- individuals (OR = 2.51, 95%CI: 1.16-5.40, P = 0.019, but showed an inverse association in HP+ subjects (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.21-0.99, P = 0.048. Conclusion Polymorphisms in NQO1, IL-10 and PTPN11, in combination with HP status, could be used to identify individuals who are more likely to develop IM and therefore GC.

  2. Incomplete gastric metaplasia in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and celiac disease. An ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli Leonardo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and celiac disease (CD has been widely reported in children but the relationship between the two conditions is incompletely understood. Moreover, specific studies on intestinal biopsies of patients with the association of the two diseases are still lacking. Methods We studied the ultrastructure of the duodenal mucosa in 12 patients with both IDDM and CD. Results All patients had either total or partial atrophy of duodenal mucosa. In seven subjects, an accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of groups of enterocytes was found. In four of them, a double population of granules existed (mean diameter: 400-800 nm and 100-200 nm respectively showing a biphasic pattern. In the other three patients, only smaller granules (100- 200 nm were found in the enterocytes. Conclusions The present work suggests that patients with IDDM/CD may represent a subgroup in the context of the CD population. Intestinal biopsies of such individuals often show accumulation of electrondense granules in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes that can be interpreted as incomplete gastric metaplasia.

  3. CDX2 homeoprotein is involved in the regulation of ST6GalNAc-I gene in intestinal metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Rita; Barros, Rita; Pereira-Castro, Isabel;

    2015-01-01

    De novo expression of Sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen is one of the most common features of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinomas, and its biosynthesis has been mostly attributed to ST6GalNAc-I activity. However, the regulation of this glycosyltransferase expression is not elucidated. In IM...... lesions and in the intestine, CDX2 homeobox transcription factor is co-expressed with STn and ST6GalNAc-I. We therefore hypothesized that CDX2 might induce STn expression by positive regulation of ST6GalNAc-I. We showed that ST6GalNAc-I transcript levels and CDX2 have a coordinated expression upon Caco-2...... in vitro differentiation, and overexpression of CDX2 in MKN45 gastric cells increases ST6GalNAc-I transcript levels. Nine putative CDX-binding sites in the ST6GalNAc-I-regulatory sequence were identified and analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation in Caco-2 cells and in IM. The results showed that CDX2...

  4. Pancreatic metaplasia in the gastro-achlorhydria in WTC-dfk rat, a potassium channel Kcnq1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwamura, M; Okajima, R; Yamate, J; Kotani, T; Kuramoto, T; Serikawa, T

    2008-07-01

    The WTC-deafness Kyoto (dfk) rat is a new mutant characterized by deafness and abnormal, imbalanced behavior. WTC-dfk rats carry an intragenic deletion at the Kcnq1 gene; KCNQ1 plays an important role in K(+) homeostasis, and the mutation of Kcnq1 causes a cardiac long QT syndrome in humans. Here, we studied stomach lesions in these WTC-dfk rats. The most characteristic pathologic feature in the stomach was the appearance of hypertrophic gastric glands in the stomach body. The hypertrophic cells had many eosinophilic granules in their cytoplasm, and these granules were stained red with Azan stain; stained positively for trypsinogen, amylase, and chymotrypsin; and did not stain positively for pepsinogen when using immunohistochemical analysis. These staining results suggested a metaplasia toward a pancreatic acinar cells. Extensive fibrosis was found in the bottom part of the mucosa of 34-week-old WTC-dfk rats, suggesting a progression of stomach lesions with aging. Although cells that were positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen were restricted in the area of the glandular neck in WTC control rats, positive cells in WTC-dfk rats were scattered throughout the mucosa. The parietal cells in WTC-dfk rats were negative for KCNQ1 immunohistochemical analysis. These findings indicate that a deficiency in rat Kcnq1 provokes an abnormal proliferation and differentiation of gastric glandular cells.

  5. Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication on atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: A 3-year follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Lu; Ming-Tao Chen; Yi-Hong Fan; Yan Liu; Li-Na Meng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of H pylori eradication on atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia (IM).METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine patients with atrophic gastritis in the antrum were included in the study, 154 patients were selected for H pylori eradication therapy and the remaining 105 patients served as untreated group. Gastroscopy and biopsies were performed both at the beginning and at the end of a 3-year follow-up study. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system.RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-nine patients completed the follow-up, 92 of them received H pylori eradication therapy and the remaining 87 H pyloriinfected patients were in the untreated group. Chronic gastritis, active gastritis and the grade of atrophy significantly decreased in H pylori eradication group (P<0.01). However, the grade of IM increased in H pylori -infected group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: H pylori eradication may improve gastric mucosal inflammation, atrophy and prevent the progression of IM.

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer.

  7. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving floor of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sah Kunal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basaloid squamous cell carcinomas of oral mucosa are uncommon. Majority of them can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinoma by their aggressive clinical course and their histopathological features. This case report presents a case of 70-year-old male with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving the floor of the mouth.

  8. The genus Prevotella in cystic fibrosis airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tyler R; Sibley, Christopher D; Parkins, Michael D; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

    2010-08-01

    Airway disease resulting from chronic bacterial colonization and consequential inflammation is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Although traditionally considered to be due to only a few pathogens, recent re-examination of CF airway microbiology has revealed that polymicrobial communities that include many obligate anaerobes colonize lower airways. The purpose of this study was to examine Prevotella species in CF airways by quantitative culture and phenotypic characterization. Expectorated sputum was transferred to an anaerobic environment immediately following collection and examined by quantitative microbiology using a variety of culture media. Isolates were identified as facultative or obligate anaerobes and the later group was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Prevotella spp. represented the majority of isolates. Twelve different species of Prevotella were recovered from 16 patients with three species representing 65% of isolates. Multiple Prevotella species were often isolated from the same sputum sample. These isolates were biochemically characterized using Rapid ID 32A kits (BioMérieux), and for their ability to produce autoinducer-2 and beta-lactamases. Considerable phenotypic variability between isolates of the same species was observed. The quantity and composition of Prevotella species within a patients' airway microbiome varied over time. Our results suggest that the diversity and dynamics of Prevotella in CF airways may contribute to airway disease.

  9. Upper airway collapsibility in anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Ronald S; McDonough, Joseph M; Marcus, Carole L; Schwartz, Alan R; Ward, Denham S

    2006-03-01

    We sought to establish the feasibility of measuring upper airway narrowing in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized children using dynamic application of negative airway pressure. A secondary aim was to compare differences in upper airway collapsibility after the administration of sevoflurane or halothane. Subjects were randomized to either drug for inhaled anesthetic induction. Each was adjusted to their 1 MAC value (0.9% for halothane and 2.5% for sevoflurane) and a blinded anesthesia provider held the facemask without performing manual airway opening maneuvers but with inclusion of an oral airway device. Inspiratory flows were measured during partial upper airway obstruction created by an adjustable negative pressure-generating vacuum motor inserted into the anesthesia circuit. Critical closing pressure of the pharynx (Pcrit) was obtained by plotting the peak inspiratory flow of the obstructed breaths against the corresponding negative pressure in the facemask and extrapolating to zero airflow using linear correlation. Fourteen children were enrolled, seven in each anesthetic group. Two children in the halothane group did not develop flow-limited airway obstruction despite negative pressures as low as -9 cm H2O. Pcrit for sevoflurane ranged from -6.7 to -11.6 (mean +/- sd, -9.8 +/- 1.9) cm H2O. Pcrit for halothane ranged from -8.1 to -33 (mean +/- sd, -19.4 +/- 9.3) cm H2O (sevoflurane versus halothane, P = 0.048). We conclude that when using dynamic application of negative airway pressure, halothane appears to cause less upper airway obstruction than sevoflurane at equipotent concentrations.

  10. Airway smooth muscle growth in asthma: proliferation, hypertrophy, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle mass is present in fatal and non-fatal asthma. However, little information is available regarding the cellular mechanism (i.e., hyperplasia vs. hypertrophy). Even less information exists regarding the functional consequences of airway smooth muscle remodeling. It would appear that increased airway smooth muscle mass would tend to increase airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. However, the precise effects of increased airway smooth muscle mass on airway narrowing are not known. This review will consider the evidence for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma, potential functional effects, and biochemical mechanisms.

  11. Pharmacology of airway afferent nerve activity

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    Carr Michael J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Afferent nerves in the airways serve to regulate breathing pattern, cough, and airway autonomic neural tone. Pharmacologic agents that influence afferent nerve activity can be subclassified into compounds that modulate activity by indirect means (e.g. bronchial smooth muscle spasmogens and those that act directly on the nerves. Directly acting agents affect afferent nerve activity by interacting with various ion channels and receptors within the membrane of the afferent terminals. Whether by direct or indirect means, most compounds that enter the airspace will modify afferent nerve activity, and through this action alter airway physiology.

  12. Airway resistance at maximum inhalation as a marker of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness

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    O'Connor George T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics exhibit reduced airway dilation at maximal inspiration, likely due to structural differences in airway walls and/or functional differences in airway smooth muscle, factors that may also increase airway responsiveness to bronchoconstricting stimuli. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the minimal airway resistance achievable during a maximal inspiration (Rmin is abnormally elevated in subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness. Methods The Rmin was measured in 34 nonasthmatic and 35 asthmatic subjects using forced oscillations at 8 Hz. Rmin and spirometric indices were measured before and after bronchodilation (albuterol and bronchoconstriction (methacholine. A preliminary study of 84 healthy subjects first established height dependence of baseline Rmin values. Results Asthmatics had a higher baseline Rmin % predicted than nonasthmatic subjects (134 ± 33 vs. 109 ± 19 % predicted, p = 0.0004. Sensitivity-specificity analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that baseline Rmin was able to identify subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20 min % predicted, FEV1 % predicted, and FEF25-75 % predicted, respectively. Also, 80% of the subjects with baseline Rmin min > 145% predicted had hyperresponsive airways, regardless of clinical classification as asthmatic or nonasthmatic. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline Rmin, a measurement that is easier to perform than spirometry, performs as well as or better than standard spirometric indices in distinguishing subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness from those without hyperresponsive airways. The relationship of baseline Rmin to asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness likely reflects a causal relation between conditions that stiffen airway walls and hyperresponsiveness. In conjunction with symptom history, Rmin could provide a clinically useful tool for assessing asthma and monitoring response to treatment.

  13. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently suffer from asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation and training intensity. METHODS: 57 Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r=0.032, p=0.91). CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol...

  14. Central airways remodeling in COPD patients

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    Pini L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laura Pini,1 Valentina Pinelli,2 Denise Modina,1 Michela Bezzi,3 Laura Tiberio,4 Claudio Tantucci1 1Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Spedali Civili di Brescia, 3Department Bronchoscopy, Spedali Civili di Brescia, 4Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Background: The contribution to airflow obstruction by the remodeling of the peripheral airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients has been well documented, but less is known about the role played by the large airways. Few studies have investigated the presence of histopathological changes due to remodeling in the large airways of COPD patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the presence of airway remodeling in the central airways of COPD patients, quantifying the airway smooth muscle (ASM area and the extracellular matrix (ECM protein deposition, both in the subepithelial region and in the ASM, and to verify the possible contribution to airflow obstruction by the above mentioned histopathological changes. Methods: Biopsies of segmental bronchi spurs were performed in COPD patients and control smoker subjects and immunostained for collagen type I, versican, decorin, biglycan, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. ECM protein deposition was measured at both subepithelial, and ASM layers. Results: The staining for collagen I and versican was greater in the subepithelial layer of COPD patients than in control subjects. An inverse correlation was found between collagen I in the subepithelial layer and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity. A statistically significant increase of the ASM area was observed in the central airways of COPD patients versus controls. Conclusion: These findings indicate that airway remodeling also affects

  15. Expression of COX-2 in Different Subtypes of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Carcinoma by T-issue Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUGuisheng; GONGJun; CHENGPeng; DAIFei; ZHANGJun; CHANGYing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in different subtypes of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric carcinoma, evaluate the possibility of COX-2 forecasting the risk of malignant potential of IM, and the relationship between COX-2 expression and gastric carcinogenesis.Methods: Forty cases of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) with IM, 40 cases of gastric carcinoma and corresponding paracancerous tissues were selected to construct a tissue microarray. High iron diamine/alcian blue (HID/AB) staining and Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining was used to classify IM and gastric carcinoma, and the expression of COX-2 protein detected in different subtypes of IM and gastric cancer by using immunohistochemistry. Results: The positive expression rate of COX-2 was 45.65%, 59.38% and 77.27% in IM loci in CAG, IM loci in paracancerous tissues, and intestinal-type gastric carcinoma, respectively,significantly higher than in diffuse-type gastric cancer (16.67~)(P<0.05, 0.005 and 0.005, respectively),and the expression intensity of COX-2 protein showed a increased tendency gradually in the sequence of IM foci in CAG→IM loci in paracancerous tissues→intestinal-type gastric carcinoma (P<0.005). The positive expression rate of COX-2 protein in type Ⅲ IM was significantly higher than in type I and type Ⅲ IM (P<0.005 and 0.05, respectively), and the expression intensity also showed a increased tendency gradually from type I to type UI IM (P<0.005). Conclusion: The expression level of COX-2 was increased gradually along with the increase of the risk of malignancy of IM, and its expression level may be a useful index to forecast the risk of malignant potential of IM. COX-2 expression was associated with intestinal-type gastric carcinoma, but it might also have some role in the carcinogenesis of diffuse-type gastric carcinoma.

  16. Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhof, H.P. van de; Avoort, I.A.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de

    2008-01-01

    Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. Th

  17. Management of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Carlos E; Welton, Mark L

    2009-05-01

    Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions include both low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and are caused by chronic infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). The disease is increasing in both incidence and prevalence, especially among patients with the following risk factors: homosexual men, acquired or iatrogenic immunosuppression, and presence of other HPV-related diseases. Although the natural history of the disease is unknown, there is significant evidence that untreated HSIL progresses to squamous cell carcinoma in 11% of patients and in up to 50% of patients with extensive disease and immunosuppression. Anal cytology and reflex HPV DNA testing are used to screen for disease, particularly among patients with the aforementioned risk factors. Evaluation of the patient should include physical examination and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) to evaluate for disease above and below the dentate line. Intervention is warranted and this can be achieved in many ways. The treatment option associated with the best outcomes is ablation directed with HRA, which can be performed in the office or in the operating room with minimal morbidity. This strategy is effective in patients with both low-volume and high-volume disease and is associated with a malignant progression rate of 0.4% in patients with treated HSIL.

  18. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and...

  19. Ultrasound: A novel tool for airway imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharthkumar Bhikhabhai Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice. Aims: We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway. Settings and Design: A prospective, clinical study. Materials and Methods: We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography. Results: We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea. Conclusions: Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.

  20. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J

    2008-02-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  1. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

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    Berraies A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent exacerbations. Remodeling is an early event in asthma described as a consequence of production of mediators and growth factors by inflammatory and resident bronchial cells. Consequently, lung function is altered, with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second and exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness. Subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle cell hypertrophy are typical features of structural changes in the airways. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency enhances inflammation and bronchial anomalies. In severe asthma of childhood, major remodeling is observed in patients with low vitamin D levels. Conversely, the antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in smooth muscle cells have been described in several experiments. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the relationship between vitamin D and asthma, and focus on its effect on airway remodeling and its potential therapeutic impact for asthma.Keywords: vitamin D, asthma, airway remodeling, airway smooth muscle, supplementation

  2. Effects of lung inflation on airway heterogeneity during histaminergic bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Mitzner, Wayne; Brown, Robert H

    2013-09-01

    Lung inflation has been shown to dilate airways by altering the mechanical equilibrium between opposing airway and parenchymal forces. However, it is not known how heterogeneously such dilation occurs throughout the airway tree. In six anesthetized dogs, we measured the diameters of five to six central airway segments using high-resolution computed tomography, along with respiratory input impedance (Zrs) during generalized aerosol histamine challenge, and local histamine challenge in which the agonist was instilled directly onto the epithelia of the imaged central airways. Airway diameters and Zrs were measured at 12 and 25 cmH2O. The Zrs spectra were fitted with a model that incorporated continuous distributions of airway resistances. Airway heterogeneity was quantified using the coefficient of variation for predefined airway distribution functions. Significant reductions in average central airway diameter were observed at 12 cmH2O for both aerosolized and local challenges, along with significant increases upon inflation to 25 cmH2O. No significant differences were observed for the coefficient of variation of airway diameters under any condition. Significant increases in effective airway resistance as measured by Zrs were observed only for the aerosolized challenge at 12 cmH2O, which was completely reversed upon inflation. We conclude that the lung periphery may be the most dominant contributor to increases in airway resistance and tissue elastance during bronchoconstriction induced by aerosolized histamine. However, isolated constriction of only a few central airway segments may also affect tissue stiffness via interdependence with their surrounding parenchyma.

  3. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii) bro...

  4. Full Airway Drainage by Fiber Bronchoscopy Through Artificial Airway in the Treatment of Occult Traumatic Atelectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Hong; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Zhong Yan; Zhang, Shao Yang; Yu, Wen Qiao; Huang, Fang-Fang

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of full airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway in the treatment of traumatic atelectasis with occult manifestations. From May 2006 to May 2011, 40 cases of occult traumatic atelectasis were enrolled into our prospective study. Group A (n = 18) received drainage by nasal bronchoscope; group B underwent airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway (n = 22). The effects of treatment were evaluated by the incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung abscess, and the average length of hospital stay. Compared with nasal fiber-optic treatment, airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway reduced the incidence of ARDS (p = 0.013) and lung abscess (p = 0.062) and shortened the mean length of stay (p = 0.018). Making the decision to create an artificial airway timely and carry out lung lavage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway played a significant role in the treatment of occult traumatic atelectasis.

  5. 75 FR 13079 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; MAHAN AIRWAYS; Mahan Airways, Mahan Tower, No. 21, Azadegan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Secretary Jackson issued an Order adding Blue Airways FZE and Blue Airways, both of Dubai, United Arab... conduct illustrates its refusal to comply with the TDO or U.S. export control laws.\\6\\ \\6\\ My findings are... full written statement in support of the appeal with the Office of the Administrative Law Judge,...

  6. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii...

  7. Lipocalin2 protects against airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic airway disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, A M; Krokowski, M; Meyer, H-A;

    2010-01-01

    Allergen-induced bronchial asthma is a chronic airway disease that involves the interplay of various genes with environmental factors triggering different inflammatory pathways.......Allergen-induced bronchial asthma is a chronic airway disease that involves the interplay of various genes with environmental factors triggering different inflammatory pathways....

  8. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  9. Immunohistochemical and oncogenetic analyses of the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We reviewed 878 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and detected 22 cases (3%) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors and stage-matched paired conventional squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivity of cytokeratin subtypes, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), β-catenin, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecular aberrations in p53, CTNNB1 (the gene encoding β-catenin), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also determined. Patients with basaloid squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a 5-year survival rate of 42%, significantly worse than those with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (Pcarcinomas, the basaloid squamous cell carcinomas were less immunoreactive for cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 903, and membranous β-catenin (Pcarcinomas, low-level expression of cytokeratin 14/cytokeratin 903 and mutations of p53 and EGFR had a significant influence on worse survival (Pcarcinoma, a neoplasm with particularly aggressive biologic behavior, should be differentiated from conventional squamous cell carcinomas. In this context, immunohistochemical assessment of several markers might provide a useful adjunct diagnostic tool. Aberrations of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor genes are possibly involved in progression of esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and intestinal metaplasia in subjects who had undergone surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma in Northwest Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgio Palestro; Donata Campra; Miguel Angel Cutufia; Elena Margaria; Giancarlo Spinzi; Aldo Ferrara; Giorgio Marenco; Mario Rizzetto; Antonio Ponzetto; Rinaldo Pellicano; Gian Ruggero Fronda; Guido Valente; Marco De Giuli; Tito Soldati; Agostino Pugliese; Stefano Taraglio; Mauro Garino

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H pylorri) infection and its more virulent strains as well as the correlation with the histologic features among patients who had undergone surgery for gastric cancer (GC).METHODS: Samples from 317 (184 males, 133females, mean age 69±3.4 years) consecutive patients who had undergone surgery for gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma were included in the study. Five hundred and fifty-five (294 males, 261 females, mean age 57.3±4.1 years) patients consecutively admitted to the Emergency Care Unit served as control. Histological examination of tumor, lymph nodes and other tissues obtained at the time of surgery represented the diagnostic "gold standard". An enzyme immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum anti-H pylori(IgG)antibodies and Western blotting technique was utilized to search for anti-CagA protein (IgG).RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-one of three hundred and seventeen (82.3%) GC patients and 314/555 (56.5%)controls were seropositive for anti-H pylori (P<0.0001;OR, 3.58; 95%CI, 2.53-5.07). Out of the 317 cases, 267(84.2%) were seropositive for anti-CagA antibody vs 100 out of 555 (18%) controls (P<0.0001; OR, 24.30;95%CI, 16.5-35.9). There was no difference between the frequency of H pyloriin intestinal type carcinoma (76.2%) and diffuse type cancer (78.8%). Intestinal metaplasia (IM) was more frequent but not significant in the intestinal type cancer (83.4% vs 75.2% in diffuse type and 72.5% in mixed type). Among the patients examined for IM, 39.8% had IM type Ⅰ, 8.3% type Ⅱ and 51.9% type Ⅲ (type Ⅲ vs others, P = 0.4).CONCLUSION; This study confirms a high seroprevalence of H pyloriinfection in patients suffering from gastric adenocarcinoma and provides further evidence that searching for CagA status over H pylori infection might confer additional benefit in identifying populations at greater risk for this tumor.

