WorldWideScience

Sample records for airtightness

  1. Simple Tool to Evaluate Airtightness in Chilean Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex González Cáceres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the high impact that air leaks have on buildings’ energy expenses, most developed countries have set out norms which regulate their presence in homes. Chile will soon begin this process; however, the airtightness revision strategy in envelopes has not been resolved as of yet. This article presents a tool to Assess Airtightness in Design, EHeD. The software will allow predicting the performance of homes under the regulations which will be set out, aiding designers, builders or owners to make decisions when making changes to improve airtightness. EHeD has been validated through pressurization tests in diverse homes across the country, with results that are in line with expectations, thus validating its calculation model. The methodology considers three stages: determining the main factors that have an impact on the airtightness in Chilean homes, preparing an airtightness database for each component (wall, windows and doors and preparing a calculation model that is integrated in an IT interface.

  2. Two applications of airtightness control techniques on big assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Devallan, C; Marcellin, J

    1973-01-01

    Deals with two airtightness control techniques respectively applied on intersecting storage rings (ISR) at CERN in Geneva and on a liquid methane storage tank. These two big assemblies called for two different control techniques which use helium and ammonia respectively as tracer gas. Existing practical leakage detection techniques to meet industrial needs are discussed at the end of the article. (2 refs).

  3. Online Airtightness Calculator for the US, Canada and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Ng, Lisa [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Emmerich, Steve [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD; Dalgleish, Laverne [Air Barrier Association of America

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of air leakage to heating and cooling loads has been increasing as the thermal resistance of building envelopes continues to improve. Easy-to-access data are needed to convince building owners and contractors that enhancing the airtightness of buildings is the next logical step to achieve a high-performance building envelope. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Air Barrier Association of America, and the US-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency Consortium partnered to develop an online calculator that estimates the potential energy savings in major US, Canadian, and Chinese cities due to improvements in airtightness. This tool will have user-friendly graphical interface that uses a database of CONTAM-EnergyPlus pre-run simulation results, and will be available to the public at no cost. Baseline leakage rates are either user-specified or the user selects them from the supplied typical leakage rates. Users will enter the expected airtightness after the proper installation of an air barrier system. Energy costs are estimated based on the building location and inputs from users. This paper provides an overview of the methodology that is followed in this calculator, as well as results from an example. The successful deployment of this calculator could influence construction practices so that greenhouse gas emissions from the US, Canada, and China are significantly curtailed.

  4. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings: Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Durability of building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. We presented a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007-2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightness of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. The weatherized homes also showed an increase in the mean air leakage (12%). We performed a regression analysis to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL). The best estimate of the aging factor predicts a 15% increase in NL over ten years. Further analysis using ResDB data (LBNL’s Residential Diagnostic Database) showed the expected changes in air leakage if aging were modeled. These results imply that we should examine the causes of increased leakage and methods to avoid them. This increase in leakage with time should be accounted for in long-term population-wide energy savings estimates, such as those used in ratings or energy savings programs.

  5. Airtight storage of moist wheat grain improves bioethanol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piens Kathleen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drying is currently the most frequently used conservation method for cereal grain, which in temperate climates consumes a major part of process energy. Airtight storage of moist feed grain using the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala as biopreservation agent can substantially reduce the process energy for grain storage. In this study we tested the potential of moist stored grain for bioethanol production. Results The ethanol yield from moist wheat was enhanced by 14% compared with the control obtained from traditionally (dry stored grain. This enhancement was observed independently of whether or not P. anomala was added to the storage system, indicating that P. anomala does not impair ethanol fermentation. Starch and sugar analyses showed that during pre-treatment the starch of moist grain was better degraded by amylase treatment than that of the dry grain. Additional pre-treatment with cellulose and hemicellulose-degrading enzymes did not further increase the total ethanol yield. Sugar analysis after this pre-treatment showed an increased release of sugars not fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion The ethanol yield from wheat grain is increased by airtight storage of moist grain, which in addition can save substantial amounts of energy used for drying the grain. This provides a new opportunity to increase the sustainability of bioethanol production.

  6. Potential of wind barriers to assure airtightness of wood-frame low energy constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langmans, Jelle; Roels, Staf [Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Building Physics, Catholic University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 40 - bus 02448, BE-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Klein, Ralf [Sustainable Building Research Group, Departement of Industrial Engineering, Catholic University College Sint-Lieven, G. Desmetstraat 1, BE-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Paepe, Michel [Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Ghent University-UGent, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, BE-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    This paper investigates the airtightness of a wood-frame passive house during the consecutive construction stages. Aim is to investigate whether an acceptable airtightness can be achieved by the external wind barrier only. The wind barrier consists of a promising new type of asphalt impregnated fibreboards. To quantify the different leakage paths, the study applies the reductive sealing technique. In total 12 pressurisation tests have been conducted during the construction process. In addition to these field tests on the entire building, the paper discusses the results from laboratory measurements on specimens of the wind barrier including typical joints, in order to verify the influence of different possible types of local air leakage paths. The results reveal that the external wind barrier has a significant airtightness. Moreover, by sealing only the most critical joints of the outer shell, the overall airtightness of the studied case fulfils the requirements of the passive house standard (less than 0.6 air changes per hour (ACH) at 50 Pa). The results presented in this paper, thus, indicate that the proposed solution may have potential to reduce the labour costs required to reach a sufficient level of airtightness. (author)

  7. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived {sup 222}Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of {sup 226}Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m{sup −3}, 192 Bq m{sup −3}, 176 Bq m{sup −3} and 28 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m{sup −3} i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.85 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.44 mSv y{sup −1} and 0.72 mSv y{sup −1}, respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y{sup −1}. As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively.

  8. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings: Field Measurements and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Durability of the building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. This paper presents a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007-2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightness of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. A regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL).

  9. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLIED TO MODELING OF THE AIR-TIGHTNESS OF A BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents experimental designs that can be used in modeling of the air-tightness of buildings as second-order functions using response surface method and corresponding experiment designs. The factors supposed to be significant for a model of building air-tightness—and thus those used in experiment designs—are the heat transfer coefficient for external walls, the heat transfer coefficient of the windows, and the position of the housing units with respect to the building envelope. We c...

  10. Experimental Air-Tightness Analysis in Mediterranean Buildings after Windows Retrofit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana d’Ambrosio Alfano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage, the possible infiltration of outdoor air through windows is not taken into account when determining the nominal outdoor airflow rate of the ventilation system. This practice may result in an oversizing of the ventilation system and consequent energy waste. Thus, the air-tightness class of a wall assembly should be assessed for each window component considering the type of material, the presence of the seal, the type of closure, the sealing and the maintenance condition. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of air-tightness measurements carried out using the fan pressurization method in three residential buildings located in the Mediterranean region before and after a window retrofit. Two different window retrofits were investigated: the application of rubber seals on window frames and the substitution of existing windows with new certified high performance windows. The effectiveness of such retrofits was estimated also in terms of energy saving. Test results demonstrated a high variability of the building air tightness after window retrofits, despite the fact that air tight–certified windows were used.

  11. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  12. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...

  13. Refinement of a SPR sensor for application within air-tight buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James; Aidoo, Kofi

    2009-08-01

    The development of air-tight buildings to significantly reduce the carbon emissions from buildings is a relatively new building technique. However the side effects of the new approach have not been fully investigated. One potential issue arising is from insufficient ventilation resulting in an increase in poor indoor air quality from exacerbated microbial growth through elevated humidity and temperature. At the moment there is no in situ real-time sensor for the detection of multiple microbes within the built environment. Developing a sensor utilizing the phenomena of Surface Plasmon Resonance as its detection method to continuously monitor in situ multiple microbial species and fungi is being undertaken. The research involves the refinement of the specialised instruments commercially available, simplifying the components and advancing the architecture of the interface allowing for the monitoring of multiple species and a novel output detection method.

  14. Influence of Improvement of Airtightness on Energy Retrofit of Social Housing, a Case Study in a Mediterranean Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Agüera, Jesica; Suárez, Rafael; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    In Spain, the residential sector is the third principal source of energy consumption; many of these dwellings are obsolete and do not have optimal conditions of comfort. For this reason, their energy retrofitting means an enormous step towards the energy efficiency. Under the general intervention...... dwelling units in Cordoba (Southern Spain) evaluating their global energy demand and analysing the importance of air-tightness....... strategies, the study and analysis of the air-tightness of the building envelope (as measured by the degree of infiltration) is a fundamental factor, because of its impact on energy efficiency, thermal comfort of occupants and indoor air quality. For this purpose, it has become a regular research field...

  15. An experimental study on removal efficiency of bio-particles in an airtight decontamination chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanju [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); National Biological Protection Engineering Center, Tianjin (China); Hao, Limei; Wang, Shuang; Hou, Lili; Zhang, Jinming; Qi, Jiancheng [National Biological Protection Engineering Center, Tianjin (China)

    2009-11-15

    Many bacteria and viruses lead to global dissemination of respiratory diseases, such as SARS, influenza, tuberculosis, pneumonia and asthma, by clinging to particles and transmission through aerosol. In this paper, an experiment was conducted to investigate the removal efficiency of bio-particles when exposed to ventilation in an airtight decontamination chamber made of stainless steel. After the bio-particles (Serratia marcescens) exposure condition was established in the chamber, the bio-particles removal efficiency was investigated. And a comparison experiment was then conducted with polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) as general particles under the same environmental condition. The comparison results indicate that the removal efficiency of bio-particles is lower than that of PSL during the first 300 s, but both removal efficiencies reached 90% almost at the same time. Furthermore, the differences between bio-particles and PSL, the influence of bio-particle size, environmental velocity, temperature and relative humidity on bio-particle removal efficiency were analyzed and discussed comprehensively. These data could not only underpin future numerical simulations of bio-particles, but also give information to aid in decisions for decreasing the risk of bio-particles pollution in a microbe exposure environment. (author)

  16. Airtight negative pressure dust-control technology and application of transpersite in the coal conveyer belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yun-dong; JIA Hui-yan; ZHANG Da-ming

    2008-01-01

    Presented a new coal dust control program that was airtight negative pressure dust-control technology at the transpersite,combining with analysis with the movement of air currents and numerical simulation of gas-solid flow at the transpersite,and proved the mechanism of precipitation and proliferation for coal dust-controlt in theory.The technology has made good economic results at the Heidaigou Clean Plant,not only dust concentration control within 10 mg/m3 to the work site,but also substantial energy savings and cost savings.

  17. A New Tool for Airtight Test%一种新型气密试验工装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易辉; 程红

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of airtight test tool which will reduce the damage of pressure gauge greatly. By removing branch pipe and valve, it can be used as accessories of pressure gauge. It will protect pressure gauge from damage when used in conjunction with pressure gaug.%一种新型气密试验工装,可以大大减少压力表的损坏。除掉支管和闸阀后,它可以充当压力表的配件。它与压力表配套使用,具有更好的仪表保护效果。

  18. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  19. Modification and economy analysis for airtight dehydration in tank farm%罐区密闭脱水技术改造及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范恺

    2016-01-01

    The safety of tank farm is crucial for oil and gas storage,so it is significant for airtight dehydration by use of current technologies.This paper describes the modification for airtight dehydration in tank farm along with related economic analysis to provide guidance for safety practices.%罐区安全直接威胁石油天然气的储存和运输,所以如何利用现有技术做好罐区密闭脱水处理具有重要意义。本文主要分析罐区密闭脱水技术的改造,并且对其经济型做一分析,目的就是要指导罐区的安全实践。

  20. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Fujino, Masayuki; Hirano, Shinichi; Sato, Bunpei; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2014-06-30

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich saline (HSRS), and inhalation of hydrogen gas. A new method for determining the hydrogen concentration was then applied using high-quality sensor gas chromatography, after which the specimen was prepared via tissue homogenization in airtight tubes. This method allowed for the sensitive and stable determination of the hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen concentration reached a peak at 5 minutes after oral and intraperitoneal administration, compared to 1 minute after intravenous administration. Following inhalation of hydrogen gas, the hydrogen concentration was found to be significantly increased at 30 minutes and maintained the same level thereafter. These results demonstrate that accurately determining the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and organ tissue is very useful and important for the application of various novel medical and therapeutic therapies using molecular hydrogen.

  1. 新型空气处理机用密闭面板技术%The new air processor with airtight panel technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长安

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍一种空气处理机用密闭面板结构,属空调技术领域。本结构密闭面板内外金属板扣合在边框上,形成的密闭空间充填有保温材料层,内外金属板并不直接接触,杜绝了冷桥的产生;面板整体性好、强度高、外形美观、无需装饰;降低了加工工时,提高了产品的性价比。%This paper introduces a kind of air processor with airtight panel structure,air conditioning technology. This structure closed panel fit inside and outside the metal plate on the frame, form the airtight space filling with insulation layer,inner and outer metal plate is not in direct contact,put an end to the cold bridge. Panel,integral sex is good,high strength,good appearance,no decoration; Reduces the processing time,increase the product price.

  2. Measurements of airtightness of building components using the blower door method - DB Hamm; Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit von einzelnen Gebaeudeteilen mit Hilfe der Blower-Door-Methode - DB Hamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.; Dahlem, K.H.; Rechenbach, O.

    2001-08-24

    The blower door measuring system consisted of a variable frame with airtight foil and integrated speed-controlled blower, a volume flow meter and differential pressure manometer. It was not possible in all cases to generate sufficient volume flow for achieving the desired pressure gradient, both in the atrium and the building as a whole. In these cases, only the volume flow for a pressure gradient was measured. The curve was approximated using typical curves, and an n{sub 50} value was extrapolated which is not a real n{sub 50} value but an estimated value based on the values measured for low pressure gradients. Extensive measurements were carried out on different parts of the building.

  3. Investigations of initial airtightness after non-anatomic resection of lung parenchyma using a thulium-doped laser with different optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Andreas; Höchsmann, N; Steinfeldt, T; Seyfer, P; Pehl, A; Bartsch, D K; Palade, E

    2016-08-01

    Lung metastases in healthy patients should be removed non-anatomically whenever possible. This can be done with a laser. Lung parenchyma can be cut very well, because of its high energy absorption at a wavelength of 1940 nm. A coagulation layer is created on the resected surface. It is not clear, whether this surface also needs to be sutured to ensure that it remains airtight even at higher ventilation pressures. It would be helpful, if suturing could be avoided, because the lung can become too puckered, especially with multiple resections, resulting in considerable restriction. We carried out our experiments on isolated and ventilated paracardiac lung lobes of pigs. Non-anatomic resection was carried out reproducibly using three different thulium laser fibres (230, 365 and 600 μm) at two different laser power levels (10 W, 30 W) and three different resection depths (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 cm). Initial airtightness was investigated while ventilating at normal frequency. We also investigated the bursting pressures of the resected areas by increasing the inspiratory pressure. When 230- and 365-μm fibres were used with a power of 10 W, 70 % of samples were initially airtight up to a resection depth of 1 cm. This rate fell at depths of up to 2 cm. All resected surfaces remained airtight during ventilation when 600-μm fibres were used at both laser power levels (10 and 30 W). The bursting pressures achieved with 600-μm fibres were higher than with the other fibres used: 0.5 cm, 41.6 ± 3.2 mbar; 1 cm, 38.2 ± 2.5 mbar; 2 cm, 33.7 ± 4.8 mbar. As laser power and thickness of laser fibre increased, so the coagulation zone became thicker. With a 600-μm fibre, it measured 145.0 ± 8.2 μm with 10 W power and 315.5 ± 6.4 μm with 30 W power. Closure with sutures after non-anatomic resection of lung parenchyma is not necessary when a thulium laser is used provided a 600-μm fibre and adequate laser power (30 W) are employed. At deeper

  4. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyong; Chen, Zhiyu; Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Chengwei; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  5. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyong He

    Full Text Available Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  6. Design of Detecting System of Air-Tight Tester Based on PLC%基于PLC的气密试验台检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨西周; 王乐新; 刘宾

    2012-01-01

    介绍基于PLC和力控的气密试验台检测系统。该系统利用西门子S7-200可编程控制器作为主控元件,实时检测高压容器的压力值。使用力控组态软件制作检测系统的监控画面,可以设定系统参数和显示运行情况,可按不同压力选择通路,多检测通路可同时工作并对结果进行分析。现场实际检测证明,该系统设计正确可靠。%Describes the detecting system of an air-tight tester, which detects the pressure m me mgn-pressure vessel real-timely. Siemens S7-200 PLC is adopted in the system as the main monitoring element. The monitoring screen is formed by force controlling configuration software. The parameters of system may be settled and the operation may be displayed. The working channel is selected according to the needful level of pressure. The multichannels of detecting system may work simultaneously. The site tests show that the design of the system is correct and reliable.

  7. Development of a micro-circumstance airtight cabin for bioaerosol testing%一种用于生物气溶胶检测的微环境密闭舱室的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 温占波; 杨文慧; 王洁; 胡凌飞; 张柯; 李劲松

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a micro-circumstance airtight cabin for in the study of biological aerosols detection with such functions as airflow control and temperature and humidity detection .Methods Wind speed sensors , temperature and humidity sensors , electrical control valves , high efficiency filters and the vacuum pump formed the micro-circumstance regulating system .The techniques of airflow direction control , temperature compensation , air pressure control and aerosol uniformity distribution were used .Numerical simulation of aerosol concentration distribution in the airtight cabin was achieved using Fluent software .The bioaerosol concentration in different locations was tested by experiments .Results The micro-circumstance airtight cabin consisted of an airtight cabin and a control cabin .The control cabin used a single-chip microprocessor to provide air supply and exhaust air to the airtight cabin in a seaparate exhaust mode and cyclic ventilation mode.It worked under a negative pressure condition .Through numerical simulation,the aerosols were distributed through-out the cabin after five minutes of generation and the bottom airflow arrived at the top .The distribution of aerosol concentra-tion was approximately uniform .Conclusion The micro-circumstance airtight cabin is suited to various bioaerosols testing research thanks to its negative pressure working without bioaerosol leakage .%目的:研制一种具备气流控制和温湿度检测功能的微环境密闭舱室用于生物气溶胶检测研究。方法利用风速传感器、温湿度传感器、电动调节阀、管道高效过滤器和真空泵组成控制系统,解决气流流向控制、温度补偿技术、压力控制和气溶胶均匀分布技术。利用Fluent 软件对该密闭舱室气溶胶浓度分布状况进行数值模拟,并测试不同位置的气溶胶浓度。结果该微环境密闭舱室由一个气密舱和一个控制柜组成,控制柜采用单片机控制,并

  8. The clinical application of treating tissue defects of finger tip with airtight semipermeable dressing technique%密闭包扎法治疗指端组织缺损的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹成国; 王业本; 高广辉; 姚保兵; 赵亮; 郝作斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical application and effect of treating tissue defect on the finger tip with airtight semipermeable dressing technique.Methods From August 2012 to December 2013,20 cases (20 fingers)of tissue defect on finger tip were treated with airtight semipermeable dressing technique.There were 12 cases with bone-exposure.The defect size was from 1.0 cm × 1.0 cm to 2.5 cm × 2.0 cm.All cases were treated with biological membrane directly to cover the defects.The wound was cleaned with saline and replaced with a new semipermeable membrane every 5 to 7 days.Results The wound and donor site in 20 cases all healed without infections.The 20 cases were follow-up for 6 to 18 months.The texture and color of the new skin were similar to those of adjacent normal skin,with a satisfactory appearance without obvious contracture.The two-point discrimination was 7 to 10 mm.Conclusion Airtight semipermeable dressing technique could be an ideal method of treating soft tissue defects on fingertip.%目的 探讨应用生物半透膜密闭包扎治疗指端组织缺损的临床应用效果.方法 2012年8月至2013年12月,对20例20指指端组织缺损病例均采用生物半透膜密闭包扎治疗,创面大小为1.0cm×l.0cm~2.5cm×2.0cm,其中创面有骨质外露12例.所有创面均清创后采用生物半透膜直接密闭包扎,每5~7d更换半透膜时只需用生理盐水冲洗创面,无需殃伏消毒.结果 本组病例均获得6~ 18个月的随访,20例指端创面均无感染发生,愈合时间为3~6周.新生皮肤质地接近正常,两点分辨觉为7~ 10 mm,功能、外观满意.结论 应用生物半透膜密闭包扎治疗指端组织缺损效果满意,是一种较为理想的治疗方法.

  9. 某舰载密闭电源机柜的热设计及实现%Thermal Design and Realization of Airtight Cabinet for A Certain Shipborne Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延宁; 董智鼎

    2015-01-01

    针对某密闭电源机柜的热设计要求,采用局部水风换热器循环风冷和冷板表面器件散热相结合的设计思路,以 UG 三维软件进行整体结构布局设计,再利用 UG 高级热流仿真模块进行热散耗功率仿真,从而较好地解决了电源机柜的变压器和隔离栅双极晶体管(IGBT)等重要器件的散热问题。整个方案具有设计合理、紧凑、可靠性高等特点。最后通过试验,验证了整个机柜热设计的合理性。%According to the themal design requriements of a certain airtight power supply cabinet, this paper uses the design idea which combines partial cycle air cooling via air-water heat exchanger with heat abstraction through cooling plate on the surface devices,uses UG 3D software to design overall structrue and layout,adopts UG advanced thermal simulation module to simulate heat dissi-pation power,so the heat abstraction problems of power supply cabinet transformer and insulate-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)as well as other important devices are commendably solved.The scheme has the advantages of reasonable design,compact structure and high reliability.Finally,the rationality of the cabinet thermal design is verified through the experiments.

  10. Design of an airtight or automatic cleaning machine of small tanks%小型容器或工件全封闭全自动清洗设备设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝战焱

    2012-01-01

    本文对盛装有毒有害介质的小型容器或工件的全封闭、全自动清洗设备的设计进行阐述。该设备由控制系统、贮存系统、浸泡清洗系统、烘干系统、压力测控系统、温度测控系统、液位测控系统、状态调节系统和输送系统组成,使用氮气、自来水、三级水和配制好的浸洗液,对小型容器或工件实现清洗和烘干,确保清洗效果达标。该设备适合清洗一端敞口的容器或工件。设备执行过程分为全自动控制、步序控制和全手动控制三种模式,全自动模式清洗时间约为7h。设备组成材料为对介质一级相容材料。浸洗液可反复使用,失效后收回、统一处理;废气通往专用废气处理装置。设备设有触摸屏作为操作界面,并有实时监测装置及显示,用以随时监控清洗效果。设备流程及布局合理,操作简单方便,提供人员及环境的安全保护,清洗效率高,可广泛应用于各类有毒有害介质容器或工件的清洗。%This article depicts design of an airtight automatic cleaning machine of small tanks or workpieces which filled or covered with toxicant or injurant.This machine is composed of control system,storage system,dippingcleaning system,drying system,pressure measure-control system,temperature measure-control system,liquid level measure-control system,state-adjustment system and transportation system.Working with nitrogen,tap water,class-Ⅲ water for analytical laboratory use,and confected dipping liquor,it can carry out cleaning and drying small tanks or workpieces,making sure cleaned effect up to par.This machine is designed for workpieces or tanks with one-end open.Procedure includes three modes: automatic,step control,hand control.Whole process in automatic mode needs about 7h.Each material made of it has class 1 copatibility with all media.Confected dip-ping liquor could be reclaimed and reused until disabled,then be drawn back for disposal by rule

  11. Stimulation of good building and ductwork airtightness through EPBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyot, Gaelle; Carrié, Remi; Schild, Peter

    Building and ductwork leakage are detrimental to energy conservation, comfort, and hygiene. They can cause building damage and it can prevent proper control of the ventilation airflow rates. Through the ASIEPI project, we have identified that while some key elements for a market transformation...

  12. Effects of suspension of air-conditioning on airtight-type racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, M; Fujieda, M; Furukawa, T

    2001-10-01

    Although isolation racks are superior to open-type racks in terms of securing breeding conditions for laboratory animals, the contingency-proofing capability of the former has yet to be determined. Therefore, from the view of risk management, we studied the environmental change in isolation racks by forcibly suspending ventilation and air-conditioning and confirming the maximal time length for complete recovery to the original condition after restarting their operations. The isolation racks were placed in a room that was equipped with an independent air-conditioning system. When the inside condition of the racks reached 22-24 degrees C and 59-64% of relative humidity, the air-conditioning and ventilation were forcibly suspended and the subsequent temperature, relative humidity, ammonium and CO2 concentrations in the racks were measured over time. We found that after suspending the air-conditioning and ventilation, it took 40-60 min for temperature, and about 10 min for relative humidity to exceed the maximum values (temperature and relative humidity) referred to in the Showa 58 Nenban Guideline Jikken Doubutsu Shisetsu no Kenchiku oyobi Setsubi (Guidelines of buildings and facilities for experimental animals in Japan; Year 1983 edition). After 17 hr 25 min of the suspension of air-conditioning and ventilation, two rats were found dead. Then, the air-conditioning and ventilation were restarted. It took about 2 hr for temperature, and 50 min for relative humidity to regain the guideline values. The ammonium concentration stayed within the guideline value with a maximum concentration of 2 ppm in the experimental period, whereas the CO2 concentration was found to exceed 9% at the time of animal death.

  13. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  14. Effect of Stresses and Strains of Roadway Surrounding Rocks on Borehole Airtightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, many high gas and outburst mines have poor gas drainage effects. An important reason influencing the gas drainage effect is a poor hole-sealing effect. Most studies on gas drainage borehole sealing focus on local and foreign borehole sealing methods, borehole sealing equipment, and borehole sealing materials. Numerical simulations of initial drilling sealing depth are insufficient because studies on this subject are few. However, when the initial sealing depth of the borehole is not chosen reasonably, air can enter the gas drainage drill hole through the circumferential crack of roadway surrounding rocks under the influence of suction pressure of the drainage system. This phenomenon ultimately affects the hole-sealing effect. To improve the drilling hole sealing of gas drainage boring, we deduced the expression formulas of the crushing zone, plastic zone, and elastic zone around the coal-seam floor stone drift and conducted a stress–strain analysis of the coal-seam floor stone drift of the 2145 working surfaces of the Sixth Coal Mine of Hebi Coal Mine Group Company by using theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and on-scene verification. Finally, we obtain the initial drilling sealing depth, which is a main contribution of this study. The results prove the following. The performed hole-sealing process with an initial drilling sealing depth of 8 m has a gas drainage efficiency of 55%. Compared with the previous 6.8 m initial drilling sealing depth with a gas drainage efficiency of less than 30%, which was adopted by the mine, the initial sealing depth of 8 m chosen in the numerical simulation is reasonable and conforms to the actual situation on the spot. Therefore, the initial drilling sealing depth chosen in the numerical simulation will produce practical and effective guidance to study the field hole-sealing depth.

  15. Design and construction of the airtight ferrocement bin for on-farm storage of paddy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Mueller, J.; Oostdam, J.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    A hermetically sealed ferrocement bin was conceived by application of a systematic design process. It consisted of a frustum of a cone with a conical bottom supported by three vertical columns with V-shaped cross-section. A labour and material saving model was developed to contain 2.5 tons of paddy.

  16. An airtight paddy storage system for small-scale farmers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Müller, J.; Oostdam, J.W.M.; Huisman, W.; Richards, P.

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in Sri Lanka's dry zone are the main contributors to the paddy production in the country. However, due to various reasons, they face difficulties in obtaining a reasonable income for their produce at harvesting time. According to the survey carried out in the paddy producing regions, it

  17. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 ½-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  18. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  19. Improvement of airtight and operation efficiency of joint packing material; Teikei mokuzizai no sirusei oyobi sagyosei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tatsuya.; Harada, Tsutomu.; Ando, Hideki.; Yamato, Tsugio

    1998-12-01

    Formed joint packing materials presently used in each place of continuous casting factories are manufactured from a main material of refractory powder and various subsidiary materials, added with binder, mixed and formed to products. This joint material has disadvantages of 1) Setting to flange part of long nozzle is difficult owing to inferior ordinary temperature shape retaining property (workability), and 2) Hot workable time (workability) is short, when used under hot condition. To solve these problems, sealing property and workability (ordinary temperature shape retaining property and hot workable time) of joint packing material were improved using new binder and Al system materials, and hard type formed jpint packing material of excellent hot sealing property and workability compared to conventional formed packing materials was obtained. Examining various resins and refractory powders, special emulsion type resin and a material which consisted of a main refractory material of alumina and subsidiary materials of clay, flint, Al system metals were finally selected. The measurement results on ordinary temperature shape retaining property, hot workable time and hot sealing property of this joint packing material showed excellent results. (NEDO)

  20. Improvement of airtight property and workability of joint packing material; Teikeimejizai no shirusei oyobi sagyosei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tatsuya.; Harada, Tsutomu.; Ando, Hideyuki.; Yamato, Tsugio. [Kurosaki Corp., Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Center

    1999-09-01

    It is connected, and many refractories s are being used with continuous cast law. An including air volume from these union parts causes the quality decline of the steel and the problem of unusual loss around the union part of the refractories. Therefore, there is a big thing in the part, which the eye area material used for the union part of the refractories for the continuous cast plays. This time, the fixed form area material of the hard type which has a sticker and work between the excellent heat could get it in comparison with the usual fixed form area material for the purpose of the improvement in the sticker of the eye area material and the work (acceptable convenience time in the normal temperature form, the space of the heat) as a result of examining the application of the Al metal which doesn`t react easily with the new binder and the water. As for the utility test as well, it is reported because it was used without problem and that validity could be confirmed. (NEDO)

  1. Nearly zero energy buildings and proliferation of microorganisms a current issue for highly insulated and airtight building envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giuseppe, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to count

  2. Quality change and mass loss of paddy during airtight storage in a ferro-cement bin in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Palipane, K.B.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, prices for paddy fluctuate severely showing a minimum price at harvest. To benefit from higher prices, farmers strive to store paddy, but lack of facilities and poor storage management cause quantitative and qualitative losses by rodents, insects and microbial deterioration. To overcom

  3. One-week habitation of two humans in an airtight facility with two goats and 23 crops Analysis of carbon, oxygen, and water circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Y.; Tsuga, S.; Tani, T.; Arai, R.; Komatsubara, O.; Shinohara, M.

    Human habitation and animal holding experiments in a closed environment, the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), were carried out. The CEEF were established for collecting experimental data to estimate carbon transfer in the ecosystem around Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Circulation of O2 and CO2, and supply of food from crops cultivated in the CEEF were conducted for the first time in the habitation experiments. Two humans known as eco-nauts inhabited the CEEF, living and working in the Plant Module (PM) and the Animal and Habitation Module (AHM), for a week three times in 2005. On a fresh weight basis, 82% of their food was supplied from 23 crops including rice and soybean, cultivated and harvested in the PM, in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. For the goats, the animals held in the experiments, all of their feed, consisting of rice straw, soybean plant leaves, and peanut shells and peanut plant leaves, was produced in the PM in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. The O2 produced in the PM by photosynthesis of the crops was separated by the O2 separator using molecular sheaves, then accumulated, transferred, and supplied to the AHM atmosphere. The CO2 produced in the AHM by respiration of the humans and animals was separated by the CO2 separator using solid amine, then accumulated, transferred, and supplied to the PM atmosphere. The amount of O2 consumed in the AHM was 46 51% of that produced in the PM, and the amount of CO2 produced in the AHM was 43 56% of that consumed in the PM. The surplus of O2 and the shortage of CO2 was a result of the fact that waste of the goats and the crops and part of the human waste were not processed in these habitation experiments. The estimated amount of carbon ingested by the eco-nauts was 64 92% of that in the harvested edible part of the crops. The estimated amount of carbon ingested by the goats was 36 53% of that in the harvested inedible part of the crops. One week was not enough time for determination of gas exchange especially for humans and animals, because fluctuation of their gas exchange was quite high. The amount of transpired water collected as condensate was 818 938 L d-1, and it was recycled as replenishing water compensating transpiration loss of nutrient solution. The amount of waste nutrient solution discharged from the PM was 1421 1644 L d-1. The waste nutrient solutions from rice and other crops were processed through micro filters (MFs) separately. The MF filtrated solutions were processed with reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter separately and divided into filtrated water and concentrated waste nutrient solution. The concentrated waste nutrient solution from the crops other than rice was processed through an ultra-micro filter (UF) and reused, although that from rice was discharged in 2005. Concentrations of nutritional ions in the UF filtrated solution were determined, the depleted ions were added back, the UF filtrated solution was diluted with the RO membrane filtrated water, and the nutrient solution for the crops other than rice was regenerated. The nutrient solution for rice was newly made each time, using concentrated solution from an external source and the RO membrane filtrated water. Average amounts of water used in the AHM (L d-1) were determined as follows: drinking by humans (filtrated water), 1.5; cooking, etc. (filtrated water other than for drinking), 14.3; drinking by goats, 3.8; showering (hot water), 13.2; showering (cold water), 0.1; washing of hand and face and brushing teeth, 4.1; washing of dishes, dish clothes and towels, 36.4; and washing of animal holding tools, 0.3. The waste water was processed by a RO purification system and recycled for toilet flushing and animal pens washing. A circulation experiment for water was started in 2006 and a circulation experiment for waste materials is planned for 2007. In 2006, a single duration of the air circulation experiments was 2 weeks, although the human habitants were changed after 1 week.

  4. VOC emission model of nonmetallic materials used in airtight container%密闭空间非金属材料VOC散发模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亮东; 冷文军; 赵俊涛; 孙新福; 姜勇

    2010-01-01

    通过合理假设,简化了密闭空间非金属材料VOC释放的物理情景,并利用质量传递理论建立了非金属材料VOC散发模型.提出了预测密闭空间内非金属材料VOC散发的新方法,获得了比较简洁的解析解结果,并将模型预测曲线与数值解比较,与实验数据比较,对模型进行了验证.

  5. Maisons consommant peu d'énergie: isolation et étanchéité à l'air/Low-Energy Houses: Insulation and Airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxhof, Bjarne; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1983-01-01

    The Hjortekar project of six low energy house designs north of Copenhagen has become renowned. Here, the authors, from the Thermal Insulation Laboratory, the Technical University of Denmark, explain some of the construction details to avoid cold bridges, including a new-type structural element...