  11. Preparation of the patient and the airway for awake intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Ramkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Awake intubation is usually performed electively in the presence of a difficult airway. A detailed airway examination is time-consuming and often not feasible in an emergency. A simple 1-2-3 rule for airway examination allows one to identify potential airway difficulty within a minute. A more detailed airway examination can give a better idea about the exact nature of difficulty and the course of action to be taken to overcome it. When faced with an anticipated difficult airway, the anaesthesiologist needs to consider securing the airway in an awake state without the use of anaesthetic agents or muscle relaxants. As this can be highly discomforting to the patient, time and effort must be spent to prepare such patients both psychologically and pharmacologically for awake intubation. Psychological preparation is best initiated by an anaesthesiologist who explains the procedure in simple language. Sedative medications can be titrated to achieve patient comfort without compromising airway patency. Additional pharmacological preparation includes anaesthetising the airway through topical application of local anaesthetics and appropriate nerve blocks. When faced with a difficult airway, one should call for the difficult airway cart as well as for help from colleagues who have interest and expertise in airway management. Preoxygenation and monitoring during awake intubation is important. Anxious patients with a difficult airway may need to be intubated under general anaesthesia without muscle relaxants. Proper psychological and pharmacological preparation of the patient by an empathetic anaesthesiologist can go a long way in making awake intubation acceptable for all concerned.

  12. Emergency surgical airway management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C V; Kehlet Nørskov, Anders; Wetterslev, J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergency surgical airway (ESA) is the final option in difficult airway management. We identified ESA procedures registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) and described the performed airway management. METHODS: We extracted a cohort of 452 461 adult patients undergoing...... for difficult airway management. RESULTS: In the DAD cohort 27 out of 452 461 patients had an ESA representing an incidence of 0.06 events per thousand (95% CI; 0.04 to 0.08). A total of 12 149/452 461 patients underwent Ear-Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery, giving an ESA incidence among ENT patients of 1.6 events...... per thousand (95% CI; 1.0-2.4). A Supraglottic Airway Device and/or the administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent before ESA were used as a rescue in 6/27 and 13/27 of the patients, respectively. In 19/27 patients ENT surgeons performed the ESA's and anaesthetists attempted 6/27 of the ESAs...

  13. Acoustic simulation of a patient's obstructed airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, W C P; van Zuijlen, A H; de Jong, A T; Lynch, C T; Hoeve, L J; Bijl, H

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the numerical simulation of stridor; a high pitched, abnormal noise, resulting from turbulent airflow and vibrating tissue through a partially obstructed airway. Characteristics of stridor noise are used by medical doctors as indication for location and size of the obstruction. The relation between type of stridor and the various diseases associated with airway obstruction is unclear; therefore, simply listening to stridor is an unreliable diagnostic tool. The overall aim of the study is to better understand the relationship between characteristics of stridor noise and localization and size of the obstruction. Acoustic analysis of stridor may then in future simplify the diagnostic process, and reduce the need for more invasive procedures such as laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. In this paper, the feasibility of a coupled flow, acoustic and structural model is investigated to predict the noise generated by the obstruction as well as the propagation of the noise through the airways, taking into account a one-way coupled fluid, structure, and acoustic interaction components. The flow and acoustic solver are validated on a diaphragm and a simplified airway model. A realistic airway model of a patient suffering from a subglottic stenosis, derived from a real computed tomography scan, is further analyzed. Near the mouth, the broadband noise levels at higher frequencies increased with approximately 15-20 dB comparing the stridorous model with the healthy model, indicating stridorous sound.

  14. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  15. Macrophage adaptation in airway inflammatory resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manminder Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections (exacerbations are particularly problematic in those with underlying respiratory disease, including post-viral infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis. Patients experiencing exacerbations tend to be at the more severe end of the disease spectrum and are often difficult to treat. Most of the unmet medical need remains in this patient group. Airway macrophages are one of the first cell populations to encounter airborne pathogens and, in health, exist in a state of reduced responsiveness due to interactions with the respiratory epithelium and specific factors found in the airway lumen. Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β, surfactant proteins and signalling via the CD200 receptor, for example, all raise the threshold above which airway macrophages can be activated. We highlight that following severe respiratory inflammation, the airspace microenvironment does not automatically re-set to baseline and may leave airway macrophages more restrained than they were at the outset. This excessive restraint is mediated in part by the clearance of apoptotic cells and components of extracellular matrix. This implies that one strategy to combat respiratory exacerbations would be to retune airway macrophage responsiveness to allow earlier bacterial recognition.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.

  17. Penile squamous cell carcinoma arising from balanitis xerotica obliterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, H B; Miller, O F; Tyler, W B

    1993-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising from balanitis xerotica obliterans is rarely reported. We describe an 83-year-old man in whom metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma developed after 18 years of observation for balanitis xerotica obliterans. It is important to recognize the possibility of this uncommon complication of balanitis xerotica obliterans, because survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma depends on early diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-12-31

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  19. Neutrophil elastase-mediated increase in airway temperature during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Annika; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Bissinger, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    Background How elevated temperature is generated during airway infections represents a hitherto unresolved physiological question. We hypothesized that innate immune defence mechanisms would increase luminal airway temperature during pulmonary infection. Methods We determined the temperature in t...

  20. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma is associated with an altered airway microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Kiilerich, Pia; Brejnrod, Asker

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with asthma have higher microbiome diversity, and an altered composition with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared to healthy controls. Studies comparing airway inflammation and airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not on anti-inflammatory treat......BACKGROUND: Subjects with asthma have higher microbiome diversity, and an altered composition with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared to healthy controls. Studies comparing airway inflammation and airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not on anti......-inflammatory treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between the airway microbiome and patterns of airway inflammation in steroid-free subjects with asthma and healthy controls. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar lavage was collected from 23 steroid-free, non-smoking subjects with asthma and 10 healthy controls....... The overall composition of the airway microbiome of asthmatics with the lowest levels of eosinophils, but not asthmatics with the highest levels of eosinophils deviated significantly from that of healthy individuals. Asthmatics with the lowest levels of eosinophils had an altered bacterial abundance profile...

  1. A Brief History of Airway Smooth Muscle’s Role in Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Pascoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A link between airway smooth muscle (ASM and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in asthma was first postulated in the midnineteenth century, and the suspected link has garnered ever increasing interest over the years. AHR is characterized by excessive narrowing of airways in response to nonspecific stimuli, and it is the ASM that drives this narrowing. The stimuli that can be used to demonstrate AHR vary widely, as do the potential mechanisms by which phenotypic changes in ASM or nonmuscle factors can contribute to AHR. In this paper, we review the history of research on airway smooth muscle’s role in airway hyperresponsiveness. This research has ranged from analyzing the quantity of ASM in the airways to testing for alterations in the plastic behavior of smooth muscle, which distinguishes it from skeletal and cardiac muscles. This long history of research and the continued interest in this topic mean that the precise role of ASM in airway responsiveness remains elusive, which makes it a pertinent topic for this collection of articles.

  2. Host-microbe interactions in distal airways: relevance to chronic airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clémence; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Lepage, Patricia; Andréjak, Claire; de Blic, Jacques; Bourdin, Arnaud; Brouard, Jacques; Chanez, Pascal; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Deslée, Gaetan; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; Touqui, Lhousseine; Dusser, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This article is the summary of a workshop, which took place in November 2013, on the roles of microorganisms in chronic respiratory diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that lower airways were sterile in healthy individuals. However, it has long been acknowledged that microorganisms could be identified in distal airway secretions from patients with various respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other chronic airway diseases (e.g. post-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans). These microorganisms were sometimes considered as infectious agents that triggered host immune responses and contributed to disease onset and/or progression; alternatively, microorganisms were often considered as colonisers, which were considered unlikely to play roles in disease pathophysiology. These concepts were developed at a time when the identification of microorganisms relied on culture-based methods. Importantly, the majority of microorganisms cannot be cultured using conventional methods, and the use of novel culture-independent methods that rely on the identification of microorganism genomes has revealed that healthy distal airways display a complex flora called the airway microbiota. The present article reviews some aspects of current literature on host-microbe (mostly bacteria and viruses) interactions in healthy and diseased airways, with a special focus on distal airways.

  3. Host–microbe interactions in distal airways: relevance to chronic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is the summary of a workshop, which took place in November 2013, on the roles of microorganisms in chronic respiratory diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that lower airways were sterile in healthy individuals. However, it has long been acknowledged that microorganisms could be identified in distal airway secretions from patients with various respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other chronic airway diseases (e.g. post-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. These microorganisms were sometimes considered as infectious agents that triggered host immune responses and contributed to disease onset and/or progression; alternatively, microorganisms were often considered as colonisers, which were considered unlikely to play roles in disease pathophysiology. These concepts were developed at a time when the identification of microorganisms relied on culture-based methods. Importantly, the majority of microorganisms cannot be cultured using conventional methods, and the use of novel culture-independent methods that rely on the identification of microorganism genomes has revealed that healthy distal airways display a complex flora called the airway microbiota. The present article reviews some aspects of current literature on host–microbe (mostly bacteria and viruses interactions in healthy and diseased airways, with a special focus on distal airways.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara.

  5. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  6. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  7. Clinicopathologic Features of Advanced Squamous NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socinski, Mark A; Obasaju, Coleman; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Bonomi, Philip; Bunn, Paul; Kim, Edward S; Langer, Corey J; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Spigel, David R; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. NSCLC accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers, and the prognosis for advanced-stage disease is typically poor. In recent years, the importance of histologic subtypes of NSCLC has been recognized, and the distinction between squamous and other NSCLC histologic subtypes is now critical to patient management. Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) represents approximately 25% to 30% of NSCLC. The prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC is poorer for those with sqCLC than for those with adenocarcinoma. This is partly due to a number of clinical characteristics that distinguish sqCLC from other NSCLC histologic subtypes, such as smoking history, comorbid diseases, age, and molecular profile. Together, these factors make sqCLC an especially challenging disease to manage. Herein, we review some of the key clinicopathologic features of sqCLC. Understanding these features to optimally address many of the unique therapeutic challenges of this disease is likely to be central to ultimately improving outcomes for patients with squamous NSCLC.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhang; Nobutaka Yamada; Yun-Lin Wu; Min Wen; Takeshi Matsuhisa; Norio Matsukura

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis,gastric ulcer.METHODS: The biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus and upper angulus of all the patients.Giemsa staining, improved toluidine-blue staining, and H pylori-specific antibody immune staining were performed as appropriate for the histological diagnosis of H pylori infection. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for the histological diagnosis of gastric mucosa inflammation, gastric glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia and scored into four grades according to the Updated Sydney System.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H pylori infection in superficial gastritis was 28.7%, in erosive gastritis 57.7%,in gastric erosion 63.3%, in gastric ulcer 80.8%, in early gastric cancer 52.4%. There was significant difference (P<0.05), except for the difference between early gastric cancer and erosive gastritis. H pylori infection rate in antrum, corpus, angulus of patients with superficial gastritis was 25.9%, 26.2%, 25.2%, respectively; in patients with erosive gastritis 46.9%, 53.5%, 49.0%,respectively; in patients with gastric erosion 52.4%, 61.5%,52.4%, respectively; in patients with gastric ulcer 52.4%,61.5%, 52.4%, respectively; in patients with early gastric cancer 35.0%, 50.7%, 34.6%, respectively. No significant difference was found among the different site biopsies in superficial gastritis, but in the other diseases the detected rates were higher in corpus biopsy (P<0.05). The grades of mononuclear cell infiltration and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, in early gastric cancer patients, were significantly higher than that in superficial gastritis patients, lower than that in gastric erosion and gastric ulcer patients (P<0.01);however, there was no significant difference compared with erosive gastritis. The grades

  9. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  10. The airway in patients with craniofacial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargozian, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Airway management for patients with craniofacial disorders poses many challenges. The anaesthesiologist must be familiar with the normal bony and soft-tissue anatomy in the airway and how anatomy is altered by various congenital disorders. Specific areas to assess include the oral cavity, anterior mandibular space, maxilla, temporomandibular joint and vertebral column. Congenital conditions that may alter normal anatomy and therefore anaesthetic management include cleft lip and palate with or without Pierre Robin syndrome, craniofacial dysostosis, mandibulofacial dysostosis/Treacher Collins syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, trisomy 21/Down's syndrome, Freeman-Sheldon/whistling face syndrome/craniocarpotarsal dysplasia, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, mucopolysaccharidosis and vascular malformations.

  11. Automatic Airway Deletion in Pulmonary Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; ZHUANG Tian-ge

    2005-01-01

    A method of removing the airway from pulmonary segmentation image was proposed. This method firstly segments the image into several separate regions based on the optimum threshold and morphological operator,and then each region is labeled and noted with its mean grayscale. Therefore, most of the non-lung regions can be removed according to the tissue's Hounsfield units (HU) and the imaging modality. Finally, the airway region is recognized and deleted automatically through using the priori information of its HU and size. This proposed method is tested using several clinical images, yielding satisfying results.

  12. Regional & Topical Anaesthesia of Upper Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of techniques are required to adequately anaesthetise upper airway structures for awake intubation . The widest coverage is provided by the inhalational technique. This technique, however, does not always provide a dense enough level of anaesthesia for all patients. Supplementation of this technique with any of the specific nerve blocks is an excellent way to accomplish efficacious anaesthesia for awake inubation. Anaesthetising upper airway is not a difficult skill to master and should be in the armamentarium of all practising anaesthetist.

  13. Dysfunctional lung anatomy and small airways degeneration in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgel PR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clémence Martin, Justine Frija, Pierre-Régis BurgelDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP and Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, FranceAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. Direct measurement of airways resistance using invasive techniques has revealed that the site of obstruction is located in the small conducting airways, ie, bronchioles with a diameter < 2 mm. Anatomical changes in these airways include structural abnormalities of the conducting airways (eg, peribronchiolar fibrosis, mucus plugging and loss of alveolar attachments due to emphysema, which result in destabilization of these airways related to reduced elastic recoil. The relative contribution of structural abnormalities in small conducting airways and emphysema has been a matter of much debate. The present article reviews anatomical changes and inflammatory mechanisms in small conducting airways and in the adjacent lung parenchyma, with a special focus on recent anatomical and imaging data suggesting that the initial event takes place in the small conducting airways and results in a dramatic reduction in the number of airways, together with a reduction in the cross-sectional area of remaining airways. Implications of these findings for the development of novel therapies are briefly discussed.Keywords: emphysema, small airways disease, airway mucus, innate immunity, adaptive immunity

  14. Airway remodeling: Effect of current and future asthma therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Moir, Lyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Airway remodeling (the structural changes which occur in the airways) is one of the characteristic features of severe persistent asthma. These changes include thickening of the laminar reticularis, an increase in the bulk of the airway smooth muscle, thickening of the basement membrane and alteratio

  15. Rigid fibrescope Bonfils: use in simulated difficult airway by novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Tim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bonfils intubation fibrescope is a promising alternative device for securing the airway. We examined the success rate of intubation and the ease of use in standardized simulated difficult airway scenarios by physicians. We compared the Bonfils to a classical laryngoscope with Macintosh blade. Methods 30 physicians untrained in the use of rigid fibrescopes but experienced in airway management performed endotracheal intubation in an airway manikin (SimMan, Laerdal, Kent, UK with three different airway conditions. We evaluated the success rate using the Bonfils (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany or the Macintosh laryngoscope, the time needed for securing the airway, and subjective rating of both techniques. Results In normal airway all intubations were successful using laryngoscope (100% vs. 82% using the Bonfils (p Conclusion The Bonfils can be successfully used by physicians unfamiliar with this technique in an airway manikin. The airway could be secured with at least the same success rate as using a Macintosh laryngoscope in difficult airway scenarios. Use of the Bonfils did not delay intubation in the presence of a difficult airway. These results indicate that intensive special training is advised to use the Bonfils effectively in airway management.

  16. Vessel-guided airway segmentation based on voxel classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for improving airway tree segmentation using vessel orientation information. We use the fact that an airway branch is always accompanied by an artery, with both structures having similar orientations. This work is based on a  voxel classification airway segmentation...

  17. Association between peripheral airway function and neutrophilic inflammation in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, Claude S.; Keulers, Laurien A. B.; Hardaker, Kate M.; Peters, Matthew J.; Berend, Norbert; Postma, Dirkje S.; Salome, Cheryl M.; King, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectiveSmall airway dysfunction is associated with asthma severity and control, but its association with airway inflammation is unknown. The aim was to determine the association between sputum inflammatory cells and the site of small airway dysfunction, measured by multiple breath n

  18. Research on airway inflammation: present status in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-li

    2005-01-01

    @@ Airway inflammation involving activated eosinophils, mast cells and T lymphocytes is an established feature of asthma and has been the key target to treatment. Airway structural changes that occur in patients with asthma in response to persistent inflammation are termed airway remodeling.

  19. [Modern airway management--current concepts for more patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Arnd

    2009-04-01

    Effective and safe airway management is one of the core skills among anaesthesiologists and all physicians involved in acute care medicine. However, failure in airway management is still the most frequent single incidence with the highest impact on patient's morbidity and mortality known from closed claims analyses. The anaesthesiologist has to manage the airway in elective patients providing a high level of safety with as little airway injury and interference with the cardio-vascular system as possible. Clinical competence also includes the management of the expected and unexpected difficult airway in different clinical environments. Therefore, it is the anaesthesiologist's responsibility not only to educate and train younger residents, but also all kinds of medical personnel involved in airway management, e.g. emergency physicians, intensive care therapists or paramedics. Modern airway devices, strategies and educational considerations must fulfill these sometimes diverse and large range requirements. Supraglottic airway devices will be used more often in the daily clinical routine. This is not only due the multiple advantages of these devices compared to the tracheal tube, but also because of the new features of some supraglottic airways, which separate the airway from the gastric track and give information of the pharyngeal position. For the event of a difficult airway, new airway devices and concepts should be trained and applied in daily practice.

  20. Bronchoconstriction and airway biology : potential impact and therapeutic opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Grainge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that mechanical forces occurring in the airway as a consequence of bronchoconstriction are sufficient to not only induce symptoms but also influence airway biology. Animal and human in vitro and in vivo work demonstrates that the airways are structurally and functionally

  1. Picornavirus-Induced Airway Mucosa Immune Profile in Asymptomatic Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene M.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.; Birch, Sune;

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial airway colonization is known to alter the airway mucosa immune response in neonates whereas the impact of viruses is unknown. The objective was therefore to examine the effect of respiratory viruses on the immune signature in the airways of asymptomatic neonates. Nasal aspirates from 571...

  2. Recurrence of squamous cell lung carcinoma is associated with the co-presence of reactive lesions in tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankova, Olga V; Denisov, Evgeny V; Ponomaryova, Anastasia A; Gerashchenko, Tatiana S; Tuzikov, Sergey A; Perelmuter, Vladimir M

    2016-03-01

    Recurrences occur in 30 % of lung cancer patients after radical therapy; however, known prognostic factors are not always effective. In this study, we investigated whether the frequency of squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recurrence depends on the presence of reactive lesions in tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelium. Specimens of adjacent lung tissue from 104 patients with squamous NSCLC were used for the determination of basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) and squamous metaplasia (SM) and for the analysis of the expression of Ki-67, p53, Bcl-2, and CD138. We found that recurrence was observed in 36.7 % of patients with BCH combined with SM (BCH + SM+) in the same bronchus, compared with 1.8 % in patients with isolated BCH (BCH + SM-; odds ratio (OR) 31.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.77-258.60; p = 0.00002). The percentage of Ki-67-positive cells was significantly higher in BCH + SM+ than in BCH + SM- (34.9 vs. 18.3 %; effect size 2.86, 95 % CI 2.23-3.47; p = 0.003). P53 expression was also more significant in BCH + SM+ than in BCH + SM- (14.4 vs. 9.6 %; effect size 1.22, 95 % CI 0.69-1.76; p = 0.0008). In contrast, CD138 expression was lower in BCH + SM+ than in BCH + SM- (21.8 vs. 38.5 %; effect size -6.26, 95 % CI -7.31 to -5.22; p = 0.003). Based on our results, we concluded that the co-presence of reactive bronchial lesions is associated with the development of recurrent squamous NSCLC and may be a negative prognostic indicator. In addition, significant differences in Ki-67, p53, and CD138 expression exist between isolated BCH and BCH combined with SM that probably reflect part of biological differences, which could relate to the mechanism of lung cancer recurrence.