  6. 密闭舱室内科学实验致心肌酶升高原因分析%Causal analysis of hoisted myocardial enzymes in the course of scientific experiments in airtight cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程万里; 张洪波; 王岚; 张玉清; 孙红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:本文旨在探讨实验者在密闭舱室内短期实验后,心肌酶升高的原因,为科技人员在工作过程中的自我防护提供科学依据。通过对有身体不适的实验者2例进行生化全项、血气分析、胸片、心电图、心脏彩超等检查。结果显示2例实验者心肌酶都有不同程度的升高。通过分析推测砷化氢等有害气体可能是造成心肌酶升高的主要原因,因此,加强实验过程中的劳动防护至关重要。%We explore the causes of elevated cardiac enzymes of the experimenter in the closed chamber with short-term experiments in order to provide scientific basis for the scientific and technical personnel in the work process of self protection.The experimenter with physical discomfort receive biochemical items,blood gas analysis,chest X-ray,ECG,heart color ultrasound examination and so on.The results show that the myocardial enzyme were all increased in different degrees.Through the analysis, we hypothesize that arsenic cyanide and other harmful gases may be the main cause of elevated cardiac enzymes.Strengthening labor protection is very important in the process of experiment.

  7. Blower door measurements. Guide 'Airtightness-testing' for house owners and planners; Blower-Door-Messung. Leitfaden 'Gebaeudedichtigkeits-Pruefung' fuer Bauherren und Planer. Fachtext 3.4. Maerz 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    To determine the air tightness of the external envelope, blower door measurements are normally carried out. The thus determined integral figure for the complete structure is an insufficient basis for carrying out specific insulation procedures in existing buildings. Within the scope of the air tightness measurements with the blower door, additional measuring methods permit the determination of additional information on the leakage distribution and the leakage routes. The expanded measuring methods that are known from the bibliography 'opening a door' and 'adding a hole' as well as the new method of 'adding a hole plus' are explained, compared by means of exemplary measurements, and are considered for their suitability during field trials. [German] Zur Bestimmung der Luftdichtheit der Gebaeudehuelle werden im allgemeinen Blower Door-Messungen durchgefuehrt. Der hierbei bestimmte integrale Wert fuer das gesamte Gebaeude stellt fuer das Ergreifen von gezielten Abdichtungsmassnahmen im Gebaeudebestand eine zu geringe Basis dar. Weiterfuehrende Messmethoden erlauben, im Rahmen von Luftdichtheitsmessungen mit der Blower Door zusaetzliche Informationen ueber die Leckageverteilung und ueber Leckagewege zu bestimmen. Die aus der Literatur bekannten erweiterten Messmethoden 'Opening A Door' und 'Adding A Hole' sowie die neue Methode 'Adding A Hole Plus' werden erlaeutert, anhand von exemplarischen Messungen verglichen und im Feldeinsatz auf ihre Anwendbarkeit hin betrachtet.

  8. Blower door measurement. Guide 'Airtightness-testing' for house owners and planners; Blower-Door-Messung. Leitfaden 'Gebaeudedichtigkeits-Pruefung' fuer Bauherren und Planer. Fachtext 3.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    The blower door is a simple to use measuring device for determining the seal of the external surfaces of buildings. The accuracy of the measurement is dependent to a considerable extent on the external climatic conditions that prevail at the time of taking the measurement. (orig.)

  9. Blower door measurements. Guide 'Airtightness-testing' for house owners and planners; Blower-Door-Messung. Leitfaden 'Gebaeudedichtigkeits-Pruefung' fuer Bauherren und Planer. Fachtext 3.4. Mai 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The blower door is a simple to use measuring device for determining the seal of the external surfaces of buildings. The accuracy of the measurement is dependent to a considerable extent on the external climatic conditions that prevail at the time of taking the measurement. (GL)

  10. Microwave-assisted and Airtight Solvent Extraction of Harpagoside from Radix Scrophulariae%应用密闭微波辅助提取技术提取玄参中玄参苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程存归; 刘幸海; 朱培曦

    2006-01-01

    应用密闭微波辅助提取法提取玄参中有效成分玄参苷,考察了微波提取条件(包括溶剂、样品粒径、提取时间、固-液质量体积比和提取次数等)对玄参中提取玄参苷收率的影响,结果表明:溶剂为70%乙醇,玄参的粒径为180目,提取时间为10 min,料液比为1:20及提取次数为2次时,玄参苷的提取率最佳.并且与常压微波辅助提取法、超声波提取法及索氏提取法进行了比较,本法具有快速、高效、绿色环保的优点.

  11. 塑料裙干基密闭熏蒸法防治红脂大小蠹试验%Basal airtight fumigation in plastic skirts against Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗振旺; 郭保平; 张晓波; 王晓俪; 赵明梅; 芦学林

    2002-01-01

    红脂大小蠹 Dendroctonus valens LeConte 是危害油松的国内新纪录种.在红脂大小蠹主要侵入部位,树干距地面50cm的主干上用0.06mm厚度的塑料布围成塑料裙,内置56%的磷化铝片剂(3.2g/片),每株3~4片进行密闭熏杀防治红脂大小蠹,效果可达93.6%以上.

  12. 磷化氢环流熏蒸杀虫最低密闭时间的研究%A study on the Most Airtight Period for Phosphine Recirculating Fumigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新喜; 冯靖夷; 姜杰; 林乐华; 林鹏涛

    2008-01-01

    磷化氢环流是一个复杂的过程,既要掌握有效的浓度,又要维持足够的密闭时间.在一定磷化氢浓度下,一次性全部杀死粮内害虫的最佳密闭时间应等于施药后磷化氢浓度上升到杀虫有效浓度的时间+杀死该粮堆内害虫成虫和幼虫的时间+杀死成虫死亡前产出的卵在此环境中的孵化时间或存在的蛹的发育时间+杀死卵孵化出的幼虫和成虫的时间.实验证实,在粮温10-24℃、磷化铝3g/m3剂量下,采取环流熏蒸措施,杀死玉米象和赤拟谷盗最低需要21d,杀死谷蠢需要26~28d.

  13. 人防医疗救护工程第一密闭区通风和防化设计问题探讨%Discussion on ventilation and NBC protection design in the first airtight space of medical aid works of civil air defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刻铭; 郭春信; 马吉民

    2013-01-01

    从防化的角度分析了人防医疗救护工程的特点,认为《人民防空医疗救护工程设计标准》将第一密闭区定义为轻微染毒区有悖于人民防空工程相关规定的要求,会给战时工程使用带来严重后果,提出了解决上述问题的技术措施.

  14. 利用流变铸造和慢压射技术改善复杂结构压铸件气密性能%Improve Air-tightness of Die Casting with Complicated Structure using Rheocast and Slow Shooting Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞世德; 汤伟; 周子民

    2006-01-01

    介绍一种改善复杂结构压铸件气密性能的新工艺,内容包括流变铸造和慢压射技术.主要围绕合金制浆和压铸初始阶段,对合金含气量、固相分数等相关影响铸件气密性能的主要因素加以阻止和控制;同时对其它常规的工艺设计和操作,不但要严格遵守执行,还应相互协调相互补充,如压力分配、内浇道喷射倾向、排泄系统充分条件等,以实现铸件气密性能的根本改善.经多次试验证明效果显著,改善后合格率可达90%以上.

  15. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Kacin Homes, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    Building America/Builders Challenge fact sheet on Kacin Homes, an energy-efficient home builder in cold climate using airtight envelope, efficient lighting, and tankless water heater. Evaluates cost impacts.

  16. Equipment for surgical interventions and childbirth in weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutke, H. G.

    A transparent plastic sack has been devised for surgical interventions in space. Fixed airtight on the patient, containing sterilized medical equipment and comprising long sleeves for the operations, it retains all its contents for the rest of the flight.

  17. 19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any manner, in airtight containers; (3) Petroleum, or any product derived from petroleum, provided for... rules of origin. In determining whether an article is a CBTPA originating good for purposes of...

  18. [Examination of the antimicrobial activity of some G. Begonia L. species as a possible piece of phytodesign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybulia, N V; Fershalova, T D; Iakimova, Iu L

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial properties of volatile emanations of intact g. Begonia plants in air-tight chambers and ordinary rooms were studied. The plants were effective against microbial test-objects Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and yeast like fungi.

  19. Continuous organic waste digester and methane gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araneta, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A patent on the construction of a utility model of an industrial product of a continuous organic-waste digester and methane-gas generator is described. It comprises an airtight chamber to receive slurry of organic waste; a gas-water scrubber to purge carbon dioxide, odor-omitting gases and froth or scrum from newly formed methane gas evolving from said slurry of organic wastes; and two dually functioning slurry-feed and -discharge pipes connected to a reversible pump. It has one pipe with an opening at the base of an airtight chamber and the other pipe with up-ended openings below the fluid level of the slurry to be accumulated in the airtight chamber.

  20. 75 FR 80110 - Panda Power LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for the... chapter. An airtight seal exists when no air bubbles appear on the low pressure (connector) side after the... lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for Type HB3 and Type HB4 shall be made with the...

  1. Liquid Cooling Technology Increases Exercise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To keep astronauts' airtight spacesuits from becoming hot and humid, Ames Research Center developed liquid cooling garments that were integrated into each suit's long underwear. Vasper Systems, in San Jose, California, is using the technology in its liquid-cooled compression cuffs, which help people exercise more efficiently by concentrating lactic acid in their muscles.

  2. Design challenges for a climate adaptive multi-functional lightweight prefab panel for energy-efficient retrofitting of residential building based on one-room model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkmans, T.J.A.; Donkervoort, D.R.; Phaff, J.C.; Valcke, S.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current solutions for highly energy-efficient retrofitting rely on thick static insulation, airtight construction and extensive ventilation systems to become independent from variable outdoor conditions. A building skin that adapts to the outdoor conditions to regulate the indoor conditions could pr

  3. Vacuum-assisted closure : indications and clinical experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schasfoort, RA; Obdeijn, MC; Nicolai, JPA; van der Werf, J.F.A.; de Lange, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of subatmospheric pressure to promote wound healing has gradually found support in the past few years. The vacuum-assisted closure system uses a pump providing a continuous negative pressure of preferably 125 mmHg, which is distributed over the wound surface by an airtight covered foam. The

  4. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  5. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [ABT Systems, LLC, Annville, PA (United States); Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  6. 19 CFR 10.191 - General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directly from a beneficiary country as provided in § 10.193 and which meets the country of origin criteria..., prepared or preserved in any manner, in airtight containers. (iv) Petroleum, or any product derived from petroleum, provided for in headings 2709 and 2710, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States...

  7. Once Baby Arrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place the tray in the freezer. Once the food cubes are frozen, pop them into a freezer bag or airtight ... 2 inch of space at the top because food expands when frozen. DON'Ts: Don't make more formula than ...

  8. The effect of relative humidity on germination of Sporangia of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporangia of three isolates of P. ramorum representing three different clonal lineages were subjected to relative humidity (RH) levels between 80 and 100% for exposure periods ranging from 1 to 24 h at 20°C in darkness. Airtight snap-lid plastic containers (21.5 x 14.5 x 5 cm) were used as humidity ...

  9. Energy Impacts of Envelope Tightening and Mechanical Ventilation for the U.S. Residential Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, M. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, I. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, B. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Effective residential envelope air sealing reduces infiltration and associated energy costs for thermal conditioning, yet often creates a need for mechanical ventilation to protect indoor air quality. This study estimated the potential energy savings of implementing airtightness improvements or absolute standards along with mechanical ventilation throughout the U.S. housing stock. We used a physics-based modeling framework to simulate the impact of envelope tightening, providing mechanical ventilation as needed. There are 113 million homes in the US. We calculated the change in energy demand for each home in a nationally representative sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey. Ventilation was provided as required by 2010 and proposed 2013 versions of ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ensuring that all current homes comply with 62.2-2010 would increase residential site energy demand by 0.07 quads (0.07 exajoules (EJ)) annually. Improving airtightness of all homes at current average retrofit performance levels would decrease demand by 0.7 quads (0.74 EJ) annually and upgrading all homes to be as airtight as the top 10% of similar homes would double the savings, leading to roughly $22 billion in annual savings in energy bills. We also analyzed the potential benefits of bringing the entire stock to airtightness specifications of IECC 2012, Canada's R2000, and Passive House standards.

  10. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf p

  11. The final recommendations of the ASIEPI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Aggerholm, Søren

    requirements; • impact, compliance and control of legislation; • effective handling of thermal bridges; • stimulation of good building and ductwork airtightness; • support for the market uptake for innovative systems; • stimulation of better summer comfort and efficient cooling. This report compiles the major...

  12. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  13. Building America Case Study: Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, thus driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  14. Chinese IIR's Supply & Demand Situation and Development Prospect%Chinese IIR's Supply & Demand Situation and Development Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    IIR is a kind of rubber polymerized by isobutylene and a little isoprene with such performances as good airtightness, heat resistance, aging resistance, acid-alkali resistance, ozone resis- tance, solvent resistance, electric insulation, shock absorption and low water absorption, which is widely applied on the inner tubes, tire bags, vulcanized bladders, air barriers, sidewalls,

  15. Light, Colour & Air Quality: Important Elements of the Learning Environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates studies of the effects of light, color, and air quality on the learning environment. Concludes that studies suggest a role for light in establishing and maintaining physiological functions and balances and a need for improved air quality in airtight, energy efficient buildings. (JHZ)

  16. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  17. Technical validation of a face mask adapted for dry powder inhalation in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) for horses requires the use of an adapted face mask. In experiment I, 4 masks (A, B, C and D) were tested and factors influencing the delivery of the dry powder were determined. Mask A was one which is commercially available for metered-dose inhalation. Mask B had the same shape as Mask A but an airtight rubber seal was added for the connection between the mask and horse's head. Mask C was a prototype adapted for DPI with connection for the DPI device between the nostrils, airtight expiratory valves in front of each nostril and airtight rubber seal to attach the mask on the horse's head. Mask D was the same as Mask C but the airtight expiratory valve was situated in front of one nostril and the connection for the DPI device was placed in front of the other nostril. Inhalet emptying and peak inspiratory pressure were measured on 5 healthy horses with each face mask. Both Masks A and B gave a low rate of inhalet emptying. Inspiratory pressures created in Masks C and D were negative enough to ensure inhalet emptying rates of mean +/- s.d. 98.28 +/- 1.79% and 100% respectively. In experiment 2, the face masks giving the greatest inhalet emptying were used to test the therapeutic efficacy of ipratropium bromide DPI. This was tested on 6 horses suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At a dose of 200 micrograms/100 kg bwt, ipratropium administered with Mask D improved significantly pulmonary function measurements compared to baseline values and placebo inhalation. With Mask C, a double dose of ipratropium (400 micrograms/100 kg bwt) was necessary to improve these parameters compared to baseline values. This indicated the importance of locating the DPI device in front of one nostril. It was concluded that inhalet emptying is correlated to inspiratory pressures measured in the face masks. Secondly, these pressures are in turn dependent on the air-tightness of the mask, i.e. air-tightness

  18. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grin, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte NSP2 project in Wyandotte, MI and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the High R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable methodof achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to helpsecure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the City officials supervising the project.

  19. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program 2 project in Wyandotte, MI, and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the high R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable method of achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to help secure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the city officials supervising the project.

  20. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between...

  1. Shotfiring fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonel, P.; Bigourd, J.; Dangreaux, J.

    1979-01-01

    CERCHAR is examining different test methods for the evaluation of the production of toxic gases in shotfiring. The test methods are described and the results are compared with those found in the mine. As regards the production of CO and NO/sub x/ the test in a steel mortar in a 15 m/sup 3/ airtight chamber gave results comparable to those obtained in the mine. (In French)

  2. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-20

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a ..beta..-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case.

  3. Japan Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    alcohol from biomass Fractionation of fatty acids consisting of natural fats and oxls Treatment of heavy hydrocarbons Deasphaltation from...sharp, 4) the pure level is high, 5) the amount of alkali metal, etc., contained in the new product is small. Thanks to these features, it has become...cases and an airtight seal excelling in heat resistance, water resistance, and durability can be made. (5) Pretreatment and primer treatment are not

  4. Pressure equalisation as design strategy for watertightness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Due to rising energy prices and a higher ecological awareness there is a growing attention for energy efficiency and sustainability in building construction. New concepts and techniques for well insulated and airtight buildings require adapted construction methods for weathertightness. This research project aims at developing design guidelines for new building envelope systems concerning weathertightness. Most building envelope systems rely on pressure moderation to achieve a good weathert...

  5. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California.

  6. Proceedings of the European ISTVS Conference (6th), OVK Symposium (4th), on "Off Road Vehicles in Theory and Practice". Held at Vienna, Austria on 28-30 September 1994. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    terrain vehicles. - 642 - Operational economy has become increasingly important with the growing costs of fuels. It is now profitable to invest in newly...airtight against the rim. This avoids entry of foreign matter such as sand, grit or stones inside the tyre. 4. The tooth or crown of VFINPPV limits the...AME) VITA DIESEL 2000 an einem direkt - einspritzenden Nutzfahrzeugdiiselmotor. Bericht des Institutes ffir Verbrennungs- kraflmaschinen und

  7. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure (“space”) suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training a...

  8. Modular manifold for integrated fluidics and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Douglas Ray

    2010-03-30

    An airtight preconcentrator housing and/or a sensor housing for chemical testing, the housing(s) comprising internal dimensions such that a pre-manufactured preconcentrator and/or sensor can be disposed therein. The housings can also comprise electrical contacts disposed therein which align with and thus provide electrical connection to the preconcentrator and/or sensor. The preconcentrator and/or sensor can be easily and quickly replaced.

  9. Feed grain improvement through biopreservation and bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Olstorpe, Matilda

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation is an environmentally friendly method to improve feed quality. Fermented liquid feed and airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain systems that are of increasing importance in agricultural practice were studied. Both rely on spontaneous microbial developments with poorly understood population dynamics, resulting in unpredictable final quality. Temperature, fermentation time and ingredients affected final properties of the feed. Molecular-based species identification showed that ...

  10. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...... risk compare to the dynamic method. •Ranking capabilities of overheating indices and average temperatures are analogous....

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States, using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu).

  12. Energy use and indoor environment in new and existing dwellings in Arctic climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Buildings in Arctic climates require large amounts of heat to provide their occupants with a comfortable indoor environment. In recent years the intention to conserve energy has caused buildings in the Arctic (and worldwide) to become more insulated and airtight. The natural infiltration of build......Buildings in Arctic climates require large amounts of heat to provide their occupants with a comfortable indoor environment. In recent years the intention to conserve energy has caused buildings in the Arctic (and worldwide) to become more insulated and airtight. The natural infiltration...... investigated. For energy and indoor environmental reasons it is advisable that new airtight buildings be equipped with mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery. Nevertheless, these systems when exposed to the Arctic winter climate face the risk of frost formation, which may put the ventilation system...... on indoor air quality performed in Sisimiut, Greenland. A questionnaire as part of the study found that over 30 % of respondents experience cold discomfort during winter months (i.e. cold floors, cold draft or too low indoor temperature), 35 % of the respondents reported frequent condensation on windows...

  13. Indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Berge, Magnar

    2012-07-01

    There is currently a major focus on measures to reduce global warming. Several international studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings is the easiest and most cost-effective climate action. Passive houses are characterized of that the buildings are more airtight, have more insulation and has balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. This report discusses about this one-sided focus on energy conservation, and if {sup c}hange{sup }in building methods can have a negative impact on indoor air quality and people's health. (Author)

  14. Dynamic isolation technologies in negative pressure isolation wards

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents novel design principles and technologies for dynamic isolation based on experimental studies. These approaches have now become the local standard in Beijing and are currently being promoted for use nationwide. Further, the book provides details of measures and guidelines for the design process. Departing from the traditional understanding that isolation wards should be designed with high negative pressure, airtight doors and fresh air, it establishes the basis for designing biological clean rooms, including isolation wards, using a simple and convenient scientific approach. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, hospital management staff and graduate students in heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC), air cleaning technologies and related areas.

  15. Construction of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector for Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A prototype Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is under construction for medical imaging purposes. A single thick GEM of size 10x10 cm^2 is assembled inside a square shaped air-tight box which is made of Perspex glass. In order to ionize gas inside the drift field two types of voltage supplier circuits were fabricated, and array of 2x4 pads of each size 4x8 mm^2 were utilized for collecting avalanche charges. Preliminary testing results show that the circuit which produces high voltage an...

  16. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie E. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, Robin K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fairey, III, Phillip W. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Jr., Charles [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  17. Testing of older houses for microbiological pollutants: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Field investigation of 28 homes in Tillsonburg, Ontario was undertaken in early 1991 to investigate indoor air quality, and in particular, microbiological pollutants. Measurements of temperature and humidity, airborne fungal spores and bacteria were made in the living areas under natural conditions, and with the house depressurized to more than 20 pa. Surface samples were obtained and analyzed for mould and bacterium. The relative airtightness and air-change rate of the houses was evaluated by depressurization testing and slow-release tracer gas testing. A physical evaluation of the building was done emphasizing aspects that would lead to higher levels of dampness and/or mould growth.

  18. Psychiatry, bio-epistemes and the making of adolescence in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on an ethnographic study in southern Brazil, this paper explores how therapists' attempts to "resist bioreductionist" pharmaceutical use both succeed and crumble. Using a comparative framing, I show that pharmaceuticalization can become an anesthetizing "lid" that interacts with young people's polarizing micro-politics and is an outgrowth of multi-generational medico-political family histories. This lid, however, is not air-tight and exceptionalities are born out of these very same histories. I argue that both pharmaceuticalization and exceptions to it emerge not through "resistance" to biopsychiatric logics but from the transformative possibilities that the patterned co-production of social, political, and psychiatric life affords.

  19. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure (3 ACH50) for single-family and multifamily construction (in climate zones 3–8). The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification program and ASHRAE Standard 189 have comparable compartmentalization requirements. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 will soon be responsible for all multifamily ventilation requirements (low rise and high rise); it has an exceptionally stringent compartmentalization requirement. These code and program requirements are driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  20. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  1. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  2. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  3. Long-term reconstitution with water of dry barley before feeding increases phosphorus digestibility in pigs1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2016-01-01

    compared to dry stored barley on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P in pigs. Dry barley (12% moisture; total P, 3.3 g/kg DM; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions...... numerically more soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and less phytate P (0.93 g/kg DM) than dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed an increase in P absorption (54%, P

  4. Study on Simulated Human Load in Unmanned Spaceship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lidong; WANG Xianmin; LU Yaofeng; YIN Rui; XIAO Zhijun

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the methods for testing and verifying the performance of a new type of oxygen supply apparatus as well as the performance of the Environment Control and Life Support System(ECLSS)in the airtight unmanned space capsule,with a simulated human load instead of animals or human in China's Manned Space Program.The simulated human load also supplies a dummy for the spaceship to instal the envirmental testing equipment,to wear spacesuit,and to match the weight in spaceship.

  5. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most of the chemicals involved in the production process. A large number of aerogel glazing prototypes have been made with partly evacuated aerogel in between two layers of low iron...... and anti reflection treated glass panes with an airtight edge seal solution based on multi-layered plastic foil developed for vacuum insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance about 87% and a U...

  6. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    batch. Furthermore the production time has been reduced to 1/3 of the initial production time through detailed theoretical and experimental analyses of especially the supercritical washing step included in the drying phase. At the same time the production plant have been modified to recycle most...... of the chemicals involved in the production process. A large number of aerogel glazing prototypes have been made with partly evacuated aerogel in between two layers of low iron and anti-reflection coated glass panes with an airtight edge seal solution based on multi-layered plastic foil developed for vacuum...

  7. Information security governance simplified from the boardroom to the keyboard

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Security practitioners must be able to build cost-effective security programs while also complying with government regulations. Information Security Governance Simplified: From the Boardroom to the Keyboard lays out these regulations in simple terms and explains how to use control frameworks to build an air-tight information security (IS) program and governance structure. Defining the leadership skills required by IS officers, the book examines the pros and cons of different reporting structures and highlights the various control frameworks available. It details the functions of the security d

  8. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed the construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), which is a development of 20 very efficient homes in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The homes feature R-40 walls, triple-pane windows, R-50 attic insulation, and airtight construction. All homes also have photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. Auxiliary water heating is provided by tankless gas water heaters. With the SDHW systems, RDI hoped to eliminate most of the need for gas for water heating and get the homes closer to zero energy.

  9. Cost effectiveness analysis of the SEAMIST{trademark} membrane system technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Booth, S.R.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the cost and performance characteristics of SEAMIST{trademark}, an innovative technology that facilitates measurements of contaminants in both vertical and horizontal vadose zone boreholes. This new technology consists of an airtight membrane linear that is pneumatically emplaced inside the borehole structure. Sampling ports with attached tubing, absorbent collectors, or various in situ measuring devices can be fabricated into the linear and used for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, or radioactive substances. In addition, small instruments can be guided through the lined borehole and measurements taken inside at specified intervals.

  10. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  11. Present State and Perspectives of Research on Carbon Dioxide Purification Technology for Coal Mine Refuge Chamber%矿用救生舱二氧化碳净化技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建会; 张小波; 孙瑞科

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍并比较了应用于矿用救生舱及其它密闭舱室内常用二氧化碳净化技术,指出了现有净化技术存在的问题,同时对二氧化碳净化技术的发展方向进行了探讨。%In this paper, the carbon dioxide purification technology in coal mine refuge chamber and other airtight cabin is introduced and compared. The problems that exist in the carbon dioxide purification technology are pointed out; finally the development direction is discussed.

  12. IEA SHC Task 37: advanced housing renovation - Final report; IEA SHC Task 37: advanced housing renovation - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, R.

    2010-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling program. The project addressed the energy consumption of residential buildings and their renovation. The report discusses the goals set for the project and reports on five projects that were initiated. These include the refurbishment of apartment buildings to meet the 'Passive House' standard, air-tightness, potential for the use of solar energy, solar facades and the renovation of historic listed buildings. Conclusions resulting from these projects are presented and discussed.

  13. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale) seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak; Maciej Niedzielski; Dariusz J. Michalczyk; Wiesław Łuczak; Barbara Adomas

    2011-01-01

    Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario). Seed moisture content (mc) was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It w...

  14. History of neonatal resuscitation - part 3: endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation to resuscitate neonates was used by Scheel in 1798. A century before endotracheal anesthesia was developed, inventive obstetricians constructed devices for endotracheal intubation of infants and mastered their insertion, localization, and airtight sealing. Fell's laryngoscope, Magill's intubation forceps and tissue-friendly materials were significant contributions of the 20th century to endotracheal intubation of the newborn. The striking absence of scientific studies on the most efficient resuscitation techniques for neonates can be explained by the difficulty to adjust for the personal skills of the resuscitator.

  15. Destiny of microbial aerosol in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Novikova, Nataliya; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..; Kharin, Sergey; Pasanen, Pertti

    Biomodeling experiment was performed at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk dedicated to modeling the bacterial aerosol behavior in airtight chamber. The experiment was perform an one of workpackages of FP-7 project BIOSMHARS. Bacterial aerosol included particles of bacteria and fungi: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus licheniformis and Penicillium expansum The experiments allowed the following conclusions: 1. The major trend in air and surface contamination is permanent presence of the microbial factor throughout the time of generation. In the course of generation, level of contamination was gradually dropping except for the upward trend at the end of generation. These patterns were confirmed equally by the results of sedimentation studies and measurements using the Andersen impact 2. Sedimentation of airborne particles containing microbes went on at least two hours after the generation had been finished. However, level of this late sedimentation was approximately 10 folds less as compared with that in the course of generation. 3. Horizontal surfaces appear to be particularly vulnerable loci in airtight rooms. Their contamination was the highest. Levels of their contamination were higher than elsewhere. The closer is the source, the higher the level of contamination. 4. Walls were least contaminated. The ceiling was essentially clean. Air in the vicinity of the ceiling contained microbiota little if any. To summarize, the modeling experiments showed that the microbial component is a permanent resident of airtight rooms no matter decontamination effort (HEPA filters). The gravitational forces ensure that air cleans from microbiota by way of sedimentation. At the same time, together with microparticles microflora accumulates on horizontal surfaces which become the loci of microbes deposition and development. Therefore, despite the system of microbial control, risks of infection still raises the major concern for those who work in airtight facilities

  16. Application of a flexible-film isolator for rearing specific pathogen-free chickens and investigating poultry pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, D P; Bagust, T J

    1979-07-01

    A commercially-available flexible-film isolator kit was adapted for rearing specific pathogen free poultry and for carrying out experiments with avian pathogens. By increasing the standard air hose diameter from 32 mm to 75 mm and incorporating large metal filter canisters in place of the standard plastic filter sleeves, air flow rates were increased up to 8-fold. These changes allowed a greater number of birds to be maintained for longer periods without the previous problems of condensation of water vapour on the inside surfaces of the isolator. Fibreglass mat filters were shown to be efficient in retaining Newcastle disease virus when challenged by aerosol produced experimentally. Cross-contamination by virus infections between adjacent isolators was prevented for at least 12 weeks. The use of air-tight seals between the isolator canopy and structural components, air-tight feeder and light supports, an automatic watering system and facilities to improve portability are described. The adaptations resulted in an isolator which was efficient to use and maintain.

  17. Deficiencies in building envelope performance. Quantitative results with blower-door and thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, G.; Kalender, V.; Heidt, F.D. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Siegen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Air-tightness and lack of thermal bridges are indispensable characteristics of low energy houses and passive solar buildings. Although the German heating demand regulation (Waermeschutzverordnung) does not require a verification as yet, only measurements can give the proof of assured quality. Blower doors are well suited to test the air-tightness of buildings and thermographic records can identify and visualize thermal bridges. A new software-tool was developed to evaluate blower door measurements in accordance with the prescriptions of ISO 9972. Further, a new control of pressure differences across blower doors was developed to enable precise air flow measurements through single, small leakages in low-energy buildings by the balanced fan pressurization method. For quantitative analysis of thermographic pictures an evaluation software package was developed including an algorithm to determine lengths and surface areas of objects. Based on various assumptions and boundary conditions it is possible to determine the relative deviations of local U-values from their mean value. Measurements were carried out at 39 buildings of several construction techniques. Typical examples of commonly occuring thermal bridges and air leakages are rolling shutter boxes, window and floor joints as well as wall sockets. The total heat loss through thermal bridges can be reduced by up to 15% - as shown in simulations - with only few constructive measures. (orig.)

  18. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  19. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  20. 预镀铜对铝基电沉积镍层的影响%The Effect of Pre-Cu-plating on Aluminum Base for Ni Electrodeposited Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新博; 肖跃军; 刘谦; 刘继文; 赵巍; 张文良; 宋林红; 王雪; 廖震宇

    2013-01-01

    为了改善铝基电沉积镍层的性能,在电沉积镍之前采用了预镀铜的工艺.通过SEM,EDS,划痕法和氦质谱检漏法等方法研究预镀铜层与化学浸锌层的相组成和组织形貌,以及各沉积镍层的气密性和结合力等性能.研究结果表明,预镀铜工艺的添加使电沉积镍层性能得到显著改善;镍层内表面光亮,气密性大大提高.%In order to improve the performance of aluminum electrodeposited nickel layer, pre-copper plating process was adopted before electrodeposited nickel. The testing techniques such as SEM, EDS, scarification, helium mass spectrometer leak detection method were used to study performance of the phase composition and microstructure of pre-copper plating layer compared with immersion zinc layer, to study airtightness and combination of the deposited nickel layers. The results show that electrodeposited nickel layer performance has been significantly improved as the addition of the pre-copper plating, nickel layer surface is brighter, the airtightness is greatly improved.

  1. A novel system solution for cooling and ventilation in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    As a response to new energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need both in summer and in winter. In order to effectively save energy, new interests in cooling concepts using passive cooling technolo......As a response to new energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need both in summer and in winter. In order to effectively save energy, new interests in cooling concepts using passive cooling...... technologies and renewable energy sources have risen. Based on a literature review of natural ventilation, building thermal mass activation and diffuse ceiling ventilation, this paper proposes a new system solution combining these three technologies for cooling and ventilation in office buildings. This new...... solution has the special function of using natural ventilation all the year around without draught risk, even in very cold seasons. A case study of a typical office room using this solution and other traditional HVAC systems is carried out by energy simulation. The results show that there is a large energy...

  2. A novel method for measuring the diffusion, partition and convective mass transfer coefficients of formaldehyde and VOC in building materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The diffusion coefficient (D(m and material/air partition coefficient (K are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (h(m. Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1 the K, D(m and h(m can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2 it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3 the determination of h(m is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring h(m of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC by using that of VOC.

  3. Relations between thickness of UHMWPE's wear debris and positive pressure of tribological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HongTao; GE ShiRong

    2008-01-01

    MiaoXAM2.5X-50X Ultrahigh Precision Surface 3D Profiler is introduced to research the relations be-tween thickness of UHMWPE's wear debris and positive pressure of tribological system. Research re-sults show that thickness of wear debris owns evident classification, and the first grade thickness math model and the second grade thickness math model are built. By the second grade thickness math model, the true force condition in the tribological system can be gotten, and the model can be used as a tool to modify simulating parameters of the tribological system, and it is an important inspecting method to the airtight system which cannot be examined in real time. The first grade thickness math model can describe the true working load and surface condition of work piece in the tribological sys-tem, and is an effective description method for the running condition of frictional pairs. The research results at different lubricating conditions testify the relations between thicknesses of wear debris and positive pressure of the tribological system. The fractal relation between maximal thickness of wear debris and positive pressure is discussed. The conceptions of the immutability principle and charac-teristic granularity of wear debris thickness are brought forward and discussed. In conclusion, as a stable tribological parameter owning mechanical theory basis, wear debris thickness will play an im-portant part in fault diagnosis, especially for the airtight system such as artificial joint.

  4. Use of a holder-vacuum tube device to save on-site hands in preparing urine samples for head-space gas-chromatography, and its application to determine the time allowance for sample sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Toshio; Sumino, Kimiaki; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate urine sample preparation prior to head-space gas-chromatographic (HS-GC) analysis. Urine samples containing one of the five solvents (acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone and toluene) at the levels of biological exposure limits were aspirated into a vacuum tube via holder, a device commercially available for venous blood collection (the vacuum tube method). The urine sample, 5 ml, was quantitatively transferred to a 20-ml head-space vial prior to HS-GC analysis. The loaded tubes were stored at +4 ℃ in dark for up to 3 d. The vacuum tube method facilitated on-site procedures of urine sample preparation for HS-GC with no significant loss of solvents in the sample and no need of skilled hands, whereas on-site sample preparation time was significantly reduced. Furthermore, no loss of solvents was detected during the 3-d storage, irrespective of hydrophilic (acetone) or lipophilic solvent (toluene). In a pilot application, high performance of the vacuum tube method in sealing a sample in an air-tight space succeeded to confirm that no solvent will be lost when sealing is completed within 5 min after urine voiding, and that the allowance time is as long as 30 min in case of toluene in urine. The use of the holder-vacuum tube device not only saves hands for transfer of the sample to air-tight space, but facilitates sample storage prior to HS-GC analysis.

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-03-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States (US), using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu). Annual energy costs were reduced $1,283±$804 (n=31), from a pre-retrofit average of $2,738±$1,065 to $1,588±$561 post-retrofit (n=25 and n=39). The average reported incremental project cost was $40,420±$30,358 (n=59). When financed on a 30-year term, the median change in net-homeownership cost was only $1.00 per month, ranging from $149 in savings to an increase of $212 (mean=$15.67±$87.74; n=28), and almost half of the projects resulted in reductions in net-cost. The economic value of a DER may be much greater than is suggested by these net-costs, because DERs entail substantial non-energy benefits (NEBs), and retrofit measures may add value to a home at resale similarly to general remodeling, PV panel installation, and green/energy efficient home labels. These results provide estimates of the potential of DERs to address energy use in existing homes across climate zones that can be used in future estimates of the technical potential to reduce household

  6. 影响轻型汽车排放测试结果因素分析及对策研究%Factors Analysis of Affecting Light Duty Vehicle Emission Test Results and Countermeasures Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋志辉

    2014-01-01

    Analyze the factors which influence the exhaust gas emission measurement results accuracy of light duty vehicle and study the corresponding countermeasures. Analyze mainly these fac-tors in terms of testing environment, light duty vehicle, testing sys-tem airtightness, chassis dynamometer, cooling fan and ultra-low emission testing system and point out solid solution.%对影响轻型汽车排放测试结果的因素进行了分析,并研究了相关应对策略。主要从测试环境,车辆,测试系统密封性,测功机,冷却风机及超低排放测试系统方面进行了研究分析,并给出了具体的解决方法。

  7. Experimental evaluation of personal protection devices against graphite nanoaerosols: fibrous filter media, masks, protective clothing, and gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Rouillon, F; Pocachard, J; Tardif, F

    2009-06-01

    In this study, different conventional personal protection devices (fibrous filters, cartridges for respirators, protective clothing, and gloves) well qualified for micron particles were tested with graphite nanoparticles ranging from 10 to 100 nm (electrical mobility diameter). For this purpose, two specific test benches were designed: one for filter-based devices which are tested under a controlled air flow and other for gloves and protective clothing based on the "through diffusion method." The penetration versus particle size shows for most tested filter media the behavior predicted by the theoretical Brownian capture: penetration decreases when particle diameter decreases. No thermal rebound was detected until 10 nm for graphite nanoparticles. Protective clothes were tested by two methods and same trends were obtained. Nonwoven fabrics (air-tight materials) are much more efficient against nanoparticles than cotton and paper. Gloves tested by "through diffusion technique," in static condition seem to efficiently protect against graphite nanoparticles in spite of their important porosity.

  8. Construction of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detector for Medical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, N N; Mazumdar, M R Dutta; Dubey, A K; Vioygi, Y P

    2013-01-01

    A prototype Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is under construction for medical imaging purposes. A single thick GEM of size 10x10 cm^2 is assembled inside a square shaped air-tight box which is made of Perspex glass. In order to ionize gas inside the drift field two types of voltage supplier circuits were fabricated, and array of 2x4 pads of each size 4x8 mm^2 were utilized for collecting avalanche charges. Preliminary testing results show that the circuit which produces high voltage and low current is better than that of low voltage and high current supplier circuit in terms of x-ray signal counting rates.

  9. Analysis of sodium experimental circuits pre-heating for the development of nuclear reactors; Analise do pre-aquecimento de circuitos experimentais a sodio para desenvolvimento de reatores nuclares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, Ione Walmir

    1995-09-01

    To satisfy the experimental requirements of sodium loops for nuclear reactors development, a preheating system, consisting of tubular haters, is analyzed. The tubular heaters are usually comprised of a nickel-chromium wire centered in a metal sheath and insulated by magnesium oxide. Practical and simplified methods for the preheating parameters calculations and for the heaters elements determination and section are presented. A thermal method to evaluate the sodium mass in a tank is presented, using the preheating system, when the tank geometry or the sodium level are unknown. The materials employed and the installation procedures of the preheating system are indicated. It is described a procedure, step, to make the connection between the electrical resistance and the conductor wire, to assure the heat dissipation and the air-tight of the heater element. Several suggestions are presented to clarify some doubts, to define correction factors, to develop technology, and to give continuity to the present work. (author). 37 refs., 22 figs.

  10. With cooling and double floor. Clima-Tect for cable bushing ensures air conditioning of servers; Mit Kuehlung und doppeltem Boden. Clima-Tect fuer Kabeldurchfuehrungen sichert Server-Klimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassel, Christine

    2011-04-15

    While data centers are growing worldwide, their energy requirements and thus their cost also increase. Nearly twelve percent of the total expenditure now went to electricity as shown by new calculations of the IT market research institute Gartner Inc. (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany). According to the analysts, just 35 to 50 percent of this flow into the server cooling. Thus, although the air conditioners are becoming more efficient, the more powerful racks emit significant amounts of heat at the same time. A major problem is the mixing of cooling air with the hot exhaust air from the plants. Even the air-tight sealing of the cable entry in the double floor could reduce costs by a tenth.

  11. Effect of passive cooling strategies on overheating in low energy residential buildings for Danish climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Avantaggiato, Marta; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes have progressively produced an increase of outdoors temperature resulting in tangible warmer summers even in cold climate regions. An increased interest for passive cooling strategies is rising in order to overcome the newly low energy buildings’ overheating issue. The growing level...... of air-tightness plays in low-energy buildings a double-acting role: reduction of energy demand and lack of adequate infiltration rate. In particular, the last one combined with higher outside air temperatures brings these new concepts buildings to progressively experience higher indoor temperatures...... creating not negligible thermal discomfort. In the present work the effect of passive strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, are evaluated through computer simulations. The analyses are performed for 1½-storey single-family house in Copenhagen’s climate. The main result...

  12. Conceptual design of the handling and storage system for spent target vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Junichi; Sasaki, Shinobu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    A conceptual design of a handling and storage system for spent target vessels has been carried out, in order to establish spent target technology for the neutron scattering facility. The spent target vessels must be treated remotely with high reliability and safety, since they are highly activated and contain the poisonous mercury. The system is composed of a target exchange trolley to exchange the target vessel, remote handling equipment such as manipulators, airtight casks for the spent target vessel, storage pits and so on. This report presents the results of conceptual design study on a basic plan, a handling procedure, main devices and their arrangement of a handling and storage system for the spent target vessels. (author)

  13. Thermal evaluation of the mean fatigue limit of a complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Olivier; Bremond, Pierre; Hild, Francois

    2005-03-01

    The study deals with the long-term reliability of a high precision pressure sensor using bellows mainly made of electroplated Ni. Bellows are expected to stay in service for many decades. Their high cycle fatigue behavior has to be known to assess the probability of airtightness loss. A specific high cycle fatigue setup, put in a resonant machine that is displacement-controlled, has been designed. An infrared thermographic technique is used to determine the mean fatigue limit of bellows. Increases in the mean temperature of the bellows with the displacement range are monitored. Several authors empirically relate the mean fatigue limit of a flat specimen to a rapid temperature change. A similar analysis is performed in the present case by using the bellows mean temperature. Finite element computations allow us to estimate a mean fatigue stress threshold for electroplated Ni. This result is compared with those obtained mechanically in a Woehler diagram.

  14. Production and market analysis of butyl rubber%丁基橡胶生产及市场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘隽姝; 王东巍; 吴玉峰; 王启弘

    2012-01-01

    Butyl rubber(IIR) is an unreplacbale rubber of the tyre with or without inner tube due to its excellent airtightness, watertightness, weathering resistance and chemical anticorrosivity. This paper inroduces production actuality of IIR, summarizes production capacity, import/export and appearance consumption of IRR,and analyzes and predicts market trend. Furthermore, this paper gives some advices on domestic IIR industry development.%介绍了国内外丁基橡胶(IIR)的生产现状,总结了IIR的产能、进出口量和表观消费量,并对国内IIR的市场发展趋势进行了分析及预测.此外,还对国内IIR行业的发展提出了几点建议.

  15. Measuring the effect of photocatalytic purifiers on indoor air hydrocarbons and carbonyl pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier, Jean; Pichat, Pierre; Mas, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory tests of photocatalytic air purifiers are usually performed with a single pollutant, in the parts per million by volume domain and at airflow rates air: from 9-15.5 to 12.5-18 for methanal, from 1.5-3 to 8-11.5 for ethanal, and from 4.5-19 to 8-26.5 for propanone with the prototype used; these unprecedented results do not exclude using photocatalysis to treat air, but they illustrate that improvement is needed. Because these tests are time-consuming, preliminary tests are useful; results obtained with a 225-L closed-loop, airtight, photocatalytic reactor with an external turbine enabling the ambient air inside the reactor to be circulated through the purifier device at 15-450 m3/hr flow rates are reported.

  16. Effects of simulated weightlessness and sympathectomy on maximum VO2 of male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, C. R.; Stump, C. S.; Beaulieu, S. M.; Rahman, Z.; Sebastian, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated weightlessness (hind-limb suspension) and chemical sympathectomy (by repeated injections with guanethidine sulfate) on the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of female rats were investigated in rats assigned for 14 days to one of three groups: a head-down hind-limb suspension, a horizontal suspension with hind limbs weight bearing, or the caged control. The VO2 max values were assessed by having rats run on a treadmill enclosed in an airtight chamber. The hind-limb-suspended sympathectomized rats were found to exhibit shorter run times and lower mechanical efficiencies, compared to their presuspension values or the values from saline-injected suspended controls. On the other hand, the suspended sympathectomized rats did not demonstrate a decrease in the VO2 max values that was observed in saline-injected controls.

  17. Influence of pressure and temperature of deformation on phase composition of yttrium ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, N. V.; Malyshev, E. N.; Shepel, V. M.; Mikheenko, P. N.

    1994-07-01

    The influence of main flatting process parameters: pressure (P) and temperature (T), when obtaining conductors, on phase composition and critical properties of YBCO system ceramics placed into Al-bronze air-tight shell has been studied. It has been found that alongside with large decrease, due to plastic deformation, of the volume of superconducting (SC) phase there exist regions of the optimal combination of pressure and temperature where volume of SC phases can be ˜60...70% conserved as comparee to initial composition. The subsequent sintering of the deformed powder at 1250 K in the air-shell resulted in ˜90% restoring of the SC phase content. Zero resistance for different samples has been observed in the 80...86 K interval. Deformation scheme and power-temperature conditions as well as the material of hermetic shell used have shown the work to be perspective one in view of substitution of expensive silver for the Al-bronze.

  18. Power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lige; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Huang, Jiang; Liu, Kaifeng; Zuo, Chen

    2015-12-21

    The filament is a key component for the electron emission in the high-voltage electron accelerator. In order to guarantee the stability of the beam intensity and ensure the proper functioning for the power supply in the airtight steel barrel, an efficient filament power supply under accurate control is required. The paper, based on the dual-switch forward converter and synchronous rectification technology, puts forward a prototype of power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage accelerator. The simulation is conducted with MATLAB-Simulink on the main topology and the control method. Loss analysis and thermal analysis are evaluated using the FEA method. Tests show that in this prototype, the accuracy of current control is higher than 97.5%, and the efficiency of the power supply reaches 87.8% when the output current is 40 A.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Energy Recovery Ventilators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosar, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Over the years, building scientists have characterized the relationship between building airtightness, exhaust-only appliances airflows, and building depressurization. Now, as the use of deep retrofit measures and new construction practices is growing to realize lower infiltration levels in increasingly tighter envelopes, performance issues can arise with the operation of exhaust-only appliances in a depressurized home. As the depressurization levels climb in tighter homes, many of these exhaust-only appliances see their rated airflows reduced and other related performance issues arise as a result. If sufficiently depressurized, atmospherically vented combustion appliances that may be present in the home can backdraft as well. Furthermore, when exhaust-only appliances operate and the tight home becomes depressurized, water vapor intrusion from outdoors can raise additional issues of mold in the building envelope in more humid climates.

  20. Numerical Description of Dynamic U-value Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2016-01-01

    for cooling. Therefore in order to achieve zero-energy-building, optimum static U- and g-value solutions in zero-energy-building concepts needs to be supplied with renewable energy harvesting technologies. In order to lower the energy demand for heating without increasing the energy demand for cooling......The transparent part of the façade has the largest heat loss, when compared to the opaque part and an airtight envelope solution. A reduction of the heat loss through the transparent part of the façade leads to a decrease in energy demand for heating; however it increases the energy demand...... requires the development and usage of dynamic U-value technologies. A full-scale test facility, divided into two identical facades, is used, enabling the development of a calculation model for dynamic U-value technologies. The model focuses on the energy transport through the insulated part...

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  2. The ''passivhaus'' standard: from energy efficiency to 'green' building; Le standard ''passivhaus'': de la performance energetique a la construction ''verte''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    The German voluntary standard 'Passivhaus' (passive house) leads to buildings with practically no energy consumption. The first residential buildings of this type were built in 1998 and the first tertiary buildings in 2000. Such a passive house must fulfill 5 efficiency criteria: annual space heating needs {<=} 15 kWh/m{sup 2}, U{sub v} envelope coefficient lower than 0.15 W/(m{sup 2}.K), U{sub v} of openings lower than 0.8 W/(m{sup 2}.K), airtightness {<=} 0.6 volume/hour, and total energy needs (space heating, hot water, ventilation, lighting and domestic uses) measured at the meter lower than 42 kWh/m{sup 2}.year. This article makes a status of the effective efficiency of existing passive buildings both in the residential and tertiary sectors and presents some possible ways of improvement. (J.S.)

  3. Modernisation of ventilation systems; Modernisierung von Lueftungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    When redeveloping buildings it is common to use window constructions with air-tight rabbets which obviate the inflow of fresh air almost entirely. This leads to the well-known structural-physics and hygienic consequences. As an added effect, the distinctly enhanced thermal insulation results in changes in dynamic heat loss. The paper focuses on the issues of how to safeguard the inflow of fresh air, and the heating capacity of radiators. (MSK) [Deutsch] Da die bei Gebaeudesanierungen eingesetzten fugendichten Fensterkonstruktionen die Nachstroemmoeglichkeiten fuer die Zuluft fast ganz unterbinden, fuehrt das zu den bekannten bauphysikalischen und hygienischen Konsequenzen. Dazu kommen veraenderte dynamische Waermverlustverhaeltnisse aufgrund der deutlich verbesserten Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden wird schwerpunktmaessig auf die Probleme Zuluftsicherung und Waermeleistung von Heizkoerpern eingegangen.

  4. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    , air-tight space, constant indoor pressure and temperature. The proposed approach for ACR evaluation can be applied to time intervals with any length, even with varying parameters of both indoor and outdoor air, in which metabolic CO2 generation rate is known and constant. This approach makes possible......IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...... at low rate. This paper describes a new approach for ACR evaluation in naturally ventilated occupied spaces. Actual metabolic CO2 time variation record in an interval of time is compared with the computed variation of metabolic CO2 for the same time interval under reference conditions: sleeping occupants...

  5. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... of the building envelope and the electricity required to run the system. Positive impact on the indoor environment can be expected. Thermal comfort will be improved by insulation and air-tightness measures that will increase surface temperatures and reduce draught from e.g. badly insulated windows. A ventilation...... method for proposals on package solutions for sustainable renovation was described. The method consists of four steps, going from investigation of the house to proposal for sustainable renovation, detailed planning and commissioning after renovation. It could be used by teams of consultants...

  6. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions: Roles of manure organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G

    2011-01-01

    and N transformations at each stage of the manure management chain in a time scale that is relevant for management practices such as retention time in housing and storage, treatment to optimize nutrient management, and timing of field application. Modelling emissions of N2O from field applied manure...... is a particular challenge due to the heterogeneity in distribution of O2 supply and O2 demand which is introduced. This article is part of the special issue entitled: Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture – Finding a Balance between Food and Emissions, Guest Edited by T.A. McAllister, Section Guest Editors; K......, mineralization–immobilization turnover, and water retention. Manure management affects the potential for, and balance between, NH3 and N2O emissions. The interaction between NH3 and N2O may be positive (e.g., both emissions are reduced by an airtight cover during storage and stimulated by composting...

  7. Exploring plasmonics for monitoring applications within the built and natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James; Aidoo, Kofi

    2008-09-01

    Plasmonics is an area of nanophotonic research involving the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons on a metallic surface, resulting in enhanced optical properties. Plasmonics is the mechanism behind Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR.) Developing a sensor using SPR to monitor conditions within the built and natural environment is explored in this paper. A plasmonic sensor involves exciting surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) present at the sensor interface by polarized light. SPP's have sensitivities that respond rapidly to changes at the interface through the presence of analytes, compounds or contaminants; this provides a real time label free detection method. This renders plasmonic sensors ideal as condition monitors. Possible applications include, microbial loading within airtight buildings, soil, water and air pollutant monitoring and structural deterioration monitoring. The advances and learning curves in the development of a new novel sensor for deployment within the built and natural environment are presented along with initial research findings.

  8. Investigation of Indoor Climate in a Naturally Ventilated Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2008-01-01

    A measuring program in a naturally ventilated office building in Copenhagen was carried out to document the indoor climate and ventilation system performance during a year. It included a questionnaire regarding the perceived indoor environmental quality and physical measurements of thermal comfort...... to a combination of poor control of solar shading and a very high local heat load that was above the Danish recommendations for naturally ventilated office buildings. Both measured and perceived indoor air quality in the building was in general very high. The measured air flow rates was relatively high due...... to the need for cooling in the office building, while the level of infiltration was quite low indicating an airtight construction....

  9. Mini-``Bell in a Bell Jar''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhang; Jiali, Hou; Wenfang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    A number of versions of the well-known "bell-in-a-bell-jar" demonstration have been discussed in this journal.1-3 The basic idea is that when a sound source is placed inside an air-tight container, the volume of the sound that's heard decreases dramatically when the container is evacuated. This phenomenon is primarily due to the mismatch that is created between the sound transducer and the surrounding medium.4,5 Here we describe a simple small-scale version of this demonstration, one that may be added to the growing list of examples of how a simple syringe may be used as a tool in physics teaching.6-8

  10. Euclid in the rain forest discovering universal truth in logic and math

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Like Douglas Hofstadter’s Gödel, Escher, Bach, and David Berlinski’s A Tour of the Calculus, Euclid in the Rainforest combines the literary with the mathematical to explore logic—the one indispensable tool in man’s quest to understand the world. Underpinning both math and science, it is the foundation of every major advancement in knowledge since the time of the ancient Greeks. Through adventure stories and historical narratives populated with a rich and quirky cast of characters, Mazur artfully reveals the less-than-airtight nature of logic and the muddled relationship between math and the real world. Ultimately, Mazur argues, logical reasoning is not purely robotic. At its most basic level, it is a creative process guided by our intuitions and beliefs about the world.

  11. The Effects of Air Permeability, Background Ventilation and Lifestyle on Energy Performance, Indoor Air Quality and Risk of Condensation in Domestic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient ventilation is essential when improving energy performance and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ of buildings. Reducing air permeability can considerably improve the energy performance of buildings; however, making the buildings more airtight may result in lower rates of natural ventilation which may in turn increase the risks of condensation and unacceptable IAQ. This study evaluates the effects of different air permeability rates, background ventilation and occupants’ lifestyles on the energy performance as well as the risk of condensation and CO2 concentration in domestic buildings. Dynamic computer simulations were conducted in EnergyPlus. Results indicated direct relations between the ventilation rates, energy performance and IAQ. Higher air permeability along with background ventilation resulted in considerably better IAQ while energy consumption increased by up to four times. Occupants’ lifestyles were identified as a major contributor to the risk of condensation.

  12. EFFECT OF STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment often brings about some negative effects on mechanical properties of wood. Chinese fir is currently underutilized due to some inherent properties that limit its further applications. Using steam as a heating medium and a shielding gas, the heartwood and sapwood of Chinese fir were treated at a temperature ranging from 170ºC to 230ºC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an airtight chamber. Both the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were increased for the sapwood specimens under the temperature less than 200ºC for short treatment times. The hardness was increased for both two kinds of specimens under the temperature less than or about 200ºC, compared to the untreated specimens. The temperature has a stronger effect on mechanical properties of wood than the time, and the temperature of 200 ºC is a critical point in modifying mechanical properties of wood.

  13. Research on the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Automobile Exhaust Valve Formed in Permanent Mold during Centrifugal Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin SHENG; Dong LI; Rui YANG; Yuyin LIU; Jingjie GUO; Jun JIA

    2001-01-01

    Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb automobile exhaust valves were formed with permanent mold centrifugal cast method and their surface layer structure, microstructure, elements distribution and mechanical properties were analyzed by SEM, XRD and EMPA etc. Furthermore, the HIPped valves were tested on 483Q diesel engine. Results showed that the element distribution of TiAl based alloy exhaust valves was uniform and their microstructure was refined. The typical mechanical properties of HlPped exhaust valves were σb=670 MPa, σ0.2=527.5 MPa and δ=3%. Engine test showed that the valves had excellent airtightness and wear resistance properties and satisfied the requirements of engine successfully.

  14. Probe experiment with RIKI device on a meteorological rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapknov, S.K.; Ivanova, T.N.; Gusheva, M.N.; Knchev, A.G.; Tsvetkov, Z.I.

    1979-01-01

    The RIKI device carried on board the Centaure-II ionospheric sounding rocket launched on October 31, 1978 from the equatorial rocket base at Tumba, India in order to measure local plasma ion concentrations and temperatures is described. The device consists of a four-spherical-electrode and a three-spherical-electrode spherical ion trap and a block of measuring electronics mounted in the air-tight rocket container. The volt-ampere characteristics of protons traversing a system of concentric grids are determined in fine or coarse resolution as sweeping voltages are supplied to the grids from a sawtooth wave generator. Positive ions which penetrate the grids are collected by the ion trap collectors, and the current generated is used to determine operational modes. Measurements of ion concentration obtained with the RIKI device have been found to be in good agreement with electron concentration measurements obtained concurrently.

  15. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  16. 石墨端面封严装置密封性检测装置%Leakage Detection Device of Graphite End Face Sealing Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘渊; 马达; 赵四洋

    2013-01-01

    According to the regulations, an airtight test special jig for graphite end face sealing device is designed and manufactured by simulating the actual assembly state of graphite end face sealing device. Through test verification, the aim of simple clamping and operation, strong operability and visualized test result is realized.%本文根据规定要求,模拟石墨端面密封装置实际装配状态设计制造了石墨端面密封装置气密试验专用夹具,经过试验验证,达到了装夹、试验操作简单,可操作性强,试验结果直观的目的。

  17. Learning-Memory Function and Swimming Capability of Rat and Ergonomic Evaluation Under Hypoxic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ding-yu; DAI Rong-ji; LI Bo; MAO Jian; GENG Li-na; DENG Yu-lin

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hypoxia on learning-memory function and swimming capability of rat were studied and the ergonomics under hypoxic condition was also evaluated from the biological point of view. Three modes of hypoxia were designed and plots of oxygen concentration versus time for each group in hypoxic environment were produced. Results showed that the effects of hypoxia on learning-memory function and swimming capability were related with the time and strength of hypoxia. It had nothing to do with the individual difference of rat models. 10% O2 long-term intermittent anamorphosis hypoxia could improve the swimming capability of rat model significantly. Stimulating with proper level of hypoxia, carbon dioxide could improve ergonomics in airtight hypoxia environment. Under hypoxia condition, from the ergonomic point of view, 6% O2 is the important threshold and might belong in critical region.

  18. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... with the minimum acceptable surface temperature regarding surface condensation or mold growth, implemented in the Danish Building Regulations in 2010, and the calculation method for this temperature based on international standards is discussed. The introduction of the minimum acceptable surface temperature has...

  19. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions - importance of organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G.

    and N transformations at each stage of the manure management chain in a time scale that is relevant for management practices such as retention time in housing and storage, treatment to optimize nutrient management, and timing of field application. Modelling emissions of N2O from field applied manure......, mineralization–immobilization turnover, and water retention. Manure management affects the potential for, and balance between, NH3 and N2O emissions. The interaction between NH3 and N2O may be positive (e.g., both emissions are reduced by an airtight cover during storage and stimulated by composting...... of manure management, and the mitigation potential of individual and combined measures to prevent emissions, are calculated for dairy cattle with an emission factor approach. A more precise determination of overall N2O and NH3 emissions requires a model that accounts for the complex interactions between C...

  20. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    on gypsum boards with airtight connectionswas created utilizing the full potential of diffuse layer without undesirable crack flow reported by otherauthors. The measured values were used to validate the detailed Large Eddy Simulation model of testroom created in CFD software with aim to evaluate an indoor...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow......Spaces with high occupant densities result in high heat gains and need for relatively high air change rate.By means of traditional mechanical ventilation diffusers it becomes a challenge to supply large amountsof fresh air into the space without creating a local discomfort for occupants. One...

  1. Development study on subcriticality monitor. 1. Report under business contract with Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    In this trust fund, we reviewed subcriticality measuring methods and neutron or gamma ray measuring and date transmission systems appropriate for realizing inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance systems, which is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Since the neutron flux level in subcritical systems is fairly low without external neutron sources, it is desirable to use pulse type neutron detectors for subcritical measurement systems. This logically implies that subcriticality measurement methods based on the temporal domain should be used for developing an on-line criticality surveillance system. In the deep subcriticality conditions, a strong external neutron source is needed for eactivity measurement and a D-T tube can be used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurement. A D-T tube is convenient since it is free from Tritium problem since Tritium is sealed in an airtight container and also can be controlled by power supply. Hence, under deep subcritical condit...

  2. 钢铁企业高大厂房采暖方式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任乐

    2014-01-01

    针对钢铁企业高大厂房的特点,对当前主要的采暖方式进行分析和经济性比较,得出辐射采暖为较佳的采暖方式,同时通过实际工程实例指出,厂房的围护结构严密性是采暖效果的重要保障。%To the question of best heating method for huge building in iron/steel making plant, main heating methods were technical y and economical y analyzed compared with special structure. Radiant heating was put forward. According to the example of operating project, the importance of air-tightness for retaining structure was advanced to promise the effect of radiant heating.

  3. Overheating Assessment of a Passive House Case Study in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan María; Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; García-Gáfaro, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    temperatures during warm and transition seasons. Furthermore, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns about increases in temperature of more than 4 ºC by the end of the century. Taking into account the different thermal comfort indices, this research analyses the overheating risk in a single...... in CIBSE TM52 in 2013 and the PH limitation about warmer temperatures. Moreover, we have analysed the influence of dwelling occupancy and the periods of verification over the results of each methodology. The studied building has a high level of thermal insulation and air-tight envelope, reducing heat...... losses until a heating demand of 14 kWh/m2 per year. It is equipped with a convective heating system and a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery, without any cooling system apart from the bypass configuration of the heat recovery unit and the window openings. The monitoring lasted more than...

  4. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  5. Constrained space camera assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  6. LIQUIDARMOR CM Flashing and Sealant, High Impact Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-12-01

    Air leakage is responsible for about 1.1 quads of energy or 6% of the total energy used by commercial buildings in the US. Consequently, infiltration and exfiltration are among the largest envelope-related contributors to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning loads in commercial buildings. New air sealing technologies have recently emerged that aim to improve the performance of air barrier systems by simplifying their installation procedure. LIQUIDARMORTM CM Flashing and Sealant is an example of these new advanced material technologies. This technology is a spray-applied sealant and liquid flashing and can span gaps that are up to ¼ in. wide without a supporting material. ORNL verified the performance of LIQUIDARMORTM CM with field tests and energy simulations from a building in which LIQUIDARMORTM CM was one of components of the air barrier system. The Homeland Security Training Center (HTC) at the College of DuPage in Glen Ellyn, IL, served as the demonstration site. Blower door test results show the average air leakage rate in the demonstration site to be 0.15 cfm/ft2 at 1.57 psf, or 63% lower than the 0.4 cfm at 1.57 psf specified in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). According to simulation results, HTC lowered its annual heating and cooling cost by about $3,000 or 9% compared to a similar building that lacked an air barrier system. This demonstration project serves as an example of the level of building envelope airtightness that can be achieved by using air barrier materials that are properly installed, and illustrates the energy and financial savings that such an airtight envelope could attain.

  7. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  8. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.

    2013-01-15

    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  9. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  10. Design and Optimization on Simulation System of Mine CO2 Open Loop Cycle Refrigeration%矿用CO2开放式制冷仿真系统设计与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹利波

    2013-01-01

    According to the importance of the CO2 open loop cycle refrigeration applied to the rescue cabin, the refuge chamber and other limited airtight space, the FLOWMASTER simulation software of the thermal fluid system was applied to design the simulation system of the CO2 open loop cycle refrigeration applied to a limited airtight space. Under the conditions to meet the designed refrigeration value and the pressure drop and temperature drop at the inlet and outlet of the pneumatic blower, the tube length of the evaporator was optimized and the optimum length of the evaporator was obtained. Meanwhile the refrigeration system features and the different refrigeration value under the non designed performances were checked.The test certification was conducted on the refrigeration simulation system.The simulated value and the test value were well fitted and the simulation accuracy and precision of the system were verified.%针对CO2开放式制冷在避难硐室、救生舱等有限密闭空间中应用的重要性,利用FLOWMASTER热流体计算仿真软件,设计了一种用于有限密闭空间的CO2开放式制冷仿真系统,在满足设计制冷量和气动风机进出口压降、温降的条件下,对蒸发器管长进行优化,获得了最佳蒸发器长度,同时对非设计工况下的制冷系统特性及不同制冷量进行校核,并对该制冷仿真系统进行了试验验证,仿真值与试验值吻合良好,验证了系统仿真的准确性和精确性.

  11. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  12. 矿井避难硐室正压密闭系统研究%Study on confined positive pressure system in mine refuge station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海荣; 金龙哲; 高娜; 王岩

    2011-01-01

    矿井避难硐室在灾变时为矿工提供了隔绝密闭的避难空间,内部正压密闭系统起到了隔绝有毒有害气体的作用.本文对矿井避难硐室正压系统进行研究,确定影响矿井避难硐室正压数值的因素,通过理论计算确定了矿井避难硐室正压值,同时确定了矿井避难硐室的正压维持方式并设计了相应的余压阀.为保证矿井避难硐室正压的实现,对矿井避难硐室密闭系统进行研究,包括建筑密闭和设施密闭.%Mine refuge station can provide the isolated refuge confined space in the disaster, and the internal positive pressure-confined system plays the role of isolating toxic and harmful gases. In this article positive pressure system in mine refuge station was studied, the factors affecting the positive pressure values of mine refuge station were determined. Through theoretical calculations, the positive pressure value of mine refuge station and the way of maintenance positive pressure, were determined and also residual pressure valve was designed. In order to ensure the realization of positive pressure in the refuge station, the confined system of mine refuge station was studied, which include construction airtight and facilities airtight.

  13. A Literature Review of Sealed and Insulated Attics—Thermal, Moisture and Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In this literature review and analysis, we focus on the thermal, moisture and energy performance of sealed and insulated attics in California climates. Thermal. Sealed and insulated attics are expected to maintain attic air temperatures that are similar to those in the house within +/- 10°F. Thermal stress on the assembly, namely high shingle and sheathing temperatures, are of minimal concern. In the past, many sealed and insulated attics were constructed with insufficient insulation levels (~R-20) and with too much air leakage to outside, leading to poor thermal performance. To ensure high performance, sealed and insulated attics in new California homes should be insulated at levels at least equivalent to the flat ceiling requirements in the code, and attic envelopes and ducts should be airtight. We expect that duct systems in well-constructed sealed and insulated attics should have less than 2% HVAC system leakage to outside. Moisture. Moisture risk in sealed and insulated California attics will increase with colder climate regions and more humid outside air in marine zones. Risk is considered low in the hot-dry, highly populated regions of the state, where most new home construction occurs. Indoor humidity levels should be controlled by following code requirements for continuous whole-house ventilation and local exhaust. Pending development of further guidance, we recommend that the air impermeable insulation requirements of the International Residential Code (2012) be used, as they vary with IECC climate region and roof finish. Energy. Sealed and insulated attics provide energy benefits only if HVAC equipment is located in the attic volume, and the benefits depend strongly on the insulation and airtightness of the attic and ducts. Existing homes with leaky, uninsulated ducts in the attic should have major savings. When compared with modern, airtight duct systems in a vented attic, sealed and insulated attics in California may still provide substantial benefit

  14. Indoor air quality in 24 California residences designed as high-performance homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Gap, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. In addition, these similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve

  15. 用粉末冶金方法制造压缩机法兰%Sintering processing of compressor flanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.K.Park; H.S.Park; S.T.Choi; 韩凤麟

    2012-01-01

    To manufacture a flange for a compressor with a relief groove by using powder metallurgy in order to prevent deformation to the compressor in operation, powder material for the flange is charged into a mold; an ablative member having a melting point lower than that of the powder material is positioned at a place where a relief groove is to be formed;the flange is formed by compressing the powder material and the ablative member;and the formed flange is sintered at a temperature between the melting point of the powder material and the ablative member so as to melt and remove the ablative member. It made according to the new method has more excellent strength and airtight property than the conventional one. It is analyzed that the ablative member is melted and penetrated into the flange structure during the sintering process, which results in improvement of the airtight property and increase of the strength.%为防止压缩机在运行中变形,用粉末冶金方法制造了带减压槽的压缩机法兰.将制造法兰的粉末材料装于模腔中,然后,将熔点比粉末材料低的熔渗件置于减压槽位置进行成形;将粉末材料与熔渗件压制成形为法兰;在粉末材料与熔渗件熔点之间的温度下进行烧结,使熔渗件熔化和渗入粉末材料之中.用新方法制造的法兰比用常规方法生产的强度高、密封性好.根据分析,在烧结时,由于熔渗件熔化与渗透到法兰结构中,改进了气密性,增高了强度.