  3. Prehospital endotracheal tube airway or esophageal gastric tube airway: a critical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, S R; MacDonald, J R; Gruzinski, G

    1985-02-01

    This study compares two similar groups of patients in cardiopulmonary arrest with ventricular fibrillation (VF). In the survival study group of 296 patients, 148 patients received an endotracheal tube airway (ETA) and 148 patients received an esophageal gastric tube airway (EGTA), the improved version of the esophageal obturator airway (EOA). Survival rates, both short term (ETA = 35.8%, EGTA = 39.1%) and long term (ETA = 11.5%, EGTA = 16.2%), and neurological sequelae of survivors showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P greater than .05). In addition, we found that success and complication rates of intubation were similar. Training time was longer for the ETA. We conclude that both airways have a place in the prehospital setting.

  4. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    area percentage (WAP), wall thickness ratio (WTR), and airway diameters. Results: The method was thoroughly evaluated using 8000 manual annotations of airway-artery pairs from 24 full-inspiration pediatric CT scans (12 diseased and 12 controls). Limits of agreement between the automatically...... and manually measured diameters were comparable to interobserver limits of agreement. Differences in automatically obtained WAR, AAR, WAP, and WTR between bronchiectatic subjects and controls were similar as when manual annotations were used: WAR and outer AAR were significantly higher in the bronchiectatic......Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle...

  5. 联合气道疾病%Combined airway disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫占峰; 王宁宇

    2012-01-01

    datas of epidemiological, clinical, and immunopathology demonstrate there is an important link between upper and lower airways. The upper airways diseases including the allergy rhinitis, the professional rhinitis, the sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndrome, nose polyposis (with/without aspirin sensitive) , the chronic rhinosinusitis and so on,have an important contacting with lower airways diseases. Understanding how the upper airway does affect the lower airway disease, has the influential role to diagnosis, the treatment and the prognosis. This article made the brief summary on the important relation about among the nose, the paranasal sinus and the lung recent years.

  6. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation: A voxel classification approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Pedersen, Jesper J H; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage...

  7. Mechanisms of Airway Remodeling in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Tagaya

    2007-01-01

    To date, many studies have identified candidate mechanisms and mediators for these observed structural changes, which are thus potential targets in the treatment of asthma. In this review, we describe the recent knowledge of the mechanisms and clinical implications of airway remodeling in asthma.

  8. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S;

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills. Anaesth...

  9. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    abnormalities in patients with Fabry disease. Electron microscopy of lung biopsy and induced sputum show lamellar inclusion bodies (Zebra bodies) in the cytoplasm of cells in the airway wall. X-ray and CT scan have shown patchy ground-glass pulmonary infiltrations, fibrosis, and air trapping. Fibrosis diagnosed...

  10. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü;

    from low-dose chest CT scans. Methods and Materials: We selected 40 participants of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 10 of each category: asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COPD. Each subject contributed 2 CT scans with an average interval of 4 years. The airways were segmented...

  11. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekat, H William; Hardin, Kimberly A

    2003-10-01

    Few disorders may manifest with predominantly sleep-related obstructive breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, varies in severity and is associated with significant cardiovascular and neurocognitive morbidity. It is estimated that between 8 and 18 million people in the United States have at least mild OSA. Although the exact mechanism of OSA is not well-delineated, multiple factors contribute to the development of upper airway obstruction and include anatomic, mechanical, neurologic, and inflammatory changes in the pharynx. OSA may occur concomitantly with asthma. Approximately 74% of asthmatics experience nocturnal symptoms of airflow obstruction secondary to reactive airways disease. Similar cytokine, chemokine, and histologic changes are seen in both disorders. Sleep deprivation, chronic upper airway edema, and inflammation associated with OSA may further exacerbate nocturnal asthma symptoms. Allergic rhinitis may contribute to both OSA and asthma. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. Treatment with CPAP therapy has also been shown to improve both daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rates in patients with concomitant OSA and asthma. It is important for allergists to be aware of how OSA may complicate diagnosis and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. A thorough sleep history and high clinical suspicion for OSA is indicated, particularly in asthma patients who are refractory to standard medication treatments.

  12. CT quantification of central airway in tracheobronchomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Won Hyeong; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To know which factors help to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) using CT quantification of central airway. From April 2013 to July 2014, 19 patients (68.0 ± 15.0 years; 6 male, 13 female) were diagnosed as TBM on CT. As case-matching, 38 normal subjects (65.5 ± 21.5 years; 6 male, 13 female) were selected. All 57 subjects underwent CT with end-inspiration and end-expiration. Airway parameters of trachea and both main bronchus were assessed using software (VIDA diagnostic). Airway parameters of TBM patients and normal subjects were compared using the Student t-test. In expiration, both wall perimeter and wall thickness in TBM patients were significantly smaller than normal subjects (wall perimeter: trachea, 43.97 mm vs. 49.04 mm, p = 0.020; right main bronchus, 33.52 mm vs. 42.69 mm, p < 0.001; left main bronchus, 26.76 mm vs. 31.88 mm, p = 0.012; wall thickness: trachea, 1.89 mm vs. 2.22 mm, p = 0.017; right main bronchus, 1.64 mm vs. 1.83 mm, p = 0.021; left main bronchus, 1.61 mm vs. 1.75 mm, p = 0.016). Wall thinning and decreased perimeter of central airway of expiration by CT quantification would be a new diagnostic indicators in TBM.

  13. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger;

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane...

  14. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Walking with continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, W.; Goorhuis, JF; de Weerd, W; Hazenberg, A; Zijistra, JG; Nijsten, MWN

    2006-01-01

    A ventilator-dependent child had been in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) ever since birth. As a result, she had fallen behind considerably in her development. After 18 months, continuous positive airway tracheostomy tube with a novel lightweight device device, the child was discharged home

  16. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills...

  17. Essential ultrasound techniques of the pediatric airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafrace, Samuel; Engelhardt, Thomas; Teoh, Wendy H;

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound of the airways is a technique which has been described in a number of recent articles and reviews highlighting the diagnostic possibilities and simple methodology. However, there is a paucity of information focusing specifically on such methods in children where equipment, technique, a...

  18. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Nielsen, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173 ...

  19. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammerman, Peter S.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Voet, Douglas; Jing, Rui; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Stojanov, Petar; McKenna, Aaron; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Sougnez, Carrie; Imielinski, Marcin; Helman, Elena; Hernandez, Bryan; Pho, Nam H.; Meyerson, Matthew; Chu, Andy; Chun, Hye-Jung E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Pleasance, Erin; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sipahimalani, Payal; Stoll, Dominik; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Chuah, Eric; Coope, Robin J. N.; Corbett, Richard; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Hirst, Anhe Carrie; Hirst, Martin; Holt, Robert A.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Karen; Nip, Ka Ming; Olshen, Adam; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Slobodan, Jared R.; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Varhol, Richard; Zeng, Thomas; Zhao, Yongjun; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Saksena, Gordon; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Schumacher, Stephen E.; Tabak, Barbara; Carter, Scott L.; Pho, Nam H.; Nguyen, Huy; Onofrio, Robert C.; Crenshaw, Andrew; Ardlie, Kristin; Beroukhim, Rameen; Winckler, Wendy; Hammerman, Peter S.; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Protopopov, Alexei; Zhang, Jianhua; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Lee, Semin; Xi, Ruibin; Yang, Lixing; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Hailei; Shukla, Sachet; Chen, Peng-Chieh; Haseley, Psalm; Lee, Eunjung; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Socci, Nicholas D.; Liang, Yupu; Schultz, Nikolaus; Borsu, Laetitia; Lash, Alex E.; Viale, Agnes; Sander, Chris; Ladanyi, Marc; Auman, J. Todd; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Shi, Yan; Liquori, Christina; Meng, Shaowu; Li, Ling; Turman, Yidi J.; Topal, Michael D.; Tan, Donghui; Waring, Scot; Buda, Elizabeth; Walsh, Jesse; Jones, Corbin D.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Singh, Darshan; Wu, Junyuan; Gulabani, Anisha; Dolina, Peter; Bodenheimer, Tom; Hoyle, Alan P.; Simons, Janae V.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Mose, Lisle E.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Balu, Saianand; O'Connor, Brian D.; Prins, Jan F.; Liu, Jinze; Chiang, Derek Y.; Hayes, D. Neil; Perou, Charles M.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Pan, Fei; Van den Berg, David J.; Triche, Timothy; Herman, James G.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael; Voet, Doug; Saksena, Gordon; Gehlenborg, Nils; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Jinhua; Zhang, Hailei; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Liu, Spring Yingchun; Lawrence, Michael S.; Zou, Lihua; Sivachenko, Andrey; Lin, Pei; Stojanov, Petar; Jing, Rui; Cho, Juok; Nazaire, Marc-Danie; Robinson, Jim; Thorvaldsdottir, Helga; Mesirov, Jill; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sinha, Rileen; Ciriello, Giovanni; Cerami, Ethan; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Gao, Jianjiong; Aksoy, B. Arman; Weinhold, Nils; Ramirez, Ricardo; Taylor, Barry S.; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Reva, Boris; Shen, Ronglai; Mo, Qianxing; Seshan, Venkatraman; Paik, Paul K.; Ladanyi, Marc; Sander, Chris; Akbani, Rehan; Zhang, Nianxiang; Broom, Bradley M.; Casasent, Tod; Unruh, Anna; Wakefield, Chris; Cason, R. Craig; Baggerly, Keith A.; Weinstein, John N.; Haussler, David; Benz, Christopher C.; Stuart, Joshua M.; Zhu, Jingchun; Szeto, Christopher; Scott, Gary K.; Yau, Christina; Ng, Sam; Goldstein, Ted; Waltman, Peter; Sokolov, Artem; Ellrott, Kyle; Collisson, Eric A.; Zerbino, Daniel; Wilks, Christopher; Ma, Singer; Craft, Brian; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Auman, J. Todd; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Du, Ying; Cabanski, Christopher; Walter, Vonn; Singh, Darshan; Wu, Junyuan; Gulabani, Anisha; Bodenheimer, Tom; Hoyle, Alan P.; Simons, Janae V.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Mose, Lisle E.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Balu, Saianand; Marron, J. S.; Liu, Yufeng; Wang, Kai; Liu, Jinze; Prins, Jan F.; Hayes, D. Neil; Perou, Charles M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Zhang, Yiqun; Travis, William D.; Rekhtman, Natasha; Yi, Joanne; Aubry, Marie C.; Cheney, Richard; Dacic, Sanja; Flieder, Douglas; Funkhouser, William; Illei, Peter; Myers, Jerome; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Penny, Robert; Mallery, David; Shelton, Troy; Hatfield, Martha; Morris, Scott; Yena, Peggy; Shelton, Candace; Sherman, Mark; Paulauskis, Joseph; Meyerson, Matthew; Baylin, Stephen B.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Akbani, Rehan; Azodo, Ijeoma; Beer, David; Bose, Ron; Byers, Lauren A.; Carbone, David; Chang, Li-Wei; Chiang, Derek; Chu, Andy; Chun, Elizabeth; Collisson, Eric; Cope, Leslie; Creighton, Chad J.; Danilova, Ludmila; Ding, Li; Getz, Gad; Hammerman, Peter S.; Hayes, D. Neil; Hernandez, Bryan; Herman, James G.; Heymach, John; Ida, Cristiane; Imielinski, Marcin; Johnson, Bruce; Jurisica, Igor; Kaufman, Jacob; Kosari, Farhad; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David; Ladanyi, Marc; Lawrence, Michael S.; Maher, Christopher A.; Mungall, Andy; Ng, Sam; Pao, William; Peifer, Martin; Penny, Robert; Robertson, Gordon; Rusch, Valerie; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shen, Ronglai; Siegfried, Jill; Sinha, Rileen; Sivachenko, Andrey; Sougnez, Carrie; Stoll, Dominik; Stuart, Joshua; Thomas, Roman K.; Tomaszek, Sandra; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Travis, William D.; Vaske, Charles; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel; Wheeler, David; Wigle, Dennis A.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilks, Christopher; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Jianjua John; Jensen, Mark A.; Sfeir, Robert; Kahn, Ari B.; Chu, Anna L.; Kothiyal, Prachi; Wang, Zhining; Snyder, Eric E.; Pontius, Joan; Pihl, Todd D.; Ayala, Brenda; Backus, Mark; Walton, Jessica; Baboud, Julien; Berton, Dominique L.; Nicholls, Matthew C.; Srinivasan, Deepak; Raman, Rohini; Girshik, Stanley; Kigonya, Peter A.; Alonso, Shelley; Sanbhadti, Rashmi N.; Barletta, Sean P.; Greene, John M.; Pot, David A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Bandarchi-Chamkhaleh, Bizhan; Boyd, Jeff; Weaver, JoEllen; Wigle, Dennis A.; Azodo, Ijeoma A.; Tomaszek, Sandra C.; Aubry, Marie Christine; Ida, Christiane M.; Yang, Ping; Kosari, Farhad; Brock, Malcolm V.; Rogers, Kristen; Rutledge, Marian; Brown, Travis; Lee, Beverly; Shin, James; Trusty, Dante; Dhir, Rajiv; Siegfried, Jill M.; Potapova, Olga; Fedosenko, Konstantin V.; Nemirovich-Danchenko, Elena; Rusch, Valerie; Zakowski, Maureen; Iacocca, Mary V.; Brown, Jennifer; Rabeno, Brenda; Czerwinski, Christine; Petrelli, Nicholas; Fan, Zhen; Todaro, Nicole; Eckman, John; Myers, Jerome; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Thorne, Leigh B.; Huang, Mei; Boice, Lori; Hill, Ashley; Penny, Robert; Mallery, David; Curley, Erin; Shelton, Candace; Yena, Peggy; Morrison, Carl; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Bartlett, Johnm. S.; Kodeeswaran, Sugy; Zanke, Brent; Sekhon, Harman; David, Kerstin; Juhl, Hartmut; Van Le, Xuan; Kohl, Bernard; Thorp, Richard; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Van Bang, Nguyen; Sussman, Howard; Phu, Bui Duc; Hajek, Richard; PhiHung, Nguyen; Khan, Khurram Z.; Muley, Thomas; Shaw, Kenna R. Mills; Sheth, Margi; Yang, Liming; Buetow, Ken; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Schaefer, Carl; Guyer, Mark S.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Palchik, Jacqueline D.; Peterson, Jane; Sofia, Heidi J.; Thomson, Elizabeth; Meyerson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment.

  20. Significance of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Jørgensen, Trine G.; Dabelsteen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    -smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblast that often represent the majority of tumor stromal cells. Their production of growth factors chemokines and extracellular matrix facilitates tumor growth. Myofibroblast have been demonstrated in close to 50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In this review, we...... highlight the histological distribution of myofibroblast in oral squamous cell and the myofibroblast relation to tumor growth on prognosis....

  1. PRL-3 expression in nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Hui Chen; Min-Ying Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between liver regeneration phosphatase-3 (PRL-3) with differentiation extent of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma, and molecular biological effects on the pathogenesis of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma to comprehend its relevance, so as to make early diagnosis of patients, and to give guidance to the prognosis. Methods:Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PRL-3 in 30 cases of different degrees of sinus nasal squamous cell carcinoma. 20 cases of normal nasal cavity of mucosa tissues were set as control. Results:The PRL-3 in all levels of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma tissues, there was a significant difference compared with the normal nasal mucosa (P<0.05), squamous cell carcinoma and its expression increased with the grade with enhanced trend. Conclusions:PRL-3 expression increased significantly in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma than in nasal polyp tissue, showed that it may be associated with squamous cell carcinoma of nasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma, may be the early event.

  2. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node.

  3. The association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walvik, Lena; Svensson, Amanda Björk; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence of the association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers. However, the role of human papillomavirus as a causal factor is still debated. This review addresses the association between human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal squamous cell...... of well-defined premalignant lesions. However, a causal relationship between human papillomavirus infection and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma seems evident....

  4. PPARγ as a Potential Target to Treat Airway Mucus Hypersecretion in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hypersecretion (AMH is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AMH contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and it is associated with reduced lung function and high rates of hospitalization and mortality. It has been suggested that AMH should be a target in the treatment of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence suggests that a key regulator of airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is expressed in structural, immune, and inflammatory cells in the lung. PPARγ is involved in mucin production, and PPARγ agonists can inhibit mucin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PPARγ is a novel target in the treatment of AMH and that further work on this transcription factor may lead to new therapies for chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  5. [Use of airway stent subsequent to endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment in central airway obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaogi, E; Yuasa, H; Ishibashi, O; Inage, Y; Dai, Y; Sato, Y; Ishikawa, S; Morita, R; Onizuka, M; Mitsui, K

    1992-01-01

    Ten cases of central airway obstruction mainly caused by extrinsic compression due to the growth of extratracheal malignant tumors or longitudinal extension of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinomas, underwent palliative intubation subsequent to endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment. Mean length of the severe stenosis in these cases was 4.4 cm (3-7 cm). Sole application of endoscopic Nd-YAG laser to the stenosis failed relief of the symptom and an immediate palliative intubation was recommended. Mean time of the temporary intubation was 7 days (4-11 days). Airway was maintained by this intubation and also retained enough after extubation. Therefore, it seemed that, in a palliative treatment of the central airway severe stenosis, usefulness of the combination management of Nd-YAG laser with following temporary intubation was revealed. However, in order to maintain the airway for recurrence of the obstruction, use of indwelling airway stents seemed a better application. The longest period of follow-up in the cases treated by indwelling airway stents was 6 months and one of the cases is a now in comfortable state.

  6. Estimation of airway obstruction using oximeter plethysmograph waveform data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Renee' A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated measures to assess the severity of airway obstruction in patients with obstructive airway disease are limited. Changes in the pulse oximeter plethysmograph waveform represent fluctuations in arterial flow. Analysis of these fluctuations might be useful clinically if they represent physiologic perturbations resulting from airway obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that the severity of airway obstruction could be estimated using plethysmograph waveform data. Methods Using a closed airway circuit with adjustable inspiratory and expiratory pressure relief valves, airway obstruction was induced in a prospective convenience sample of 31 healthy adult subjects. Maximal change in airway pressure at the mouthpiece was used as a surrogate measure of the degree of obstruction applied. Plethysmograph waveform data and mouthpiece airway pressure were acquired for 60 seconds at increasing levels of inspiratory and expiratory obstruction. At each level of applied obstruction, mean values for maximal change in waveform area under the curve and height as well as maximal change in mouth pressure were calculated for sequential 7.5 second intervals. Correlations of these waveform variables with mouth pressure values were then performed to determine if the magnitude of changes in these variables indicates the severity of airway obstruction. Results There were significant relationships between maximal change in area under the curve (P Conclusion The findings suggest that mathematic interpretation of plethysmograph waveform data may estimate the severity of airway obstruction and be of clinical utility in objective assessment of patients with obstructive airway diseases.

  7. The Diagnosis and Management of Airway Complications Following Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Amit K; Folch, Erik; Khandhar, Sandeep J; Channick, Colleen L; Santacruz, Jose F; Mehta, Atul C; Nathan, Steven D

    2017-03-05

    Airway complications following lung transplantation result in considerable morbidity and are associated with a mortality of 2-4 percent. The incidence of lethal and non-lethal airway complications has decreased since the early experiences with double- and single-lung transplantation. The most common risk factor associated with post-lung transplant airway complications is anastomotic ischemia. Airway complications include development of exophytic granulation tissue, bronchial stenosis, bronchomalacia, airway fistula, endobronchial infection, and anastomotic dehiscence. The broadening array of bronchoscopic therapies has enhanced treatment options for lung transplant recipients with airway complications. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatments of airway complications following lung transplantation, and provides our expert opinion where evidence is lacking.