  16. Investigation on Formaldehyde Pollution in Indoor Air of Archives%档案库房空气甲醛污染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑; 万国林; 甘为民; 喻荣珍; 吴红娥; 李继国; 谭向文

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the formaldehyde pollution in indoor air of archives. Methods The levels of formaldehyde in indoor air of 14 representative archives were determined on the last days in 4 seasons of one year. Sampiing and analysis were conducted in every 4 hours per day. Results In indoor air of 14 archives formaldehyde was found,the levels of which reached 0. 024,0. 109,0. 089 and 0. 026 mg/m3 in spring,summer,autumn and winter respectively. The concentrations of formaldehyde in indoor air of archives with better air-tightness exceeded the levels ruled by National Sanitary Standard(0. 08 mg/m3) in indoor air of room . Conclusion In indoor air of archives,the levels of formaldehyde which might volatiled from the indoor building materials,decorative materials ,papers and printing ink of archives were associated with the levels of air-tightness of room,ventilation and temperature.%目的探讨档案库房空气甲醛污染情况。方法选择14个有代表性的档案馆库房,对其甲醛浓度于一年四季的最后一天每4 h测定一次,连续24 h。结果在14个档案馆的档案库房内均测出甲醛,春、夏、秋、冬四季甲醛的浓度分别为0.024、0.109、0.089和0.026 mg/m3。密闭较好的档案库房中的甲醛浓度超过居室中甲醛浓度国家卫生标准(0.08 mg/m3)。结论档案库房中甲醛的浓度与档案库房的密闭程度、风速和温度有关;档案库房中的甲醛可能来自室内建筑、装饰材料的和档案纸张和油墨。

  17. La aerotermia como alternativa para el control de Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae resistentes a deltametrina Air temperature elevation as an alternative for the control of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto G. Gentile

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Se exploraron los efectos de la elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire sobre las formas embrionarias, ninfales y adultas de Triatoma infestansresistentes a Deltametrina. En laboratorio, se expuso a temperaturas crecientes del aire la progenie completa de T. infestans, para determinar viabilidad de huevos y supervivencia en ninfas y adultos; sobre el terreno, la experimentación se llevó a cabo en una vivienda tipo rancho previamente evaluada como colonizada. Durante la fase de laboratorio se comprobó la inviabilidad del 100% de los huevos y la mortalidad del 100% de las ninfas y adultos expuestos a temperaturas del aire estanco de entre 45ºC y 55ºC, mientras que en la fase de terreno se logró reproducir el efecto ovicida del calor, como así también la negativización de las evaluaciones entomológicas de la vivienda de experimentación, llevadas a cabo a las 72 horas, a los 30, 60 y 90 días. La elevación artificial de la temperatura del aire estanco en las habitaciones resultó ser un método de control de eficacia aceptable, inocuo y técnicamente sencillo.This study explores the effects of artificial air temperature elevation on the embryonic, nymphal, and adult forms of deltamethrin-resistant Triatoma infestans. In the laboratory, complete offspring of T. infestanswere exposed to increasing air temperatures to determine the viability of eggs and survival of nymphs and adults; in the field, the experiment was conducted in a poor rural dwelling previously identified as infested with the vector. The laboratory phase showed 100% non-viability of eggs and 100% mortality of nymphs and adults exposed to airtight temperatures from 45ºC to 55ºC, while the field phase succeeded in reproducing the heat's ovicidal effect and negative conversion of entomological assays in the experimental dwelling, as conducted over the course of 72 hours at 30, 60, and 90 days from the baseline evaluation. Artificial elevation of airtight temperature

  18. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  19. Structural Testing of a 6m Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing low ballistic coefficient technologies to support the Nations long-term goal of landing humans on Mars. Current entry, decent, and landing technologies are not practical for this class of payloads due to geometric constraints dictated by current and future launch vehicle fairing limitations. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) are being developed to circumvent this limitation and are now considered a leading technology to enable landing of heavy payloads on Mars. At the beginning of 2014, a 6m diameter HIAD inflatable structure with an integrated flexible thermal protection system (TPS) was subjected to a static load test series to verify its structural performance under flight-relevant loads. The inflatable structure was constructed into a 60 degree sphere-cone configuration using nine inflatable torus segments composed of fiber-reinforced thin films. The inflatable tori were joined together using adhesives and high-strength textile woven structural straps. These straps help distribute the load throughout the inflatable structure. The 6m flexible TPS was constructed using multiple layers of high performance materials that are designed to protect the inflatable structure from heat loads that would be seen in flight during atmospheric entry. A custom test fixture was constructed to perform the static load test series. The fixture consisted of a round structural tub with enough height and width to allow for displacement of the HIAD test article as loads were applied. The bottom of the tub rim had an airtight seal with the floor. The rigid centerbody of the HIAD was mounted to a pedestal in the center of the structural tub. Using an impermeable membrane draped over the HIAD test article, an airtight seal was created with the top rim of the static load tub. This seal allowed partial vacuum to be pulled beneath the HIAD resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. Using this technique, the test article

  20. Overview of the use of refrigerating fluids in thermodynamical machines; Panorama de l`utilisation des fluides frigorigenes dans les machines thermodynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, J. [Syrec SA (France)

    1996-12-31

    The R-22 refrigerant has been used as a substitute of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigerating machineries but its use will become prohibited very soon. This paper raises the problem of its replacement by other HFC or natural fluids. The problem of natural fluids like ammonia or propane concerns their toxicity, flammability and explosion risk. If a regulation about the greenhouse effect is defined, the performance of the installation will be the decisive parameter for the choice of a refrigerant. R-22 fluid has multiple applications from air-conditioning systems to freezing tunnels and the most suitable substitutes will be different from one application to the other. The different criteria that influence the choice of a refrigerating fluid are: the condensation pressure, the delivery temperature, the compressor volume efficiency, the volume refrigerating power, the coefficient of performance, the variation of vaporization temperature, the global greenhouse effect, the toxicity, flammability and explosive character. A comparison between several fluids has been performed with a single-stage airtight compressor of 10 m{sup 3}/h, at a 40 deg. C constant condensation temperature, a 5 deg. C overheating and a 3 deg. C under-cooling. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  1. Conceptual design and experiments of electrochemistry-flushing technology for the remediation of historically Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sun, Delin; Hu, Siyang; Hu, Jing; Yuan, Xingzhong

    2016-02-01

    A conceptual design and experiments, electrochemistry-flushing (E-flushing), using electrochemistry to enhance flushing efficiency for the remediation of Cr(Ⅵ)-contaminated soil is presented. The rector contained three compartments vertically superposed. The upper was airtight cathode compartment containing an iron-cathode. The middle was soil layer. The bottom was anode compartment containing an iron-anode and connected to a container by circulation pumps. H2 and OH(-) ions were produced at cathode. H2 increased the gas pressure in cathode compartment and drove flushing solution into soil layer forming flushing process. OH(-) ions entered into soil layer by eletromigration and hydraulic flow to enhance the desorption of Cr(Ⅵ). High potential gradient was applied to accelerate the electromigration of desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) ions and produced joule heat to increase soil temperature to enhance Cr(Ⅵ) desorption. In anode compartment, Fe(2+) ions produced at iron-anode reduced the desorbed Cr(Ⅵ) into Cr(3+) ions, which reacted with OH(-) ions forming Cr(OH)3. Experimental results show that Cr(Ⅵ) removal efficiency of E-flushing experiments was more than double of flushing experiments and reached the maximum of removal efficiency determined by desorption kinetics. All electrochemistry processes were positively used in E-flushing technology.

  2. Equipment for thoracoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M S; Trastek, V F; Daly, R C; Deschamps, C; Pairolero, P C

    1993-09-01

    The combining of miniaturized video technology with thoracoscopy now allows surgeons to perform a variety of thoracic procedures percutaneously. Both rigid and flexible video thoracoscopes are available. The rigid endoscope has a camera located proximally at the eye-piece and is capable of excellent resolution. However, visualization of the entire pleural cavity is difficult because of the rigid chest wall. Placing the video camera at the distal end of a flexible thoracoscope, as in the electronic video thoracoscope (EVE-L; Fujinon, Wayne, NJ), yields better visualization of these relatively inaccessible areas. However, disadvantages of the flexible thoracoscope include increased expense and complexity, reduced resolution as compared to rigid systems, and the need for a strobed light source, thus making video-assisted surgery more difficult. Thoracoscopic wedge excisions of the lung are now possible because of the adaptation of gastrointestinal staplers for percutaneous use. The initial design consisted of a reloadable 30-mm disposable stapler. Newer models, however, have a longer staple line and some are reusable. Future refinements may allow the head of the instrument to articulate, thus permitting it to be applied to the lung at various angles. Thoracoscopic ports that provide an air-tight seal are available but are not essential; therefore, standard thoracotomy instruments can be utilized through small open incisions. Specialized disposable thoracoscopic instruments are also available, including scissors, dissectors, and fan retractors. It is hoped that the future will bring improved optics, better staplers, and refined percutaneous instrumentation.

  3. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  4. Monitoring drip water isotope and element variability: A new device for automatic drip water collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Gilbert, M.-J.; Kwiecien, O.; Seifert, R.; Fleitmann, D.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding cave drip water elemental and stable isotope composition (δD and δ18O) are vital for interpreting climate proxy records derived from stalagmites as palaeoclimate archives. Delineating the temporal changes in drip water chemistry to climatic and environmental fluctuations (such as rainfall amount, degassing, bioactivity etc.) is even more important if calibration is attempted between climatic parameters and stalagmite proxy records. Monitoring of remote study sites has often been limited by the ability to regularly and manually collect drip water samples over an extended period of time. One important complication to be considered for stable isotope analysis is that sampling vials must be closed air-tight, in order to avoid post-sampling evaporation of the sampled water. To overcome these limitations we developed an automated and programmable sampling device that can collect 12 ml of drip water at pre-defined time intervals. A total of 49 samples can be collected in a turret over a period of up to one year. The device is powered by widely available C-cell batteries and works in cave environments with positive air temperature. The autosampler has been installed and tested in Waldheim Cave, Switzerland, where we collected water at 24h intervals. We present preliminary data for the winter period December 2011 to March 2012.

  5. Results from the SynergieHaus programme of PreussenElektra; Ergebnisse aus dem SynergieHaus-Programm der PreussenElektra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussenbrock, K. [Preussen Elektra, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The `SynergieHaus` project is an initiative by PreussenElektra and 25 regional and municipal utilities. Its objective is to contribute towards the further development and propagation of energy-saving building techniques. Within the framework of the project, funding was granted for more than 400 residential units erected between 1995 and 1997. The main prerequisites for funding were as follows: an at least 30 % shortfall of annual heating energy demand from the specifications of the thermal protection ordinance (WSchV `95) currently in force; installation of mechanical ventilation; and an airtight building envelope. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das SynergieHaus-Projekt ist eine Initiative der PreussenElektra und 25 Regionaler und Kommunaler Versorgungsunternehmen. Ziel ist es, einen Beitrag zur Weiterentwicklung und Verbreitung energiesparender Bauweisen zu leisten. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes wurden zwischen 1995 und 1997 mehr als 400 neuerrichtete Wohneinheiten finanziell gefoerdert. Voraussetzung fuer eine Foerderung waren insbesondere die Unterschreitung des Jahres-Heizwaermebedarfs gemaess geltender Waermeschutzverordnung (WSchV `95) um mindestens 30%, der Einbau einer mechanischen Wohnungslueftung sowie eine luftdichte Gebaeudehuelle. (orig.)

  6. Suspended core subwavelength fibers: practical designs for the low-loss terahertz guidance

    CERN Document Server

    Rozé, Mathieu; Mazhorova, Anna; Walther, Markus; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report two designs of subwavelength fibers packaged for practical terahertz wave guiding. We describe fabrication, modeling and characterization of microstructured polymer fibers featuring a subwavelength-size core suspended in the middle of a large porous outer cladding. This design allows convenient handling of the subwavelength fibers without distorting their modal profile. Additionally, the air-tight porous cladding serves as a natural enclosure for the fiber core, thus avoiding the need for a bulky external enclosure for humidity-purged atmosphere. Fibers of 5 mm and 3 mm in outer diameters with a 150 \\mu m suspended solid core and a 900 \\mu m suspended porous core respectively, were obtained by utilizing a combination of drilling and stacking techniques. Characterization of the fiber optical properties and the near-field imaging of the guided modes were performed using a terahertz near-field microscopy setup. Near-field imaging of the modal profiles at the fiber output confirmed the effe...

  7. Development of New Generation of Thermally-Enhanced Fiber Glass Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    This report presents experimental and numerical results from thermal performance studies. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and John s Manville was to design a basic concept of a new generation of thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation. Different types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been tested as dynamic components in buildings during the last 4 decades. Most historical studies have found that PCMs enhance building energy performance. Some PCM-enhanced building materials, like PCM-gypsum boards or PCM-impregnated concretes have already found their limited applications in different countries. Today, continued improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that throughout Southern and Central U.S. climates, residences may soon be routinely constructed with PCM in order to maximize insulation effectiveness and maintain low heating and cooling loads. The proposed thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation will maximize this integration by utilizing a highly-efficient building envelope with high-R thermal insulation, active thermal mass and superior air-tightness. Improved thermal resistance will come from modifications in infrared internal characteristics of the fiber glass insulation. Thermal mass effect can be provided by proprietary thermally-active microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). Work carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the CRADA is described in this report.

  8. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  9. 提高唇形油封寿命的装配新工艺开发%New assembly technology development on increase of lip-shaped oil seal life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽英; 张宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Various shafts surface treatment were adopted,and the seal abrasive experiments were carried on fitting with the lip-shaped oil seal,so the shaft surface treatment technology was obtained with good seal,little abrasion and long service life.The assembly technology was analyzed and tested on the oil seal quality and the lifespan effect,and three-dimension Pro/e assembly technology was obtained,which could better ensure the oil seal assembly quality and remarkably increase the lip-shaped oil seal life and airtight performance.%采用多种轴表面处理方式,并与唇形油封进行配合密封磨损试验,得到一种密封良好、磨损小、使用寿命长的轴表面处理工艺;就装配工艺对油封质量及寿命的影响进行了分析及试验,得出采用三维Pro/e装配工艺可更好地保证油封的装配质量,显著提高唇形油封的寿命及密封性能。

  10. Radon emanation from low-grade uranium ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2013-12-01

    Estimation of radon emanation in uranium mines is given top priority to minimize the risk of inhalation exposure due to short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes the radon emanation studies conducted in the laboratory as well as inside an operating underground uranium mine at Jaduguda, India. Some of the important parameters, such as grade/(226)Ra activity, moisture content, bulk density, porosity and emanation fraction of ore, governing the migration of radon through the ore were determined. Emanation from the ore samples in terms of emanation rate and emanation fraction was measured in the laboratory under airtight condition in glass jar. The in situ radon emanation rate inside the mine was measured from drill holes made in the ore body. The in situ(222)Rn emanation rate from the mine walls varied in the range of 0.22-51.84 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1) with the geometric mean of 8.68 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1). A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.99, p 222)Rn emanation rate and the ore grade was observed. The emanation fraction of the ore samples, which varied in the range of 0.004-0.089 with mean value of 0.025 ± 0.02, showed poor correlation with ore grade and porosity. Empirical relationships between radon emanation rate and the ore grade/(226)Ra were also established for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the ore body.

  11. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of a Wireless, Passive Implantable Pressure Sensor Based on Magnetic Higher-Order Harmonic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat Ghee Ong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A passive and wireless sensor was developed for monitoring pressure in vivo. Structurally, the pressure sensor, referred to as the magneto-harmonic pressure sensor, is an airtight chamber sealed with an elastic pressure membrane. A strip of magnetically-soft material is attached to the bottom of the chamber and a permanent magnet strip is embedded inside the membrane. Under the excitation of an externally applied AC magnetic field, the magnetically-soft strip produces a higher-order magnetic signature that can be remotely detected with an external receiving coil. As ambient pressure varies, the pressure membrane deflects, altering the separation distance between the magnetically-soft strip and the permanent magnet. This shifts the higher-order harmonic signal, allowing for detection of pressure change as a function of harmonic shifting. The wireless, passive nature of this sensor technology allows for continuous long-term pressure monitoring, particularly useful for biomedical applications such as monitoring pressure in aneurysm sac and sphincter of Oddi. In addition to demonstrating its pressure sensing capability, an animal model was used to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of the pressure sensor in a biological environment.

  13. Food-borne botulism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebagliati, Victoria; Philippi, Romina; Tornese, Mariela; Paiva, Analia; Rossi, Laura; Troncoso, Alcides

    2009-05-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum toxins. Although the disease is uncommon it is a cause of great concern due to its high rate of mortality. Food-borne outbreaks of botulism occur worldwide and require immediate public health attention and acute care resources. Analysis of outbreaks showed that the food products most often involved were fermented fish products in Alaska; home-canned food, oil preservation and restaurant sauce in the rest of the United States (US) and in London and; and home-canned vegetables, airtight packed food with inappropriate refrigeration, and aerosols in Argentina. The diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food. Botulism must be immediately identified as even one case suggests the start of an epidemic and should be treated as a public health emergency. Therefore, the purpose of the following review is to recognize the risks associated with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods, and to encourage prevention by seeking to make all public health professionals aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  14. Factory-built integrated solar homes - A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlings, L.K.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past fifteen years, hundreds of people across the US have built for themselves highly advanced residences which integrated passive solar architecture; photovoltaic power systems; high-efficiency lights, appliances, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and cooling) equipment; high-level insulation and airtight construction; and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Such a home can be referred to as an {open_quotes}integrated solar home{close_quotes}. As the essential technologies have improved in performance, price, and availability, the performance of such homes has steadily advanced to the point where they could provide amenities at more-or-less normal US standards of luxury, yet require as little as 5% to 10% of the level of fossil fuel or biomass use that are required in an average US home. However, the resources required to build such a home, both in terms of the time and dedication needed for research, design, and construction of the homes, and in terms of the additional cost of the renewable energy/energy efficient features, have prevented such construction from moving beyond a tiny handful of highly motivated homeowners and into the mainstream of residential construction. This paper has design summaries of six different houses.

  15. Off-grid in a cold city: The Alberta sustainable home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, T.; Byrne, J. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    The Alberta Sustainable Home is a new suburban three-bedroom house and office that will soon be independent of the sewer, electric, and water systems. Located in the cold, dry, sunny climate of Calgary, AB, the home is now demonstrating the feasibility of environmentally sustainable, cost-saving devices-from Eco-studs in the framework to graywater heat recovery devices. Although it was built for about the same price as a comparable conventional home, the Alberta Sustainable Home has received a preferential mortgage rate, is expected to have an unusually high resale value, and will cost about $1,500 per year (Canadian) less for utilities. The Alberta Sustainable Home was built privately by Autonomous and Sustainable Housing Incorporated (ASH), in partnership with some 215 companies worldwide. Construction began in September 1993, and the designers and builders have lived and worked in the building since April 1994. Topics include the following: space and water heating; airtight construction; insulation; windows; refrigeration; saving water; low embodied energy; retrofitting; pollutant control; less power.

  16. Purification/deodorization of indoor air and gaseous effluents by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, P.; Disdier, J.; Hoang-Van, C.; Mas, D.; Goutailler, G.; Gaysse, C. [Laboratoire ' Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environnement' , CNRS UMR ' IFoS' , Ecole Centrale de Lyon, BP 163, 69131 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2000-12-25

    Our objective was to further assess the capabilities of TiO{sub 2} to purify/deodorize indoor air and industrial gaseous effluents. Using a laboratory photoreactor including a lamp emitting around 365nm and a TiO{sub 2}-coated fiber glass mesh, we first determined that the removal rate of three very different pollutants (CO, n-octane, pyridine) was 5-10{mu}mol per Wh consumed by the lamp for 50-2000ppmv concentrations and 25-50lh{sup -1} flow rates (dry air or O{sub 2}). We inferred that this order of magnitude allows, by use of a reasonable-size apparatus, the abatement of pollutants in constantly renewed indoor air, except CO and CH{sub 4} that are too concentrated. Using a TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis-based individual air purifier prototype, we showed, through distinctive analytical measurements, that the average concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylenes were indeed reduced by a factor of 2-3 in an ordinary non-airtight room. We also showed that O{sub 3} addition in O{sub 2} very markedly increases the mineralization percentage of n-octane, under otherwise identical conditions, in the laboratory photoreactor without photoexcitation of O{sub 3}; this property of O{sub 3} can expand the application field of photocatalytic air purification in industry, at least in some cases.

  17. [Removal of formaldehyde with novel packed air purifier and its computational simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-hua; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Qing-liang; Zhang, Li-wei; Yuan, Chung-shin

    2008-09-01

    A novel air purifier was designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde. The air purifier was filled with glass beads (3 mm) coated with TiO2. The removal efficiency of this air purifier was examined in an airtight room. The results showed that 87.0%-93.8% of the formaldehyde was removed for the initial formaldehyde concentration of 0.727-1.815 mg/m3. The reaction rate equation of the air purifier was developed. The simulation of single device of the air purifier suggested the uniformity of the air flow in the device. Besides, a mathematical model to simulate the variation of formaldehyde in a room was constructed, in which there was continuous formaldehyde emission source and the air purifier was operated. The simulation result was also proved by the experimental data. The results revealed that using the air purifier at intervals could steadily keep the formaldehyde concentration below the National Air Quality Standard of China, i.e. 0.1 mg/m3.

  18. The Check-out Facility for Muffler Controlled by PLC%PLC控制的消声器检测设备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玲; 张超

    2011-01-01

    介绍了消声器走向及气密检测设备的设计过程.通过对生产工艺要求和现有检测设备存在问题的分析,将气密检测与走向检测融合为一体,重新设计了气动系统和以FX1S-20MR为控制器的PLC控制系统,经过优化功能组合和程序设计,该设备具有检测方便,劳动强度低,检测效率高等特点.%This article describes the muffler's direction and the design process of the air tightness check-out facility. Through the technique of the production process requirements and the check-out facility existence question's analysis, airtight detection and direction detection are fused as a whole, redesigned pneumatic system and PLC control system using FX1S-20MR as the controller through optimized combination of functions and procedures design, the device has characteristics suchas detected convenient, low labor intensity and detection efficiency.

  19. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo; Bremser, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties.

  20. Investigation of formaldehyde oxidation over Co3O4-Ce2 and Au/Co3O4-CeO2 catalysts at room temperature: effective removal and determination of reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Donghui; Xue, Wenjuan; Dou, Baojuan; Wang, Hailin; Hao, Zhengping

    2011-04-15

    Formaldehyde is regarded as the major indoor pollutant emitted from widely used building and decorative materials in airtight buildings, which should be eliminated under indoor environmental conditions. We report here catalytic oxidation process of formaldehyde over mesoporous Co(3)O(4), Co(3)O(4)-CeO(2), Au/Co(3)O(4), and Au/Co(3)O(4)-CeO(2) catalysts and their excellent catalytic performances at room temperature. These catalysts were prepared by a "nanocasting" method with the mesostructure generated from SBA-15 silica with 2D structure. The adsorbed surface species in the formaldehyde oxidation process are analyzed, and some key steps in the oxidation pathway, active sites, and intermediate species are proposed. Among the detected species, some kinds of formate species formed on the catalysts were indentified as intermediates, which further transformed into bicarbonate or carbonate and which decomposed to carbon dioxide. The role of the mesoporous Co(3)O(4) and the gold nanoparticles in the mechanism are also revealed.

  1. Insulating correctly. Manual for up-to-date construction in existing buildings; Richtig daemmen. Handbuch fuer zeitgemaesses Bauen im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenssmantel, Juergen; Geburtig, Gerd

    2008-07-01

    The authors show clearly what have to be taken into account during modernization or retrofitting of an existing building or during new construction an optimal planning according to energetic points of view. Content: selection of a suitable insulation materials; airtightness and thermography; overview on insulating materials; selection of manufacturers and correct contracts; ventilation by heat recovery. (GL) [German] Die beiden Autoren zeigen auf, welche Beobachtungen und Ueberlegungen anzustellen sind, bevor ein Daemmstoff in die Hand genommen wird. Das Buch hilft dem Praktiker die verschiedenen Gegebenheiten, Anforderungen und Materialien zu beurteilen. Dazu werden auch grundlegende bauphysikalische Kenntnisse vermittelt, wie sie heute fuer jeden auf einer Baustelle verantwortlich Taetigen unerlaesslich sind. Diskutiert werden neben den Moeglichkeiten auch die Grenzen des Daemmens. Die zahlreiche Uebersichten und Checklisten erhoehen den praktischen Nutzen dieses Buches. Bei konkreten Bauvorhaben helfen sie, aus dem Buendel von Anforderungen, Gebaeudedaten und Beobachtungen zu einem Urteil zu kommen. Das Buch bietet Entscheidungshilfen und Antworten zu den Fragen: - Wo lohnt es sich nachtraeglich zu daemmen? - Wie waehlt man den geeigneten Daemmstoff aus? - Welche Checklisten kann man bei der Auswahl anwenden? - Warum haben auch energetische Nachruestungen ihre Grenzen? - Weshalb muessen bauphysikalische 'Spielregeln' beachtet werden? Ein umfangreicher Adressteil mit den Angaben zu den Herstellern von Waermedaemm-Verbundsystemen, Daemmputzen und Daemmstoffen ergaenzt das Werk. Das Buch wendet sich in erster Linie an die Fachunternehmer und Handwerker, die im Bereich des Bauens im Bestand taetig sind, darueber hinaus auch an Energieberater und Planer. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation by Rocket Combustor of C/C Composite Cooled Structure Using Metallic Cooling Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegoshi, Masao; Ono, Fumiei; Ueda, Shuichi; Saito, Toshihito; Hayasaka, Osamu

    In this study, the cooling performance of a C/C composite material structure with metallic cooling tubes fixed by elastic force without chemical bonding was evaluated experimentally using combustion gas in a rocket combustor. The C/C composite chamber was covered by a stainless steel outer shell to maintain its airtightness. Gaseous hydrogen as a fuel and gaseous oxygen as an oxidizer were used for the heating test. The surface of these C/C composites was maintained below 1500 K when the combustion gas temperature was about 2800 K and the heat flux to the combustion chamber wall was about 9 MW/m2. No thermal damage was observed on the stainless steel tubes that were in contact with the C/C composite materials. The results of the heating test showed that such a metallic tube-cooled C/C composite structure is able to control the surface temperature as a cooling structure (also as a heat exchanger) as well as indicated the possibility of reducing the amount of coolant even if the thermal load to the engine is high. Thus, application of this metallic tube-cooled C/C composite structure to reusable engines such as a rocket-ramjet combined-cycle engine is expected.

  3. Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry analysis and antibacterial activity of Cinnamomum burmanii essential oil to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairunnisa, Tamhid, Hady Anshory; Nugraha, Arde Toga

    2017-03-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance becomes a problem that must be resolved. Plant based products are among the alternative agents examined in order to replace conventional antibiotics. Cinnamaldehyde is one of the compound in cinnamon oil that has antibacterial activity. But the other compounds in cinnamon oil has also the potential antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study to conduct GC-MS analysis of cinnamon oil and its antibacterial activity to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by gaseous contact. Cinnamomum burmannii was distilled by water-steam distillation to obtain essential oil. Identification of compounds was analyzed by GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was observed by gaseous contact method in airtight boxes. The GC-MS analyzed showed that there are four major compounds of cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde (56,10%), 1,8-cineole (16,53%), α-pinene (3,44%) and α -terpineol (3,05%). The Minimum Inhibitory Dose (MID) of cinnamon oil to E. coli and S. aureus was 12.5 µL/L and 6.26 µL/L respectively. Gas compounds of cinnamon oil has more effective to gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single-family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings. Builders and practitioners have found that fire-resistance rated wall assemblies are a major source of difficulty in air sealing/compartmentalization, particularly in townhouse construction. This problem is exacerbated when garages are “tucked in” to the units and living space is located over the garages. In this project, Building Science Corporation examined the taping of exterior sheathing details to improve air sealing results in townhouse and multifamily construction, when coupled with a better understanding of air leakage pathways. Current approaches are cumbersome, expensive, time consuming, and ineffective; these details were proposed as a more effective and efficient method. The effectiveness of these air sealing methods was tested with blower door testing, including “nulled” or “guarded” testing (adjacent units run at equal test pressure to null out inter-unit air leakage, or “pressure neutralization”). Pressure diagnostics were used to evaluate unit-to-unit connections and series leakage pathways (i.e., air leakage from exterior, into the fire-resistance rated wall assembly, and to the interior).

  5. Evaluation of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry for the measurement of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol in physiological fluids: effect of osmolality and sample volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Lynn; Workman, Clive; Roberts, Norman B

    2009-09-01

    Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is particularly suited for the analysis of volatile low molecular weight compounds. We have evaluated this technique for the assay of different alcohols in aqueous solutions, including blood plasma, and in particular whether the osmolality or sample volume affected vapourisation. Solutions of three different alcohols (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) ranging from 0.005 to 50 mmol/L were prepared in deionised water (0 milliosmol), phosphate-buffered saline (690 mOsm), isotonic saline (294 mOsm) and plasma (296 mOsm). The vapour above the sample (50 to 1000 microL) contained in air-tight tubes at 37 degrees C was aspirated into the instrument. The outputs for ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were linear over the concentration range and independent of the sample volume and relatively independent of the osmolar concentration. SIFT-MS can reliably and accurately measure common alcohols in the headspace above aqueous solutions, including serum/plasma. This novel application of SIFT-MS is easy to follow, requires no sample preparation and the wide dynamic range will facilitate measurement of alcohols present from normal metabolism as well as when taken in excess or in accidental poisoning.

  6. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  7. Development of a self-healing soft pneumatic actuator: a first concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Seppe; Mathijssen, Glenn; Brancart, Joost; Lefeber, Dirk; Assche, Guy Van; Vanderborght, Bram

    2015-07-07

    Inspired by the intrinsic softness and the corresponding embodied intelligence principles, soft pneumatic actuators (SPA) have been developed, which ensure safe interaction in unstructured, unknown environments. Due to their intrinsic softness, these actuators have the ability to resist large mechanical impacts. However, the soft materials used in these structures are in general susceptible to damage caused by sharp objects found in the unstructured environments. This paper proposes to integrate a self-healing (SH-) mechanism in SPAs, such that cuts, tears and perforations in the actuator can be self-healed. Diels-Alder (DA-) polymers, covalent polymer network systems based on the thermoreversible DA-reaction, were selected and their mechanical, as well as SH-properties, are described. To evaluate the feasibility of developing an SPA constructed out of SH-material, a single cell prototype, a SH-soft pneumatic cell (SH-SPC), was constructed entirely out of DA-polymers. Exploiting the SH-property of the DA-polymers, a completely new shaping process is presented in this paper, referred to as 'shaping through folding and self-healing'. 3D polygon structures, like the cubic SH-SPC, can be constructed by folding SH-polymer sheet. The sides of the structures can be sealed and made airtight using a SH-procedure at relatively low temperatures (first SPA ever built completely out of SH-polymers.

  8. An improved design for stretched-membrane heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninga, Kelly; Butler, Barry; Sandubrae, Jeff; Walcott, Kerry

    1989-06-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has developed an improved stretched-membrane heliostat mirror module under contract to Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both a 150 sq. meter commercial mirror module and a 50 sq. meter prototype mirror module have been designed. The prototype mirror module has been fabricated and is being tested at the Central Receiver Test Facility (CRTF) in Albuquerque. Two .0762-mm (.003-in) thick stainless steel membranes are stressed to approximately 90 MPa (13,000 psi) and welded to either side of a carbon steel, rectangular cross-section ring, which is compressed to approximately one-tenth of its yield strength. The ring is supported by five trusses, which radiate from a central hub. The mirror module is mounted on a conventional pedestal drive system for sun-tracking purposes. The mirror module is air-tight, and focusing is achieved by modulating the position of the back membrane. The ring stiffness and tolerance achievable by conventional manufacturing methods dictate the ring distortions prior to installation of the mirror module. Once the mirror module is installed, wind loads on the heliostat exert additional out-of-plane loads. A comprehensive finite-element computer model of the mirror module was used for the structural design of the ring/membrane system and truss supports.

  9. Building America Case Study: Apartment Compartmentalization with an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process - Queens, NY; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Air sealing of building enclosures is a difficult and time-consuming process. Current methods in new construction require laborers to physically locate small and sometimes large holes in multiple assemblies and then manually seal each of them. The innovation demonstrated under this research study was the automated air sealing and compartmentalization of buildings through the use of an aerosolized sealant, developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis.
    CARB sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a multifamily building in Queens, NY. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before and after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of the target apartment during sealing. Aerosolized sealing was successful by several measures in this study. Many individual leaks that are labor-intensive to address separately were well sealed by the aerosol particles. In addition, many diffuse leaks that are difficult to identify and treat were also sealed. The aerosol-based sealing process resulted in an average reduction of 71% in air leakage across three apartments and an average apartment airtightness of 0.08 CFM50/SF of enclosure area.

  10. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  11. Rhinacanthus nasutus protects cultured neuronal cells against hypoxia induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimson, James M; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2011-07-26

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) is an herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, known for its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species in cells and is a leading cause of neuronal damage. Cell death caused by hypoxia has been linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including some forms of dementia and stroke, as well as the build up of reactive oxygen species which can lead to diseases such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzeheimer's disease. In this study we used an airtight culture container and the Mitsubishi Gas Company anaeropack along with the MTT assay, LDH assay and the trypan blue exlusion assay to show that 1 and 10 µg mL⁻¹ root extract of R. nasutus is able to significantly prevent the death of HT-22 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, and 0.1 to 10 µg mL⁻¹ had no toxic effect on HT-22 under normal conditions, whereas 100 µg mL⁻¹ reduced HT-22 cell proliferation. We also used H₂DCFDA staining to show R. nasutus can reduce reactive oxygen species production in HT-22 cells.

  12. Rhinacanthus nasutus Protects Cultured Neuronal Cells against Hypoxia Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Brimson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhinacanthus nasutus (L. Kurz (Acanthaceae is an herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, known for its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species in cells and is a leading cause of neuronal damage. Cell death caused by hypoxia has been linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including some forms of dementia and stroke, as well as the build up of reactive oxygen species which can lead to diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Alzeheimer’s disease. In this study we used an airtight culture container and the Mitsubishi Gas Company anaeropack along with the MTT assay, LDH assay and the trypan blue exlusion assay to show that 1 and 10 µg mL−1 root extract of R. nasutus is able to significantly prevent the death of HT-22 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, and 0.1 to 10 µg mL−1 had no toxic effect on HT-22 under normal conditions, whereas 100 µg mL−1 reduced HT-22 cell proliferation. We also used H2DCFDA staining to show R. nasutus can reduce reactive oxygen species production in HT-22 cells.

  13. Monitoring transport conditions of key comparison travelling standards using a data logger. Experiences from key comparison CCAUV.U-K3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julian; Koch, Christian

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the international key comparison CCAUV.U-K3.1, a data logger was used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration during transportation of an artefact travelling between participating laboratories. From the recorded data, environmental conditions of different kinds of transportation have been investigated and corresponding recommendations for the safe and proper transfer of artefacts between laboratories could be deduced. Transportation by courier services bears the risk of strong mechanical shocks and exposure to comparably high or low temperatures due to inappropriate handling or storage and is thus only suitable for insensitive or well-packed artefacts. Quite low temperatures (T  ≈  5 °C) have been observed in the cargo area during flights, so that hand-carrying of an artefact with transportation in the passenger cabin during flights is recommended, particularly for temperature-sensitive artefacts. Significant decreases of the pressure (p  ≈  750 mbar) have been recorded both for transportation in the passenger cabin and in the cargo area. Air-tight packing is thus recommended for pressure-sensitive devices. In general, the suitability of a data logger to provide evidence of the transport conditions during a key comparison has been demonstrated and the use of such a device is recommended for all key comparisons. The data logger has also been successfully employed to validate the protection properties of the passively insulating packaging of the artefact against pressure and temperature changes.

  14. Assessing framing assumptions in quantitative health impact assessments: a housing intervention example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M

    2013-09-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is often used to determine ex ante the health impact of an environmental policy or an environmental intervention. Underpinning any HIA is the framing assumption, which defines the causal pathways mapping environmental exposures to health outcomes. The sensitivity of the HIA to the framing assumptions is often ignored. A novel method based on fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is developed to quantify the framing assumptions in the assessment stage of a HIA, and is then applied to a housing intervention (tightening insulation) as a case-study. Framing assumptions of the case-study were identified through a literature search of Ovid Medline (1948-2011). The FCM approach was used to identify the key variables that have the most influence in a HIA. Changes in air-tightness, ventilation, indoor air quality and mould/humidity have been identified as having the most influence on health. The FCM approach is widely applicable and can be used to inform the formulation of the framing assumptions in any quantitative HIA of environmental interventions. We argue that it is necessary to explore and quantify framing assumptions prior to conducting a detailed quantitative HIA during the assessment stage.

  15. Long-termed field survey of indoor air quality and health hazards in sick houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, H.; Amano, K.; Matsumoto, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Urban Planning and Building Science; Ikeda, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Nozaki, A. [Tohoku Bunkagakuen Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kakuta, K. [Saka General Hospital (Japan); Hojo, S. [Shokei Woman' s Junior College (Japan); Ishikawa, S. [Kitasato Inst. Hospital (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    A 3 year field study was conducted in which the indoor air quality in 35 hospitals in Japan was measured in order to determine the etiological factor of Sick House Syndrome (SHS). The occupants in the hospitals were suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) with symptoms such as mucosa, eye irritation, sore throat and cough. The study examined the concentration of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. It also examined airtightness and ventilation rate. The study also consisted of a questionnaire on the environmental conditions, subjective symptoms and lifestyle. Medical exams were conducted on residents with severe symptoms. The formaldehyde concentrations in more than 65 per cent of the rooms was found to be greater than the guidelines set by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations also exceeded the recommended value in 66 per cent of the rooms. The study revealed that the respiratory symptoms were more severe in houses with higher concentrations of TVOC. A graph was included to show the relationship between chemical substance concentration and building age. In general, the TVOC was reduced over the three year period, but the formaldehyde concentration did not change. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Macromodel for assessing residential concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants: Model development and preliminary predictions for CO, NO/sub 2/, and respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Aceti, J.C.; Apte, M.G.; Smith, B.V.; Green, L.L.; Smith-Reiser, A.; Novak, K.M.; Moses, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation model (also called a ''macromodel'') has been developed to predict residential air pollutant concentration distributions for specified populations. The model inputs include the market penetration of pollution sources, pollution source characteristics (e.g., emission rates, source usage rates), building characteristics (e.g., house volume, air exchange rates), and meteorological parameters (e.g., outside temperature). Four geographically distinct regions of the US have been modeled using Monte Carlo and deterministic simulation techniques. Single-source simulations were also conducted. The highest predicted CO and NO/sub 2/ residential concentrations were associated with the winter-time use of unvented gas and kerosene space heaters. The highest predicted respirable suspended particulate concentrations were associated with indoor cigarette smoking and the winter-time use of non-airtight wood stoves, radiant kerosene heaters, convective unvented gas space heaters, and oil forced-air furnaces. Future field studies in this area should (1) fill information gaps identified in this report, and (2) collect information on the macromodel input parameters to properly interpret the results. It is almost more important to measure the parameters that affect indoor concentration than it is to measure the concentrations themselves.

  17. REVIEW ON AFLATOXIN IN INDONESIAN FOOD- AND FEEDSTUFFS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a human carcinogen that could contaminate food- and feedstuffs, and hence is a major food qua lity problem throughout the world. Afiatoxi n is produced by certain strains of AspergillusJlavus and //. parasiticus. A number of studies have been carried out in Indonesia on atlatoxin contamination in Indonesian food- and feedstuffs and their products from 1990 up to present. They were maize, maize product, peanuts, soybean and soybean meal, black and white pepper, feed ingredients; chicken and duck feeds. Samples were collected from farmers, traders (middlemen, retailers (markets, supermarkets, exporters; poultry and duck community-based farms; and feed mi ll industries. High levels of aflatoxins were often found in maize, peanuts, chicken feed derived from markets, and duck feed. Low levels of aflatoxins were found in soybean meal and chicken feedstuff. Aflatoxins were not detected in soybean, black and white pepper. Other studies have also been carried out on the effect of carbondioxide (CO2, phosphine, black pepper extract and antagonistic fungi on aflatoxin production of A. flavus in vitro and the effect of airtight storage, phosphine, ammonium hydroxide, fermentation process, bag types, and phosphine in combination with different bag types on atlatoxin contents of maize, peanuts and soybean meal. Some of these methods reduced aflatoxin contents significantly

  18. Synthesis and Storage Stability of Diisopropylfluorophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik R. Heiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor commonly used in toxicological studies as an organophosphorus nerve agent surrogate. However, LD50 values for DFP in the same species can differ widely even within the same laboratory, possibly due to the use of degraded DFP. The objectives here were to identify an efficient synthesis route for high purity DFP and assess the storage stability of both the in-house synthesized and commercial source of DFP at the manufacturer-recommended storage temperature of 4°C, as well as −10°C and −80°C. After 393 days, the commercial DFP stored at 4°C experienced significant degradation, while only minor degradation was observed at −10°C and none was observed at −80°C. DFP prepared using the newly identified synthesis route was significantly more stable, exhibiting only minor degradation at 4°C and none at −10°C or −80°C. The major degradation product was the monoacid derivative diisopropylphosphate, formed via hydrolysis of DFP. It was also found that storing DFP in glass containers may accelerate the degradation process by generating water in situ as hydrolytically generated hydrofluoric acid attacks the silica in the glass. Based on the results here, it is recommended that DFP be stored at or below −10°C, preferably in air-tight, nonglass containers.

  19. Investigations on the emissions of biocides and PCBs under low volume conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Birte; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a low volume air sampling strategy for biocides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) at low air change rates in modern, air-tight showcases as they are present in museums. Lindane, pentachlorophenol, dichlofluanid, tolyfluanid, isodrin, p,p-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and permethrin were the biocides and PCB28 and PCB153 were the PCBs studied, all of which are semi volatile organic compounds (SVOC). Their occurrences in the museum environment originate from various sources e.g. preventive treatment of organic exhibits or organic building materials. Exhibits are long-term exposed to these pollutants due to storing in showcases or other storage equipment at low air change rates. To achieve air sampling under the aforementioned conditions the influences of temperature, air circulation, air change rate and relative humidity on the emission behavior of the selected biocides and PCBs had to be determined. This was carried out with pre-soaked wood samples in low volume air sampling experiments using 27L test showcases and 23L and 24L emission test chambers and also diffusive sampling with glass as the sampling material.

  20. Efficacy of killing cockroaches with smoke in three different kitchens%烟剂对厨房蟑螂的灭效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫鹏; 任兴联; 宋谦; 胡和文

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察15%优士B型乳油烟剂现场灭蟑效果及影响因素.方法 现场实验观察.结果 15%优士B型乳油1∶20、1∶15、1∶10 3种稀释药液烟剂对连队、幼儿园、宾馆的厨房进行熏杀,均可以在短时间内迅速降低蟑螂密度.结论 15%优士B型乳油烟剂熏杀灭蟑效果好,影响因素较小,具有推广应用价值.%Objective To observe the efficacy of killing cockroaches on spot with 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke.Methods Experiment observing on spot.Results To kill cockroaches in company, kindergarten and hotel kitchen with 1:20,1: 15,1:10 three different diluted 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke,it could decrease the density of cockroaches rapidly in a little time.Conclusion It is an efficacy method to kill cockroaches with 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke.It is good enough to kill cockroaehes in large areas with airtight space.

  1. Mortality of insects and quality of maize grains in hermetic and non-hermetic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila C. Viebrantz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Due to the need to improve the quality and safety of foods, chemical methods used to control grain pests have been replaced by alternative methods. For example, modified atmosphere within the storage units has been used. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate maize grain quality and mortality of insects of the species Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in hermetic and non-hermetic environments for 50 days of storage. The hermetic units consisted of polyethylene "bags" with capacity for 60 kg. A cage with 20 adults of each species and 200 g of maize was placed inside each unit. The oxygen level was quantified every five days. Evaluations of insect mortality and survival occurred at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of storage. At 0, 30 and 50 days, density, moisture and fungal incidence analyses were conducted. The airtight system is efficient in the control of insects, with satisfactory mortality values for both species. Insects favor the development of fungi during the storage, regardless of the storage system.

  2. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  3. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zuluaga, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  4. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  5. Actual proof study of energy autonomous house; Energy jiritsu house no jissho jikken. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuzawa, O.; Masuzawa, C.

    1997-11-25

    A discussion was given on an `energy autonomous house` which utilizes more effectively photovoltaic power generation, solar heat and light in designing a wooden house to be built by using the conventional construction method. According to the plan, photovoltaic power generation modules and heat collectors are installed superimposed on a roof facing south. Heat-collected air is sent below the floor and the heat is stored in the concrete in winter, utilized as the floor heating type room heater. The hot air is used for hot water supply in other seasons. The building is of two stories with a total area of 118 m {sup 2}, and the photovoltaic generation capacity is 3.48 kW. The photovoltaic generation amount was calculated from insolation forecasted by the AMEDAS system, and energy balance of this house was estimated. The result therefrom may be summarized as follows: total energy supplied reached 11.6 Gcal, signifying that about 10.8% of the energy irradiated onto the building is utilized; ratio of the photovoltaic and solar heat utilization is 27% versus 73%; and energy consumption in this house was estimated and calculated from actual results, airtightness and adiabatic performance of old houses, whereas the energy autonomous rate has reached 92.8%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  7. Retrofit of a MultiFamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Kerrigan, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  8. Study on the stability of Compound Piyanping Cream%复方皮炎平霜的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 谢德秋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the stability of Compound Piyanping Cream. Methods Strengthen test, acceleratted test and long-term test were employed to study the stability of the cream.Results The cream was unstable to strong light and high tempurature, but it is stable at room temperature.Conclusion The shelf life of the cream is one year if it is air-tight sealed and stored in a cool place away from light.%目的 研究复方皮炎平霜的稳定性.方法 用强化试验、加速试验、长期试验等方法对其稳定性进行研究.结果 本品对强光、高热均不稳定,在常温条件下比较稳定.结论 应避光,密闭,置阴凉处贮藏,保质期一年.

  9. Monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination at market food chain in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina A. Rahmianna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is a cheapest source of protein especially for developing countries communities and mostly it obtained from traditional markets. Earlier studies showed that aflatoxin incidence was relatively less at the farmer/trader levels while it is significantly higher at retail levels especially in traditional markets. Present study was conducted to understand the factors leading to the post-harvest building up of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in traditional market and in supermarket. This study was carried out at Pasuruan regency, East Java Province, Indonesia from March 2005 to June 2006. During study period peanut grains were collected from wholesalers, retailers and supermarkets at three months interval. In each sampling point, 2kg of grains was obtained and then was divided into eight parts for the analysis of parameters namely seed moisture content, physical quality, Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The results showed that seed water contents at wholesalers, collectors, and retailers in traditional wet markets were almost lower than 10%. They were thus ‘safe’ from aflatoxin B1 contamination as seed moisture contents were below the aflatoxin risk zone. Time of sampling did not affect the level of aflatoxin B1 contamination. Under controlled condition generated from air-tight container, the influence of seed moisture content and A. flavus infection on aflatoxin production was significant.

  10. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  11. Passive house optimization for Southern Italy based on the 'New Passivhaus Standard'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangheri, Paolo; Pagliano, Lorenzo; Carlucci, Salvatore (end-use Efficiency Research Group, Dept. di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)). e-mail: paolo.zangheri@polimi.it

    2009-07-01

    In Germany and in other countries of Central and Northern Europe more than 8,000 homes conforming to the Passivhaus standard have been built since 1991. The applicability of this Standard has not yet been sufficiently tested in European areas with warm climates, where reducing cooling needs under growing summer comfort requirements poses a challenge. The IEE Passive-On project has drafted a proposal to adapt that Standard to the conditions that characterize Southern Europe, which is described in this paper together with its rationale. Compared with the original definition, one of the main changes is the introduction of explicit requirements on internal comfort during summer, in parallel to a limit to energy needs for cooling. The dynamic simulations conducted to test the new definition of the Standard in the context of Southern Italy (e.g. Palermo) show that the requirements identified by the Passivhaus Standard can be met by simplifying the envelope technologies (e.g. relaxing air-tightness design value) used in the context of Central Europe and adopting passive cooling strategies appropriately adjusted. Some simplifications of the ventilation system can be compensated by an increased role of thermal insulation of the building envelope and some of the choices can make energy needs tend to zero. In accordance with EN 15251, thermal comfort is characterized according to Fanger's PMV in cases where mechanical cooling is still required for peak situations, and according to the adaptive model where no mechanical cooling is required.

  12. Using vacuum in the treatment of surgical wounds complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Miroljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Using vacuum in medicine has been known from long ago, however, it has not been used for the treatment of wounds. The first experiments in this field were performed by Wagner Fleischmann, University of Ulm, Ulm, West Germany, in 1993. The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience with the treatment of surgical wounds complications in vascular patients by the use of controled vacuum. Method. In a period October 2006 - December 2009 a total of 18 patients with infection and surgical wound dehiscence were treated by the use of vacuum. Vacuum was applied to wounds by placing a polyurethane sponge on them and by fixing a polyurethane foil and a sponge to the surrounding healthy skin so to completely airtight wounds. Over a foil vacuum of - 150 mmHg was applied for a 5-day period, and on the day 6 a foil and a sponge were removed. Results. In all the 18 wounds treated by the use of vacuum secondary wound closing was achieved with no complications and with a significantly shortened time period treatment. Wound infections were healed using this method and only in 2 patients antibiotics were used at the same time. Conclusion. The use of vacuum in the treatment of operative wounds complications is an easy and reliable method contributing significantly to wounds better healing.

  13. Degradation of tocopherols during rapeseed storage in simulated conditions of industrial silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrysiak-Witulska, Marzena; Siger, Aleksander; Rusinek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The investigations consisted in laboratory simulation of conditions prevailing in the real ecosystem in an industrial rapeseed storage facility. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of temperature, moisture, and static pressure on degradation of tocopherols contained in rapeseed. Rapeseed varieties with high oil content were analysed in the investigations. Samples of seeds with 7, 10, 13, and 16% moisture levels were stored at a temperature of 25, 30, and 35°C in specially designed airtight pressure silos for storage in controlled conditions. During the storage, the seeds were subjected to overpressure in the range of 20-60 kPa. The seeds were stored in these conditions for 28 days. It was demonstrated that primarily moisture induced the greatest loss of the total content of tocopherol and its α-T and γ-T homologues, followed by temperature and, to a lesser extent, pressure. In addition, the results obtained showed that, in the case of seeds characterised by higher moisture levels (13 and 16%), an increase in the storage temperature in the range of 25-30°C rather than 30-35°C intensified tocopherol loss more efficiently.

  14. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  15. Enhancing the Security of Customer Data in Cloud Environments Using a Novel Digital Fingerprinting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise of the Internet and electronics in people’s life, the data related to it has also undergone a mammoth increase in magnitude. The data which is stored in the cloud can be sensitive and at times needs a proper file storage system with a tough security algorithm. Whereas cloud is an open shareable elastic environment, it needs impenetrable and airtight security. This paper deals with furnishing a secure storage system for the above-mentioned purpose in the cloud. To become eligible to store data a user has to register with the cloud database. This prevents unauthorized access. The files stored in the cloud are encrypted with RSA algorithm and digital fingerprint for the same has been generated through MD5 message digest before storage. The RSA provides unreadability of data to anyone without the private key. MD5 makes it impossible for any changes on data to go unnoticed. After the application of RSA and MD5 before storage, the data becomes resistant to access or modifications by any third party and to intruders of cloud storage system. This application is tested in Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Web Services.

  16. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B. [ETH Nuclear Engineering Lab., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  17. Proliferation kinetics of paramecium tetraurelia in balloon-borne experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Vidal, S.; Rousseille, R.; Planel, H.

    1982-06-01

    Experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effect of cosmic radiation, at a balloon-flight ceiling of about 36,500 m (120,000 ft) on single-cell organism proliferation. Paramecium tetraurelia were placed in air-tight containers and maintained at 25 degrees +/- 0.1 degrees C. Cellular growth was determined by cell count, either after recovery or during the flight, by means of an automatic fixation device. Dosimetry was performed by a tissue equivalent proportional counter and was of about 0.5 mrad/h. Flight ceiling duration ranged from 48 min - 22 h. A secondary stimulating effect of growth rate, preceded by a temporary decrease, was observed after recovery. Because of the high bacterial concentration in the trans-Mediterranean flight culture medium, the temporary drop of the growth rate, due to the radiolysis products, disappears. Researchers consider that the stimulating effect can be the result of enzymatic intracellular scavenging of radiolysis products generated in the cell.

  18. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  19. Hyperoxia accelerates Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis in the lungs of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Yoshinari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen supplementation is commonly given to the patients with severe pneumonia including Legionella disease. Recent data suggested that apoptosis may play an important role, not only in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia, but also in oxygen-induced tissue damage. In the present study, the lethal sensitivity to Legionella pneumonia were compared in the setting of hyperoxia between wild-type and Fas-deficient mice. Findings C57BL/6 mice and B6.MRL-Faslpr mice characterized with Fas-deficiency were used in this study. After intratracheal administration of L. pneumophila, mice were kept in hyperoxic conditions (85-90% O2 conc. in an airtight chamber for 3 days. Bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with L. pneumophila were also kept in hyperoxic conditions. Caspase activity and cytokine production were determined by using commercially available kits. Smaller increases of several apoptosis markers, such as caspase-3 and -8, were demonstrated in Fas-deficient mice, even though the bacterial burdens in Fas-deficient and wild type mice were similar. Bone-marrow derived macrophages from Fas-deficient mice were shown to be more resistant to Legionella-induced cytotoxicity than those from wild-type mice under hyperoxia. Conclusions These results demonstrated that Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia in the setting of hyperoxia.

  20. A novel inhalation challenge set to study animal model of allergic alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Lemieszek, Marta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2009-01-01

    A novel inhalation challenge set for the study of experimental allergic alveolitis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis) in mice was designed. A finely dispersed aerosol of allergenic extract generated by the commercial ultrasonic nebulizer "TAJFUN MU1" (produced by Medbryt, Warsaw, Poland) was transported to the airtight inhalation chamber. In the chamber were placed 15 perforated containers made of transparent plastic, each containing one mouse. They were coupled in 3 units, each consisted of 5 containers. The constant flow of aerosol through the chamber was assured by commercial vacuum pump "PL 2/3" (AGA LABOR S.C., Warsaw, Poland). The applied set enabled the natural exposure of mice via the inhalation route to known quantities of allergen (usually microbial) suspended in saline, and then dispersed in form of fine aerosol by ultrasonic nebulizer. This method assures the penetration of allergen into the deep parts of lungs, alveoli and bronchioli. The detailed study of histopathological and biochemical changes in the lungs of exposed animals will be the subject of further publications. So far, the retention of endotoxin in the lungs of mice exposed to the extract of a Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and appearance of positive serologic reactions to this extract indicate the effectiveness of the method.

  1. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  2. COLOR CHANGE OF CHINESE FIR THROUGH STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown wood color is a current trend and widely appreciated by consumers in the furniture and decoration markets. Heat treatment is one of the most effective methods to darken wood’s appearance. The influence of steam-heat treatment on color change of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. was investigated within the temperature range from 170 to 230 oC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an air-tight chamber within an atmosphere comprising less than 2 percent oxygen. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (△C* decreased gradually, while the color difference (△E* and hue difference (△H* increased with an increase in temperature and length of time. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multi-comparison analysis revealed that the treatment temperature plays a more important role in darkening wood color during the process of steam-heat treatment in comparison with the treatment time. The results suggest that a more desirable wood color can be achieved with the technology of steam-heat treatment.

  3. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  4. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  5. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  6. Application of intermittent negative pressure on the lower extremity and its effect on macro- and microcirculation in the foot of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Øyvind H; Høiseth, Lars Øivind; Mathiesen, Iacob; Jørgensen, Jørgen J; Weedon-Fekjær, Harald; Hisdal, Jonny

    2016-09-01

    Intermittent negative pressure (INP) applied to the lower leg and foot may increase peripheral circulation. However, it is not clear how different patterns of INP affect macro- and microcirculation in the foot. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effect of different patterns of negative pressure on foot perfusion in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that short periods with INP would elicit an increase in foot perfusion compared to no negative pressure. In 23 healthy volunteers, we continuously recorded blood flow velocity in a distal foot artery, skin blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure during application of different patterns of negative pressure (-40 mmHg) to the lower leg. Each participant had their right leg inside an airtight chamber connected to an INP generator. After a baseline period at atmospheric pressure, we applied four different 120 sec sequences with either constant negative pressure or different INP patterns, in a randomized order. The results showed corresponding fluctuations in blood flow velocity and skin blood flow throughout the INP sequences. Blood flow velocity reached a maximum at 4 sec after the onset of negative pressure (average 44% increase above baseline, P negative pressure, average blood flow velocity, skin blood flow, and skin temperature decreased (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we observed increased foot perfusion in healthy volunteers after the application of INP on the lower limb.

  7. The Building Fabric Thermal Performance of Passivhaus Dwellings—Does It Do What It Says on the Tin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passivhaus (or Passive House Standard is one of the world’s most widely known voluntary energy performance standards. For a dwelling to achieve the Standard and be granted Certification, the building fabric requires careful design and detailing, high levels of thermal insulation, building airtightness, close site supervision and careful workmanship. However, achieving Passivhaus Certification is not a guarantee that the thermal performance of the building fabric as designed will actually be achieved in situ. This paper presents the results obtained from measuring the in situ whole building heat loss coefficient (HLC of a small number of Certified Passivhaus case study dwellings. They are located on different sites and constructed using different technologies in the UK. Despite the small and non-random nature of the dwelling sample, the results obtained from the in situ measurements revealed that the thermal performance of the building fabric, for all of the dwellings, performed very close to the design predictions. This suggests that in terms of the thermal performance of the building fabric, Passivhaus does exactly what it says on the tin.

  8. A flowsheet model of a well-mixed fluidized bed dryer: Applications in controllability assessment and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langrish, T.A.G.; Harvey, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    A model of a well-mixed fluidized-bed dryer within a process flowsheeting package (SPEEDUP{trademark}) has been developed and applied to a parameter sensitivity study, a steady-state controllability analysis and an optimization study. This approach is more general and would be more easily applied to a complex flowsheet than one which relied on stand-alone dryer modeling packages. The simulation has shown that industrial data may be fitted to the model outputs with sensible values of unknown parameters. For this case study, the parameter sensitivity study has found that the heat loss from the dryer and the critical moisture content of the material have the greatest impact on the dryer operation at the current operating point. An optimization study has demonstrated the dominant effect of the heat loss from the dryer on the current operating cost and the current operating conditions, and substantial cost savings (around 50%) could be achieved with a well-insulated and airtight dryer, for the specific case studied here.

  9. 洛阳出土铁镜初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永建

    2011-01-01

    洛阳古代墓葬中出土的汉~唐代铁镜百余枚,通过外观和X光照片观察,这些铁镜与同时期铜镜的形式及纹饰基本相同。由于铁质文物极易锈蚀,对出土铁镜的及时保护显得尤为重要,用石蜡密封对铁镜进行保护是行之有效且简便易行的保护方法。%More than one hundred of Han to Tang periods iron mirrors have been unearthed from ancient tombs in Luoyang. Exterior examination and X - ray photography revealed them to be roughly the same as contemporary bronze mirrors in shape and decoration. As iron cultural relics are easy to become rust - eaten, it is especially important to conserve them in time. One of the simple and effective methods is airtight sealing with paraffin wax.

  10. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  11. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  12. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  14. Timber Chips as the Insulation Material for Energy Saving in Prefabricated Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the feasibility of a roof insulation method for prefabricated offices that uses vinyl packed timber chips to reduce air conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads and which also improves indoor thermal comfort. The advantages of the new roof insulation method were revealed through comparing the impacts of four roof types on prefabricated offices. The AC load and indoor thermal comfort (surface temperature and air temperature were evaluated. The disposal of scrap timber discarded from building construction projects is costing money, and is also a waste of natural resources. The assessment of a new roof insulation method with timber chips demonstrates the advanced usage of timber chips, reducing the environmental load in the building construction process. On the other hand, since prefabricated offices have lower thermal storage capacities and are less airtight than RC (reinforced concrete or S (steel structured buildings, the AC load consumption and indoor thermal comfort exacerbation in prefabricated offices is more serious. Especially in summer, a large amount of solar energy absorption from the roof raises the indoor air temperature and significantly increases the cooling load. This research contributes to the environmental design for prefabricated offices, and develops a method for the reuse of wood chips.

  15. A survey of indoor pollution by volatile organo halogen compounds in Katsushika, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amagai, T.; Olansandan; Matsushita, H. [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Ono, M. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan); Tamura, K. [National Institute for Minamata Disease, Kumamoto (Japan); Maeda, K. [Tokyo Kasel University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    A survey of indoor and outdoor pollution by 10 volatile organo halogen compounds (VOHCs) was performed in Katsushika Ward, Tokyo, Japan. Thirteen houses in February and 30 houses in July were sampled. Four consecutive 24-hour samples were collected by passive sampling from living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom and outdoors in February and July 1995. Indoor concentrations of carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene were at nearly the same as outdoor concentrations; therefore, it was concluded that indoor pollution by these compounds was primarily due to penetration of outdoor pollutants. Indoor concentrations of some VOHCs were considerably higher than outdoor concentrations and they varied widely between households. The list included: p-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene and tri halomethanes, for which emission sources were insect repellents, dry-cleaned clothes, and tap water, showers and bathtub water, respectively. Indoor concentrations of these compounds were higher in reinforced concrete houses than in wooden houses or wooden houses with mortar walls. This suggests that airtightness of the rooms is responsible for high indoor VOHC concentrations. (author)

  16. Development of a self-cleaning dispersion and exposure chamber: application to the monitoring of simulated accidents involving the generation of airborne nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Alberto; Lobera, M Pilar; Balas, Francisco; Santamaria, Jesus

    2014-09-15

    The release of hazardous nanoparticulate matter in accidental situations was simulated in a specially designed 13-m(3) stainless steel airtight chamber, which allowed the dispersion analysis of airborne matter in a practically particle-free environment (less than 2 #/cm(3)) and in presence of background atmospheric aerosols. A fast recovering of the initial situation was achieved by means of a tandem HEPA-filtered air and deionized water system. Both unintended spilling of silica-based nanoparticulate powders and continuous emission of 100-nm SiO2 nanoparticles were used as aerosol generation events. The emission of airborne nanoparticles was analyzed in terms of particle number concentrations (PNC), size distributions and source strengths. The emission of nanoparticulate aerosols reached peak PNC for particles in the range from 5 nm to 1 μm with source strengths about 10(8) #/h in a background-filled environment and 10(10) #/h in a practically particle-free atmosphere. No agglomeration was noticed for the released nanoparticles, suggesting that PNC was low enough to prevent coagulation and that particle diameters were over 80 nm. Results indicate that emitted matter was within the range of the most penetrating particle sizes and with source strengths similar to accidental scenarios.

  17. New types of concrete elements corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements; Nye typer betonelementer svarende til BR2005 energikrav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In this project new solutions have been developed for buildings with concrete facade panels without ribs at window reveals and at horizontal joints, corresponding to panels with an un-broken insulation layer and limited thermal bridge effect. New general solutions for the mounting of windows have been developed together with airtight covering solutions at the window reveal based upon added window board and a separate vapor barrier. At the same time detailed calculations of the heat loss effects at the window-wall joint and foundation have been carried out and new solutions that reduce the heat loss substantially have also been shown. The new developed standard solutions are obvious means to meet the expected future energy demands in the new Building Regulations expected in 2005. The project has revealed that it is possible to obtain significant thermal improvements with only a minor increase in the insula-tion thickness. The new and, in many ways, better solutions will mean added costs regarding mounting of windows, stronger fittings etc. but the effect of a standardization of the window-placement could reduce those additional costs considerably. The total life cycle costs regard-ing these new types of concrete facade panels are economically reasonable. (au)

  18. [Health-toxicologic aspects of some fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmański, W; Barabasz, W

    2000-01-01

    Recent findings of fungi in food products of such renomed companies as Coca-Cola and Danone resulted in society-wide alert in Poland. Humans have contact with fungi everywhere. Every food product covered with mould or having marks of it should be discarded. We should mention that cutting of or skimming the mould is totally ineffective and dangerous, because of the fact that rest of the product will contain products of fungal metabolism such as mikotoxins, which are, of course, invisible. Modern food producing technologies effected in microorganism-free products, but sporadically we can find dead fungi debris due to improper washing procedures of multi-use bottles, like it was observed in Coca-Cola products. As for mould-covered cottage cheese type products of Danone, most probably reason was improper handling of ready, sealed products during transport and storage. Even minimal physical injuries to air-tight containers resulted in sporae penetration to milk products and finally contamination with mikotoxins.

  19. The acetylene inhibition technique to determine total denitrification (N2 + N2O losses from soil samples: potentials and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neftel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The loss of N2 from intensively managed agro-ecosystems is an important part of the N budget. The monitoring of N2 emissions at the field scale is impossible due to the high atmospheric background of 78%, which precludes the measurement of fluxes. The acetylene (C2H2 inhibition technique is a rather simple, albeit imperfect, method to determine N2 losses from entire soil cores. Despites serious limitations it is one among very few methodological options to estimate total denitrification at high temporal resolution and on small spatial scale, with limited workload and costs involved. A laboratory system with two different detection systems (photoacoustic IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography is presented, which allowed parallel measurements of up to 7 intact soil cores in air-tight glass tubes in a temperature controlled cabinet (adjusted to field conditions with an automated C2H2 injection. A survey of total denitrification losses (N2 + N2O over 1.5 yr in soil from an intensively managed, cut grassland system in central Switzerland showed a lower bound loss in the range of 6 to 25 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (3–13% of added N, roughly 3.4 times higher than the N2O loss. However, several drawbacks of the C2H2 inhibition technique preclude a more precise determination of the total denitrification loss.

  20. Documented outbreaks of botulism:the impact of food-borne transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria Rebagliati; Sabrina Chianelli; Mariela Tornese; Laura Rossi; Alcides Troncoso

    2008-01-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum's toxins.Although the disease is uncommon,causes great concern due to its high rate of mortality;foodborne outbreaks of botulism occur world-wide and require immediate public health and acute care resources.This study had a review of outstanding out-breaks published;Journals articles related to the subject.From the outbreaks analysis we found the most in-volved food products were:fermented fish products in Alaska;home canning food,oil preservation and restau-rant sauce in London and USA;home canned vegetables,food airtight packed with inappropriate refrigeration and aerosols in Argentina.In conclusion,the diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food.Botulism must be immediately identified as one case suggests an epi-demic and should be treated as a public health emergency.Therefore the purpose of the following review is to recognize the associated risks with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods,to help work our way on pre-vention for every public health professional to be aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  1. Efficient use of energy in buildings - Activities and projects in 2002; Rationelle Energienutzung in Gebaeuden. Aktivitaeten und Projekte 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.

    2003-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities and projects of the Swiss Programme on the Efficient Use of Energy in Buildings in 2002. The aims of the programme, which concerns itself with building systems, technical installations and the use of solar energy in buildings, are reviewed. Areas targeted in the period 2002 - 2006 are listed, including high-insulation technologies, so-called 'passive' low-energy consumption housing, environmental technology and sustainable neighbourhood development. Progress made in the environmental technology area is described including eco-assessment methods and the development of alternative insulation materials. The topics of solar sustainable housing, low-energy consumption building standards, aids for the optimisation of solar installations in larger buildings and lighting are covered, as is progress in the development of vacuum insulation and translucent elements with latent energy storage and guidelines for air-tightness and mechanical ventilation in 'passive' housing. In the technical services area, the validation of planning tools and manuals for purchasers and operators of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems are discussed. Co-operation with national and international institutions is discussed. A list of pilot and demonstration projects completes the report.

  2. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  3. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Stephan A; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-08-01

    Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as 'bellows' year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians.

  4. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  5. STUDY ON THE RESISTANCE OF CRYPTOESTES GANGLB AND FIELD STUDY ON TRAIL OF PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION IN HAINAN PROVINCE%海南地区扁谷盗抗药性和实仓防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢更祥; 唐易; 张连中; 赵介; 郑联合; 钟建军; 罗山; 赵阔

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of 9 stains of stored grain insect pests,such as Cryptolestes was detected in Hainan.The result showed that the resistance of 9 stains of stored grain insect pests had a significant difference and the resistance coefficient was between 125 and 2566,however,8 stains of stored grain insect pest coefficient is between 1300 and 2566.The field trail of one stain insect with 1790 resistant coefficient was also detected.The result showed that the effect of pest insects control in grain warehouse with 60s half life of pressure after airtightness transformation was better than in warehouse without transformation.%对海南地区9个品系的扁谷盗进行了抗药性测定,结果表明,9个品系的扁谷盗抗药性差异显著,抗性系数在125~2556之间,其中8个品系集中在1300~2556之间.并对其中抗性系数为1790倍的长角扁谷盗进行了实仓熏蒸试验,发现经过气密性改造压力半衰期为60 s仓房的杀虫效果明显好于未经改造的仓房.