  8. Management of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪溪; 唐平章; 祁永发; 徐震纲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To discuss treatment options for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma.Methods A total of 108 patients with biopsy-proven tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma, treated between 1984 and 2000, were reviewed, including 82 men and 26 women, with ages ranging from 19 to 70 years. Treatments consisted of either radiotherapy and surgery reserved as salvage treatment (Salvage Surgery, 83 patients), or planned surgery with preoperative radiation (Planned Surgery, 25 patients). Radiotherapy was delivered primarily in a dosage of 60-70 Gy for Salvage Surgery patients and 40-50 Gy for Planned Surgery patients. Both salvage and planned surgeries were radical, with resection of the lateral oropharyngeal wall, segmental resection of the mandible and neck dissection. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps were used to repair surgical defects. Results The percentages of radical surgery used in the Salvage Surgery and Planned Surgery groups were 24.1% (20/83) and 88.0% (22/25), respectively (P=0.000). The local recurrence rates were 28.9% (24/83) and 20.0% (5/25) in the Salvage Surgery and Planned Surgery groups, respectively (P= 0.378). The neck recurrence rates were 9.6% (8/83) and 8.0% (2/25) in the Salvage Surgery and Planned Surgery groups respeatively (P= 0.804). The 5-year survival rates were 59.3% and 55.3% in the Salvage Surgery and Planned Surgery groups, respeatively (P= 0.7056).Conclusions Although the two treatments had a similar survival rate, Salvage Surgery avoided 60% commando operations compared with the Planned Surgery group, which benefits to recovery of oral functions. Primary radiotherapy is recommended as the treatment of choice for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. After radical radiotherapy, salvage surgery should be undertaken in the case of tumor remnants or recurrences.

  9. Covered Bronchial Stent Insertion to Manage Airway Obstruction with Hemoptysis Caused by Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sae Ah; Kim, Do Hyeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jen, Gyeong Sik [Bundang CHA General Hospital, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.

  10. Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P A; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A; Crum, Christopher P; Mutter, George L

    2009-02-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. A total of 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had follow-up clinical data (average follow-up: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low-proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial

  11. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P; Federspiel, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic...... examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented...

  12. PATIENTS WITH SQUAMOUS-CELL VERSUS ADENO(SQUAMOUS) CARCINOMA OF THE CERVIX, WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE THE PROGNOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TINGA, DJ; BOUMA, J; AALDERS, JG

    1992-01-01

    Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix FIGO stages IB to IV (n = 306) were compared to patients with adeno(squamous) carcinoma (n = 70). There was no difference between the mean ages of the groups. In the patients who underwent radical surgical treatment, whether or not in combination w

  13. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD.We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms.The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g. administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight, respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA content in fecal samples using real-time PCR.Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly.Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper fiber supplementation promotes

  14. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  16. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: An update and implications for treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glen R Guerra; Cherng H Kong; Satish K Warrier; Andrew C Lynch; Alexander G Heriot; Samuel Y Ngan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma(SCC).METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015. A qualitative analysis was undertaken examining patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment and outcome. The quantitaive analysis was limited to data extracted on treatment and outcomes including radiological, clinical and pathological complete response where available. The narrative and quantitative review were synthesised in concert.RESULTS: The search identified 487 articles in total with 79 included in the qualitative review. The quantitative analysis involved 63 articles, consisting of 43 case reports and 20 case series with a total of 142 individual cases. The underlying pathogenesis of rectal SCC while unclear, continues to be defined, with increasing evidence of a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and a possible role for human papilloma virus in this progression. The presentation is similar to rectal adenocarcinoma, with a diagnosis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Many presumed rectal SCC’s are in fact an extension of an anal SCC, and cytokeratin markers are a useful adjunct in this distinction. Staging is most accurately reflected by the tumour-nodemetastasis classification for rectal adenocarcinoma. It involves examining locoregional disease by way of magnetic resonance imaging and/or endorectal ultrasound, with systemic spread excluded by way of computed tomography. Positron emission tomography is integral in the workup to exclude an external siteof primary SCC with metastasis to the rectum. While the optimal

  17. Randomized crossover comparison of the laryngeal mask airway classic with i-gel laryngeal mask airway in the management of difficult airway in post burn neck contracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to compare the performance of i-gel supraglottic airway with cLMA in difficult airway management in post burn neck contracture patients and assess the feasibility of i-gel use for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening. Methods: Prospective, crossover, randomized controlled trial was performed amongst forty eight post burn neck contracture patients with limited mouth opening and neck movement. i-gel and cLMA were placed in random order in each patient. Primary outcome was overall success rate. Other measurements were time to successful ventilation, airway leak pressure, fiberoptic glottic view, visualization of square wave pattern. Results: Success rate for the i-gel was 91.7% versus 79.2% for the cLMA. i-gel required shorter insertion time (19.3 seconds vs. 23.5 seconds, P=0.000. Airway leak pressure difference was statistically significant (i-gel 21.2 cm H20; cLMA 16.9 cm H 2 0; P=0.00. Fiberoptic view through the i-gel showed there were less epiglottic downfolding and better fiberoptic view of the glottis than cLMA. Overall agreement in insertion outcome for i-gel was 22/24 (91.7% successes and 2/24(8.3% failure and for cLMA, 19/24 (79.16% successes and 5/24 (16.7% failure in the first attempt. Conclusion: The i-gel is cheap, effective airway device which is easier to insert and has better clinical performance in the difficult airway management of the airway in the post burn contracture of the neck. Our study shows that i-gel is feasible for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening in post burn neck.

  18. Airway acidification initiates host defense abnormalities in cystic fibrosis mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Reznikov, Leah; Alaiwa, Mahmoud Abou; Ernst, Sarah E.; Karp, Philip H.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Allen, Patrick D.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Stoltz, David A.; Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H+ secretion by the nongastric H+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H+; consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF. PMID:26823428

  19. [Advances of molecular targeted therapy in squamous cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Shucai

    2013-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  20. Advances of Molecular Targeted Therapy in Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lungadenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2 gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lungcancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  1. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  2. Endoscopic low coherence interferometry in upper airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Yves; Boss, Daniel; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We introduce Endoscopic Low Coherence Interferometry to obtain topology of upper airways through commonly used rigid endoscopes. Quantitative dimensioning of upper airways pathologies is crucial to provide maximum health recovery chances, for example in order to choose the correct stent to treat endoluminal obstructing pathologies. Our device is fully compatible with procedures used in day-to-day examinations and can potentially be brought to bedside. Besides this, the approach described here can be almost straightforwardly adapted to other endoscopy-related field of interest, such as gastroscopy and arthroscopy. The principle of the method is first exposed, then filtering procedure used to extract the depth information is described. Finally, demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex-vivo pork bronchi.

  3. Gingival hyperplasia by upper airway obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Soriano, Ana; Docente Departamento Académico de Estomatología Biosocial.; Lévano Torres, Víctor; Docente Departamento Académico Médico Quirúrgico.; Pastor Yataco, Shamila; Alumnos del 3er año de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Vallejos Pulido, Arturo; Alumnos del 3er año de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Huamanyauri Gonzales, Lizbeth; Alumnos del 3er año de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of mouth breathing are the introduction of cold air, dry and dusty in the mouth and pharynx, the lost functions of heating, humedificacion and filtering the air entering the nose increases the oral mucosa irritation and pharyngeal. A case of a female patient 15 years old who comes for consultation of Periodontology with increase in volume and gingival redness in the upper anterior sector of upper airway obstruction caused by deviated septum right turbinate hypertrophy and maxillar...

  4. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 thro...

  5. Airway wall stiffening increases peak wall shear stress: a fluid-structure interaction study in rigid and compliant airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guohua; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2010-05-01

    The airflow characteristics in a computed tomography (CT) based human airway bifurcation model with rigid and compliant walls are investigated numerically. An in-house three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method is applied to simulate the flow at different Reynolds numbers and airway wall stiffness. As the Reynolds number increases, the airway wall deformation increases and the secondary flow becomes more prominent. It is found that the peak wall shear stress on the rigid airway wall can be five times stronger than that on the compliant airway wall. When adding tethering forces to the model, we find that these forces, which produce larger airway deformation than without tethering, lead to more skewed velocity profiles in the lower branches and further reduced wall shear stresses via a larger airway lumen. This implies that pathologic changes in the lung such as fibrosis or remodeling of the airway wall-both of which can serve to restrain airway wall motion-have the potential to increase wall shear stress and thus can form a positive feed-back loop for the development of altered flow profiles and airway remodeling. These observations are particularly interesting as we try to understand flow and structural changes seen in, for instance, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and interstitial lung disease.

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of temporal bone: four case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Ha; Sung, Ki Joon; Sim, Young; Shim, Sue Yoen; Yoon, Byoung Moon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    We report the CT findings of four cases of squamous cell carcinoma, paying special attention to the epicenter of the lesion and the pattern of bony destruction. All four patients had a past history of chronic otitis media. Squamous cell carcinoma affected mainly the hypotympanum and inferior wall of the external auditory canal. and in all cases revealed an irregular pattern of bony destruction. Irregular destruction of the tegmen tympani occurred in two cases. In cases of squamous cell carcinoma, CT findings suggesting involvement of the promontory are usually noted. (author)

  7. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA FOOT WITH ILIOINGUINAL LYMPHADENOPATHY : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot is rare. This carcinoma of the foot may arise from a precursor lesion or may be secondary. Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot may resemble verrucous carcinoma or there can be distinct verrucous carcinoma of the foot or epithelioma cuniculatum. We reporting a case of 45 years old male patient developed squamous cell carcinoma over marjolins ulcer and develop ilio - inguinal lymphadenopathy after 1 month of malignancy. We have done below knee amputation and ilioinguinal block dissection

  8. PRIMARY SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF KIDNEY: REPORT OF TWO CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta DR, Bose Chaitali, Panda Sasmita, Upadhaya Ashis, Das Abhijit, Senapati SN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis is rare clinical entity with only few cases have been reported in the literature. It is usually associated with long standing renal calculi. Insidious onset of symptom and inconclusive clinical and radiological features leads to locally advanced or metastatic disease at presentation; resulting in poor prognosis. Here we are reporting two cases of squamous cell carcinoma of kidney having renal calculi to highlight its clinical presentation and to document the association of squamous cell carcinoma in longstanding nephrolithiasis due to its rarity.

  9. Dynamic Properties of Human Bronchial Airway Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Pallai, Prathap; Corrigan, Chris J; Lee, Tak H

    2011-01-01

    Young's Modulus and dynamic force moduli were measured on human bronchial airway tissues by compression. A simple and low-cost system for measuring the tensile-strengh of soft bio-materials has been built for this study. The force-distance measurements were undertaken on the dissected bronchial airway walls, cartilages and mucosa from the surgery-removed lungs donated by lung cancer patients with COPD. Young's modulus is estimated from the initial slope of unloading force-displacement curve and the dynamic force moduli (storage and loss) are measured at low frequency (from 3 to 45 Hz). All the samples were preserved in the PBS solution at room temperature and the measurements were perfomed within 4 hours after surgery. Young's modulus of the human bronchial airway walls are fond ranged between 0.17 and 1.65 MPa, ranged between 0.25 to 1.96 MPa for cartilages, and between 0.02 to 0.28 MPa for mucosa. The storage modulus are found varying 0.10 MPa with frequency while the loss modulus are found increasing from ...

  10. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Potential environmental factors include air pollution, tobacco smoke, diet and hygienic habits. The base of phenotypes diversity is still unknown. Genetic studies of allergic disease are complex , the disease derives from the global effect of a series of genes considered individually. What is more, there are epigenetic effects and interactions among the possible causal genes and a range of environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in genes encoding chemokines and their receptors, interleukins and their receptors, eosinophil peroxidase and leukotrienes have been found as a possible factor for a development of allergic airway inflammation. It is known that SNPs are specific for different cohort.

  11. A framework for understanding shared substrates of airway protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Shevon TROCHE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficits of airway protection can have deleterious effects to health and quality of life. Effective airway protection requires a continuum of behaviors including swallowing and cough. Swallowing prevents material from entering the airway and coughing ejects endogenous material from the airway. There is significant overlap between the control mechanisms for swallowing and cough. In this review we will present the existing literature to support a novel framework for understanding shared substrates of airway protection. This framework was originally adapted from Eccles' model of cough28 (2009 by Hegland, et al.42 (2012. It will serve to provide a basis from which to develop future studies and test specific hypotheses that advance our field and ultimately improve outcomes for people with airway protective deficits.

  12. Impact of airway morphological changes on pulmonary flows in scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, James; Garrido, Enrique; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between thoracic deformity in scoliosis and lung function is poorly understood. In a pilot study, we reviewed computed tomography (CT) routine scans of patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. The CT scans were processed to segment the anatomy of the airways, lung and spine. A three-dimensional model was created to study the anatomical relationship. Preliminary analysis showed significant airway morphological differences depending on the anterior position of the spine. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was also conducted on the airway geometry using the inspiratory scans. The CFD model assuming non-compliant airway walls was capable of showing pressure drops in areas of high airway resistance, but was unable to predict regional ventilation differences. Our results indicate a dependence between the dynamic deformation of the airway during breathing and lung function. Dynamic structural deformation must therefore be incorporated within any modelling approaches to guide clinicians on the decision to perform surgical correction of the scoliosis.

  13. Safety and Efficacy of Thoracic External Beam Radiotherapy After Airway Stenting in Malignant Airway Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochet, Nathalie, E-mail: nrochet@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hauswald, Henrik; Schmaus, Martina; Hensley, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J. [Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen; Neuhof, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after airway stents were placed in patients treated for malignant airway obstruction. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2009, we performed airway stenting followed by EBRT in 43 patients for symptomatic primary lung cancer (n = 31) or other thoracic malignancies (n = 12). The median time interval between stent placement and first irradiation was 14 days. A median total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had reduced performance status (Karnofsky performance score, {<=}70). Results: EBRT had to be stopped prematurely in 16 patients (37%), at a median total dose of 17 Gy, for various reasons. In this group of patients, the survival was poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of only 21 days. Twenty-seven patients (63%) completed radiotherapy as planned, with a median OS of 8.4 months. Fourteen of 43 patients (33%) developed at least one Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event of grade 3 to 5. The most common event was a malignant restenosis of the stent leading to asphyxia (n = 7), followed by fistula formation (n = 4), necrosis (n = 3), mediastinitis with abscess (n = 1), secondary nonmalignant airway stenosis (n = 1), and hemoptysis (n = 1). With the exception of one event, all events were associated with a local progression of the tumor. Conclusions: Although the long-term prognosis for patients with malignant airway obstruction is poor, airway stenting combined with EBRT offers a possible therapeutic option, achieving fast relief of acute respiratory distress with an associated antitumor effect, resulting in a potential survival benefit. However, due to local advanced tumor growth, increased rates of adverse events are to be expected, necessitating careful monitoring.

  14. Motorcycle exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2004-06-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in laboratory animals. BALB/c mice were instilled intratracheally (i.t.) with 1.2 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of MEP, which was collected from two-stroke motorcycle engines. The mice were exposed 3 times i.t. with MEP, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were sequentially analyzed. We found that MEP would induce airway and pulmonary inflammation characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung. In addition, MEP treatment enhanced BALF interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine levels and serum IgE production. Bronchial response measured by unrestrained plethysmography with methacholine challenge showed that MEP treatment induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in BALB/c mice. The chemical components in MEP were further fractionated with organic solvents, and we found that the benzene-extracted fraction exerts a similar biological effect as seen with MEP, including airway inflammation, increased BALF IL-4, serum IgE production, and induction of AHR. In conclusion, we present evidence showing that the filter-trapped particles emitted from the unleaded-gasoline-fueled two-stroke motorcycle engine may induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in the absence of exposure to allergen.

  15. Difficult Airway Management in Field Conditions: Somalia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Nasır, Serdar Nazif

    2015-10-01

    Difficult airway is defined as having the patient's mask ventilation or difficult tracheal intubation of an experienced anaesthesiologist. A number of reasons, such as congenital or acquired anatomical anomalies, can cause difficult intubation and difficult ventilation. Keeping all equipment ready for airway management of patients will reduce mortality and complications. In this case, it is intended that the submission of difficult airway management who encountered in mandibular reconstruction for mandible bone defect repairing with reconstruction plates before at the field conditions in Somalia.

  16. Oral and airway microbiota in HIV-infected pneumonia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, S.; Fei, M; Huang, D.; Fong, S.; Subramanian, A.; Grieco, K; Lynch, SV; Huang, L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased frequency of recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recent studies linking the airway bacterial community (microbiota) to acute and chronic respiratory infection, little is known of the oral and airway microbiota that exist in these individuals and their propensity to harbor pathogens despite antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. This pilot study compared paired samples of the oral and airway microbiota from 15 hospitalized HIV-infected patients receivin...

  17. Zinc supplementation alters airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to a common allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Carrie I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc supplementation can modulate immunity through inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor that controls many immune response genes. Thus, we sought to examine the mechanism by which zinc supplementation tempers the response to a common allergen and determine its effect on allergic airway inflammation. Methods Mice were injected with zinc gluconate prior to German cockroach (GC feces (frass exposure and airway inflammation was assessed. Primary bone marrow-derived neutrophils and DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells were used to assess the role of zinc gluconate on tumor necrosis factor (TNFα expression. NF-κB:DNA binding and IKK activity were assessed by EMSA and in vitro kinase assay. Protein levels of A20, RIP1 and TRAF6 were assessed by Western blot analysis. Establishment of allergic airway inflammation with GC frass was followed by administration of zinc gluconate. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum IgE levels, eosinophilia and Th2 cytokine production were assessed. Results Administration of zinc gluconate prior to allergen exposure resulted in significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration and TNFα cytokine release into the airways. This correlated with decreased NF-κB activity in the whole lung. Treatment with zinc gluconate significantly decreased GC frass-mediated TNFα production from bone-marrow derived neutrophils and HL-60 cells. We confirmed zinc-mediated decreases in NF-κB:DNA binding and IKK activity in HL-60 cells. A20, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB and a zinc-fingered protein, is a potential target of zinc. Zinc treatment did not alter A20 levels in the short term, but resulted in the degradation of RIP1, an important upstream activator of IKK. TRAF6 protein levels were unaffected. To determine the application for zinc as a therapeutic for asthma, we administered zinc following the establishment of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model. Zinc supplementation decreased airway hyperresponsiveness

  18. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH20; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH20; p=0.42) and did not change...

  19. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH20; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH20; p=0.42) and did not change during the induction of and throughout pneumoperit...

  20. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  2. Practical advance in obtaining an emergency airway via cricothyroidotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, William G; Dahman, Marc H; Thomas, Deanna; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2007-05-01

    By the time a cricothyroidotomy is deemed necessary, the patient is in critical need of an emergency airway before anoxic damage ensues. Two things are necessary for the delivery of the requisite oxygen. First, an airway must be rapidly established. Second, the airway must be large enough to facilitate ventilation. Present methods for emergency cricothyroidotomy include needle cricothyroidotomy, which suffers from difficulties in both establishment and ventilation. We describe here a practical and widely available method for establishing a timely effective airway that has been used successfully for five patients since 1992.

  3. Airway, responsiveness and inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Lund, T.K.; Barnes, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    . There was no difference in FeNO, cellular composition of sputum, airway reactivity, or prevalence of having AHR to methacholine and/or EVH between swimmers with and without respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Adolescent elite swimmers do not have significant signs of airway damage after only a few years of intense training...... and competition. This leads us to believe that elite swimmers do not have particularly susceptible airways when they take up competitive swimming when young, but that they develop respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, and AHR during their swimming careers Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  4. Airway management in patients with burn contractures of the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Smita; Mullick, Parul

    2015-12-01

    Airway management of patients with burn contracture of the neck (PBC neck) is a challenge to the anesthesiologist. Patient evaluation includes history, physical and airway examination. A safe approach in the airway management of a patient with moderate to severe PBC neck is to secure the airway with the patient awake. The anesthesiologist should have a pre-planned strategy for intubation of the difficult airway. The choices advocated for airway management of such patients include awake fiberoptic-guided intubation, use of intubating laryngeal mask airway, intubation without neuromuscular blocking agents, intubation with neuromuscular blocking agents after testing the ability to ventilate by mask, pre-induction neck scar release under local anesthesia and ketamine or sedation followed by direct laryngoscopy and intubation and video-laryngoscope guided intubation, amongst others. Preparation of the patient includes an explanation of the proposed procedure, sedation, administration of antisialogogues and regional anesthesia of the airway. The various options for intubation of patients with PBC neck, intraoperative concerns and safe extubation are described. Back-up plans, airway rescue strategies and a review of literature on this subject are presented.