  6. 膜下环流熏蒸在高大平房仓的应用%RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION UNDER FILM IN LARGE HORIZONTAL WAREHOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖新华; 郭谊; 林镇清; 陈健璋; 任宏霞

    2011-01-01

    The technology of recirculation fumigation under film could solve the problems of poor airtightness of large horizontal warehouse and poor effect of fumigation. The test improved has the control effect, lowered the dosage of fumigants, saved the cost. Phosphine in grain bulks realized the fast and even distribution. It also had lots of advantages, such as the longest time for effect phosphine concentration maintenance, the maximum CT value, the best persistance of phosphine concentration and excellent effect of pests control.%采用磷化铝动态潮解膜下环流熏蒸较好地解决了高大平房仓气密性不足、熏蒸效果不理想的问题.试验证明不仅提高了防治效果,降低了熏蒸药剂量,节省了费用,还能使磷化氢气体在粮堆内实现快速均匀分布,具有PH3有效浓度维持时间最长、CT值最大、PH3浓度的连续性和杀虫效果最好的优点.

  7. 立筒仓环流熏蒸和机械通风技术改造与储粮试验%TECHNICAL TRANSFORMATION OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION IN SILOS AND GRAIN STORAGE TEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹立新; 周栋; 杨曙光; 邓智雄; 陆壮雄; 葛小明

    2011-01-01

    By technical transformation of silo storage, the airtightness of silo has been improved phosphine, and the problems of difficulty to temperature decrease by ventilation, poor effect of fumigation have also been solved effectively. The test showed that the mortality of insects reached 100% at the dose of 3 g/m3 in the silos after technical transformation, and the unit energy consumption of mechanical ventilation reduced to 0. 03 kW ? H/t - ℃. All of these indexes were lower than the corresponding number of horizontal bins and the anticipated effect has been achieved. The technique accumulated experiences for technical transformation of silos in South China.%立筒仓通过仓储技术升级改造,提高了筒仓气密性,有效地解决了通风降温难、熏蒸效果差等技术难题.试验结果表明,改造后的筒仓杀虫率达100%,单位用药量3 g/m3,机械通风降温单位能耗0.03 kW·h/t·℃均低于平房仓的相应数值,达到了筒仓改造的预期效果,为南方地区筒仓改造积累了成功经验.

  8. Studying the Internal Ballistics of a Combustion Driven Potato Cannon using High-speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, E D S

    2013-01-01

    A potato cannon was designed to accommodate several different experimental propellants and have a transparent barrel so the movement of the projectile could be recorded on high-speed video (at 2000 frames per second). Both combustion chamber and barrel were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Five experimental propellants were tested: propane (C3H8), acetylene (C2H2), ethanol (C2H6O), methanol (CH4O), and butane (C4H10). The amount of each experimental propellant was calculated to approximate a stoichometric mixture and considering the Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) and the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL), which in turn were affected by the volume of the combustion chamber. Cylindrical projectiles were cut from raw potatoes so that there was an airtight fit, and each weighed 50 (+/- 0.5) grams. For each trial, position as a function of time was determined via frame by frame analysis. Five trials were taken for each experimental propellant and the results analyzed to compute velocity and acceleration as functions...

  9. QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE MORINGA EM FUNÇÃO DO TIPO DE EMBALAGEM, AMBIENTE E TEMPO DE ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETÚZIA MARIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The moringa oleifera Lam. tree, a native plant species from tropical Africa, although it has been in introduced in Brazil as an ornamental tree, it can be used for industrial and medicine purposes. The work was to evaluate the physiological quality of the jug with different reservoirs and environmental conditions for a period of six months. The study was conducted in the laboratory of plant physiology in UFERSA, where the seeds were obtained, which were stored after the harvest in three different containers: plastic bag, paper bag and glass which were stored at room temperature and cold for a period of three and six months. After 12 days of sowing, evaluations were made of the speed of germination index (IVG, height and fresh and dry matter of seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a factorial 3 x 2 x 2, and studied three containers (plastic bag, paper bag and glass, two environments (temperature and cold and two storage periods (3 and 6 months with four replications. The results showed that the seeds are orthodox behavior, remaining viable for six months when stored in cold and room temperature, regardless of packaging, if they are wrapped in airtight packaging.

  10. Effect of ozone on respiration of adult Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baoqian; Ren, Yonglin; Du, Yu-zhou; Fu, Yueguan; Gu, Jie

    2009-10-01

    The effect of ozone on the respiration of three species of adult stored-product Coleoptera was tested in an air-tight flask. Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults were exposed to atmosphere containing 0.1, 0.2 or 0.4microg/ml initial ozone at 23-25 degrees C and 50% r.h. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) production reflected the respiration rates of insects and was determined with a gas chromatograph (GC). The experiments showed that the effects of ozone on respiration had two distinct phases. Phase 1 involved a lower respiration rate of the adult stored-product Coleoptera under ozone atmosphere and reflected the need for insects to reduce ozone toxicity. After 1h, CO(2) production of S. oryzae was 3.19, 2.63, 2.27 and 1.99microl/mg for the ozone concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4microg/ml, respectively. The results also showed that there were decreases in the rate of respiration in R. dominica and T. castaneum with an increase in ozone concentration. During phase 2, respiration of S. oryzae, R. dominica, and T. castaneum adults treated with ozone increased as the ozone degraded to oxygen. After 7h, the effect of ozone on CO(2) production, relative to the control, changed from a decrease to an increase. The findings in relation to control strategies were discussed.

  11. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  12. Characterisation of aerosols produced by laser cutting; Caracterisation de l'aerosol emis lors d'une decoupe laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRU/SERAC, Lab. de Physique et Metrologie des Aerosols, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Dinechin, G. de [Groupe d' Interet Public Groupement d' Etudes et de Recherche pour les Applications Industrielles des Lasers de Puissance, 94 - Arcueil (France)]|[CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/LITEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Gosse, X. [Cogema, Dir. de l' Assainissement et des Projets, Maitrise d' Oeuvre Projets, 30 - Marcoule (France); Arnaud, P. [Ligne de Produit Demantelement, SGN, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2007-07-01

    Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A stuunded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m{sup 3} connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)

  13. 初探神经网络在电动洗胃中的应用%Preliminary Study on Application of Neural Network in Electric Gastric Lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed for intelligent gastric lavage design in this paper. The microprocessor collects and computes gastric lavage pressure and its rate of change, liquid level and its rate of change, turbidity, and PH signals in the analogue stomach lavage test, which are processed by neural network algorithm, and then infer gastric lavage work status. Pipe plug, incomplete pipe plug, fault, normal operating, clean etc can be distinguished by neural network. Neural network algorithm can be used for flexible airtight container cleaning.%提出一种智能洗胃的设计方案.利用微处理器采集和计算模拟洗胃试验中的洗胃压力、压力变化率、液位、液位变化率、浑浊度和PH值等信号,通过神经网络算法对信号进行处理,判断洗胃工况.采用神经网络算法能区分管路堵塞、不完全堵塞、故障、洗胃正常和清洁等运行状态.神经网络算法可用于柔性密闭容器的清洗工作.

  14. 过滤室内空气对降低居民室内氡照射的效果研究%The study on effects of indoor air filtration on radon exposure to residents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺丽萍; 陈波; 赵超; 卓维海

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of indoor air filtration by air purifier on the behavior of indoor radon progeny and estimate its effects on indoor radon exposure to residents.Methods The concentrations of indoor radon progeny with and without the air filtration were calculated by the theoretical model developed in this study.Based on the dose conversion factors of attached and unattached radon progeny,the mitigation effects of indoor radon exposure due to the air filtration were estimated.Verification experiments were conducted in an airtight room.Results With the air filtration rate increased,the removal efficiency of indoor radon progeny would appear more obvious.For an airtight room with its initial aerosol concentration of 10 000 cm-3,the concentration of total radon progeny would decrease by more than 90% when the air filtration rate exceeded 10 h-1.But the concentrations of indoor unattached radon progeny would increase by using the air purifier in different extents.The variations of radon progeny concentrations and the decrease of internal doses were closely related to the filtration rate of air purifier.With the air filtration rates increased,the mitigation effects would be better and faster.The internal dose would reduce by more than 70% when the filtration rate exceeded 5 h-1.Conclusions Although the indoor concentration of unattached radon progeny will increase by using the air purifier,it is still effective in reducing the exposure dose to residents due to the inhalation of radon progeny.%目的 研究空气净化器过滤室内空气对室内氡子体行为的影响,探讨该方法对降低居民室内氡照射的效果.方法 构建理论模型计算室内空气过滤前后室内氡子体的浓度,基于结合态和未结合态氡子体的剂量转换系数,评估过滤室内空气对居民氡照射剂量的降低效果,并在密闭房间内进行部分实验验证.结果 室内空气的过滤速率越大,氡子体的去除效率越明显.

  15. Residential space heating with wood burning stoves. Energy efficiency and indoor climate; Boligopvarmning ved braendefyring. Energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, A.; Bergsoee, N.C.; Carvalho, R. [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aalborg Univ.. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2012-11-01

    Two issues turn up concerning how to use wood-burning stoves in modern homes. The first is whether wood-burning stoves in future may still act as a genuine heat source, given that new and refurbished single-family houses retain the heat much better than older ones and therefore need less and less energy for space heating. The second issue is whether it will still be possible to use wood-burning stoves in modern houses where the air exchange is controlled by mechanical ventilation or possibly heat recovery. It is a question whether firing techniques can be developed that will work in airtight houses with mechanical ventilation and negative pressure, so that harmful particle emissions can be avoided. To illustrate the first issue, a field study was designed to look carefully at seven modern wood-burning stoves that were set up in six new houses and one older house and investigated, both in terms of firing and heat release. As a background for this part of the study, a heat balance calculation was made for each house. The question is, whether wood-burning stoves will also in the future have a role to play as a heating source. Modern houses grow ever tighter and only need to be supplied with a small quantity of heat. The new Danish Buildings Requirement, 2010 has resulted in a further reduction of 25 % of the energy demand, including the energy supply for heating. However, the new requirements imply that the heating season eventually become so short that a traditional central heating installation becomes superfluous. This means that by using the small amounts of wood cut in gardens and hedgerows of the neighbourhood, a wood-burning stove will, in principle, cover the heating demand. Therefore, the question is rather whether a wood-burning stove is manufactured that can successfully be adapted to new houses. As a consequence of this development, future stoves must be further scaled down in order to meet the heating demand of a modern low-energy house and the stoves must

  16. Qualidade de grãos de milho armazenados em silos bolsa Quality of corn grain stored in silo bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues da Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de bolsas seladas hermeticamente é uma alternativa aos métodos tradicionais de armazenagem de grãos em nível de fazenda. Em vista disso, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a qualidade de milho armazenado hermeticamente em silos bolsa. O produto, com teores de água de 14,5 e 18,0% b.u, foi acondicionado em mini-bolsas devidamente seladas nas temperaturas de 25; 30 e 35 ºC. Foram realizadas análises de teor de água, de classificação dos grãos, de massa específica aparente, de percentual de germinação e de condutividade elétrica, no início do armazenamento e após 30; 60; 90; 135 e 180 dias. Verificou-se que não houve variação do teor de água dos grãos de milho armazenados nos silos bolsa. Os grãos de milho foram classificados como Tipo 1 ao longo do período de armazenamento, exceto para os com 18,0% (b.u. de teor de água na temperatura de 35 ºC. Não houve decréscimo significativo da massa especifica aparente do produto ao longo do armazenamento. Em geral, ocorreu decréscimo do percentual de germinação dos grãos de milho armazenados úmidos e secos e acréscimo da condutividade elétrica da solução que continha os grãos, exceto para os armazenados com 14,5% nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC. Conclui-se que é possível armazenar milho em silos bolsa, durante 180 dias, grãos com teor de água de 14,5% (b.u. nas temperaturas de 25; 30 e 35 ºC e grãos com teor de água de 18,0% por 180 dias nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC.Airtight storage in sealed bags provides an alternative to traditional methods for on-farm grain storage. The objective of this work was therefore to evaluate the quality of corn stored in airtight sealed bags. Grain with moisture content (m.c. of about 14.5 and 18.0% (w.b. was properly stored in sealed mini-bags at 25; 30; and 35 ºC. Analyses included moisture content, grain classification, apparent specific mass, percentage of germination and electrical conductivity at the

  17. 41种植物精油对淡色库蚊的熏蒸活性%Fumigation activity of 41 essential oils against Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付臣臣; 万涛; 江志利; 吴华; 冯俊涛; 马志卿; 张兴

    2013-01-01

    为发现具有较高杀蚊活性的精油,推动植物精油类卫生杀虫剂的创制,本研究采用三角瓶熏蒸法测定了17科41种植物精油对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens雌成蚊的熏蒸活性,并进一步采用密闭圆筒法验证其杀虫毒力大小.三角瓶熏蒸法测定表明,在12μL/L浓度下,留兰香油(spearmint oil)、薰衣草油(lavender oil)、山苍子油(Litsea cubeba oil)等26种精油均有较强的熏蒸作用,KT50小于15 min.该26种精油用密闭圆筒熏蒸法进一步测定表明,在浓度为10 μL/L时,冬青油(wintergreen oil)、艾叶油(blumea oil)、薄荷油(peppermint oil)、桉叶油(Eucalyptus robusta oil)和蓝桉油(E.globulus oil)等植物精油熏蒸活性较强,其KT50分别为16.91,21.20,22.57,18.43和19.48 min.结果证明冬青油、艾叶油、薄荷油、桉叶油和蓝桉油等5种精油对淡色库蚊具有较强的熏蒸活性,具备作为淡色库蚊防控剂开发的潜力,值得进一步研究.%To find the essential oils with high insecticidal activity and promote the development of hygienic insecticides,essential oils from 41 plants belonging to 17 families were evaluated for adulticidal activity against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens by airtight fumigation in conical flask and hermetic round canister method.The results showed that 26 essential oils (12 μL/L) including spearmint oil,lavender oil and Litsea cubeba oil were very toxic to the mosquito (KT50 < 15 min) by airtight fumigation in conical flask.Further assay using hermetic round canister method indicated that 5 essential oils (wintergreen oil,blumea oil,peppermint oil,Eucalyptus robusta oil and E.globulus oil) had high fumigation toxicity at the concentration of 10 μL/L,and their KT50 values were 16.91,21.20,22.57,18.43 and 19.48 min,respectively.The results demonstrate that wintergreen oil,blumea oil,peppermint oil,E.robusta oil and E.globulus oil all have high fumigation activity against C.pipiens pallens,with the

  18. 不同浓度臭氧水对口腔综合治疗台水道系统中乙肝病毒作用的研究%Study on Effects of Different Concentrations of Ozone Solution on the HBV Virus in Dental Unit Waterlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 冯海; 王玉亮; 殷恺

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study effects of different concentrations of ozone solution on the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), and find out the lowest ozone water concentration to achieve maximum HIV viral inactiva-tion. Methods: The human 2215 cells were cultured. Under the room temperature 5℃, concussion mixed and airtight conditions, different concentrations of aqueous solution of ozone were prepared. The ozone solution was added into the 2215 culture flask. Different concentrations of aqueous solution of ozone acted with the supernatant liquid of the human 2215 cells in different time points. The HBV-DNA was extracted from the 2215 cell supernatant. Following fluorescence quantitative PCR amplification, HBV-DNA was detected by FQ-PCR. Results: It was found that water temperature and airtight affected the mass concentration of ozone solution. Under those conditions, the aqueous solution of ozone was stable. The higher the ozone concentration, the stronger the inactivation of HBV-DNA expression in 2215 cells. In activation of HBV-DNA was found in the ozone concentration of 0.6 mg/l, for 10 minutes and the ozone concentration of 0.5 mg/L for 15 min. Conclusion: The ozone concentration of 0.5-0.6 mg/L can be used to inactivate HBV in DUWLs.%目的:研究不同质量浓度臭氧溶液对口腔综合治疗台水道系统(DUWLs)中乙肝病毒(HBV)的灭活作用,探讨限时灭活HBV的最低臭氧溶液浓度.方法:常规培养2215细胞,在室温5 ℃、震荡混合、密闭等条件下配制不同浓度的臭氧溶液.将臭氧溶液加入2215细胞培养瓶中,作用不同时间后,取其上清液,提取HBV-DNA,聚合酶链式反应(PCR)扩增,荧光定量(FQ-PCR)检测HBV-DNA.结果:水温、密闭条件对臭氧溶液的质量浓度有影响,在上述条件下配置的臭氧溶液浓度稳定,臭氧溶液能抑制2215细胞表达HBV-DNA,臭氧浓度越高,其对HBV-DNA的灭活作用越强.臭氧浓度为0.6 mg/L 10 min及0.5 mg/L15min能将设

  19. Air tightness of new houses in the U.S.: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2002-03-01

    Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.

  20. 微波消解石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定茶叶中镍%Determination of Nickel in Tea by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国庚; 李美

    2011-01-01

    [目的]利用微波消解石墨炉原子吸收法测定茶叶中镍含量.[方法]分别从消解液和样品消解量方面进行消解条件的优化,以建立最适合的消解方法.[结果]茶叶样品以5 ml HNO3-2 ml H2O2 混合体系为消解液,坡度升温方式微波高压密闭消解结合石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定,样品检出限为0.15 μg/g,回收率为97.8%,RSD为1.9%.[结论]该方法简单快速,效率高,劳动强度低,是进行茶叶中镍元素测定的高效方法.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to determine the nickel in tea by using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with microwave digestion. [ Method ] The digestion conditions were optimized separately from the digestion fluid and sample digestion quantity to establish the most appropriate digestion method. [ Result] When 5 ml HNO3 -2 ml H2O2 mixed system was taken as the digestion liquid for digesting the tea samples and the GFAAS combined with the microwave high-pressure airtight digestion under slope heating was used to determine the nickel in the tea samples, the sample detecting limit was 0. 15 μg/g, the recovery was 97.8% and the precise RSD was 1.9%.[ Conclusion ] This method was simple and rapid and had high efficiency and low labor strength, which was a efficient method for detemining nickel element in the tea.

  1. Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of an Ultrasonic Molten Metal Treatment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Youli; BIAN Feilong; WANG Yanli; ZHAO Qian

    2014-01-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2•K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  2. 数码印花技术实践与应用中常见问题分析%Analysis of Common Problem in the Practice and Application of Digital Printing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巍伟

    2014-01-01

    The common problems in the practice and application of digital printing technology were analyzed, and the problems occurred in the application of digital printing machine and ink were discussed in detail, and the effects of pre-treatment and after treatment process and environmental conditions on digital printing technology were expounded.The results show that the design of digital printing ink needs to be done according to the parameters of spray-head; the continuity and airtightness of ink supply system in printing greatly affect printing fluency; the printer needs regular maintenance; the process of pre-treatment and after treatment and envivonmental conditions can greatly affect dye fixing percentage.%对数码印花技术的实践与应用中常见问题进行了分析,具体探讨了数码印花机以及墨水使用中出现的问题,并阐述了前后处理工艺以及环境条件对数码印花技术的影响。结果表明,数码印花墨水的设计要根据喷头不同参数的要求而进行;打印过程中供墨系统的连续性与密闭性对打印流畅性影响很大;打印机需要进行定期的维护和保养;前后处理工艺和环境条件会明显影响固色率。

  3. Design and clinical application of balloon-type head fixation pillow for interventional neuroradiology operation%神经介入手术头颅气囊固定枕的设计与临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建华; 段传志; 汪求精; 刘亚杰; 刘玉龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:为解决患者头颅移动给神经介入手术带来的不便,研制一种头颅气囊固定枕.方法:采用透X线、弹性及强度好的海绵和与皮肤相容性好的透X线的布料制作与人体后颅及颈肩相适应的枕座,用抗拉力的密气尼龙布制成的充气球囊进行下颌固定.结果:使用该头颅固定枕进行手术与使用普通头枕固定治疗的手术比较,在成像次数、所受X线剂量、异常情况的发生上均较少,具有显著的优势.结论:该头颅气囊固定枕在神经介入手术中可缩短手术时间,减少辐射剂量,降低手术并发症的发生几率,值得临床推广.%Objective To develop a balloon-type head fixation pillow for interventional neuroradiology operation.Methods Some radiotransparent sponge with high elasticity and strength and some nonopaque cloth with high skin compatibility were employed to make pillow base adaptable to the posterior fossa, neck and shoulder. A inflatable balloon made of anti-tensile airtight nylon was used to fix the underjaw.Results The fixation pillow gained advantages over the common one in imaging times, X-ray exposure dose and abnormal condition.Conclusion The head fixation pillow may decrease operating time, exposure dose and complications during interventional neuroradiology operation, and thus is worth popularizing clinically.

  4. Development of a Multi-functional Physical Model Testing System for Deep Coal Petrography Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiyu; Wang, Haiyang; Xia, Binwei; Li, Xiaohong; Ge, Zhaolong; Tang, JiRen

    2017-02-01

    Physical model testing is an important research tool for coal petrography engineering as it can solve many difficult problems associated with high risks and requiring long time periods to investigate with field studies. However, the accuracy of physical model tests can be reduced by problems with testing equipment, such as small model specimen size, poor airtightness and insufficient stress and pressure loading ability. To study the problems of coal petrography engineering in complicated stress environments, especially those in fluid-solid coupling, we designed and developed a multi-functional physical model testing system. The entire testing system consists of several specific sub-systems: loading, specimen shaping and installation, data monitoring and acquisition, pumping and gas injection, excavation simulating. The testing system can simulate complicated stress environments of coal-rock mass, and it can also be used to study the characteristics of strength-deformation, seepage-rheology and instability-failure under the conditions of gas-solid coupling and gas-liquid-solid multi-phase coupling. A load-unload experiment of air pressure and three-dimensional stress was conducted using the testing system. The experiment verified major technical indicators such as the loading capacity, sealing pressure and test precision, as well as operational stability of the testing system. The strain fields within the model specimen are well distributed and approximately linear with the stress. The stress of the specimen surface is approximately well distributed, and the specimen is subjected to uniform stresses. The testing system meets the requirements of the design parameters and has great potential significance to help reveal the scientific laws and inherent mechanisms of coal petrography engineering.

  5. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  6. Development and validation of a liquid composite molding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayldon, John Michael

    2007-12-01

    In composite manufacturing, Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is becoming increasingly important as a cost effective manufacturing method of structural composites. In this process the dry preform (reinforcement) is placed on a rigid tool and covered by a flexible film to form an airtight vacuum bag. Liquid resin is drawn under vacuum through the preform inside the vacuum bag. Modeling of this process relies on a good understanding of closely coupled phenomena. The resin flow depends on the preform permeability, which in turn depends on the local fluid pressure and the preform compaction behavior. VARTM models for predicting the flow rate in this process do exist, however, they are not able to properly predict the flow for all classes of reinforcement material. In this thesis, the continuity equation used in VARTM models is reexamined and a modified form proposed. In addition, the compaction behavior of the preform in both saturated and dry states is studied in detail and new models are proposed for the compaction behavior. To assess the validity of the proposed models, the shadow moire method was adapted and used to perform full field measurement of the preform thickness during infusion, in addition to the usual measurements of flow front position. A new method was developed and evaluated for the analysis of the moire data related to the VARTM process, however, the method has wider applicability to other full field thickness measurements. The use of this measurement method demonstrated that although the new compaction models work well in the characterization tests, they do not properly describe all the preform features required for modeling the process. In particular the effect of varying saturation on the preform's behavior requires additional study. The flow models developed did, however, improve the prediction of the flow rate for the more compliant preform material tested, and the experimental techniques have shown where additional test methods

  7. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C.; Neuhauser, K.

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent 'package' of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  8. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (psilage increased (psilage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  9. Study of Wireless Temperature Measuring Module%无引线温度测量模块设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐正红

    2014-01-01

    The usual temperature sensors are inconvenient due to leading wires in temperature field measurement. Aiming at this disadvan-tage, a wireless temperature measurement module was designed. It has advantages such as high precision, being wireless and easy to use. The measurement module outfits a resistance thermometer and uses referenced resistance ratio measurement technology to enhance the stability. Using vacuum thermal insulation and amassment technology, this module can work more than 2 hours in -65~200 ℃. This module can be used for measuring uniformity of temperature field of vacuum experimental tanks, thermal pressure tanks and other airtight experimental equipment or large space experimental equipment.%针对温度场测量中使用常规温度传感器引线不方便的缺点,设计了一套无引线温度测量模块。该模块具有测量精度高、无需引线、使用方便的特点。测量模块配接热电阻传感器,利用参考电阻比例测量技术,大大提高了测量稳定性。测量模块采用真空隔热蓄热技术,在-65~200℃温度范围内正常工作不少于2 h,可满足该温区真空试验罐、热压罐,或其他密闭试验装置、大空间实验装置等温度场均匀性测量的需求。

  10. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  11. In quodam libro Graeco: The Use and Citation of Greek Sources by the ‘Authors’ of the Historia Augusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pobežin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The enigmatic collection of imperial vitae ranging from the emperor Hadrian to Carinus, spanning a period of some 170 years, has long been subject to detailed scrutiny. Dubbed Historia Augusta by Isaac Casaubon in 1603, this historical document has been recognised to be anything but historical, and therefore hardly deserves to be treated by historians as a viable document – or at least this appears to be the position held by mainstream scholars on the subject. While there are still historians who maintain that the vitae were forged by several different authors, if not exactly six as purported in the work itself, the widespread thesis is that this ‘mockumentary’ was produced by one person only, but there is little agreement on the question when. However, there remain issues which, after careful examination, admonish us that even the well-accepted one-author theory is anything but airtight, one of them being the issue of the sources, their collection and implementation in the actual narrative. Several cited documents, such as letters, senatorial decrees etc., have been proved as forgeries, but the author(s went out of their way to cloak them in a veil of fake certainty; one such instance is the cited report on the inauguration of Marcus Claudius Tacitus. On the other hand, there are several completely vague references to some Greek book – quidam liber Graecus, which must arouse the reader’s suspicion. While this article does nothing to contest the one-author theory, it raises questions: Why, so late in the work, this change of approach in citing sources? Why not furnish the cited ‘documents’ with fabricated names?

  12. 氨气胁迫下6种观赏植物的生理抗性比较研究%Physiological Resistance Study of Six Kinds of Ornamental Plants Under Ammonia Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪珊; 贾伟

    2016-01-01

    选取绿萝、金边虎皮兰、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边吊兰、芦荟6种家庭常用观赏植物,采用密闭熏气方式对其进行不同浓度下氨气胁迫试验,测定了6种植物的叶绿素含量、丙二醛含量及相对电导率。试验结果表明:在所测试的3种氨气浓度胁迫下,6种植物抗氨气污染能力由强到弱依次为绿萝、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边虎皮兰、金边吊兰、芦荟。%The research selected 6 species of plants such as Epipremnumaureum , Sansevieria trifasciata ,Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis ,Maranta leuconeura ,Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis , and used airtight fumigation method to undergo ammonia stress with different concentrations. The leaf green content ,malondialdehyde content and the relative electrical conductivity were tested for the above plants. The results showed that under 1,2,4 mg/m3 ammonia concentration stress , the Epipremnum aureum and Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis had strongest ammonia pollution resistance , medium for Maranta leuconeura and Sansevieria trifasciataLanrentii , the weakest for Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis .

  13. 一种气流式全方位水平姿态敏感技术%A sensitive technique of airflow omnibearing level posture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴林华; 丁霞; 余全刚; 王星; 张保丽; 梅传志

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive mechanism of micromachined airflow omnibearing level posture is introduced. There is a non-closure annulus heat source in the airtight space, and around the heat source, there are eight parallel heat resistance wire composed omnibearing level posture sensitive element. Signal processing circuit is composed of presignal circuit and digital circuit,to obtain voltage,omnibearing signal synthesis and sensitivity compensation of omnibearing tile angle signal. It is testified that resolution is prior to 0.1° ,the scope of azimuth is 360°, the scope of tile angle is 20°. The sensor is not only in small size but also in simply crafting. It is good in output consistency of sensitive element and suitable for mass production.%提出了一种气流式全方位水平姿态敏感技术.在密闭腔体内有一非闭合环形圈热源,在热源周围设置8根两两相对平行的热电阻丝构成全方位水平姿态敏感元件;通过前置信号电路和数字电路构成信号处理电路,实现倾角电压信号的提取、全方位信号合成和全方位倾角信号的灵敏度补偿.测试结果表明:分辨率优于0.1°,方位角测量范围可达到360°,倾斜角度测量范围可达到20°.这种技术可获得较高的精度和灵敏度,不存在方位角的测试盲点.

  14. PA01.15. ADR Kshasutra Kit - A Breakthrough in the Standardization of Ksharasutra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Amarprakash; Patil, D. Y.

    2012-01-01

    ‘Ksharsutra’ can be defined as an Ayurvedic medicated thread (Cutting Seton) coated with herbal alkaline drugs. ‘Ksharasutra therapy’ has been described as a treatment of choice for the treatment of fistula in ano due to low recurrence rate (up to 3%). However, this unique para surgical procedure is not yet globally accepted basically due to lack of standardization in the Ksharsutra preparation process and poor acceptability by Modern surgeons due to lack of training& fear of Complications. Need for Standardization of Ksharsutra: Standardization of ‘Ksharsutra’ requires standardization in preparation process and quality standards including packaging, storage, labeling and developing scientific parameters for maintaining its uniform coating, pH, microbial check etc. What is ‘ADR Ksharsutra Kit‘?‘ADR Ksharsutra Kit’ is a disposable ‘Ksharsutra Applicator’ made up of HDPE. This Ksharsutra embedded device after UV treatment is kept in Airtight silver foil sachet. The Physico chemical Characters of Ksharsutra, its indication, manufacturing details along with its expiry date, etc. are labeled properly. Method of ‘ADR Ksharsutra’ Application: The tip of the ‘ADR Ksharsutra Applicator’ is introduced in the external opening and allowed to follow the track upto the internal opening situated in the anal canal. Once the tip comes out through the internal opening, cap is removed and the Ksharsutra is firmly held with artery forceps. After this, applicator’ is withdrawn (taken back) from outside opening. By doing this, the embedded Ksharsutra is automatically placed in the fistula track whose two ends are tied together. ‘ADR Ksharsutra’ has truly made the entire procedure very smooth and will be helpful in Globalization of Ksharsutra technique for fistula ablation & acceptable to modern surgeons.

  15. ADR KSHARSUTRA KIT: A BREAKTHROUGH IN THE STANDARDIZATION OF KSHARSUTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwivedi Amarprakash P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ‘Ksharsutra’ can be defined as an Ayurvedic medicated thread coated with herbal alkaline drugs. ‘Ksharasutra therapy’ has been described as a treatment of choice for the treatment of fistula-in-ano due to low recurrence rate. However, Ksharsutra procedure is not yet globally accepted basically due to lack of standardization and poor acceptability by modern surgeons due to lack of training and fear of complications. Standardization of ‘Ksharsutra’ requires standardization in preparation process and quality standards including its packaging, storage, labeling and developing scientific parameters for maintaining its uniform coating, pH, microbial check etc. To overcome all these limitations, ‘ADR- Ksharsutra Kit’ which is a disposable, non traumatic ‘Ksharsutra Carrier cum Application device’ made up of High Density Poly Ethelene was invented by me. The Ksharsutra prepared as per ICMR guidelines after UV treatment, is embedded in the instrument and is kept in airtight silver foil sachet and sealed. The method of ‘ADR-Ksharsutra’ application is simple and time conserving. The tip of the ‘ADR-Ksharsutra Carrier cum Application device’ is introduced in the external opening and allowed to follow the track up to the internal opening situated in the anal canal. Once the tip comes out through the internal opening, cap is removed and the Ksharsutra is held and then instrument is withdrawn from outside opening. By doing this, the embedded Ksharsutra is automatically placed in the fistula track whose two ends are tied together. ‘ADR-Ksharsutra’ has truly made the entire procedure very smooth. No probe is required in the procedure and Ksharsutra kept in the instrument remains sterile as well. Hence, this ‘Ksharsutra carrier cum application device’ will be helpful in Globalization of Ksharsutra technique for fistula ablation.

  16. A preliminary design of interior structure and foundation of an inflatable lunar habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Paul K.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary structural design and analysis of an inflatable habitat for installation on the moon was completed. The concept takes the shape of a sphere with a diameter of approximately 16 meters. The interior framing provides five floor levels and is enclosed by a spherical air-tight membrane holding an interior pressure of 14.7 psi (101.4kpa). The spherical habitat is to be erected on the lunar surface with the lower one third below grade and the upper two thirds covered with a layer of lunar regolith for thermal insulation and shielding against radiation and meteoroids. The total dead weight (earth weight) of the structural aluminum, which is of vital interest for the costly space transportation, is presented. This structural dead weight represents a preliminary estimate without including structural details. The design results in two versions: one supports the weight of the radiation shielding in case of deflation of the fabric enclosure and the other assumes that the radiation shielding is self supporting. To gain some indication of the amount of structural materials needed if the identical habitat were installed on Mars and Earth, three additional design versions were generated where the only difference is in gravity. These additional design versions are highly academic since the difference will be much more than in gravity alone. The lateral loading due to dust storms on Mars and wind loads on Earth are some examples. The designs under the lunar gravity are realistic. They may not be adequate for final material procurement and fabrication, however, as the connection details, among other reasons, may effect the sizes of the structural members.

  17. Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores attached to and in a biofilm on stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyegyeong; Seo, Hyun-Sun; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated the lethal activity of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against Bacillus cereus spores attached to and in biofilm formed on a stainless steel surface. Aqueous ClO2 was prepared by mixing sulfuric acid (5% w/v) with sodium chlorite (10mg/mL), and gaseous ClO2 was produced by vaporization of aqueous ClO2 in an air-tight container. The concentration of gaseous ClO2 in the air within the container increased rapidly at first but gradually decreased over time. The lethality of gaseous ClO2 against B. cereus spores attached to stainless steel coupons (SSCs) and in biofilm formed by the pathogen on SSCs was determined. The B. cereus spores attached to SSCs (5.3±0.1logCFU/coupon) were completely inactivated within 1h at 25°C when treated with gaseous ClO2 (peak concentration: 115.3±5.0 parts per million [ppm]). The total number of vegetative cells and spores in biofilm formed by B. cereus on SSCs was 5.9±0.3logCFU/coupon; the spore count was 5.3±0.1logCFU/coupon. The vegetative cells and spores in biofilm were completely inactivated within 6h (peak concentration: 115.3±5.0ppm). Results show that B. cereus spores in biofilms are more resistant to gaseous ClO2 than are attached spores not in biofilms. Gaseous ClO2 was, nevertheless, very effective in killing B. cereus spores in biofilm on the surface of stainless steel. Results show promise for application of gaseous ClO2 to enhance the microbiological safety of foods that may come in contact with stainless steel and possibly other hard surfaces on which B. cereus biofilms have formed.