  5. Airway management in patients with deep neck infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Young; Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Yoon Jin; Chun, Eun Hee; Han, Jong In; Kim, Dong Yeon; Baik, Hee Jung; Chung, Rack Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Securing the airway in patients undergoing surgical intervention to control a deep neck infection (DNI) is challenging for anesthesiologists due to the distorted airway anatomy, limited mouth opening, tissue edema, and immobility. It is critical to assess the risk of a potential difficult airway and prepare the most appropriate airway management method. We reviewed our anesthetic experiences managing patients with DNIs, focusing on the need for video-laryngoscope or awake fiberoptic intubation beyond a standard intubation from the anesthesiologist's perspective. When patients had infections in the masticatory space, mouth of floor, oropharyngeal mucosal space, or laryngopharynx, their airways tended to be managed using methods requiring more effort by the anesthesiologists, and more extensive equipment preparation, compared with use of a standard laryngoscope. The degree to which the main lesion influenced the airway anatomy, especially at the level of epiglottis and aryepiglottic fold was related to the airway management method selected. When managing the airways of patients undergoing surgery for DNIs under general anesthesia, anesthesiologists should use imaging with computed tomography to evaluate the preoperative airway status and a comprehensive understanding of radiological findings, comorbidities, and patients’ symptoms is needed. PMID:27399122

  6. KyoT2 downregulates airway remodeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei; Ou-Yang, Hai-Feng; Han, Xing-Peng; Ti, Xin-Yu; Wu, Chang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    The typical pathological features of asthma are airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). KyoT2, a negative modulator of Notch signaling, has been linked to asthma in several previous studies. However, whether KyoT2 is involved in the regulation of airway remodeling or the modulation of airway resistance in asthma is unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of KyoT2 in preventing asthma-associated airway remodeling and AHR. BALB/c mice were used to generate a mouse model of asthma. Additionally, the expression of Hes1 and Notch1 in airway was analyzed using Immunofluorescence examination. The asthmatic mice were intranasally administered adenovirus expressing KyoT2 and were compared to control groups. Furthermore, subepithelial fibrosis and other airway remodeling features were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, Van Gieson's staining and Masson's trichrome staining. AHR was also evaluated. This study revealed that KyoT2 downregulated the expression of Hes1, repressed airway remodeling, and alleviated AHR in asthmatic mice. It is reasonable to assume that KyoT2 downregulates airway remodeling and resistance in asthmatic mice through a Hes1-dependent mechanism. Therefore, KyoT2 is a potential clinical treatment strategy for asthma.

  7. Quantitative computed tomography imaging of airway remodeling in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Philippe A; Fetita, Catalin I; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and approximately 5-10% of asthmatic subjects have severe disease associated with structure changes of the airways (airway remodeling) that may develop over time or shortly after onset of disease. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging of the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma has improved during the last 10 years, and has enabled investigators to study the large airway architecture in detail and assess indirectly the small airway structure. In severe asthmatics, morphologic changes in large airways, quantitatively assessed using 2D-3D airway registration and recent algorithms, are characterized by airway wall thickening, luminal narrowing and bronchial stenoses. Extent of expiratory gas trapping, quantitatively assessed using lung densitometry, may be used to assess indirectly small airway remodeling. Investigators have used these quantitative imaging techniques in order to attempt severity grading of asthma, and to identify clusters of asthmatic patients that differ in morphologic and functional characteristics. Although standardization of image analysis procedures needs to be improved, the identification of remodeling pattern in various phenotypes of severe asthma and the ability to relate airway structures to important clinical outcomes should help target treatment more effectively.

  8. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel L

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.

  9. Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma of Ferguson-Smith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Bygum, Anette; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma of Ferguson-Smith (MSSE) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disease, almost exclusively reported in patients of Scottish origin, with recurrent, histologically malignant tumours that undergo spontaneous regression. We report clinical observations...

  10. Advances on Driver Oncogenes of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HONG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Next to adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the lung is the most frequent histologic subtype in non-small cell lung cancer. Several molecular alterations have been defined as "driver oncogenes" responsible for both the initiation and maintenance of the malignancy. The squamous cell carcinoma of the lung has recently shown peculiar molecular characteristics which relate with both carcinogenesis and response to targeted drugs. So far, about 40% of lung squamous cell carcinoma has been found harbouring driver oncogenes, in which fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 plays important roles. In this review, we will report the mainly advances on some latest driver mutations of squamous cell lung cancer.

  11. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  12. Reduction of Eosinophils in Small Airways by Inhaled Steroids is Insufficient in Patients with Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: It was speculated that inhaled CFC-BDP and DP-FP might deposit mainly in large airways and fail to fully reach small airways, consequently allowing eosinophilic inflammation to continue in small airways.

  13. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  14. Serum cytokine levels, cigarette smoking and airway responsiveness among pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsunoda, M; Litonjua, AA; Kuniak, MP; Weiss, ST; Satoh, T; Guevarra, L; Tollerud, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Background. Five to twenty percent of healthy, nonasthmatic individuals exhibit airway hyperreactivity. Because cytokines are important intermediates in airway responses, we investigated the relationship between serum cytokines and airway responsiveness in a well-characterized population of pregnant

  15. Blockade of Airway Inflammation by Kaempferol via Disturbing Tyk-STAT Signaling in Airway Epithelial Cells and in Asthmatic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Hyun Gong; Daekeun Shin; Seon-Young Han; Sin-Hye Park; Min-Kyung Kang; Jung-Lye Kim; Young-Hee Kang

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by bronchial inflammation causing increased airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia. The interaction between airway epithelium and inflammatory mediators plays a key role in the asthmatic pathogenesis. The in vitro study elucidated inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a flavonoid found in apples and many berries, on inflammation in human airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Nontoxic kaempferol at ≤20  μ M suppressed the LPS-induced IL-8 production through the TLR4 activat...

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mammary Gland in Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira, Kilder Dantas; Reche Junior,Archivaldo

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the feline species, 80% to 93% of neoplasias in the mammary gland are malignant, being the majority carcinomas. Among them, there is the mammary squamous cell carcinoma, which amounts to a very rare neoplasm in the domestic cat, with considerable potential for malignancy. This study aimed to report a case of squamous cell mammary carcinoma in the feline species. Case: A female cat, mixed breed, ten years old, presented history of skin lesion. The cat had been spayed two years b...

  17. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo [Chonnam National Univ. School of Dentistry, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desm...

  19. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Three Related Kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Richard; Killick, Rowena; Barrows, Michelle; Stidworthy, Mark

    2017-02-11

    We report three kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with squamous cell carcinoma affecting the gingiva. These cases occurred in rapid succession in a related group of individuals of similar age, suggesting a familial tendency to this condition and a typical age of presentation. Other conditions affecting the oral cavity can mimic the appearance of oral squamous cell carcinoma in this species, and so knowledge of this condition can assist the veterinarian in making rapid decisions regarding prognosis and improving the welfare of these animals.

  20. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert H.; Togias, Alkis

    2016-01-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolut...

  1. Airway management using laryngeal mask airway in insertion of the Montgomery tracheal tube for subglottic stenosis -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Sun; Kwon, Young-Suk; Lee, Sangseock; Yon, Jun Heum; Kim, Dong Won

    2010-12-01

    The Montgomery tracheal tube (T-tube) is a device used as a combined tracheal stent and airway after laryngotracheoplasty for patients with tracheal stenosis. This device can present various challenges to anesthesiologists during its placement, including the potential for acute loss of the airway, inadequate administration of inhalation agents, and inadequacy of controlled mechanical ventilation. The present case of successful airway management used a laryngeal mask airway under total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil in the insertion of a Montgomery T-tube in a tracheal resection and thyrotracheal anastomosis because of severe subglottic stenosis.

  2. Deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in human upper airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2016-01-01

    Graphene nanomaterials have attracted wide attention in recent years on their application to state-of-the-art technology due to their outstanding physical properties. On the other hand, the nanotoxicity of graphene materials also has rapidly become a serious concern especially in occupational health. Graphene naomaterials inevitably could become airborne in the workplace during manufacturing processes. The inhalation and subsequent deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in the human respiratory tract could potentially result in adverse health effects to exposed workers. Therefore, investigating the deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in the human airways is an indispensable component of an integral approach to graphene occupational health. For this reason, this study carried out a series of airway replica deposition experiments to obtain original experimental data for graphene aerosol airway deposition. In this study, graphene aerosols were generated, size classified, and delivered into human airway replicas (nasal and oral-to-lung airways). The deposition fraction and deposition efficiency of graphene aerosol in the airway replicas were obtained by a novel experimental approach. The experimental results acquired showed that the fractional deposition of graphene aerosols in airway sections studied were all less than 4%, and the deposition efficiency in each airway section was generally lower than 0.03. These results indicate that the majority of the graphene nanomaterial aerosols inhaled into the human respiratory tract could easily penetrate through the head airways as well as the upper part of the tracheobronchial airways and then transit down to the lower lung airways, where undesired biological responses might be induced.

  3. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  4. Integrity of airway epithelium is essential against obliterative airway disease in transplanted rat tracheas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, N; de Vos, P; Schelfhorst, M; de Haan, A; Timens, W; Prop, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation requires further elucidation. In this study we used rat trachea transplantation to examine the role of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease. Methods: Normal and denuded (i.e., epithelium rem

  5. Cromoglycate and Nedocromil: Influence on Airway Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, E. A.

    1994-01-01

    Although basic mechanisms of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are still incompletely understood, inflammation of airways is likely to play a fundamental role in modulating BHR in patients with asthma. The involvement of several inflammatory cells (eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and platelets) and of bioactive mediators secreted by these cells in the pathogenesis of asthma is well documented. Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are two pharmacological agents which have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. Their clinical effectiveness in mild to moderate asthma, and the capacity to reduce BHR under different natural and experimental conditions, make them valuable drugs for maintenance therapy in patients with asthma. PMID:18475597

  6. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, P.; Nielsen, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173...... Area (IA) and Wall Area percentage (WA%) was measured by the proposed method on a total of 723 CT scans from a lung cancer screening study. These measures were significantly different for participants with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) compared to asymptomatic participants. Furthermore...

  7. Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Duncan F

    2007-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a feature of a number of severe respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, each disease has a different airway inflammatory response, with consequent, and presumably linked, mucus hypersecretory phenotype. Thus, it is possible that optimal treatment of the mucus hypersecretory element of each disease should be disease-specific. Nevertheless, mucoactive drugs are a longstanding and popular therapeutic option, and numerous compounds (eg, N-acetylcysteine, erdosteine, and ambroxol) are available for clinical use worldwide. However, rational recommendation of these drugs in guidelines for management of asthma, COPD, or CF has been hampered by lack of information from well-designed clinical trials. In addition, the mechanism of action of most of these drugs is unknown. Consequently, although it is possible to categorize them according to putative mechanisms of action, as expectorants (aid and/or induce cough), mucolytics (thin mucus), mucokinetics (facilitate cough transportability), and mucoregulators (suppress mechanisms underlying chronic mucus hypersecretion, such as glucocorticosteroids), it is likely that any beneficial effects are due to activities other than, or in addition to, effects on mucus. It is also noteworthy that the mucus factors that favor mucociliary transport (eg, thin mucus gel layer, "ideal" sol depth, and elasticity greater than viscosity) are opposite to those that favor cough effectiveness (thick mucus layer, excessive sol height, and viscosity greater than elasticity), which indicates that different mucoactive drugs would be required for treatment of mucus obstruction in proximal versus distal airways, or in patients with an impaired cough reflex. With the exception of mucoregulatory agents, whose primary action is unlikely to be directed against mucus, well-designed clinical trials are required to unequivocally determine the

  8. Role of neutrophilic inflammation in ozone-induced epithelial alterations in the nasal airways of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hye Youn

    Ozone is a principal oxidant air pollutant in photochemical smog. Epithelial cells lining the centriacinar region of lung and the proximal aspects of nasal passage are primary target sites for ozone-induced injury in laboratory animals. Acute exposure of rats to high ambient concentrations of ozone (e.g., 0.5 ppm) results in neutrophilic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia (MCM) in the nasal transitional epithelium (NTE) lining the proximal nasal airways. The principal purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of pre-metaplastic cellular responses, especially neutrophilic inflammation, in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced MCM in rat NTE. For this purpose, three specific hypotheses-based whole-animal inhalation studies were conducted. Male F344/N rats were exposed in whole-body inhalation chambers to 0 (filtered air) or 0.5 ppm ozone for 1-3 days (8 h/day). Histochemical, immunochemical, molecular and morphometric techniques were used to investigate the ozone-induced cellular and molecular events in the NTE. Two in vitro studies were also conducted to examine the effects of ozone-inducible cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha; TNF- a, and interleukin-6; IL-6) on mucin gene (rMuc-5AC) expression. Ozone induced a rapid increase of rMuc-5AC mRNA in nasal tissues within hours after the start of exposure. It preceded the appearance of MCM, and persisted with MCM. Ozone-induced neutrophilic inflammation accompanied the mucin gene upregulation, but was resolved when MCM first appeared in the NTE. Antibody-mediated depletion of circulating neutrophils attenuated ozone-induced MCM, although it did not affect the ozone-induced epithelial hyperplasia and mucin mRNA upregulation. In another study, it was found that preexisting neutrophilic rhinitis induced by endotoxin augmented the ozone-induced MCM. However, pre-existing rhinitis did not alter the severity of ozone-induced epithelial hyperplasia and mucin gene upregulation

  9. Studio dell’espressione dell’Homeobox gene CDX2 nella metaplasia intestinale e nelle lesioni neoplastiche e preneoplastiche dello stomaco e correlazioni clinico-patologiche con l’infezione da Helicobacter Pilory

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma can be divided into the intestinal and diffuse type, or the differentiated and indifferentiated type, on the basis of its tendency to gland formation. Intestinal metaplasia (IM), where intestinal-type carcinoma is thought to develop, is classified into incomplete and complete types. The latter, which resembles small-intestinal absorptive epithelium, has been considered a precancerous lesion, and its development is strongly associated with Helicobacter Pilory (HP)...

  10. Inertial and interceptional deposition of fibers in a bifurcating airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Asgharian, B; Anjilvel, S

    1996-01-01

    A computer model of a three-dimensional bifurcating airway was constructed in which the parent and daughter airways had different lengths but equal diameters. A diameter of 0.6 cm was chosen for the airways based on the third generation of Weibel's symmetric lung model. Different bifurcation angles of 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees were studied. Airflow fields in the airway were obtained by a finite-element method (FIDAP, Fluid Dynamics International, Evanston, IL) for Reynolds numbers of 500 and 1000, assuming uniform parent inlet velocities. The equations of motion for fiber transport in the airways were obtained, and deposition by the combined mechanisms of impaction and interception was incorporated. A computer code was developed that utilized the flow field data and calculated fiber transport in the airways using the equations of motion for fibers. Deposition efficiency was obtained by simulating a large number of fibers of various sizes. Fiber entering the daughter airways tended to orient themselves parallel to the flow. A site of enhanced deposition (or hot spot) was observed at the carina. The dominant parameter for the deposition was the fiber Stokes number. Flow Reynolds number and airway bifurcation angle were also found to affect the deposition.

  11. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  12. Mortality by Level of Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Ane; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Bottai, Matteo;

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality.......There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality....

  13. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees...

  14. Repair of damaged supraglottic airway devices: A novel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Dheeraj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Damage of laryngeal mask airway and other supraglottic airway devices has always been a matter of concern. Although manufacturer recommends maximum 40 uses of LMA (and its congeners but damage before 40 uses needs to be evaluated. We hereby, describe a novel method of repair of supraglottic devices when damage occurs at mask inflation line or pilot balloon valve assembly.

  15. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  16. Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Airway Responsiveness in Individuals with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled NO2 on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by bronchoconstricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway r...

  17. Inhaled corticosteroids and growth of airway function in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, PJFM; van Pelt, W; van Houwelingen, JC; van Essen-Zandvliet, LEM; Duiverman, EJ; Kerrebijn, KF; Quanjer, PH

    2004-01-01

    Airway inflammation and remodelling play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Remodelling may affect childhood lung function, and this process may be reversed by anti-inflammatory treatment. The current study assessed longitudinaily whether asthma affects growth of airway function rel

  18. Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei

    2009-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.

  19. Does hyperbaric oxygen therapy prevent airway anastomosis from breakdown?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhoff, C.; Daniels, J.M.; Brink, A. van den; Paul, M.A.; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia with subsequent necrosis of anastomoses, after central airway resection and reconstruction, remains a feared complication for thoracic surgeons and their patients. To date, there is no evidence to support the use of hyperbaric oxygen in the prevention of necrosis of airway reconstructions i

  20. Airway smooth muscle and fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Peter R A; Burgess, Janette K

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by marked structural changes within the airway wall. These changes include deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and an increase in the numbers of airway smooth muscle cells and subepithelial fibroblasts. Both these cell types possess properties that would ena

  1. Airway Management of Two Patients with Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhattacharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct trauma to the airway is a rare injury which can lead to disastrous consequences due to compounding effect of bleeding, aspiration of blood, airway obstruction and severe sympathetic stimulation. Here we are presenting two cases of open tracheal injury in two adult males following assault with sharp weapon. Two different techniques of securing the airways were employed depending upon the severity and urgency of the situation. In the first case, orotracheal intubation helped the surgeon to repair airway around the endotracheal tube whereas in the second patient this stenting effect was absent as he was intubated through the distal cut-end of trachea in the face of airway emergency.

  2. Antral atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and preneoplastic markers in Mexican children with Helicobacter pylori-positive and Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Luévano-González, Arturo; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Zhu, Hongtu; Yuan, Ying; Xiang, Qun; Yan, Benjamin; Stoll, Kathryn Anne; Cross, Janet V; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Mackinnon, Alexander Craig

    2014-06-01

    Chronic inflammation and infection are major risk factors for gastric carcinogenesis in adults. As chronic gastritis is common in Mexican children, diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and other causes of gastritis are critical for the identification of children who would benefit from closer surveillance. Antral biopsies from 82 Mexican children (mean age, 8.3 ± 4.8 years) with chronic gastritis (36 H pylori+, 46 H pylori-) were examined for gastritis activity, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and immunohistochemical expression of gastric carcinogenesis biomarkers caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), p53, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Atrophy was diagnosed in 7 (9%) of 82, and IM, in 5 (6%) of 82 by routine histology, whereas 6 additional children (7%) (3 H pylori+) exhibited aberrant CDX2 expression without IM. Significant positive correlations were seen between EphB4, MMP3, and MIF (Pgastritis.

  3. Marginal turbid band and light blue crest, signs observed in magnifying narrow-band imaging endoscopy, are indicative of gastric intestinal metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Jin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM usually appears in flat mucosa and shows few morphologic changes, making diagnosis using conventional endoscopy unreliable. Magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI endoscopy enables evaluation of detailed morphological features that correspond with the underlying histology. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the diagnostic efficacy of magnifying NBI endoscopic findings for the prediction and diagnosis of IM. Methods Forty-seven patients were prospectively enrolled, and magnifying NBI examinations were performed in the lesser curvature of the midbody and the greater curvature of the upper body. The marginal turbid band (MTB was defined as an enclosing white turbid band on the epithelial surface/gyri; light blue crest (LBC, as a fine, blue-white line on the crest of the epithelial surface/gyri. Immediately after observation under magnifying endoscopy, biopsy specimens were obtained from the evaluated areas. Results The degree of IM significantly increased with increasing MTB/LBC positivity (MTB-/LBC-, 0.00 ± 0.00; MTB+/LBC-, 0.44 ± 0.51; MTB+/LBC+, 0.94 ± 0.24; p +/LBC+ areas than in MTB+/LBC- areas (p  Conclusion MTB and LBC observed in the gastric mucosa with magnifying NBI endoscopy are highly accurate indicators of the presence of IM. MTB likely represents a sign of early gastric IM, while LBC appears with progression to severe IM.

  4. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, John F

    2012-02-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.

  5. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, John F

    2010-02-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.

  6. Mode of Glucocorticoid Actions in Airway Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents used to treat chronic inflammatory disease, such as asthma. However, a small number (<5% of asthmatic patients and almost all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD do not respond well, or at all, to glucocorticoid therapy. If the molecular mechanism of glucocorticoid insensitivity is uncovered, it may in turn provide insight into the key mechanism of glucocorticoid action and allow a rational way to implement treatment regimens that restore glucocorticoid sensitivity. Glucocorticoids exert their effects by binding to a cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which is subjected to post-translational modifications. Receptor phosphorylation, acetylation, nitrosylation, ubiquitinylation, and other modifications influence hormone binding, nuclear translocation, and protein half-life. Analysis of GR interactions to other molecules, such as coactivators or corepressors, may explain the genetic specificity of GR action. Priming with inflammatory cytokine or oxidative/nitrative stress is a mechanism for the glucocorticoid resistance observed in chronic inflammatory airway disease via reduction of corepressors or GR modification. Therapies targeting these aspects of the GR activation pathway may reverse glucocorticoid resistance in patients with glucocorticoid-insensitive airway disease and some patients with other inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  8. The cystic fibrosis lower airways microbial metagenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran Losada, Patricia; Chouvarine, Philippe; Dorda, Marie; Hedtfeld, Silke; Mielke, Samira; Schulz, Angela; Wiehlmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Chronic airway infections determine most morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Herein, we present unbiased quantitative data about the frequency and abundance of DNA viruses, archaea, bacteria, moulds and fungi in CF lower airways. Induced sputa were collected on several occasions from children, adolescents and adults with CF. Deep sputum metagenome sequencing identified, on average, approximately 10 DNA viruses or fungi and several hundred bacterial taxa. The metagenome of a CF patient was typically found to be made up of an individual signature of multiple, lowly abundant species superimposed by few disease-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, as major components. The host-associated signatures ranged from inconspicuous polymicrobial communities in healthy subjects to low-complexity microbiomes dominated by the typical CF pathogens in patients with advanced lung disease. The DNA virus community in CF lungs mainly consisted of phages and occasionally of human pathogens, such as adeno- and herpesviruses. The S. aureus and P. aeruginosa populations were composed of one major and numerous minor clone types. The rare clones constitute a low copy genetic resource that could rapidly expand as a response to habitat alterations, such as antimicrobial chemotherapy or invasion of novel microbes. PMID:27730195

  9. Disordered microbial communities in asthmatic airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rich microbial environment in infancy protects against asthma [1], [2] and infections precipitate asthma exacerbations [3]. We compared the airway microbiota at three levels in adult patients with asthma, the related condition of COPD, and controls. We also studied bronchial lavage from asthmatic children and controls. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 5,054 16S rRNA bacterial sequences from 43 subjects, detecting >70% of species present. The bronchial tree was not sterile, and contained a mean of 2,000 bacterial genomes per cm(2 surface sampled. Pathogenic Proteobacteria, particularly Haemophilus spp., were much more frequent in bronchi of adult asthmatics or patients with COPD than controls. We found similar highly significant increases in Proteobacteria in asthmatic children. Conversely, Bacteroidetes, particularly Prevotella spp., were more frequent in controls than adult or child asthmatics or COPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE: The results show the bronchial tree to contain a characteristic microbiota, and suggest that this microbiota is disturbed in asthmatic airways.

  10. Airway Responsiveness to Psychological Processes in Asthma and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial factors have been found to impact airway pathophysiology in respiratory disease with considerable consistency. Influences on airway mechanics have been studied particularly well. The goal of this article is to review the literature on airway responses to psychological stimulation, discuss potential pathways of influence, and present a well-established emotion-induction paradigm to study airway obstruction elicited by unpleasant stimuli. Observational studies have found systematic associations between lung function and daily mood changes. The laboratory –based paradigm of bronchoconstrictive suggestion has been used successfully to elicit airway obstruction in a substantial proportion of asthmatic individuals. Other studies have demonstrated an enhancement of airway responses to standard airway challenges with exercise, allergens, or methacholine. Standardized emotion-induction techniques have consistently shown airway constriction during unpleasant stimulation, with surgery, blood and injury stimuli being particularly powerful. Findings with various forms of stress induction have been more mixed. A number of methodological factors may account for variability across studies, such as choice of measurement technique, temporal association between stimulation and measurement, and the specific quality and intensity of the stimulus material, in particular the extent of implied action-orientation. Research has also begun to elucidate physiological processes associated with psychologically induced airway responses, with vagal excitation and ventilatory influences being the most likely candidate pathways, whereas the role of specific central nervous system pathways and inflammatory processes has been less studied. The technique of emotion-induction using films has the potential to become a standardized challenge paradigm for the further exploration of airway hyperresponsiveness mediated by central nervous system processes.

  11. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  12. Specific immune responses against airway epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse-trachea transplantation model for obliterative airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, N; de Haan, A; Harmsen, MC; Kroese, FGM; de Leij, LFMH; Prop, J

    2003-01-01

    Background. Immune injury to airway epithelium is suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) after clinical lung transplantation. In several studies, a rejection model of murine trachea transplants is used, resulting in obliterative airway disease (OAD) w

  13. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, Anders; Baines, Katherine J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  14. Temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma - Penang experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S Y; Pua, K C; Zahirrudin, Z

    2015-12-01

    Temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC) is rare and poses difficulties in diagnosing, staging and management. We describe a case series with six patients who were diagnosed TBSCC, from January 2009 to June 2014, with median age of 62 years old. All patients presented with blood-stain discharge and external auditory canal mass, showing that these findings should highly alert the diagnosis of TBSCC. Three patients staged T3 and another three with T4 disease. High-resolution CT (HRCT) temporal findings were noted to be different from intraoperative findings and therefore we conclude that MRI should be done to look for middle ear involvement or other soft tissue invasion for more accurate staging. Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) and parotidectomy was done for four patients with or without neck dissection. Patients with positive margin, perineural invasion or parotid and glenoid involvement carry poorer prognosis and postoperative radiotherapy may improve the survival rate. One patient had successful tumor resection via piecemeal removal approach in contrast with the recommended en bloc resection shows that with negative margin achieved, piecemeal removal approach can be a good option for patients with T2-3 disease. In general, T4 tumor has dismal outcome regardless of surgery or radiotherapy given.

  15. Mucin phenotypic expression and p53 gene abnormality of gastric super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma: Re-evaluation with relationship between histogenesis of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and intestinal metaplasia in distal stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the gastric well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in the distal stomach has been thought to develop via a intestinal metaplasia-carcinoma sequence, there are some disproofs from new mucin examinations for minute-size lesions in same type carcinoma. The current study was performed and pointed out the new findings for the solution to the problem according to the point described above. Methods 12 super-minute lesions (less than 1 mm in maximum diameter of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in distal stomach (SMCa, which were detected from the pathological examinations of 210 surgically resected stomach specimens, and the mucosa adjacent to these carcinoma lesions, were examined by immunohistochemical mucin stainings (MUC2 and CD-10: intestinal phenotype, 45M1 and MUC6: gastric phenotype and p53-overexpression. And the analyses of the replication error of the microsatellites in chromosome 17 related p53 gene (TP53 and D17S786 (RER-p53MS were performed in SMCa lesions, adjacent mucosa to each lesion and other gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, because all SMCa lesions showed p53-overexpression immunohistochemically, decribed below. Results 1. The carcinoma cells in all SMCa lesions were positive for 45M1 and p53. On the other hand, no positive carcinoma cells for MUC6 were seen although the pyloric glands and the remnant pyloric gland in the SMCa lesions in the same slides were positive for MUC6. Ten lesions (83% had intestinal phenotypic mucin (10 lesions: MUC2 (+, 4 lesions: CD10 (+. Two lesions (17% were positive for only 45M1 (gastric phenotypic mucin. 2. All of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa showed intestinal metaplasia (complete type: 7 regions, incomplete type: 5 regions. 3. RER-p53MS was confirmed in 42% (5/12 regions of SMCa, in 42% (5/12 regions of the mucosa adjacent to SMCa and 14% (6/42 regions of the other intestinal metaplasia mucosa. Conclusion Most of the super-minute well-differentiated adenocarcinoma

  16. Simultaneous Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bighan Khademi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The association of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with thyroid papillary carcinoma is an unusual finding. From 2004 to 2011, approximately 250 patients underwent laryngectomies due to squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx at the Otolaryngology Department of Khalili Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In three patients, synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and thyroid papillary carcinoma was found. Histopathologic study of the lymph nodes revealed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in one case. We report three cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma incidentally found on histological examinations of resected thyroid lobes, as a procedure required for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In comparison, laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs more aggressive treatment than well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of thyroid papillary carcinoma, as an incidental finding in our study was 0.01%. Therefore, preoperative evaluation of the thyroid gland by ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lesions is recommended in patients who are candidates for open laryngectomy.

  17. SENSITIVITY OF IMPRESSION CYTOLOGY IN DIAGNOSING OCULAR SURFACE SQUAMOUS NEOPLASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malleswari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OSSN describes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions, originating from squamous epithelium ranging from simple dysplasia to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, involving the conjunctiva, limbus and the cornea. Impression cytology refers to the technique by which superficial layers of the ocular surface are removed through application of cellulose acetate filter material onto the ocular surface AIM: To Assess the Sensitivity of Impression Cytology in the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Using Millipore Filter Paper. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a Prospective Observational and Interventional Study conducted at Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Gandhi Medical College/Hospital, Hyderabad. Study was conducted from July2013 to Feb2015 and included 50patients presenting with conjunctival mass at the limbus or on the conjunctiva Hospital ethics committee approval was obtained No financials involved in the study. RESULTS: A total of 50Excision biopsies of 50patients suspected for OSSN were performed there were 40 males and 10females Excision biopsy confirmed the Impression Cytology results in 44 cases. In 6 cases there was poor correlation among which 4cases showed mild dysplasia in Impression Cytology while HPE showed Invasive Squamous cell carcinoma in 2cases few dysplastic cells were noted in Impression cytology but HPE showed Carcinoma in situ. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Impression Cytology has a promising role in diagnosing Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia for its high positive predictive accuracy (95.65% compared with tissue histology.

  18. Overexpression of mclca3 in airway epithelium of asthmatic murine models with airway inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-lan; HE Li

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a worldwide prevalent disease that is a considerable health burden in many countries.1 In recent years, the airway epithelium is increasingly recognized as a central contributor to the pathogenesis of asthma.2 One of the most highly induced genes in epithelial cells in experimental allergic airway disease is the third murine calcium-activated chloride channel homologue (mclca3, alias gob-5). Its human homology protein is hCLCA1,3,4 which has been identified as clinically relevant molecules in diseases with secretory dysfunctions including asthma and cystic fibrosis. In initial studies, mclca3 was thought to be a member of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCCs) family,whereas some new interesting reports suggest that the two mclca3 cleavage products cannot form an anion channel on their own but may instead act as extracellular signaling molecules with as yet unknown functions and interacting partners.5

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  3. Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with liver metastasis: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang-pu; OU Kun; GUAN Qing-hai; ZHANG Fan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is an unusual cancer of ductal cell origin. In a review of 6668 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer from various registries reported from 1950 through 1985, the incidence of squamous carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma was 0.005% and 0.01%, respectively.1 We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with liver metastasis.

  4. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis

    2016-07-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma.

  5. Airway smooth muscle phenotype and function : interactions with current asthma therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halayko, A J; Tran, T; Ji, S Y; Yamasaki, A; Gosens, R

    2006-01-01

    Asthma incidence has climbed markedly in the past two decades despite an increased use of medications that suppress airway inflammation and repress contraction of smooth muscle that encircles the airways. Asthmatics exhibit episodes of airway inflammation that potentiates reversible airway smooth mu

  6. L-ornithine derived polyamines in cystic fibrosis airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Grasemann

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity contributes to airway nitric oxide (NO deficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF. Whether down-stream products of arginase activity contribute to CF lung disease is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to test whether L-ornithine derived polyamines are present in CF airways and contribute to airway pathophysiology. Polyamine concentrations were measured in sputum of patients with CF and in healthy controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of spermine on airway smooth muscle mechanical properties was assessed in bronchial segments of murine airways, using a wire myograph. Sputum polyamine concentrations in stable CF patients were similar to healthy controls for putrescine and spermidine but significantly higher for spermine. Pulmonary exacerbations were associated with an increase in sputum and spermine levels. Treatment for pulmonary exacerbations resulted in decreases in arginase activity, L-ornithine and spermine concentrations in sputum. The changes in sputum spermine with treatment correlated significantly with changes in L-ornithine but not with sputum inflammatory markers. Incubation of mouse bronchi with spermine resulted in an increase in acetylcholine-induced force and significantly reduced nitric oxide-induced bronchial relaxation. The polyamine spermine is increased in CF airways. Spermine contributes to airways obstruction by reducing the NO-mediated smooth muscle relaxation.

  7. Coupled cellular therapy and magnetic targeting for airway regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordidge, Katherine L; Gregori, Maria; Kalber, Tammy L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Janes, Sam M; Giangreco, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Airway diseases including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis and lung cancer are leading causes of worldwide morbidity and mortality, with annual healthcare costs of billions of pounds. True regeneration of damaged airways offers the possibility of restoring lung function and protecting against airway transformation. Recently, advances in tissue engineering have allowed the development of cadaveric and biosynthetic airway grafts. Although these have produced encouraging results, the ability to achieve long-term functional airway regeneration remains a major challenge. To promote regeneration, exogenously delivered stem and progenitor cells are being trialled as cellular therapies. Unfortunately, current evidence suggests that only small numbers of exogenously delivered stem cells engraft within lungs, thereby limiting their utility for airway repair. In other organ systems, magnetic targeting has shown promise for improving long-term robust cell engraftment. This technique involves in vitro cell expansion, magnetic actuation and magnetically guided cell engraftment to sites of tissue damage. In the present paper, we discuss the utility of coupling stem cell-mediated cellular therapy with magnetic targeting for improving airway regeneration.

  8. Existence of a squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin complex causes a deviation between squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations determined using two different immunoassays: first report of squamous cell carcinoma antigen coupling with immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Eriko; Kurano, Makoto; Tobita, Akiko; Shimosaka, Hironori; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is used as a tumour marker and is routinely measured in clinical laboratories. We validated two different immunoassays and found three cases in which the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations deviated greatly between the two immunoassays. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these deviations. Methods The squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations were determined using the ARCHITECT SCC (CLIA method) and the ST AIA-PACK SCC (FEIA method). We performed polyethylene glycol precipitation and size exclusion chromatography to assess the molecular weight and spike recovery and absorption tests to examine the presence of an autoantibody. Results Both methods exhibited good performances for the measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, although a correlation test showed large differences in the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations measured using the two methods in three cases. The results of polyethylene glycol treatment and size exclusion chromatography indicated the existence of a large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen in these three cases. The spike recovery tests suggested the possible presence of an autoantibody against squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Moreover, the absorption test revealed that large squamous cell carcinoma antigen complexes were formed by the association of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgG in two cases and with both IgG and IgA in one case. Conclusions This study describes the existence of large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen that has complexed with immunoglobulin in the serum samples. The reason for the deviations between the two immunoassays might be due to differences of their reactivities against the squamous cell carcinoma antigen immune complexes with their autoantibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the coupling of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgA.

  9. Classification of pulmonary airway disease based on mucosal color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Riker, David; Ferguson, John Scott; McLennan, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    Airway mucosal color changes occur in response to the development of bronchial diseases including lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. These associated changes are often visualized using standard macro-optical bronchoscopy techniques. A limitation to this form of assessment is that the subtle changes that indicate early stages in disease development may often be missed as a result of this highly subjective assessment, especially in inexperienced bronchoscopists. Tri-chromatic CCD chip bronchoscopes allow for digital color analysis of the pulmonary airway mucosa. This form of analysis may facilitate a greater understanding of airway disease response. A 2-step image classification approach is employed: the first step is to distinguish between healthy and diseased bronchoscope images and the second is to classify the detected abnormal images into 1 of 4 possible disease categories. A database of airway mucosal color constructed from healthy human volunteers is used as a standard against which statistical comparisons are made from mucosa with known apparent airway abnormalities. This approach demonstrates great promise as an effective detection and diagnosis tool to highlight potentially abnormal airway mucosa identifying a region possibly suited to further analysis via airway forceps biopsy, or newly developed micro-optical biopsy strategies. Following the identification of abnormal airway images a neural network is used to distinguish between the different disease classes. We have shown that classification of potentially diseased airway mucosa is possible through comparative color analysis of digital bronchoscope images. The combination of the two strategies appears to increase the classification accuracy in addition to greatly decreasing the computational time.

  10. The actin regulator zyxin reinforces airway smooth muscle and accumulates in airways of fatal asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, Elizabeth; Jensen, Christopher C.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; James, Alan L.; Elliot, John G.; Green, Francis H.; Liu, Jeffrey C.; Seow, Chun Y.; Park, Jin-Ah; Beckerle, Mary C.; Paré, Peter D.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchospasm induced in non-asthmatic human subjects can be easily reversed by a deep inspiration (DI) whereas bronchospasm that occurs spontaneously in asthmatic subjects cannot. This physiological effect of a DI has been attributed to the manner in which a DI causes airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells to stretch, but underlying molecular mechanisms–and their failure in asthma–remain obscure. Using cells and tissues from wild type and zyxin-/- mice we report responses to a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration. At the level of the cytoskeleton, zyxin facilitated repair at sites of stress fiber fragmentation. At the level of the isolated ASM cell, zyxin facilitated recovery of contractile force. Finally, at the level of the small airway embedded with a precision cut lung slice, zyxin slowed airway dilation. Thus, at each level zyxin stabilized ASM structure and contractile properties at current muscle length. Furthermore, when we examined tissue samples from humans who died as the result of an asthma attack, we found increased accumulation of zyxin compared with non-asthmatics and asthmatics who died of other causes. Together, these data suggest a biophysical role for zyxin in fatal asthma. PMID:28278518

  11. Contribution to Study About Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira LOPES

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper is a retrospective study with aim of collecting information about neoplasm metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method: The registry of patients with the histopathology diagnose of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Oncology Institute Aldenora Belo (IMOAB in São Luis - MA, from 1992 to 2004, was analyzed and 18 cases were selected. Results: The most common anatomical region of primary neoplasm was tongue, following by buccal floor and cheek. In related to anatomical area compromised by metastasis, the cervical ones were the most frequent, followed by tongue and buccal floor. Conclusion: It concluded that the tongue was the most common site of oral squamous cell carcinoma, where frequently, shows metastasis, and the most common loco-regional metastasis was on cervical area, especially.

  12. Squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramberg, Ingvild; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    %) had epithelial dysplasia, 19 (13%) had carcinoma in situ, and 29 (20%) had squamous cell carcinoma. A significantly higher proportion of men were found. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years. The risk of recurrence was 10.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0–15.0] after 1 year and 17.2% (95% CI......Purpose To investigate the epidemiology of squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Denmark. Methods Review of the histopathological case reports at the Eye Pathology Institute (EPI), University of Copenhagen, and the National Danish Pathology Bank from 1980 to 2011. Information......: 10.8–23.7) after 5 years. The lesions were most often localized to the corneal limbus. In our records, one patient had a lymph node metastasis and the disease necessitated enucleation in two patients. No patients had died from squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Conclusion Overall, our data...

  13. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Martinez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans.

  14. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gang Jiang; Dao-Wen Wang; Jiang-Bo Tang; Chun-Lian Chen; Bao-Xing Liu; Xiang-Ning Fu; Zhi-Hui Zhu; Wei Qu; Katherine Cianflone; Michael P. Waalkes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was expressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to assess the expression level of COX-2 in esophageal tissue.RESULTS: COX-2 mRNA levels were increased by >80-fold in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma when compared to adjacent noncancerous tissue. COX-2 protein was present in 21 of 30 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues, but was undetectable in noncancerous tissue. Immunohistochemistry was performed to directly show expression of COX-2 in tumor tissue.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that COX-2 may be an important factor for esophageal cancer and inhibition of COX-2 may be helpful for prevention and possibly treatment of this cancer.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  16. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  17. AIRWAY LABELING USING A HIDDEN MARKOV TREE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Díaz, Alejandro A.; Okajima, Yuka; Wassermann, Demian; Washko, George R.; Dy, Jennifer; San José Estépar, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel airway labeling algorithm based on a Hidden Markov Tree Model (HMTM). We obtain a collection of discrete points along the segmented airway tree using particles sampling [1] and establish topology using Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree algorithm. Following this, our HMTM algorithm probabilistically assigns labels to each point. While alternative methods label airway branches out to the segmental level, we describe a general method and demonstrate its performance out to the subsubsegmental level (two generations further than previously published approaches). We present results on a collection of 25 computed tomography (CT) datasets taken from a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) study. PMID:25436039

  18. Management of the difficult airway in children. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Álvarez Bárzaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anesthesiologist plays a unique role in the health care of all patients who will undergo a surgical procedure. In this sense, he is a key factor in the appropriate and timely management of the airway. There are special situations that condition a difficult airway and can have a profound impact on anesthetic morbidity and mortality. These risks increases in the case of children, that is why the case of a pediatric patient with a difficult airway caused by limitation of mouth opening, scheduled for elective surgery in order to treat this condition in the Pediatric University Hospital ¨Paquito González Cueto " in Cienfuegos, is presented.