  18. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  19. On the Improvement of Meat Quality in Sensory Terms in the Dish Pork Slices in Garlic Sauce through the Cooking Technique of Sous-vide%真空恒温烹饪技术对蒜泥白肉肉质口感的改良研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 乔兴

    2015-01-01

    Sous-vide is a method of cooking food in vacuumed airtight plastic bags in a water bath or in a tem-perature-controlled steam environment for longer than normal cooking time.This paper,based on an explanation of this cooking technique,compares sous-vide with traditional heating approach through experiments.The find-ings suggest that meat quality is enhanced in the respects of color,fragrance,taste,shape and nutrition with the new cooking technique employed,which will provide reference for the innovation of traditional Sichuan dishes.%真空恒温烹饪是利用真空抽取机制造相对低气压、绝氧的环境,使用恒温水浴锅精准控制蛋白质热变性温度点等理化性质的现代烹饪技术方式。文章通过对真空恒温烹饪技术理论依据的阐述,结合实验评鉴,对四川传统菜肴蒜泥白肉初加工方式上使用真空恒温烹饪技术与传统加热方式进行对比,实践得出肉质在色、香、味、形、养等方面的提升,对四川传统菜肴的制作加工及技术革新提供支持。

  20. Design Points of New Civil Air Defense Equipment in Subway Sections%地铁区间新型人防设备设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭士博; 徐胜

    2016-01-01

    经济合理地实现城市轨道交通设计中的人防功能是地铁设计的一个重要问题。为解决地铁区间刚性接触网不断开条件下的人防设防问题,设计出新型区间单扇防护密闭隔断门。新型设备同时有效地解决了线路曲线段、大坡段及大盾构区间施工段的人防设防问题。详细介绍了新型设备的机构设计原理、工作性能及既有难题的解决方案,对其与既有设备的改进处进行对比,得出了新型设备的优越性与应用范围。%How to realize the functions of air defense eco-nomically and rationaly is an important issue in subway de-sign.Airtight blast partition door is designed for rigid cate-nary subway system which can be used when the catenaries and rail track are not disconnected.This new equipment al-so effectively solves the problem of air defense fortification line curve segments,steep slopes and large segments in shield zone construction.In this paper,the new equipment design principles, performance and solutions to existing problems are introduced in detail.The improvement and application range of the new equipment are also described.

  1. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvela, H; Holmgren, O; Reisbacka, H; Vinha, J

    2014-12-01

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH50, i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30% lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h(-1), the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100% in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h(-1). This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30% lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations.

  2. Soil Organic Carbon Loss: An Overlooked Factor in the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Enhanced Mineral Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, Christiana; Harrison, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals regulates the global carbon cycle on geologic timescales. Several authors have proposed that applying finely ground silicate minerals to soils, where organic acids would enhance the rate of weathering, could increase carbon uptake and mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Silicate minerals such as olivine could replace lime, which is commonly used to remediate soil acidification, thereby sequestering CO2 while achieving the same increase in soil pH. However, the effect of adding this material on soil organic matter, the largest terrestrial pool of carbon, has yet to be considered. Microbial biomass and respiration have been observed to increase with decreasing acidity, but it is unclear how long the effect lasts. If the addition of silicate minerals promotes the loss of soil organic carbon through decomposition, it could significantly reduce the efficiency of this process or even create a net carbon source. However, it is possible that this initial flush of microbial activity may be compensated for by additional organic matter inputs to soil pools due to increases in plant productivity under less acidic conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of olivine amendments on soil CO2 flux. A liming treatment representative of typical agricultural practices was also included for comparison. Samples from two highly acidic soils were split into groups amended with olivine or lime and a control group. These samples were incubated at 22°C and constant soil moisture in jars with airtight septa lids. Gas samples were extracted periodically over the course of 2 months and change in headspace CO2 concentration was determined. The effects of enhanced mineral weathering on soil organic matter have yet to be addressed by those promoting this method of carbon sequestration. This project provides the first data on the potential effects of enhanced mineral weathering in the soil environment on soil organic carbon pools.

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  4. Effects of Carbon in Flooded Paddy Soils: Implications for Microbial Activity and Arsenic Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (originating from erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Microbial activity will enhance or decrease the mobilization of arsenic depending on their metabolic pathways. Among the microbes naturally residing in the soil are denitrifying bacteria, sulfate reducers, metal reducers (Fe, Mn), arsenic reducers, methanogens, and fermenters, whose activity varies based on the presence of oxygen. The purpose of the experiment was to assess how different amendments affect the microbial activity and the arsenic mobilization during the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism after flooding of naturally contaminated Cambodian soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how the relative metabolic rate of naturally occurring microbes could vary with different types of organic carbon. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of carbon (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, manure, and glucose) on the microbial activity and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. All amendments were added based on the carbon content in order to add 0.036 g of carbon per vial. The soil was flooded with a 10mM TRIS buffer solution at pH 7.04 in airtight 25mL serum vials and kept at 25 °C. We prepared 14 replicates per treatment to sample both gas and solution. On each sampling point, the solution replicates were sampled destructively. The gas replicates continued on and were sampled for both gas and solution on the final day of the experiment. We measured pH, total arsenic, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide at 8 hours, 1.5 days, 3.33 days, and 6.33 days from the start of the experiment.

  5. Nursing on continued lumbar cistern drainage after pituitary tumor surgery%经蝶垂体瘤术后脑脊液鼻漏行腰大池持续引流的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋萍; 王鹿婷; 蔡春妮; 吴秋兰

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the nursing about continued lumbar cistern drainage after pituitary tumor surgery. METHODS SS cases of pituitary adenoma postoperative cerebrospinai fluid runny nose line with continued lumbar cistern drainage were analyzed. RESULTS Specific nursing was performed for pituitary tumor postoperative cerebrospinai fluid runny nose line with continued lumbar cistern drainage, we should pay closely observation on the condition and maintain effective airtight drainage, strengthen the basic nursing, psychological care and diet nursing to prevent complications. 5 cases with postoperative cerebrospinai fluid runny nose were performed with pool buy continued lumbar cistern drainage, and its effect is satisfied. One case showed intracranial infection, but finally cured. CONCLUSION The waist big pool drainage intracranial infection was not allowed to ignore, which should be given on effective nursing measures to prevent.%目的 探讨垂体瘤术后行腰大池外持续引流的护理.方法 对55例垂体瘤术后脑脊液鼻漏行腰大池持续引流的护理进行总结分析.结果 积极配合垂体瘤术后脑脊液鼻漏行腰大池持续引流术进行针对性护理,通过严密观察病情,维特有效的密闭引流,加强基础护理、心理护理、饮食护理及预防并发症.术后5例出现脑脊液鼻漏均行腰大池置管引流,其效果满意,有1例发生颅内感染,最终治愈.结论 腰大池引流术后颅内感染发生不容忽视,应给于有效的护理措施进行预防.

  6. Cooling-energy Reduction of Air-conditioned Ofifces by Using Night Natural Ventilation%夜间自然通风降低办公室空调制冷能耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚城名; 张玉辉; 何江海

    2016-01-01

    Night natural ventilation has been successfully applied to many passively-cooled or low-energy office buildings. This paper investigates the applicability of night natural ventilation in office buildings. A thermal and ventilation simulation model, together with suitable weather data were used to examine the energy saving and internal comfort conditions. It was found that natural ventilation strategies could save cooling-energy in typical air-conditioned office. Based on the principle of “the best” application, such as improving air-tightness, and minimization of internal and solar heat gains to improve building structure can effectively improve the energy saving of natural ventilation.%夜间自然通风已经成功运用于许多被动制冷或低能耗写字楼中。介绍了夜间自然通风在写字楼中的适用性。在适当的温度条件下,建立热量计通风模型,以此来检验节能以及内部舒适度改善情况。研究发现,自然通风模式能够减少传统空调写字间的制冷能耗。采用“应用最佳”的原则,如提高气密性、内部发热及日晒生热的最小化等改善建筑结构能有效提高自然通风的节能性。

  7. Experimental study of a semi-passive ventilation grille with a feedback control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, A.; Fontana, L.; Salata, F.

    2011-08-01

    The diffusion of window frames with low air permeability, due to the energy saving regulations, has implied in several cases the worsening of the indoor microclimate and air quality. On the other hand, air-tight window frames imply uncontrolled and too high air change rates. The mechanical ventilation not always is a practicable solution because of economic reasons and because it implies energy waste. Various Italian and European environmental and energetic laws take into consideration and promote the use of controlled natural ventilation, though this definition is not associated to well defined and tested technical solutions. An adequate solution can be achieved by using semi-passive self adjustable ventilation devices, able to ensure controlled changes of indoor air. In this paper, a semi-passive damper with a feedback control system is proposed and its behavior is investigated by means of experimental study. The presented semi-passive grille allows to control the air flow rate, injected into the room by natural or artificial pressure gradient, more effectively than the usual passive ventilation grilles made available by the present industrial production. However, since the semi-passive grille has a one-way flow, in the natural ventilation of a flat the proper functioning of the system could be ensured with a more complex configuration, with respect to the passive self-regulating grilles, able to limit the flow of fresh air in the presence of high levels of Δp; conversely, it could have widespread use in applications requiring a more accurate control of airflow in case of mechanical ventilation plants.

  8. ATEMAC - Usage of passive tracer gases for air flow and indoor pollution measurements; ATEMAC - Application des traceurs passifs pour l'etude des mouvements d'air et de contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.

    2001-07-01

    Tracer gases are used in Switzerland for more than 15 years for air flow and ventilation rate measurements as well as for the simulation of air pollutants. The measurement equipment available in Switzerland is accurate and well performing, but rather expensive and voluminous. Moreover, preparing and carrying out the measurements is relatively time consuming. The general objective of the project was the development of a simple, efficient and cheap methodology for the measurement of air flow rates in buildings. Originally, it was thought that a procedure developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory could be transferred to Switzerland. However, measurements at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) indicated that the used tracer gases were adsorbed in an unpredictable way by building materials and pieces of furniture, leading to a massive overestimation of air flow rates. Accordingly, the research work plan was modified in the course of 2000 in order to explore three alternative approaches: (1) the aerosol method, using a photo-ionisation particulate counter; (2) identification and evaluation of new analyzer types; (3) analysis of CO{sub 2} concentration recordings. The conclusions were: (1) the aerosol method is not yet reliable. (2) On the market, a number of analyzers are available at a reasonable price and new devices are currently being developed, especially at the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology. (3) In numerous cases, the CO{sub 2} concentration methodology is easy to apply, particularly since a computer code for easy interpretation of the concentration measurements was developed and validated. Moreover, the measurements give an estimate of the air-tightness of the building envelope. (author)

  9. Radon in Danish dwellings. Mapping of stall, county and municipality values; Radon i danske boliger. Kortlaegning af lands-, amts- og kommunevaerdier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E.; Damkjaer, A. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Ulbak, K. [Statens Inst. for Straalehygiejne (Denmark); Gravesen, P. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A survey of radon in Danish dwellings has been carried out. The concentration of radon-222 has been measured in 3019 single-family houses and 101 multi-family houses (apartment complexes) with the so-called alpha-track technique (CR-39). On this basis, a map has been established. This map shows the percentage of single-family houses in each of the 275 municipalities with levels above 200 Bq/m{sup 3} (i.e. the action level recommended by the Danish building authorities for simple radon remedi-action). For Denmark as a whole, 4.6 % of the single-family houses are above 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. That corresponds to 65 000 houses. In certain parts of the country (e.g. northern Jutland) less than 1 % are above 200 Bq/m{sup 3}. In other places (e.g. certain parts of Funen and Bornholm) the value is above 10 %. In the survey, 15 houses had levels above 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The relationship between radon and various factors has been investigated with regression analysis. The three most important factors are type of basement, province, and soil type. The analysis confirms that the soil below the houses is the most important source of radon in Danish single-family houses. The study also provides a more detailed picture of the relation between geology and indoor radon. For example, it is shown that clayey till generates different indoor radon levels in the different parts of the country. The study does not indicate that a substantial part of newer Danish houses have an airtight house-soil interface. The report includes a summary in English. (au)

  10. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq. frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was carried out by storing 2 kg samples in airtight glass jars at 25- 30°C for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the silage samples were subjected to proximate analyses, an in vitro digestibility assay and measures on selected indices of fermentation. Fermentation of OPF without additives appeared to be unsuccessful as both pH and ammonia content were too high (4.9 and 9.9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of cellulase or LAB resulted in silages with a pH<4.5 and ammonia fractions <8.4%, but the lowest values were found when both cellulase and LAB were used, i.e. pH=4.1 and ammonia fraction=6.7%. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was significantly higher in the cellulase treated silages. The process of ensiling was associated with both a significant decrease of the fat content of OPF and a significant change of the fatty acid profile. However, the proportions of major fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:2n-6 were not affected by the process of ensiling. In conclusion, the use of cellulase additive appears a practical tool to safeguard the process of fermentation. Using a cellulase enzyme or its combination with LAB improves the fermentation profile and increases the nutritional value of the OPF silage.

  11. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-23

    Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  12. Experimental study of a semi-passive ventilation grille with a feedback control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, A; Fontana, L; Salata, F

    2011-08-01

    The diffusion of window frames with low air permeability, due to the energy saving regulations, has implied in several cases the worsening of the indoor microclimate and air quality. On the other hand, air-tight window frames imply uncontrolled and too high air change rates. The mechanical ventilation not always is a practicable solution because of economic reasons and because it implies energy waste. Various Italian and European environmental and energetic laws take into consideration and promote the use of controlled natural ventilation, though this definition is not associated to well defined and tested technical solutions. An adequate solution can be achieved by using semi-passive self adjustable ventilation devices, able to ensure controlled changes of indoor air. In this paper, a semi-passive damper with a feedback control system is proposed and its behavior is investigated by means of experimental study. The presented semi-passive grille allows to control the air flow rate, injected into the room by natural or artificial pressure gradient, more effectively than the usual passive ventilation grilles made available by the present industrial production. However, since the semi-passive grille has a one-way flow, in the natural ventilation of a flat the proper functioning of the system could be ensured with a more complex configuration, with respect to the passive self-regulating grilles, able to limit the flow of fresh air in the presence of high levels of Δp; conversely, it could have widespread use in applications requiring a more accurate control of airflow in case of mechanical ventilation plants.

  13. Development of a nitrate ion-selective electrode based on an Urushi matrix membrane and its application to the direct measurement of nitrate-nitrogen in upland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, S; Baba, K; Asano, Y; Takesako, H; Wada, H

    1996-11-01

    A solid-state nitrate ion-selective electrode based on an Urushi matrix membrane was developed. Urushi, a natural oriental lacquer, has excellent mechanical strength and binding affinity for metal electrodes. Using the same technique for a dip-coating ion-selective electrode, an electrode was prepared by coating and hardening a sensing membrane on the metal base. The effects of the metal electrode on the electrode potential stability, the liquid-membrane components and the oven temperature for hardening of membrane were studied. The sensing membrane, consisting of 27.5 wt.% of o-nitrophenyl octyl ether. 27.5 wt.% of tri-n-octylmethylammonium nitrate and 45 wt.% of raw Urushi latex, was coated with a thickness of 0.5 mm on a silver disc which was plated with Ag/AgCl, then plated with copper and hardened in the oven at 80 degrees C for 50 h. A semi-logarithmic calibration curve of potential versus nitrate ion concentration was obtained over the range 6-60 000 mg l(-1) NO(3)(poststaggered-). The slope of the linear part of the curve was -56 mV per decade change in NO(3)(poststaggered-) concentration. Compared with a PVC matrix nitrate ion-selective electrode, the Urushi matrix nitrate ion-selective electrode was superior in terms of hardness and mechanical strength of the membrane, short response time and long life. The combination of an Urushi matrix nitrate ion-selective electrode with a porous PTFE junction reference electrode, air-tight structured KCl solution chamber and a temperature sensor was applied to field measurements of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in upland soils. The values obtained for upland soils containing 30-50% of water were good agreement with those for soil solution.

  14. 空气中高浓度二氯乙烷对蚕豆根尖细胞遗传毒性研究%The genotoxicity of High-Dose Concentration in the Air on Vicia faba Root Tips Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洋; 周小敏; 熊旭辉; 谭广辉; 张琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of micronucleus test of Vicia faba root-tip cell in application of mutation detection caused by air pollutants. Methods This experiment takes available Vicia faba as research objects, which was poisoned by high concentration dichloroethane of simulated indoor air at airtight container. Results With the increasing of concentration, the descending trend of mitotic index and the escalation of average micronucleus rate and chromosome aberration rate had been observed, which showed a conspicuous dose-response relationship. Conclusion Genetic toxic effects of Vicia faba root-tip cell caused by dichloroethane are unquestionable under all experiment concentration. Furthermore, it is possible that the using of micronucleus test in Vicia faba linn root-tip cell for high concentration dichloroethane of indoor air.%目的 探讨将蚕豆根尖微核检测系统(micronucleus,MCN)应用于空气污染物致突变性检测的可行性.方法 以市售蚕豆为材料,在密闭容器中模拟室内空气的高浓度二氯乙烷污染,对蚕豆进行染毒.结果 随着浓度的递增,平均微核率、染色体畸变率逐步上升,有丝分裂指数有下降趋势,表现出明显的剂量效应关系.结论 在实验浓度下,1,2-二氯乙烷有对蚕豆根尖细胞产生遗传毒害效应.应用蚕豆根尖微核技术检测室内高浓度1,2-二氯乙烷污染物是可行的.

  15. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  16. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  17. MR imaging of lung ventilation with aerosolized Gadolinium-chelates; MR-Bildgebung der Lungenventilation mittels aerosolierter Gadolinium-Chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, P.; Karaagac, S.; Spuentrup, E.; Guenther, R.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Adam, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2003-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance assessment of human lung ventilation with aerosolized Gd-chelates in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adults (mean age 37 years) were studied with a 1.5 T unit. The volunteers were instructed to inhale the aerosol through an airtight facial mask for 10 minutes. The aerosol was generated with a jet-type small particle nebulizer with attached heater. Ventilation imaging was performed using a respiration-gated dynamic T{sub 1}-weighted turbo spin echo sequence (T{sub R}=199 ms, T{sub E}=8.5 ms, 12 signal averages, slice thickness 10 mm). Pulmonary signal intensity changes were calculated before and after nebulization. Results: The investigation was successfully carried out in all volunteers. An acute or delayed allergic reaction to the aerosolized contrast medium was not observed. In 4 of 5 experiments (80%), a homogeneous signal intensity increase was readily visualized with an average signal increase of 35% after 10 minutes; in one experiment, the aerosol distribution was slightly heterogeneous. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Durchfuehrbarkeit einer kernspintomographischen Darstellung der Lungenventilation mittels aerosolierter Gd-Chelate bei gesunden Probanden. Methoden: 5 Probanden (Durchschnittsalter 37 Jahre) wurden in einem 1,5T System untersucht. Die Probanden atmeten spontan aerosoliertes Gd-DTPA ueber eine Atemmaske fuer eine Dauer von 10 Minuten. Das Kontrastmittel-Aerosol wurde ueber einen leistungsfaehigen druckluftbetriebenen Vernebler generiert. Die Illustration der Ventilation erfolgte mit einer atemgegateten dynamischen T{sub 1}-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echosequenz. Zur Quantitifizerung der Lungenventilation wurden die Signalintensitaeten im Lungengewebe vor und nach Verneblung berechnet. Ergebnisse: Alle Untersuchungen wurden komplikationslos durchgefuehrt und beendet. Eine akute oder verzoegerte Kontrastmittelreaktion wurde nicht beobachtet. In 4 von 5

  18. Application of Ventilator and CPAP in Newborns with Congenital Oesophageal Atresia%呼吸器和呼吸道持续正压在先天性食管闭锁患儿的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董声焕; 宋国维; 刘惠敏; 叶蓁蓁; 陈幼容; 张金惠; 马继东; 李春英; 王中桂

    1985-01-01

    @@ 先天性食管闭锁的手术后死亡率,在国内一直甚高,1981年作者初步报告了在该病开展手术前后呼吸治疗的结果(1),本文重点介绍我们应用呼吸器与呼吸道持续正压(简称CPAP)的经验.%The authors report their experience in the application of ventilator and CPAP in 17 newborns wlth congenital oesophageal atresia.In 13 cases,Bird ventilator MK-14 or Babylog ventilator was used. The mean time for the treatment was 64 hours,with the maximum 183 hours. PEEP was used in 4 cases and IMV in 5. The average length for CPAP treatment in the 15 cases was 54.9 hours. Our unique latex nose-plece for CPAP is nippleshaped,airtight and easy to operate. After weaning from the ventilator,most of the patients were kept on CPAP for a transition to spontaneous breathing. 4 cases were treated with CPAP only. Pneumonia is the main complication. Pneumothorax owing to a leakage in the anastomosis was recongnized in 4 cases. Only 3 babies died,mortality rate decreased from 75% (18/24,1976-1978) to 17.6 (3/17,1979-1983). The main cause of death were leakage in the anastomosis and prematurity (1). In our group,pulmonary complications that had once been a cause of death were successfully prevented by the respiratory therapy.

  19. Real-time indoor and outdoor measurements of black carbon at primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C.; Rivas, I.; Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Bouso, L.; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated the association between Black Carbon in indoor and outdoor air and the occurrence of health risks. Data on air quality in schools is of special interest, as children are more vulnerable to health hazards. In this context, indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) were collected at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. A main contribution of road traffic emissions to indoor and outdoor EBC levels was evidenced through different approaches. Simultaneous measurements of EBC levels at schools under different traffic conditions revealed concentrations by 30-35% higher at schools exposed to higher vehicles intensities. Moreover, a significant correlation was obtained between average outdoor EBC levels at different districts of the city and the percentage of surface area in each district used for the road network (R2 = 0.61). Higher indoor than outdoor levels were recorded at some instances when the indoor sampling location was relatively closer to road traffic, even under low outdoor temperatures. Indeed, the average indoor/outdoor EBC ratios for each school correlate moderately between campaigns in spite of significant differences in temperature between sampling periods. These two facts highlight the strong dependency of the EBC levels on the distance to traffic. The peaks of exposure inside the classrooms seemed to be determined by outdoor concentrations, as shown by the parallelism between indoor and outdoor mean EBC daily cycles and the similar contribution of traffic rush hours to indoor and outdoor daily mean levels. The airtightness of the classroom was suggested as the responsible for the indoor/outdoor ratios of EBC higher than 1 recorded at nights.

  20. The relation between phosphine sorption and terminal gas concentrations in successful fumigation of food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Palvai Vanitha; Rajashekar, Yellappa; Begum, Khamrunissa; Leelaja, Bhadravathi Chandrappa; Rajendran, Somiahnadar

    2007-01-01

    Owing to increased tolerance and the development of resistance in stored product insects to the fumigant phosphine, in recent years there has been a shift in the target terminal concentration from 100 ppm (100 mL m(-3)) to a higher level of 1000 ppm to achieve 100% insect mortality in 7 day commodity treatments. Therefore, there is a need to investigate whether the revised target concentration could be achieved for food commodities fumigated with phosphine at the standard dose of 2 g m(-3) for 7 days under airtight conditions at > or = 25 degrees C. When different types of food commodity (total 74) were fumigated (300 g per replicate) with phosphine at 2 g m(-3) for 7 days, the terminal gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities varied from 0 to > 2000 ppm. In chambers containing no substrate, a 1417 ppm concentration was recorded. Paddy rice, most of the oilseeds, shelled tree nuts, butter beans, cardamom, green gram splits, coriander powder, rice bran and cocoa powder were more sorptive (> or =60%), such that the target concentration of 1000 ppm was not achieved at the end of 7 days. For these commodities, increased doses of 3-6 g m(-3) were required to attain 1000 ppm. In-shell almonds, green cardamom, in-shell peanuts, leaf tea, tamarind pulp and sunflower seeds were exceptionally sorptive (>90%), so that 0, 41, 112, 168, 203 and 217 ppm respectively were noted at the end of 7 days; the dose must exceed 6 g m(-3) for effective fumigation of these commodities.

  1. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. IX- Ingá Storage of Inga edulis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada sua extrema sensibilidade à desidratação, a semente de ingá (Inga edulis Mart. tem, em condições normais de armazenamento, uma longevidade bastante curta. Mesmo quando conservada dentro do próprio fruto, sua capacidade germinativa já se apresenta com evidentes sinais de enfraquecimento após 14 dias. De acôrdo com os resultados ora apresentados, o fator umidade constitui, realmente, o principal responsável pela maior ou menor longevidade da semente. Em todos os ensaios realizados, a perda de vitalidade se iniciou quando o teor de umidade das sementes se encontrava ao redor de 35%. A influência da temperatura foi apenas indireta, aumentando ou diminuindo a rapidez de desidratação das sementes. Embora mantendo seu teor inicial de umidade, as sementes conservadas em recipiente hermèticamente fechado perderam totalmente sua vitalidade em apenas 14 dias; isto se deu, provàvelmente, em conseqüência do acúmulo de gás carbônico proveniente da respiração da semente.Like other seeds of various economic crops, those of Inga edulis lose their vitality in a few days when exposed to the air. Storage of these short-lived seeds under different conditions of moisture content, temperature, and carbon dioxide accumulation has given the following information: 1. Seeds lose their viability when the water content is reduced to 35% or less. 2. Temperature seems not to be effective unless on the rale to which this critical point dessication is attained. 3. The rapid loss of vitality of seeds kept in airtight containers is probably due to the carbon dioxide accumulation. Here also the temperature seems to act indirectly, modifyng the rate of respiration of the seeds.

  2. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Stephan A.; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as ‘bellows’ year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians. PMID:26246611

  3. Ventilation strategies for urban housing: lessons from a PoE case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, A.; Steemers, K.

    2005-02-01

    Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery is still not widely used in UK housing, but with insulation and air-tightness standards becoming increasingly strict, it is likely to become more common. Operable windows are almost a given for housing and the UK climate is rarely extreme enough to restrict people's use of those windows for natural ventilation. This is a potential problem for the use of heat-recovery systems and could greatly reduce their energy efficiency. The paper takes the Iroko housing scheme at Coin Street, London, as a post-occupancy evaluation (PoE) case study to investigate the questions raised with respect to how well the occupants of the houses cope with balancing both natural ventilation and mechanical systems to achieve thermal comfort energy efficiently. First, the optimum balance of mechanical and natural ventilation is estimated and used to determine the maximum potential saving it could give when compared with natural ventilation alone. Short-term monitoring of the building in question together with the results of questionnaires showed why this theoretical balance is not achieved and that the energy consumption is likely to be worse than for natural ventilation alone. Noise, perceived control, perceived freshness and misunderstanding are all discussed as possible causes for the apparent disjunction. Misunderstanding on the part of residents was shown to be a critical determinant, so information about the heat recovery system was distributed to the residents and the paper ends by looking at what theoretical energy savings might be made as a result of this act. (author)

  4. Investigation of density-dependent gas advection of trichloroethylene: Experiment and a model validation exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, R. J.; Oostrom, M.; Simmons, C. S.; White, M. D.

    1995-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether vapor-density effects are significant in transporting volatile organic compounds (VOC's) with high vapor pressure and molecular mass through the subsurface. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was chosen for the investigation because it is a common VOC contaminant with high vapor pressure and molecular mass. For the investigation, a 2-m-long by 1-m-high by 7.5-cm-thick flow cell was constructed with a network of sampling ports. The flow cell was packed with sand, and a water table was established near the lower boundary. Liquid TCE was placed near the upper boundary of the flow cell in a chamber from which vapors could enter and migrate through the sand. TCE concentrations in the gas phase were measured by extracting 25-μl gas samples with an air-tight syringe and analyzing them with a gas chromatograph. The evolution of the TCE gas plume in the sand was investigated by examining plots of TCE concentrations over the domain for specific times and for particular locations as a function of time. To help in this analysis, a numerical model was developed that can predict the simultaneous movements of a gas, a nonaqueous liquid and water in porous media. The model also considers interphase mass transfer by employing the phase equilibrium assumption. The model was tested with one- and two-dimensional analytical solutions of fluid flow before it was used to simulate the experiment. Comparisons between experimental data and simulation results when vapor-density effects are considered were very good. When vapor-density effects were ignored, agreement was poor. These analyses suggest that vapor-density effects should be considered and that density-driven vapor advection may be an important mechanism for moving VOC's with high vapor pressures and molecular mass through the subsurface.

  5. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  6. Low energy houses and passive houses - common questions; Laagenergihus och passivhus - vanliga fraagestaellningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Samuelson, Ingemar; Gustavsson, Thorbjoern; Ruud, Svein; Larsson, Krister; Hiller, Carolina; Werner, Goesta; Gabrielii, Kristina

    2009-07-01

    This feasibility study of passive houses and low-energy houses has raised several questions concerning aspects of which more knowledge is needed. Many can be answered by existing knowledge, but there are still several that can only partly be answered, and some that cannot be answered at all. As there is a substantial demand for, and interest in, the construction of low-energy houses and passive houses, it is important that the remaining questions should be addressed so that the building sector can continue to develop. Examples of areas where further knowledge is needed include: moisture safe and energy-efficient building envelopes; demand-responsive ventilation, without risk of poor indoor environmental conditions; thermal comfort (summer and winter); airtight and durable detailing; design systems and working methods to ensure retention of good characteristics when converting or extending buildings; durability aspects of certain components and functions; the effects of occupants on energy use; how indoor environment conditions and functions will cope with climate change; quality assurance in order to ensure that the appropriate knowledge is applied, and that the work is carried out properly. Some important points to emphasise: The design and construction of low-energy houses and passive houses must be firmly based on the correct design principles and appropriate standards of workmanship, in order to ensure that the houses are energy-efficient, have good indoor environmental conditions and can be expected to have long lives. Proper understanding of the principles, coupled with constant quality awareness, are essential in all stages of the work from the developer, designer and construction personnel but also during operation-phase. Hitherto, low-energy houses and passive houses have been built in relatively small numbers, but the expectation is that interest in them will increase. This raises the question of how, if production is to be very much more than at present

  7. Feedback of experience from the first passive houses - indoor environment, durability and user friendliness; Erfarenhetsaaterfoering fraan de foersta passivhusen - innemiljoe, bestaendighet och brukarvaenlighet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Ruud, Svein; Fyhr, Kristina; Svensson, Owe

    2011-07-01

    Experience and evaluation of ten-year-old passive houses - indoor environment, durability and user convenience Although many passive houses and low-energy houses were evaluated while they were still newly built, there has not been much evaluation of them after several years' of occupation. This indicates a need to re-visit older passive houses in order to pick up any aspects that could be improved in the interests of operating aspects, good indoor environmental conditions, moisture safety or continued low energy use. The objective of this project has been to provide the building sector with feedback of experience from the first passive houses in Sweden, which were first occupied in 2001. User experiences have been collected through interviews, and indoor environmental conditions and the performance of technical systems have been monitored and measured. Energy use data for the houses has also been obtained. The work has been carried out on ten of the twenty terrace house units that were built outside Goeteborg. As the houses were thoroughly monitored while they were new, we can see if and how they have changed over their first ten years' occupation. The results shows that, in general, the occupants are very satisfied, although they have put forward proposals for certain improvements, linked to the fact that it is they themselves who operate and look after the houses. Similarly, measurement and monitoring of the indoor conditions and the technical systems shows that, in many respects, the houses have aged well, although there is also scope for improvement in order to ensure that the initially low energy consumption does not tend to increase, and to maintain the good indoor environmental conditions. Interviews, follow-up of energy use and measurements of indoor conditions and the performance of technical systems have included indoor thermal conditions, solar collector systems, performance of heat exchangers, air flows, acoustic conditions, airtightness of

  8. 沿海地区钢结构的腐蚀及防腐涂层

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪奎; 张宁; 曹旦夫

    2012-01-01

    介绍了沿海地区油罐和钢结构的腐蚀现状,并对沿海地区的腐蚀环境进行分析.针对传统沿海户外钢结构溶剂型涂层存在的不利于健康、安全、环保,防渗漏、机械磨损和耐化学品性能差,不具备耐粘污和自清洁性能,户外涂层施工周期长,对施工环境要求高等缺点,研发了一种由无溶剂防腐底漆和纳米无机硅氧烷抗粘污面漆组成的新型涂层配套体系.该体系具有施工简便,配套涂料的密闭性、耐候性、耐盐雾性、耐矿石粉尘冲刷性、耐粘污性、自清洁性好等优点,适用于沿海储罐、埋地管道及钢结构的长效防腐涂装,部分产品已成功应用于舟山国家石油战略储备基地等油罐群的涂装,具有广阔的推广应用前景.%The corrosion status of steel structures and tanks is introduced, and the corrosion environment in coastal areas is analyzed in this paper. In view of the existing disadvantages of the traditional solvent-based coatings outdoors with steel structure served in coastal regions such as harmful elements to health, safety, environmental protection and poor performances of anti-leakage, mechanical abrasion and impact resistance, chemical resistance, as well as poor performances in fouling resistance and self-cleaning properties, unacceptable construction cycle and rigid environmental requirements for construction, a novel coating matching system consisting of solvent-free anti-corrosion primer and nano-inorganic siloxane is studied for purpose. The system has the following advantages in simple construction and better performances in airtight of matching paint, weather resistance, salt spray resistance, mineral dust, erosion resistance, dirt resistance, good self-cleaning. The system is suitable for storage tank, buried pipeline and long-term anti-corrosion coating on steel structure, and has been successfully applied in Zhoushan National Strategic Oil Reserve, which displays a broad

  9. Energetic characteristics and target values of benefit transfer for the ventilation and air-conditioning technology; Energetische Kenn- und Zielwerte der Nutzenuebergabe fuer die Raumlufttechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Due to the adopted building regulations our buildings become more and more heat-insulated and nearly airtight. Because sufficient ventilation through gaps and windows cannot be ensured by the user, mechanical ventilation systems become necessary for the ventilation of our rooms. The higher heat-insulation and the unchanged internal thermal loads increase the cooling demand. At the present, the energy demand depends more on the use of the building than on its construction. If only limiting the ''building energy demand'', the effect of the improvement of technical building installation adapted for a special use remains unconsidered. Maybe different effects even negate each other. By concentrating only on the building energy demand, the incentive for further development is dropped. Characteristic limit values for the energetic evaluation for HVAC-systems are developed (for only six use cases). The minimum value presents the minimal energy effort, which is necessary to reach the reference energy demand and which is called the target value. In order to limit the energy effort of systems, in the sense of energy savings, a cap value depending on the use cases is proposed. This value can be adopted into future regulations or standards. With the correspondingly achievable effort values, planned system solutions can be compared and classified. [German] Aufgrund von Bauvorschriften werden unsere Gebaeude immer besser gedaemmt und sind praktisch nahezu luftdicht. Da eine ausreichende Belueftung ueber Fugen und Fensteroeffnen nicht ohne Nutzereingriff sichergestellt ist, sind in Zukunft vermehrt maschinelle Systeme zum Lften erforderlich. Durch die verbesserte Waermedaemmung und die gleichgebliebenen internen thermischen Belastungen erhoeht sich zusaetzlich die Nachfrage nach Kuehlung. Der energetische Bedarf begruendet sich zunehmend in der Nutzung eines Gebeaudes und weniger in baulichen Bedingungen. Bei alleiniger Vorgabe eines nach oben begrenzten &apos

  10. Pichia anomala J121: a 30-year overnight near success biopreservation story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Johan; Jonsson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the ascomycetous yeast Pichia anomala strain J121 was isolated from moist wheat grain stored under conditions of restricted air access. Early observations indicated that an inverse relationship existed between mould and P. anomala colony forming units in grain. This yeast strain was later found to have strong antifungal properties in laboratory, pilot and farm studies with high-moisture wheat under malfunctioning airtight storage. P. anomala had the highest inhibitory activity of 60 yeast species evaluated against the mould Penicillium roqueforti. It also demonstrated strong inhibitory effects against certain Gram-negative bacteria. P. anomala J121 possesses a number of physiological characteristics, i.e. capacity to grow under low pH, low water activity and low oxygen tension and ability to use a wide range of carbon and nitrogen sources, enabling it to act as an efficient biopreservative agent. The biocontrol effect in grain was enhanced by addition of glucose, mainly through formation of the volatile antimicrobial ethyl acetate. Animal feeding trials with P. anomala J121 inoculated grains, fed to chickens and beef cattle, demonstrated that mould control observed in vitro in small scale laboratory experiments could be extended to large scale farm trials. In addition, no adverse effects on animal weight gain, feed conversion, health or behaviour were observed. We have now studied P. anomala J121 biology, ecology and grain preservation ability for 30 years. Over this period, more than 40 scientific publications and five PhD theses have been written on different aspects of this yeast strain, extending from fundamental research on metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, all the way to practical farm-scale level. In spite of the well documented biopreservative ability of the yeast, it has to date been very difficult to create the right constellation of technical, agricultural and biotechnical industries necessary to reach a commercial launch of a

  11. ICU离职护士状况调查及相关因素分析%The Cross-sectional Study and Analysis of Related Factor of Turnover for Nurses in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛燕萍; 王斌全

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the reasons of turnover for nurses in ICU,to offer basis on improving human resources management for managements of nursing in ICU.Method:To collect the basic information and the reasons of turnvver by site visits,phone calls or E-mail for the nurses who turnvver,to provide the strategies for reducing the turnover rate of nurses in ICU.Result:The reason of turnover were related with age,educational background and position of nurses,et al.The nurses task was heavy and the high pressure.The high nursing risk so easy to happen mistake.The low salary and welfare was disproportionate with the work.The work environment was airtight and the atmosphere was depressing.Conclusion:The strategies of reducing turnover rate of ICU nurses are suggested as follows:to rationally arrange the nurses and reduce the nurse workload;to increase the position of nurses and eliminate errors accident;to improve the salary and welfare according to performance appraisal;to strengthen the spare life of nurses in ICU and pay attention to the psychological quality of nurses.%  目的:分析ICU护士离职原因,为ICU护理管理提供改善人力资源管理的依据。方法:通过实地走访、电话或电子邮件等形式收集离职护士的基本资料及离职原因,经过分析提出降低ICU护士离职率的对策。结果:ICU护士离职与年龄、学历、任职方式等因素有关;ICU护理工作任务重、压力大;ICU护理风险大、极易发生差错事故;ICU护士薪酬待遇低,与工作付出不成比例;ICU护理工作环境封闭、气氛压抑。结论:合理配置人员,减轻护士工作量;增加岗位人员配置,杜绝差错事故;按绩效考核,提高ICU护士待遇;加强ICU护士的业余生活,重视护士的心理素质等是减少ICU护士离职的重要措施。

  12. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  13. Thermal renovation of a 'Gruenderzeit'-house by means of a capillary active inside insulation. Final report; Hygrisch motivierter Waermeschutz. Thermische Sanierung eines Gruenderzeithauses mit einer kapillaraktiven Calciumsilikatinnendaemmung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeupl, P.; Grunewald, J.; Fechner, H.; Jurk, K.; Martin, R.