  19. Airway Management in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 3-month-old female with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement with a focus on airway management. WHS is a rare 4p microdeletion syndrome resulting in multiple congenital abnormalities, including craniofacial deformities. Microcephaly, micrognathia, and glossoptosis are common features in WHS patients and risk factors for a pediatric airway that is potentially difficult to intubate. We discuss anesthesia strategies for airway preparation and management in a WHS patient requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. PMID:27752382

  20. Airway obstruction and hemophilia-A: epiglottis hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshoren, Nir; Varon, David; Weinberger, Jeffrey M; Gross, Menachem

    2010-07-01

    Acute upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening event. Hemophilia-A is a coagulopathy with high risk for spontaneous bleeding. Here we describe for the first time a spontaneous epiglottic internal hemorrhage leading to upper airway narrowing in a hemophilia-A patient. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for airway observation and treatment with factor VIII supplementation. In the first 48 hours there was rapid respiratory improvement. The epiglottic swelling resolved on the 5th day. In this patient no oral intubation or surgical management was needed.

  1. Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: airway problems during anaesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malde A

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome, presence of mandibular hypoplasia and microstomia results in difficult intubation. The anaesthetic management of a three month old child with this syndrome for lensectomy is presented in this report. There was difficulty in maintaining the airway patency during induction which was solved with the help of a modified, improvised airway. Intubation was done after induction with a combination of inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents and muscle relaxant. Recognition of this syndrome should alert the physician to the possibility of difficulty in airway maintenance.

  2. Airways microbiota: Hidden Trojan horses in asbestos exposed individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

    2014-11-01

    Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of cancer with devastating prognosis, which develops in the pleural cavity from transformed mesothelium. MPM has been directly associated with asbestos exposure however there are aspects of the pathophysiology involved in the translocation of asbestos fibers in the pleura that remain unclear. Here, we propose and discuss that certain proteins secreted by airways symbiotic microbiota create membrane pores to the airway epithelial cells, through which asbestos fibers can penetrate the lung parenchyma and reach the sub-pleural areas. We evaluate this hypothesis using data from the published literature regarding the airways microbiota toxins such as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs).

  3. Airway Microbiota and the Implications of Dysbiosis in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Juliana; Boushey, Homer A; Lynch, Susan V

    2016-07-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the human body are typically colonized by polymicrobial communities seeded in infancy and are continuously shaped by environmental exposures. These communities interact with the mucosal immune system to maintain homeostasis in health, but perturbations in their composition and function are associated with lower airway diseases, including asthma, a developmental and heterogeneous chronic disease with various degrees and types of airway inflammation. This review will summarize recent studies examining airway microbiota dysbioses associated with asthma and their relationship with the pathophysiology of this disease.

  4. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Preethi B; Punetha, Pankaj; Chalam, Kolli S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL) grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP) class, thyromental distance (TMD) and sternomental distance (SMD) were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid), anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC) and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E) to the distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC) were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value. PMID:27942053

  5. Therapeutic Bronchoscopy for Malignant Central Airway Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Grosu, Horiana B.; Lei, Xiudong; Diaz-Mendoza, Javier; Slade, Mark; Gildea, Thomas R.; Machuzak, Michael S.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Toth, Jennifer; Kovitz, Kevin L.; Ray, Cynthia; Greenhill, Sara; Casal, Roberto F.; Almeida, Francisco A.; Wahidi, Momen M.; Eapen, George A.; Feller-Kopman, David; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Benzaquen, Sadia; Tremblay, Alain; Simoff, Michael; Kovitz, Kevin; Greenhill, Sara; Gildea, Thomas R.; Machuzak, Michael; Almeida, Francisco A.; Cicenia, Joseph; Wahidi, Momen; Mahmood, Kamran; MacEachern, Paul; Tremblay, Alain; Simoff, Michael; Diaz-Mendoza, Javier; Ray, Cynthia; Feller-Kopman, David; Yarmus, Lonny; Estrada-Y-Martin, Rosa; Casal, Roberto F.; Toth, Jennifer; Karunakara, Raj; Slade, Mark; Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Ost, David; Eapen, George A.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Benzaquen, Sadia; Puchalski, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variation between physicians in terms of how they perform therapeutic bronchoscopy, but there are few data on whether these differences impact effectiveness. METHODS: This was a multicenter registry study of patients undergoing therapeutic bronchoscopy for malignant central airway obstruction. The primary outcome was technical success, defined as reopening the airway lumen to > 50% of normal. Secondary outcomes were dyspnea as measured by the Borg score and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured by the SF-6D. RESULTS: Fifteen centers performed 1,115 procedures on 947 patients. Technical success was achieved in 93% of procedures. Center success rates ranged from 90% to 98% (P = .02). Endobronchial obstruction and stent placement were associated with success, whereas American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score > 3, renal failure, primary lung cancer, left mainstem disease, and tracheoesophageal fistula were associated with failure. Clinically significant improvements in dyspnea occurred in 90 of 187 patients measured (48%). Greater baseline dyspnea was associated with greater improvements in dyspnea, whereas smoking, having multiple cancers, and lobar obstruction were associated with smaller improvements. Clinically significant improvements in HRQOL occurred in 76 of 183 patients measured (42%). Greater baseline dyspnea was associated with greater improvements in HRQOL, and lobar obstruction was associated with smaller improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Technical success rates were high overall, with the highest success rates associated with stent placement and endobronchial obstruction. Therapeutic bronchoscopy should not be withheld from patients based solely on an assessment of risk, since patients with the most dyspnea and lowest functional status benefitted the most. PMID:25358019

  6. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi B Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP class, thyromental distance (TMD and sternomental distance (SMD were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid, anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E to the  distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value.

  7. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  9. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lip simulating squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, A; Willén, H; Willén, R; Thorstensson, S; Ekman, L

    1980-01-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lip in an 68-year-old pipe smoker is described. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a self-healing non-neoplastic disease probably of ischaemic nature. Thirty-nine cases of sialometaplasia are described in the literature up to early 1979. These cases appeared in the palate, nasal cavity, gingiva, lip, hypopharynx and maxillary sinus. Six cases have also been reported from major salivary glands. Histologically there is necrosis of mucous cells with partial replacement by squamous epithelium. This entity has often been mistaken for squamous or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. One has to be familiar with the existence of necrotizing sialometaplasia in ordeg surgery.

  10. Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Presenting as a Malar Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Veerappan

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer metastasizing to the face has rarely been reported and is an even more unusual presentation. Case: This is the case of a 49-year-old man diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the face, scheduled for resection. Preoperative radiographs revealed a left upper lobe mass, found to be squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis was changed to Stage IV primary lung cancer. The patient did not undergo resection. Discussion: No previous cases of primary lung cancer presenting as a malar mass have been reported. Facial lesions can be the presenting feature of primary lung cancer. Discovery of the true primary lesion can alter therapy and prognosis.

  11. Isolated renal metastasis from squamous cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Renal metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer is rather uncommon. The mechanism underlying the occurrence of metastasis in this site is still not well understood. We report a case of a 53-year-old Chinese woman who had moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. After a ten months post-surgery interval of disease free survival, computed tomography (CT scan found that left renal parenchymal was occupied by a mass, confirmed by kidney biopsy to be a metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma. Based on this case, we are warned to be cautious in diagnosis and treatment when renal lesion are detected.

  12. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma larynx presenting as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekur R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Association of immune thrombocytpenic purpura with solid malignancy as paraneoplastic manifestation has been reported earlier mainly with lymphoma and breast cancer. We report the case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx presenting with idiopathic thombocytopenic purpura (ITP. A 67-year-old lady presented with multiple ecchymotic patches and petechiae all over the body and bleeding from oral cavity was found to have severe thrombocytopenia diagnosed as ITP with bone marrow evidence of peripheral destruction without infiltration of bone marrow. Five months later she was diagnosed to have squamous cell carcinoma of larynx. Platelet count improved after splenectomy.

  14. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  15. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  16. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitch Lomax Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. Keywords: exercise, aquatic athletes, bronchoconstriction

  17. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  18. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  19. Maternal Diesel Inhalation Increases Airway Hyperreactivity in Ozone Exposed Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (ARR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy worsened postnatal oz...

  20. Kenya Airways Launches New Project to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kenya Airways announced its new carbon offset project in May,aiming to have guests directly take part in a carbon emissions reduction plan for environmental protection.Titus Naikuni,Managing Director of

  1. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  2. Rapid remodeling of airway vascular architecture at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Amy; Lashnits, Erin; Yao, Li-Chin; Baluk, Peter; McDonald, Donald M

    2010-09-01

    Recent advances have documented the development of lung vasculature before and after birth, but less is known of the growth and maturation of airway vasculature. We sought to determine whether airway vasculature changes during the perinatal period and when the typical adult pattern develops. On embryonic day 16.5 mouse tracheas had a primitive vascular plexus unlike the adult airway vasculature, but instead resembling the yolk sac vasculature. Soon after birth (P0), the primitive vascular plexus underwent abrupt and extensive remodeling. Blood vessels overlying tracheal cartilage rings regressed from P1 to P3 but regrew from P4 to P7 to form the hierarchical, segmented, ladder-like adult pattern. Hypoxia and HIF-1α were present in tracheal epithelium over vessels that survived but not where they regressed. These findings reveal the plasticity of airway vasculature after birth and show that these vessels can be used to elucidate factors that promote postnatal vascular remodeling and maturation.

  3. Changes in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota at Pulmonary Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmody, Lisa A.; Zhao, Jiangchao; Patrick D. Schloss; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Murray, Susan; Young, Vincent B.; Jun Z Li; LiPuma, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: In persons with cystic fibrosis (CF), repeated exacerbations of pulmonary symptoms are associated with a progressive decline in lung function. Changes in the airway microbiota around the time of exacerbations are not well understood.

  4. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

  5. Modeling the Nonlinear Motion of the Rat Central Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, G; Rona, A; Hainsworth, S V

    2016-01-01

    Advances in volumetric medical imaging techniques allowed the subject-specific modeling of the bronchial flow through the first few generations of the central airways using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a reliable CFD prediction of the bronchial flow requires modeling of the inhomogeneous deformation of the central airways during breathing. This paper addresses this issue by introducing two models of the central airways motion. The first model utilizes a node-to-node mapping between the discretized geometries of the central airways generated from a number of successive computed tomography (CT) images acquired dynamically (without breath hold) over the breathing cycle of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The second model uses a node-to-node mapping between only two discretized airway geometries generated from the CT images acquired at end-exhale and at end-inhale along with the ventilator measurement of the lung volume change. The advantage of this second model is that it uses just one pair of CT images, which more readily complies with the radiation dosage restrictions for humans. Three-dimensional computer aided design geometries of the central airways generated from the dynamic-CT images were used as benchmarks to validate the output from the two models at sampled time-points over the breathing cycle. The central airway geometries deformed by the first model showed good agreement to the benchmark geometries within a tolerance of 4%. The central airway geometry deformed by the second model better approximated the benchmark geometries than previous approaches that used a linear or harmonic motion model.

  6. Altered Epithelial Gene Expression in Peripheral Airways of Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Akul; Rupani, Hitasha; Jayasekera, Nivenka; Lumb, Simon; Hales, Paul; Gozzard, Neil; Davies, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    Management of severe asthma remains a challenge despite treatment with glucocorticosteroid therapy. The majority of studies investigating disease mechanisms in treatment-resistant severe asthma have previously focused on the large central airways, with very few utilizing transcriptomic approaches. The small peripheral airways, which comprise the majority of the airway surface area, remain an unexplored area in severe asthma and were targeted for global epithelial gene expression profiling in this study. Differences between central and peripheral airways were evaluated using transcriptomic analysis (Affymetrix HG U133 plus 2.0 GeneChips) of epithelial brushings obtained from severe asthma patients (N = 17) and healthy volunteers (N = 23). Results were validated in an independent cohort (N = 10) by real-time quantitative PCR. The IL-13 disease signature that is associated with an asthmatic phenotype was upregulated in severe asthmatics compared to healthy controls but was predominantly evident within the peripheral airways, as were genes related to mast cell presence. The gene expression response associated with glucocorticosteroid therapy (i.e. FKBP5) was also upregulated in severe asthmatics compared to healthy controls but, in contrast, was more pronounced in central airways. Moreover, an altered epithelial repair response (e.g. FGFBP1) was evident across both airway sites reflecting a significant aspect of disease in severe asthma unadressed by current therapies. A transcriptomic approach to understand epithelial activation in severe asthma has thus highlighted the need for better-targeted therapy to the peripheral airways in severe asthma, where the IL-13 disease signature persists despite treatment with currently available therapy. PMID:28045928

  7. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Buchvald, Frederik;

    2007-01-01

    Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx in asymp......Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx...

  8. Astragalin inhibits autophagy-associated airway epithelial fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, In-Hee; Choi, Yean-Jung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Shin, Daekeun; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibrotic remodeling of airway and lung parenchymal compartments is attributed to pulmonary dysfunction with an involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Methods The in vitro study elucidated inhibitory effects of astragalin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside from leaves of persimmon and green tea seeds, on oxidative stress-induced airway fibrosis. The in vivo study explored the demoting effects of astragalin on ep...

  9. Robust system for human airway-tree segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael W.; Gibbs, Jason D.; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    Robust and accurate segmentation of the human airway tree from multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) chest scans is vital for many pulmonary-imaging applications. As modern MDCT scanners can detect hundreds of airway tree branches, manual segmentation and semi-automatic segmentation requiring significant user intervention are impractical for producing a full global segmentation. Fully-automated methods, however, may fail to extract small peripheral airways. We propose an automatic algorithm that searches the entire lung volume for airway branches and poses segmentation as a global graph-theoretic optimization problem. The algorithm has shown strong performance on 23 human MDCT chest scans acquired by a variety of scanners and reconstruction kernels. Visual comparisons with adaptive region-growing results and quantitative comparisons with manually-defined trees indicate a high sensitivity to peripheral airways and a low false-positive rate. In addition, we propose a suite of interactive segmentation tools for cleaning and extending critical areas of the automatically segmented result. These interactive tools have potential application for image-based guidance of bronchoscopy to the periphery, where small, terminal branches can be important visual landmarks. Together, the automatic segmentation algorithm and interactive tool suite comprise a robust system for human airway-tree segmentation.

  10. Utility of GATA3 immunohistochemistry in differentiating urothelial carcinoma from prostate adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinomas of the uterine cervix, anus, and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Amin, Ali; Gabrielson, Edward; Illei, Peter; Roden, Richard B; Sharma, Rajni; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2012-10-01

    Distinguishing invasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma (UC) from other carcinomas occurring in the genitourinary tract may be difficult. The differential diagnosis includes high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma, spread from an anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), or spread from a uterine cervical SCC. In terms of metastatic UC, the most common problem is differentiating spread of UC to the lung from a primary pulmonary SCC. Immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) for GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), thrombomodulin (THROMBO), and uroplakin III was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 35 cases of invasive high-grade UC. GATA3 IHC was also performed on TMAs containing 38 high-grade (Gleason score ≥8) prostatic adenocarcinomas, representative tissue sections from 15 invasive anal SCCs, representative tissue sections from 19 invasive cervical SCCs, and TMAs with 12 invasive cervical carcinomas of the cervix [SCC (n=10), SCC with neuroendocrine features (n=1), and adenosquamous carcinoma (n=1)]. In addition, GATA3 IHC was performed on representative tissue sections from 15 pulmonary UC metastases and a TMA with 25 SCCs of the lung and 5 pulmonary non-small cell carcinomas with squamous features. GATA3, THROMBO, and uroplakin III were positive in 28 (80%), 22 (63%), and 21 (60%) cases of high-grade UC, respectively. All cases of GATA3-positive staining were nonfocal; 25 (89%) cases demonstrated moderate to strong staining, and 3 (11%) demonstrated weak staining. Of the 7 cases that failed to express GATA3, 5 were positive for THROMBO and/or uroplakin III, whereas 2 were negative for all 3 markers. None of the 38 high-grade prostatic adenocarcinomas was positive for GATA3. Weak GATA3 staining was present in occasional basal cells of benign prostate glands, in a few benign atrophic glands, and in urothelial metaplasia. Of the 15 cases of anal SCCs, 2 (7%) cases showed focal weak staining, and 1 (3%) showed focal moderate staining. Weak staining was also rarely

  11. Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, K.K.W. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Karen.Siu@sync.monash.edu.au; Morgan, K.S.; Paganin, D.M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Boucher, R. [CF Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Uesugi, K.; Yagi, N. [SPring-8/JASRI, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Parsons, D.W. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, South Australia 5006 (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5006 (Australia); Women' s and Children' s Health Research Institute, South Australia, 5006 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    We seek to establish non-invasive imaging able to detect and measure aspects of the biology and physiology of surface fluids present on airways, in order to develop novel outcome measures able to validate the success of proposed genetic or pharmaceutical therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease. Reduction of the thin airway surface liquid (ASL) is thought to be a central pathophysiological process in CF, causing reduced mucociliary clearance that supports ongoing infection and destruction of lung and airways. Current outcome measures in animal models, or humans, are insensitive to the small changes in ASL depth that ought to accompany successful airway therapies. Using phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI), we have directly examined the airway surfaces in the nasal airways and tracheas of anaesthetised mice, currently to a resolution of {approx}2 {mu}m. We have also achieved high resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the small airways in mice using phase-contrast enhanced computed tomography (PC-CT) to elucidate the structure-function relationships produced by airway disease. As the resolution of these techniques improves they may permit non-invasive monitoring of changes in ASL depth with therapeutic intervention, and the use of 3D airway and imaging in monitoring of lung health and disease. Phase contrast imaging of airway surfaces has promise for diagnostic and monitoring options in animal models of CF, and the potential for future human airway imaging methodologies is also apparent.

  12. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Associated with Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit; Espana, Edgar M.; Singh, Arun D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe 2 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that originated in the setting of severe atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Methods Case one involved a 73-year-old male with atopic eczema and severe AKC who developed a limbal lesion suspicious for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Slit-lamp examination was significant for a new sessile lesion in the temporal limbal region of the left eye. The lesion was treated with excisional biopsy and cryotherapy. Topical therapy with mitomycin C, topical interferon alpha 2b, and topical 5-fluorouracil provided only partial control. Exenteration was eventually needed. Case two involved a 53-year-old male with history of severe AKC and eczema. Computed tomography imaging showed an infiltrative mass of the right orbit. Incisional biopsies confirmed conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma of both sides (invasive in the right eye, in situ in the left eye). Exenteration was needed for control of invasive carcinoma in the right eye. Results Squamous cell carcinoma was treated without success in spite of surgical excision and aggressive treatment with multiple topical agents and multiple applications of cryotherapy. Orbital exenteration was needed in both cases. Conclusion Chronic inflammation associated with AKC may be a risk factor for the development of bilateral, diffuse, invasive, and recurrent OSSN that may require exenteration.

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In a plaque Of Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma developing in a chronic plaque of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum is reported in a middle â€" aged, non-insulin dependent diabetic. The possible role of hypoxidosis due to poorly vascularized cicatricial structures, in including malignant changes is discussed.

  14. Squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal caruncle : case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Haeseker, Barbara I.; De Wolff-Rouendaal, Did; De Keizer, Robert J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report 2 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the lacrimal caruncle. Methods: Two patients, a 38-year-old man and a 72-year-old woman, presented with a painful mass in the medial angle of the eyelid aperture, with signs of inflammation. Biopsy was performed in both cases. Results: Patholo

  15. A mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.L. Schoop (Remilio); M.H.M. Noteborn (Mathieu); R.J. Baatenburg de Jong (Robert Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDespite recent advances, the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma is still poor. Therapeutic options such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and the novel treatment option gene therapy are being investigated in animal models. Diverse models have been studied to induce oral squam

  16. Male Pelvic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Chiec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies.

  17. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P

    2008-09-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  18. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear

    OpenAIRE

    YOSHIKAWA, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N.; Linn, Kathleen A.; Dickinson, Ryan M.; Carr, Anthony P.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  19. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  20. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Shehla; Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi; Bose, Shikha

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. METHODS: The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. RESULTS: Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK), atypical parakeratotic cells (APK), and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. CONCLUSIONS: In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98%) for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50%) for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46-56%) of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  1. Genetic susceptibility to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacko, M.; Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Sturgis, E.M.; Boedeker, C.C.; Suarez, C.; Rinaldo, A.; Ferlito, A.; Takes, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individ

  2. Primary treatment of the anterior vocal commissure squamous carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradley, Patrick J.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Suarez, Carlos; Shaha, Ashok R.; Leemans, C. Rene; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ferlito, Alfio

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma may involve the anterior commissure (AC) area of the laryngeal glottis, and can be grouped morphologically into four groups; (1) tumor confined to the AC, (2) tumor involving one cord and the AC, (3) tumor involving the AC and a portion of both vocal cords, and (4) tumor invo

  3. Squamous cell cancer of female urethra. Successful treatment with chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.B.; Kalra, J.K.; Silber, L.; Molho, L.

    1985-03-01

    The case is reported of a seventy-four-year-old woman with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra who achieved complete biopsy-proved regression of the tumor for more than thirty months after therapy with 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and radiotherapy.

  4. Organotypic in vitro models of human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in fair-skinned populations. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) comprises about 15% of all skin cancer diagnoses. Treatment associated with the high and rising prevalence of cutaneous SCC puts an increasingly high financial burden on society, markin

  5. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    form branching bronchioalveolar-like structures in 3-D culture. This novel model of human airway morphogenesis can be used to study critical events in human lung development and suggests a supportive role for the endothelium in promoting branching of airway epithelium.

  6. Topical airway anesthesia for awake fiberoptic intubation: Comparison between airway nerve blocks and nebulized lignocaine by ultrasonic nebulizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview: Awake fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB guided intubation is the gold standard of airway management in patients with cervical spine injury. It is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake FOB guided intubation in order to ensure patient comfort and cooperation. This randomized controlled study was performed to compare two methods of airway anesthesia, namely ultrasonic nebulization of local anesthetic and performance of airway blocks. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 adult patients with cervical spine injury were randomly allocated into two groups. Group L received airway anesthesia through ultrasonic nebulization of 10 ml of 4% lignocaine and Group NB received airway blocks (bilateral superior laryngeal and transtracheal recurrent laryngeal each with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine and viscous lignocaine gargles. FOB guided orotracheal intubation was then performed. Hemodynamic variables at baseline and during the procedure, patient recall, vocal cord visibility, ease of intubation, coughing/gagging episodes, and signs of lignocaine toxicity were noted. Results: The observations did not reveal any significant differences in demographics or hemodynamic parameters at any time during the study. However, the time taken for intubation was significantly lower in Group NB as compared with the Group L. Group L had an increased number of coughing/gagging episodes as compared with Group NB. Vocal cord visibility and ease of intubation were better in patients who received airway blocks and hence the amount of supplemental lignocaine used was less in this group. Overall patient comfort was better in Group NB with fewer incidences of unpleasant recalls as compared with Group L. Conclusion: Upper airway blocks provide better quality of anesthesia than lignocaine nebulization as assessed by patient recall of procedure, coughing/gagging episodes, ease of intubation, vocal cord visibility, and time taken to intubate.

  7. Comparative Proteome Analysis of Human Lung Squamous Carcinoma Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui; TANG Can'e; DUAN Chaojun; YI Hong; XIAO Zhiqiang; CHEN Zhuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish the two-dimensional electrophoresis profiles with high resolution and reproducibility from human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue, and to identify differential expression tumor-associated proteins by using proteome analysis. Methods: Comparative proteome analysis with 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and the paired normal bronchial epithelial tissues adjacent to tumors was carried out. The total proteins of human lung squamous carcinoma tissue and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissue were separated by means of immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining. The differential expression proteins were analyzed and then identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results: (1) Well-resolved, reproducible 2-DE patterns of human lung squamous carcinoma and adjacent normal bronchial epithelial tissues were obtained. For tumor tissue, average spots of 3 gels were 1567±46, and 1436±54 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.6%. For control, average spots of 3 gels were 1349±58, and 1228±35 spots were matched with an average matching rate of 91.03%. The average position deviation of matched spots was 0.924±0.128 mm in IEF direction, and 1.022±0.205 mm in SDS-PAGE direction; (2)A total of 1178±56 spots were matched between the electrophoretic maps of 20 human lung squamous carcinoma tissues and paired normal tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelial tissues. Seventy-six differentially expressed proteins were screened; (3) Sixty-eight differential proteins were identified by PMF, some proteins were the products of oncogenes, and others involved in the regulation of cell cycle and signal transduction;(4) In order to validate the reliability of the identified results, the expression of 3 proteins mdm2, c-jun and EGFR, which was correlated with lung

  8. Small airway impairment in moderate to severe asthmatics without significant proximal airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Thierry; Chanez, Pascal; Dusser, Daniel; Devillier, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by inflammation which affects both proximal and distal airways. We evaluated the prevalence of small airway obstruction (SAO) in a group of clinically stable asthmatics with both normal forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and normal FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and treated with an association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Clinical evaluation included the measurement of dyspnea, asthma control test and drug compliance. The prevalence of SAO was estimated by spirometry and plethysmography and defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: functional residual capacity (FRC) > 120% predicted (pred), residual volume (RV) > pred + 1.64 residual standard deviation (RSD), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) > pred + 1.64 RSD, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75% slow vital capacity (SVC) - FVC > 10%. Among the 441 patients who were included, 222 had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. At least one criteria of SAO was found in 115 (52%) mainly lung hyperinflation (39% based on high FRC, RV or RV/TLC) and more rarely distal airflow limitation (15% based on FEF25-75% or FEF50%) or expiratory trapping (10% based on increased SVC - FVC). In the patients with only SAO (no PAO), there was no relationship between SAO, asthma history and the scores of dyspnea, asthma control or drug compliance. These results suggest that in asthmatics with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, treated with ICSs and LABAs, SAO is found in more than half of the patients indicating that the routinely used lung function tests can underestimate dysfunctions occurring in the small airways.

  9. Role of IRE1α/XBP-1 in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. P. Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic airway infection and inflammation. The infectious and inflamed CF airway environment impacts on the innate defense of airway epithelia and airway macrophages. The CF airway milieu induces an adaptation in these cells characterized by increased basal inflammation and a robust inflammatory response to inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have indicated that these responses depend on activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR. This review discusses the contribution of airway epithelia and airway macrophages to CF airway inflammatory responses and specifically highlights the functional importance of the UPR pathway mediated by IRE1/XBP-1 in these processes. These findings suggest that targeting the IRE1/XBP-1 UPR pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for CF airway disease.

  10. Chronic respiratory aeroallergen exposure in mice induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the large airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R Johnson

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-polarized inflammation and leads to airway remodeling and fibrosis but the mechanisms involved are not clear. To determine whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition contributes to airway remodeling in asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extract for up to 15 consecutive weeks. We report that respiratory exposure to HDM led to significant airway inflammation and thickening of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the large airways. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 levels increased in mouse airways while epithelial cells lost expression of E-cadherin and occludin and gained expression of the mesenchymal proteins vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and pro-collagen I. We also observed increased expression and nuclear translocation of Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a potent inducer of EMT, in the airway epithelial cells of HDM-exposed mice. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies revealed migration of airway epithelial cells into the sub-epithelial regions of the airway wall. These results show the contribution of EMT to airway remodeling in chronic asthma-like inflammation and suggest that Th2-polarized airway inflammation can trigger invasion of epithelial cells into the subepithelial regions of the airway wall where they contribute to fibrosis, demonstrating a previously unknown plasticity of the airway epithelium in allergic airway disease.

  11. Comparative Study of laryngeal mask airway Supreme and laryngeal mask airway Classic in paralyzed patients

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare the LMA Classic with LMA Supreme in assessing the ease of insertion, number of attempts, time for insertion, any unwanted responses, stability of device, peak airway pressure, leak volume and leak fraction and postoperative complications.Methods: A total of 274 patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 were included in the study and divided into two groups with 137 patients in each group: the LMA Classic group (group C) and LMA Supreme group...

  12. deltaNp63 has a role in maintaining epithelial integrity in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arason, Ari Jon; Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Benediktsdottir, Berglind Eva; Bergthorsson, Jon Thor; Ingthorsson, Saevar; Baldursson, Olafur; Sinha, Satrajit; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Magnusson, Magnus K

    2014-01-01

    The upper airways are lined with a pseudostratified bronchial epithelium that forms a barrier against unwanted substances in breathing air. The transcription factor p63, which is important for stratification of skin epithelium, has been shown to be expressed in basal cells of the lungs and its ΔN isoform is recognized as a key player in squamous cell lung cancer. However, the role of p63 in formation and maintenance of bronchial epithelia is largely unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the expression pattern of the ΔN and TA isoforms of p63 and the role of p63 in the development and maintenance of pseudostratified lung epithelium in situ and in culture. We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line with basal cell characteristics (VA10) to model bronchial epithelium in an air-liquid interface culture (ALI) and performed a lentiviral-based silencing of p63 to characterize the functional and phenotypic consequences of p63 loss. We demonstrate that ΔNp63 is the major isoform in the human lung and its expression was exclusively found in the basal cells lining the basement membrane of the bronchial epithelium. Knockdown of p63 affected proliferation and migration of VA10 cells and facilitated cellular senescence. Expression of p63 is critical for epithelial repair as demonstrated by wound healing assays. Importantly, generation of pseudostratified VA10 epithelium in the ALI setup depended on p63 expression and goblet cell differentiation, which can be induced by IL-13 stimulation, was abolished by the p63 knockdown. After knockdown of p63 in primary bronchial epithelial cells they did not proliferate and showed marked senescence. We conclude that these results strongly implicate p63 in the formation and maintenance of differentiated pseudostratified bronchial epithelium.

  13. Maxillary tumor in a child: An expected case of difficult airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena; Vikram, A

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial abnormalities in pediatric population fall under the category of expected case of difficult airway. We present here a case of large maxillary tumor in a 9-year-old girl where the relative difficulty was further compounded due to her noncooperation which was again expected from a child. Local anesthetic topicalization of airway followed by slow inhalational induction with gradually increasing sevoflurane, while maintaining her spontaneous breathing, we secured her airway using fiber optic bronchoscopy. The surgery and the extubation went uneventful. In conclusion a planned airway management using fiber optic bronchoscope after airway topicalization and sevoflurane induction is the ideal technique in an expected case of difficult pediatric airway. PMID:27051379

  14. Microsatellite Instability in Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer%胃癌及肠化组织的微卫星不稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵耘; 张小勇; 刘平

    2004-01-01

    目的:探讨微卫星不稳定性(MSI)在胃癌及肠化组织中的发生规律及其在胃癌发生过程中的作用.方法:对30例胃癌、40例肠上皮化生的石蜡标本分别提取病变及相应正常组织的DNA,应用银染PCR-SSCP技术检测5个微卫星位点的不稳定性.结果:胃癌组织MSI的发生率为23.3%,胃窦癌MSI的发生率显著高于贲门癌(P=0.044).肠化组织MSI发生率20%,MSI全部出现在中度以上肠化组织中(P=0.013),且更多见于女性(P=0.044).结论:MSI是胃癌多步骤发生过程中的早期分子事件,在胃癌的发生中可能具有重要作用.%Objectiye: To investigate the changeable patterns of microsatellite instability (MSI)in intestinal metaplasia(IM)and gastric cancer(CC)and the role of MSI in gastric carcinogenesis. Methods: Silver staining single strand conformation polymorphism-polymeriase chain reaction(PCR-SSCP)was used to screen MSI markers at 5 loci in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of GC ( n = 30), IM ( n 40) and corresponding normal gastric tissues. Results: The abnormal shifting of the single-strand DNA was identified in 7(23.3%)out of GC and in 8(20%)out of IM samples. Three( 10% )tumors and one(2.5% ) IM displayed high-frequency MSI( two or more loci altered) .Low-frequency MSI(one loci altered)was detected in 4 (13.3 % )of the tumors and in 7 (17.5%)IM samples. GC with MSI was associated with distal locaton of the tumors but age, sex, differentiation, lymph nodes metastasis and TNM stage( P = 0.044). MSI was more likely detected in moderate-grade IM than in mild-grade IM tssues(34.8% versus 0; P = 0.013); and MSI had a tendency to be easily detected in female with IM. Conclusion: The progressive accumulation of MSI in areas of IM may contribute to GC development, representing an important molecular event in the multistep gastric carcinogenesis.

  15. Aging increases upper airway collapsibility in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Andrew D; Ogasa, Toshiyuki; Magalang, Ulysses J; Krasney, John A; Farkas, Gaspar A

    2008-11-01

    The upper airway muscles play an important role in maintaining upper airway collapsibility, and the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing increases with age. We hypothesize that the increase in airway collapsibility with increasing age can be linked to changes in upper airway muscle mechanics and structure. Eight young (Y: 6 mo) and eight old (O: 30 mo) Fischer 344 rats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated, and the pharyngeal pressure associated with flow limitation (Pcrit) was measured 1) with the hypoglossal (cnXII) nerve intact, 2) following bilateral cnXII denervation, and 3) during cnXII stimulation. With the cnXII intact, the upper airways of older rats were more collapsible compared with their younger counterparts [Pcrit = -7.1 +/- 0.6 (SE) vs. -9.5 +/- 0.7 cmH2O, respectively; P = 0.033]. CnXII denervation resulted in an increase in Pcrit such that Pcrit became similar in both groups (O: -4.2 +/- 0.5 cmH2O; Y: -5.4 +/- 0.5 cmH2O). In all rats, cnXII stimulation decreased Pcrit (less collapsible) in both groups (O: -11.3 +/- 1.0 cmH2O; Y: -10.2 +/- 1.0 cmH2O). The myosin heavy chain composition of the genioglossus muscle demonstrated a decrease in the percentage of the IIb isoform (38.3 +/- 2.5 vs. 21.7 +/- 1.7%; P collapsible with age and that the increase in upper airway collapsibility with age is likely related to altered neural control rather than to primary alterations in upper airway muscle structure and function.

  16. Neuropeptides control the dynamic behavior of airway mucosal dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voedisch, Sabrina; Rochlitzer, Sabine; Veres, Tibor Z; Spies, Emma; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The airway mucosal epithelium is permanently exposed to airborne particles. A network of immune cells patrols at this interface to the environment. The interplay of immune cells is orchestrated by different mediators. In the current study we investigated the impact of neuronal signals on key functions of dendritic cells (DC). Using two-photon microscopic time-lapse analysis of living lung sections from CD11c-EYFP transgenic mice we studied the influence of neuropeptides on airway DC motility. Additionally, using a confocal microscopic approach, the phagocytotic capacity of CD11c(+) cells after neuropeptide stimulation was determined. Electrical field stimulation (EFS) leads to an unspecific release of neuropeptides from nerves. After EFS and treatment with the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), airway DC in living lung slices showed an altered motility. Furthermore, the EFS-mediated effect could partially be blocked by pre-treatment with the receptor antagonist CGRP(8-37). Additionally, the phagocytotic capacity of bone marrow-derived and whole lung CD11c(+) cells could be inhibited by neuropeptides CGRP, VIP, and Substance P. We then cross-linked these data with the in vivo situation by analyzing DC motility in two different OVA asthma models. Both in the acute and prolonged OVA asthma model altered neuropeptide amounts and DC motility in the airways could be measured. In summary, our data suggest that neuropeptides modulate key features motility and phagocytosis of mouse airway DC. Therefore altered neuropeptide levels in airways during allergic inflammation have impact on regulation of airway immune mechanisms and therefore might contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma.

  17. Oral and airway microbiota in HIV-infected pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Shoko; Fei, Matthew; Huang, Delphine; Fong, Serena; Subramanian, Anuradha; Grieco, Katherine; Lynch, Susan V; Huang, Laurence

    2012-09-01

    Despite the increased frequency of recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recent studies linking the airway bacterial community (microbiota) to acute and chronic respiratory infection, little is known of the oral and airway microbiota that exist in these individuals and their propensity to harbor pathogens despite antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. This pilot study compared paired samples of the oral and airway microbiota from 15 hospitalized HIV-infected patients receiving antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. Total DNA was extracted, bacterial burden was assessed by quantitative PCR, and amplified 16S rRNA was profiled for microbiome composition using a phylogenetic microarray (16S rRNA PhyloChip). Though the bacterial burden of the airway was significantly lower than that of the oral cavity, microbiota in both niches were comparably diverse. However, oral and airway microbiota exhibited niche specificity. Oral microbiota were characterized by significantly increased relative abundance of multiple species associated with the mouth, including members of the Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and TM7 phyla, while airway microbiota were primarily characterized by a relative expansion of the Proteobacteria. Twenty-two taxa were detected in both niches, including Streptococcus bovis and Chryseobacterium species, pathogens associated with HIV-infected populations. In addition, we compared the airway microbiota of five of these patients to those of five non-HIV-infected pneumonia patients from a previous study. Compared to the control population, HIV-infected patients exhibited relative increased abundance of a large number of phylogenetically distinct taxa, which included several known or suspected pathogenic organisms, suggesting that recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected populations may be related to the presence of these species.

  18. Could an increase in airway smooth muscle shortening velocity cause airway hyperresponsiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Sharon R; Siddiqui, Sana; Donovan, Graham M; Martin, James G; Sneyd, James; Bates, Jason H T; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a characteristic feature of asthma. It has been proposed that an increase in the shortening velocity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) could contribute to AHR. To address this possibility, we tested whether an increase in the isotonic shortening velocity of ASM is associated with an increase in the rate and total amount of shortening when ASM is subjected to an oscillating load, as occurs during breathing. Experiments were performed in vitro using 27 rat tracheal ASM strips supramaximally stimulated with methacholine. Isotonic velocity at 20% isometric force (Fiso) was measured, and then the load on the muscle was varied sinusoidally (0.33 ± 0.25 Fiso, 1.2 Hz) for 20 min, while muscle length was measured. A large amplitude oscillation was applied every 4 min to simulate a deep breath. We found that: 1) ASM strips with a higher isotonic velocity shortened more quickly during the force oscillations, both initially (P shortening during the force oscillation protocol (P shortening with increased isotonic velocity could be explained by a change in either the cycling rate of phosphorylated cross bridges or the rate of myosin light chain phosphorylation. We conclude that, if asthma involves an increase in ASM velocity, this could be an important factor in the associated AHR.

  19. Accumulating evidence for increased velocity of airway smooth muscle shortening in asthmatic airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, Gijs; Matusovsky, Oleg; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear whether airway smooth muscle (ASM) mechanics is altered in asthma. While efforts have originally focussed on contractile force, some evidence points to an increased velocity of shortening. A greater rate of airway renarrowing after a deep inspiration has been reported in asthmatics compared to controls, which could result from a shortening velocity increase. In addition, we have recently shown in rats that increased shortening velocity correlates with increased muscle shortening, without increasing muscle force. Nonetheless, establishing whether or not asthmatic ASM shortens faster than that of normal subjects remains problematic. Endobronchial biopsies provide excellent tissue samples because the patients are well characterized, but the size of the samples allows only cell level experiments. Whole human lungs from transplant programs suffer primarily from poor patient characterization, leading to high variability. ASM from several animal models of asthma has shown increased shortening velocity, but it is unclear whether this is representative of human asthma. Several candidates have been suggested as responsible for increased shortening velocity in asthma, such as alterations in contractile protein expression or changes in the contractile apparatus structure. There is no doubt that more remains to be learned about the role of shortening velocity in asthma.

  20. Airway management using a supraglottic airway device without endotracheal intubation for positive ventilation of anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S H; Lee, J H; Kim, M H; Cho, K R; Lim, S H; Lee, K M; Park, M Y; Yang, Y I; Kim, D K; Choi, C S

    2013-04-01

    Endotracheal intubation is often necessary for positive pressure ventilation of rats during open thoracic surgery. Since endotracheal intubation in rats is technically difficult and is associated with numerous complications, many techniques using various devices have been described in the scientific literature. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of airway management of a home-made supraglottic airway device (SAD), which is cheap to fabricate and easy to place with that of an endotracheal intubation tube in enflurane-anaesthetized rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-300 g) were randomly assigned to two equal groups for positive pressure mechanical ventilation using either the SAD or an endotracheal intubation tube. The carotid artery of each rat was cannulated for continuous blood pressure measurements and obtaining blood samples for determination of oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, and blood acidity before, during and after SAD placement or endotracheal intubation. Proper placement of the SAD was confirmed by observing chest wall movements that coincided with the operation of the mechanical ventilator. No complications and adverse events were encountered in the rats in which the SAD was placed, during SAD placement and immediate removal, during their mechanical ventilation through the SAD, and one week after SAD removal. From the results of blood gas analyses, we conclude that anaesthetized rats can be successfully ventilated using an SAD for open thoracic surgery.