    1999-04-01

    Energy savings are still the best form of alternative energy. While newly-built houses generally meet at least the heat loss protection codes for wintertime, the thermal improvement of the old building stock is a nation-wide economically relevant energy conservation, despite the fact that modern user habits and demands enforce such measurements anyway. However, the old construction is to be changed only asmuch as no damages can occur. New heating systems, insulation between the rafters in the roof section, additional insulation of the basement ceiling, and above all, heat-loss-protected and air-tight windows often lead to surface condensation and mould formation on the walls. If the outside wall is to be insulated, but the facade to be kept in its original appearance, then only an interior insulation is possible for a thermal retrofitting. The main goal of this project is to realise the idea of a gently capillary active inside insulation without additional vapour barrier for a reference building, to control it with measurement technology over a period of at least two winter- and summertimes, and to quantify the heat- and moisture content by means of a numerical simulation. As specific object with a worth-preserving facade for the application of the above-mentioned inside insulation was chosen, together with the City Redeveloping Association Dresden, a typical 'Gruenderzeit'-apartment house, built 1895 in Dresden-Neustadt, and extensively renovated from 1995 to 97. The main emphasis of the thermal retrofitting lies in the application of a 30 mm strong Calcium-Silicate slab along the inside of the exterior wall of the street facade. This wall made of brick is covered with square sandstone blocks all over the ground level and covered with a clinker layer typical for that time. With this project, the proof of a thermally sufficient and hygrically unproblematic retrofitting of an old building structure by means of inside insulation is given, and the foundation

  14. Evaluation of EGFR and RTK signaling in the electrotaxis of lung adenocarcinoma cells under direct-current electric field stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Huang, Ching-Wen; Chang, Hui-Fang; Chen, Jeremy J W; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Physiological electric field (EF) plays a pivotal role in tissue development and regeneration. In vitro, cells under direct-current electric field (dcEF) stimulation may demonstrate directional migration (electrotaxis) and long axis reorientation (electro-alignment). Although the biophysical models and biochemical signaling pathways behind cell electrotaxis have been investigated in numerous normal cells and cancer cells, the molecular signaling mechanisms in CL1 lung adenocarcinoma cells have not been identified. Two subclones of CL1 cells, the low invasive CL1-0 cells and the highly invasive CL 1-5 cells, were investigated in the present study. CL1-0 cells are non-electrotactic while the CL 1-5 cells are anodally electrotactic and have high expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in this study, we investigated the generally accepted hypothesis of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation in the two cell lines under dcEF stimulation. Erbitux, a therapeutic drug containing an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, was used to investigate the EGFR signaling in the electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells. To investigate RTK phosphorylation and intracellular signaling in the CL1 cells, large amount of cellular proteins were collected in an airtight dcEF stimulation device, which has advantages of large culture area, uniform EF distribution, easy operation, easy cell collection, no contamination, and no medium evaporation. Commercial antibody arrays and Western blotting were used to study the phosphorylation profiles of major proteins in CL1 cells under dcEF stimulation. We found that electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells is serum independent and EGFR independent. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) in dcEF-stimulated CL1 cells are different from that in EGF-stimulated cells. This result suggests that CL1 cells' response to dcEF stimulation is not through EGFR-triggered pathways. The new large-scale dcEF stimulation device developed

  15. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  16. STUDY ON THE GERMICIDAL EFFICACY OF ETHYLENE OXIDE USED FOR CONTAINER IN PORT%环氧乙烷用于口岸集装箱消毒效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖如燕; 白静; 兰和森; 陈胤瑜; 钟昱文; 梁文俭; 张里君; 阴伟雄

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究环氧乙烷与二氧化碳混合气体杀菌效果.方法 采用载体定量杀菌试验和模拟现场消毒试验方法,对环氧乙烷混合气体杀菌效果进行了实验室和模拟现场试验观察.结果 在常温常湿条件下,用50 g/m3环氧乙烷混合气体熏蒸24h,或用100 g/m3的该混合气体熏蒸5h,对1 m3密闭玻璃柜内菌片上大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌杀灭率可达90%以上;对菌片上枯草杆菌黑色变种芽孢杀灭率仅达73%以上.在相同条件下,对集装箱模拟现场消毒效果与上述结果类似.结论 环氧乙烷混合气体对集装箱内细菌繁殖体杀灭效果较好,但对细菌芽孢杀灭效果较差,需要改变消毒条件.%Objective To study the gennicidal efficacy of ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide mixed gas. Methods The carrier quantitative method and simulated scenes trial were used to observe germicidal efficacy of the ethylene oxide mixed gas in laboratory and simulated scenes. Results On the condition of normal temperature and humidity, the killing rates of Escheridiia coli and Staphytococcus aweus on carrier in 1 m3 airtight glass - box exposed to the mixed gas SO g/m3 for 24 hours or the mixed gas 100 g/m3 for S hours were above 90% ; while the killing rate of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on carrier was only above 73%. With the same condition, the germicidal efficacy of simulated scenes trail in container was similar. Conclusion The gennicidal efficacy of ethylene oxide mixed gas on the vegetative form of bacteria is better, but that on bacterial spores is not so good. So the disinfection condition should be changed.

  17. The use of banquettes of Posidonia oceanica as a source of fiber and minerals in ruminant nutrition. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C; Mantecón, A R; Sotillo, J; Benedito, J L; Abuelo, A; Gutiérrez, C; Hernández, J

    2014-10-01

    In the search for new food sources that contribute to the optimization of livestock production this paper discusses the possibility of using waste (called banquettes) of a marine plant commonly found on the Mediterranean coasts: Posidonia oceanica. The idea stems from the use of a waste that in summertime generates large costs because it is considered bothersome on the beaches. Thus, tons and tons of residues are collected each year from the beach, being destined for incineration. However, alternative uses for these residues are suggested, such as forage that is particularly relevant for the Mediterranean coast, where the weather does not support abundant grass growth. With this purpose, samples of banquettes of P. oceanica from six different points of a touristic place located in the Murcia Region (S.E. of Spain) were collected in April 2012 on the same day directly from the beach above the water line, washed with distilled water and sun-dried for 48 h. Approximately 500 g of each sample of plant material was chopped and two subsamples of 200 g each were placed in airtight plastic containers and sent to the laboratory for mineral and chemical analysis. This report provides data on the nutritional composition of P. oceanica such as mineral contents (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and chemical composition (ash, CP, ether extract (EE), NDF and ADF, respectively) and ADL. Finally, the in sacco rumen disappearance of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP and NDF were studied. Our results showed that minerals, except for Fe, where within the range of values reported for P. oceanica in other parts of the Mediterranean region. Given the high Fe content further studies assessing the antagonic Fe-Cu interaction and its effect on animal health should be addressed. In relation to chemical composition, it is clear that this seagrass is a poor protein source and has levels of DM degradability at 24 h, similar to those obtained for cereal straw. The information

  18. 活性碳纤维负载TiO2去除低浓度甲醛气体的实验研究%Study on the Degradation of Low Concentration Formaldehyde Gas by TiO2 Supported on Activated Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军; 陈建华; 贾铭椿

    2011-01-01

    A photocatalytic gas reactor system was manufactured to model the special airtight environment, and in this system TiO2 supported on activated carbon fiber was tested to wipe off the gas of formaldehyde. TiO2 nano-material was prepared by sol-gel method. Different proportion of mater to compose TiO2 which effected the degradation rate of formaldehyde and the reaction kinetics of TiO2 supported on activated carbon fiber as a whole were discussed. The results showed that: the proportion of acetic acid , ethanol and water effected the degradation rate mutually as well as the temperature, the formaldehyde gas could reach a degradation rate of 78. 89% in 120 minutes. The reaction kinetics model of C=mo + (C0- mo)exp(- Kt) fits the removing of the formaldehyde gas by TiO2 supported on activated carbon fiber as a whole. The removal amount of the material was 4357. 78mg/(hX m2) ,and the performance stability of the material was 78. 3%.%利用自制的光催化气体反应系统,模拟有限密闭空间特殊环境,以甲醛气体为代表,用溶胶凝胶法制得不同配比的TiO2并负载在活性碳纤维上,将其放人马弗炉中在不同温度下煅烧,最后测试其对甲醛的去除效率,且研究了活性炭纤维负载TiO2作为整体材料对甲醛的去除动力学方程.结果表明,冰醋酸、无水乙醇、去离子水和煅烧温度对去除效果的影响是交互的,理想配比下两小时去除率可达78.89%;活性炭纤维负载TiO2作为整体材料对低浓度甲醛的去除满足动力学方程ρA =m0 +(ρ0A-m0)exp(-Kt);自制材料对甲醛的去除量为4 357.78 mg/(h×m2),稳定性为78.3%.

  19. 嵌入模块式光伏组件体系设计与试验研究%Design and test of an embedded modular photovoltaic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贤; 吴成万; 罗尧治

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种新型的嵌入模块式光伏组件体系,该新型光伏组件体系能够取代传统的屋顶围护构件,实现光伏技术与建筑的一体化集成。通过力学性能试验验证了该新型光伏组件体系在2 500 Pa外荷载作用下的挠度值满足建材的变形控制要求,应力值远小于材料的极限强度,可取代传统的屋顶围护构件。通过发电效率试验测得该新型光伏组件体系的最大发电效率衰减为4.65%,低于GB/T 9535—1998《地面用晶体硅光伏组件设计鉴定和定型》规范中规定的5%。通过静态水密性试验验证了该新型光伏组件体系的水密性符合GB/T 15227—2%A new PV system called the embedded modular PV system was proposed.This new PV system can replace the traditional envelope components of building roofs and is a kind of building Integrated PV.The mechanical behavior,power generation and watertightness of the proposed PV system were investigated by tests.It is verified that the stiffness and the strength of the system under a given load of 2 500 Pa meet the requirement for envelope components of building roofs.The maximum ratio of power-generation reduction of the system is 4.65% which is lower than the criterion of 5% given by the national standard(GB/T9535-1998) 'Crystalline silicon terrestrial photovoltaic(PV) module-design qualification and type approval'.It is also shown that the watertightness of the system meets the requirement of the corresponding national standard(GB/T 15227-2007) 'Test methods for airtightness,watertightness and wind resistance of glass walls for constructions'.

  20. Study on Mixed Fermentation of Soybean Meal By the Complex Flora from Crusted Tea and Bacillus subtilis%陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵豆粕的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚勇芳; 赵祥杰; 廖延智; 陈小凤; 李平凡

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在研究陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵生料豆粕。以酸溶性蛋白含量为主要检测指标,研究陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌不同培养条件对豆粕固态发酵的影响。结果表明:1)陈香茶菌适宜培养条件为,称取0.5 g陈香茶粉接入装有100 mL马铃薯葡萄糖培养基三角瓶中,28℃静置培养24 h。2)豆粕固态发酵最佳工艺为,10%枯草芽孢杆菌发酵液+10%陈香茶菌培养液+10%糖蜜+10%水+55%豆粕,在37℃密闭条件下培养3~6 d。通过陈香茶菌及枯草芽孢杆菌复合发酵,能显著改善生料豆粕营养价值,有一定的应用价值。%The study was conducted to investigate the mixed fermentation of soybean meal by the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis. Making the acid soluble protein content as the main index, the different culture conditions of the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis fermentation factors were studied. The research results showed as follows:1) the optimal culture conditions of the complex flora from crusted tea was:0.5 g crusted tea powder into triangle bottle with 100 mL potato dextrose agar was stationarily cultured for 24 h under the condition of 28 ℃. 2) The optimum process for soybean meal by solid state fermentation was:10% Bacillus subtilis fermentation liquid+10% culture liquid of the complex flora from crusted tea+10% mo-lasses+10% water+55% soybean meal, at 37 ℃ under airtight condition cultured for 3 to 6 days. The mixed fermentation by the complex flora from crusted tea and Bacillus subtilis can significantly improve the nutritional value of raw meal and have certain application value.

  1. Stability of polymorphic forms of ranitidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, V; Rades, T; Saville, D J

    2000-07-01

    Ranitidine-HCl can exist in two different polymorphic forms: form I (m.p. 134-140 degrees C) and form II (m.p. 140-144 degrees C). In the present study the stability of form I of ranitidine-HCl to a selection of powder pretreatments, to reflect conditions which might occur in manufacturing procedures, and also to a limited range of storage conditions was investigated. The original samples of form I and form II used were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A quantitative XRPD method for determining the fraction of form II in the presence of form I was used. XRPD data were analysed using regression techniques and artificial neural networks (ANN). The quantitative XRPD technique was then used to monitor the relative proportion of form II in each treated sample. Pretreatments of form I included (i) mixing with form II or with common excipients (ii) compression and grinding (iii) contact with solvents (followed by drying) before storage. Storage conditions involved three temperatures (20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 42 degrees C) and three relative humidities (45% RH; 55% RH; 75% RH). Samples were stored for a period of 6 months. A limited factorial design was used. No increase in the form II:form I ratio was observed in the following pretreatment processes: introduction of form II nuclei into form I; introduction of excipients to form I; compression of form I powder at 5 and 15 tons; normal mixing and grinding processes; addition of isopropanol (IPA) or water/IPA mix followed by drying. In the pretreatment process where water was added to form I powder (with most or all of the powder dissolving), drying of the liquefied mass led to a mix of form I and form II. On storage at room temperature (20-30 degrees C), low relative humidity (45-55% RH), and in an air-tight container there was no increase in the form II:form I ratio. Storage of form I/form II mixes, particularly at high humidity

  2. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  3. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  4. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  5. The Triple Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric O2 as a Tracer of the Rate of Global Photorespiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, A.; Luz, B.; Barkan, E.; Rachmilevitch, S.

    2001-12-01

    The triple isotopic composition of atmospheric O2 is controlled by different signatures of biological and stratospheric processes. Ultraviolet induced interactions in the stratosphere cause an equal depletion of 17O and 18O of atmospheric O2 (mass-independent fractionation). This equal lowering is in contrast to biological processes, and most terrestrial processes, in which the discrimination against 17O is about half of the discrimination against 18O relative to 16O (mass-dependent fractionation). Thus, O2 that was produced by photosynthesis and was affected only by biological consumption will have excess 17O relatively to atmospheric O2 with the same delta 18O. In previous interpretations of changes in the triple isotopic composition, it was assumed that the ratio of discrimination against 17O to the discrimination against 18O is identical for all biological processes. In the present study, we evaluated this ratio, for the first time, for some of the most important oxygen consumption processes: The cytochrome and alternative pathways of dark respiration, and photorespiration. The value for the dark respiration processes was evaluated in dark incubation experiments, and inhibitors were used to separate the two pathways. The value for photorespiration was evaluated from experiments in airtight terrarium containing soil, plant and water. We have found similar discrimination ratio for the cytochrome and alternative pathways, but considerably lower ratio for photorespiration. One important conclusion derived from this finding is that much of the change in the atmospheric 17O depletion during the LGM can be related to an increase in the global rate of photorespiration. The increased rate of photorespiration during the LGM was the result of lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Previous interpretations of the 17O depletion change in the LGM attributed it only to changes in global productivity, and in stratospheric processes. Another important conclusion is that the

  6. Optimization of the process of egg omelet production with fillings with extended storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sukmanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optimization of the egg omelets (EO production using high pressure (HP will allow to produce a minimum cost product during manufacturing and also to obtain a product with high consumer properties. Materialsand methods. The concerned product is -EO -a mixture of liquid egg with grated or chopped cheese, xanthan gum, water or milk and spices. The EO manufacturing process consisted of packing the mixture in an airtight container with heating and processing in the high pressure installation. The EO suitability for long-term storage was evaluated by the "water activity" term. The EO quality was evaluated by an expert. There was used the undetermined Lagrange multipliers method to obtain the optimal process parameters. Results. As a result of the central composite rotatabel plan there was developed optimization model allowed to obtain the optimal EO HP processing parameters: pressure – 690 МPа, temperature –1220С, treatment duration –7×60s, 14g of water on 100 g of melange, 13 g of dry milk on 100 g of melange, xanthan gum content -0,75% of the total mixture mass, 25 g of cheese on 100 g of melange. These indicators allow to obtain the EO process parameters with the next indicators: water activity -0.704 and comprehensive quality Score - 0.98 that characterize the product as a product with high quality indicators stable over a long period of storage. The developed model analysis with using of Student's t test, Fisher dyspepsia and predicted optimization values calculation errors confirmed the reliability of the optimization parameters obtained values and the optimization model reliability. The calculations results for the given optimization parameters are presented as confidence intervals, confirming that their experimental values do not exceed the respective intervals and thus confirm the results authenticity . Conclusions. These results have practical significance and were adopted as the basis for the technical documentation

  7. Cooling via one hand improves physical performance in heat-sensitive individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Julie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals afflicted with multiple sclerosis (MS experience a transient worsening of symptoms when body temperature increases due to ambient conditions or physical activity. Resulting symptom exacerbations can limit performance. We hypothesized that extraction of heat from the body through the subcutaneous retia venosa that underlie the palmar surfaces of the hands would reduce exercise-related heat stress and thereby increase the physical performance capacity of heat-sensitive individuals with MS. Methods Ten ambulatory MS patients completed one or more randomized paired trials of walking on a treadmill in a temperate environment with and without cooling. Stop criteria were symptom exacerbation and subjective fatigue. The cooling treatment entailed inserting one hand into a rigid chamber through an elastic sleeve that formed an airtight seal around the wrist. A small vacuum pump created a -40 mm Hg subatmospheric pressure enviinside the chamber where the palmar surface of the hand rested on a metal surface maintained at 18–22°C. During the treatment trials, the device was suspended from above the treadmill on a bungee cord so the subjects could comfortably keep a hand in the device without having to bear its weight while walking on the treadmill. Results When the trials were grouped by treatment only, cooling treatment increased exercise durations by 33% (43.6 ± 17.1 min with treatment vs. 32.8 ± 10.9 min. without treatment, mean ± SD, p -6, paired t-test, n = 26. When the average values were calculated for the subjects who performed multiple trials before the treatment group results were compared, cooling treatment increased exercise duration by 35% (42.8 ± 16.4 min with treatment vs. 31.7 ± 9.8 min. without treatment, mean ± SD, p Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that utilization of the heat transfer capacity of the non-hairy skin surfaces can enable temperature-sensitive individuals with MS to

  8. Air Tightness Testing and Analysis of Vacuum Chambers of IC Equipment%IC装备真空腔室的气密性检测试验及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉林; 杨铁牛

    2015-01-01

    Chamber air tightness is an important factor affecting flow field uniformity of IC equipment. Only when the magnitude of chamber leakage rate is not higher than 6 310− Pa⋅m /s and the ultimate vacuum degree is not higher than 410− Pa can the tightness meet the leakage rate requirements of IC process. In this study, helium mass spectrometer is used to detect vacuum chamber leakage, and leaking points are treated one by one using plugging processing to enable chamber air-tightness to meet the process requirements of IC equipment. The chamber leakage obtained through calculation using the static pressurizing method is 6 38.84 ×10− Pa⋅m /s and the ultimate vacuum degree is 42 ×10− Pa . Considering the small volume (10−30 L) of the actual production process chamber and the relatively large volume of the experimental chamber, the vacuum chambers established can meet the IC equipment leak rate requirements.%腔室气密性是影响集成电路(IC)装备真空腔室内流场均匀性的重要因素,腔室漏率数量级不高于6310− Pa⋅m /s、极限真空度数量级不高于410− Pa ,才能满足 IC 工艺的漏率要求.本文用氦质谱检漏仪检测真空腔室泄漏情况,并将泄漏处逐一进行堵漏处理,使腔室气密性能达到 IC 装备的工艺要求.用静态升压法计算得出腔室漏率为 638.84×10− Pa⋅m /s ,极限真空度为42×10− Pa ,考虑用于实际生产的工艺腔室体积小(10~30 L),而本实验腔室体积(84.5 L)较大,所以搭建的真空室可以满足 IC装备的漏率要求.

  9. Improvement of determination for the content of potassium and sodium in food by Flame Atomic ;Emission Spectrometry%火焰原子发射光谱法测定食品中钾和钠含量的方法改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凯; 刘桂华; 张慧敏; 张红宇; 许欣欣; 姜杰

    2015-01-01

    目的对火焰原子发射光谱法测定食品中钾和钠含量的方法进行改进和探讨。方法采用高压密闭消解样品后,用火焰原子发射光谱法测定其中钾和钠的含量,并与原子吸收光谱法进行对比。结果在优化实验条件下,钾和钠的发射光谱法线性范围为0.1~4.0 mg/L,标准曲线线性关系良好,钾、钠的检出限分别为0.2 mg/100g和0.8mg/100g;各种食品基质标准物质的测定值均在证书参考值范围内,RSD<4%,原子发射光谱法与原子吸收光谱法的测定结果无差异。结论该方法准确、简便快速,精密度高,适用于食品中钾和钠含量的测定。%Objective To improve and discuss the flame atomic emission spectrometry method to determine the content of Potassium(K) and Sodium(Na) in food.Method The samples were digested in airtight pressure closed vessel,then were analyzed by flame atomic emission spectrometry.The results obtained by this method were compared with flame atomic absorption spectrometry meanwhile. Results Under the optimized condition, the determine range of K and Na was 0.1~4.0 mg/L,the calibration curve showed good,and the detection limit were 0.2mg/100g and 0.8mg/100g respectively.The determination value of various food matrix material were within the range of certificate value,RSD<4% ,no difference between two methods’ results were found.Conclusion This method is accurate ,simple and rapid, and has high precision,suitable for determinating the content of K and Na in food.

  10. 新型稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合墙板%Rice-hull mortar lightweight composite wall panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 陈睿; 闫凯; 郑文忠

    2012-01-01

    To efficiently reduce building energy wasting,and to provide the energy conservation material and good airtightness enclosure to building field,rice-hull mortar is researched and developed as a material for wall.The strength,density,thermal conductivity and freezing resistance are studied by experiments.The rice-hull mortar lightweight composite wall panel is composed by compositing rice-hull mortar,steel bar and rock wool panel,and the fire resistance,and the sound insulation and heat-insulating properties are studied.The experimental result shows that this wall panel has good properties in fire resistance,sound insulation and heat-insulating,it can satisfy the related code for physical and mechanical properties.The design method and structural measures of rice-hull mortar lightweight composite wall panel are put forward,and the economic benefit of the wall panel is analyzed.%为了有效降低建筑能耗,提供适用于建筑领域的节能型墙体材料和密闭性好的围护结构,研制了可作为墙体材料的轻质稻壳砂浆,通过试验研究了该轻质稻壳砂浆的强度、密度、导热性能和抗冻性等物理力学性能.将轻质稻壳砂浆与钢筋和岩棉板复合成稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合墙板,研究了稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合外墙板的隔声和保温等物理性能,以及耐火极限和力学性能,试验结果表明,稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合墙板具有良好的耐火、隔声和保温性能,能够满足相关规范和标准对建筑材料物理力学性能的要求.给出稻壳砂浆复合墙板的设计方法和构造措施,对此类型复合墙板经济效益进行了分析。

  11. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  12. 矿用避难硐室环境综合监测与通讯传输系统设计%The Design of Mine Escape Capsule Environmental Monitoring and Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文强; 颜静; 郭斌

    2012-01-01

    该文设计了一种新型矿用避难硐室环境综合监测和通讯系统的设计方案。避难硐室是矿井发生矿难时重要的井下紧急避险设施,能为无法撤离的人员提供生命保障。避难硐室的环境监测系统是避难人员在密闭空间内生存依靠的重要保障,它包括硐室内外气体参数(至少CO、CO2、O2、CH4四种)、温湿度等人员生存的必需条件的实时监测。采用LPCI766为核心器件,与非色散红外气体传感器、电化学气体传感器、信号调理、MD模数转换等模块相结合,组成环境参数信号的采集系统,通过RS485通信方式与外部系统进行数据通信,通过现场测试证明,这种方法是完全可行的。%This paper designed a new design scheme of mine asylum cavern environment comprehensive monitoring and the communication systemAsylum cavern is an important underground emergency facili- ties when mining accident happens in the mine,and can provide life security for the people who can't e- vacuate.The environment monitoring system of Asylum cavern is the important guarantee that the refuge personnel in an airtight room in survival depends on,including indoor and outdoor gas safety parameters(at least in CO and CO2, O2, CH4 four),temperature and humidity etc real-time monitoring to assure the vital conditions of the personnel survival.Taking the LPC1766 for the core device,which combines infrared gas sensors,electrochemical gas sensors,signal disposal and A/D conversion module into environmental pa- rameters of signal collection system,and RS485 communication mode is used for data communication.

  13. 金属型离心铸造Ti-48%Al-2%Cr-2%Nb合金汽车排气阀的研制%Research on Ti-48%Al-2%Cr-2%Nb Automobile Exhaust Valve Cast by Centrifugal Casting Process in Permanent Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛文斌; 李东; 杨锐; 郭景杰; 刘羽寅; 苏彦庆; 贾均

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb automobile exhaust valve was castby the centrifugal casting method in permanent mold and its surface layer structure, microstructure, element distribution , mechanical properties etc were analyzed by SEM, XRD and EMPA . Furthermore, the valves treated by HIP were tested on 483Q diesel engine platform. Results showed that the distribution of alloying elements in Ti-Al based alloy for exhaust valve was uniform and its microstructure was refined to a certain extent. The mechanical properties of exhaust valve cast by centrifugal permanent mold then treated by HIP were that the σb = 670MPa, σ0.2 =527.5MPa and δ=3%. Result of the engine platform test showed that the valve had excellent air-tightness and wear-resistant properties, so could successfully satisfy requirements of the engine.%本文利用离心铸造的方法,在金属型中浇铸了Ti-48%Al-2%Cr-2%Nb合金汽车排气阀,通过SEM、XRD和EMPA等分析手段,对排气阀坯件的表面层结构、组织形态、成分分布和力学性能等特征进行了检测,并将热等静压(HIP)处理后的排气阀安装到483Q型柴油发动机上进行了台架试验。结果表明,金属型离心浇铸Ti-Al基合金排气阀,在保证阀体成分均匀性的同时,可在一定程度上细化铸件的显微组织。HIP处理后排气阀的平均力学性能为:σb=670MPa,σ0.2=527.5MPa和δ=3%。进一步的台架测试结果表明,排气阀在测试过程中表现出了优异的密封性和耐磨性,完全满足发动机的性能要求。

  14. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  15. Design and implementation of an experimental platform for indoor micro-climate environment control%室内微气候控制实验平台设计与实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅; 蔡颖玲; 韩坚洁; 张志英

    2013-01-01

    室内微气候控制技术的综合性空气调节系统实验平台主要由空调冷热源、组合式空调箱、恒温恒湿控制系统、参数测量系统、换热器性能测试系统、室内微气候环境等构成。集中式空调系统根据温、湿度需要向室内微气候环境提供稳定的送风气流,室内通过开闭风阀可实现多种送、回风方式,以此开展室内气流组织形式及热舒适性的实验研究。实验平台还可开展表面式换热器热工性能测试、喷水室热工性能测试、循环式空气调节过程测试等专业实验项目,对实验教学及科学研究有重要意义。%An integrated air conditioning experimental platform serving indoor micro- climate environment control is mainly composed of cold and heat sources ,combined air conditioning unit ,indoor temperature and humidity control system ,parameter measurement system ,heat exchanger performance testing system ,and indoor micro-climate environment .A central air conditioning system can supply air to an airtight and insulated room at a certain temperature and humidity .The indoor air distribution can be changed by regulating air duct valve so that indoor micro-climate environment and thermal comfort research can be carried out .The several experiments such as testing heat exchanger’s performance ,testing the spray chamber’s thermal performance , different air conditioning process , can be carried out on the experimental system . These all have good contribution to the experimental teaching and scientific research .

  16. Process Improvement of Crude Oil Tank Cleaning Equipment%储罐机械清洗设备的工艺改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏吉鑫; 王永强; 陈正文; 庞雷; 鲁飞; 张的; 周连春

    2014-01-01

    Through applied research of process and constituting the traditional crude oil tank cleaning equipment,found that the degree of automation for the traditional equipment is lower,such as oil-water separator need to manually skimming oil,cleaning machine to manually switch in tank top,no remote monitoring and manual recording data.By optimizing these equipments,to a-chieve the perfect technology and the innovation management system,such as automation equipment to oil-water separator,the cleaning machine automatically switches and centralized remote monitoring and data collection in central control room,to ensure that the entire higher degree of automation of the cleaning process, saving manpower, material and financial resources to better meet the requirements of various tank cleaning,tank cleaning equipment to guide a more efficient,airtight,automated direction, generally worth application and promotion.%通过对传统储罐机械清洗设备的构成及工艺流程的应用研究,发现传统设备中的部分装置和部分环节自动化程度不高,费时费力,如油水分离装置的人工撇油、清洗机罐顶手动切换、无远程监控和人工记录数据等。通过对这些方面的改进,实现了油水分离装置的油水分离自动化、清洗机的自动切换、中央控制室集中远程监控及数据采集等技术的完善和管理系统的创新,保证了整个清洗过程自动化程度更高,节省了人力、物力和财力,更好的满足了各种储罐的清洗要求,值得应用和推广。

  17. Effects of sulfur in flooded paddy soils: Implications for iron chemistry and arsenic mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (amplified by erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Iron and sulfur both interact strongly with arsenic in paddy soils: iron oxides are strong adsorbents for arsenic in oxic conditions, and sulfur (in the form of sulfide) is a strong adsorbent under anoxic conditions. In the process of reductive dissolution of iron oxides, arsenic, which had been adsorbed to the iron oxides, is released. Therefore, higher levels of reduced iron (ferrous iron) will likely correlate with higher levels of mobilized arsenic. However, the mobilized arsenic may then co-precipitate with or adsorb to iron sulfides, which form under sulfate-reducing conditions and with the aid of certain microbes already present in the soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how these processes correlate and which has the greatest influence on arsenic mobilization and potential plant availability. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of sulfur (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, and gypsum) on the iron and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. The two types of rice straw were designed to introduce the same amount of organic sulfur (7.7 μg/g of soil), but different levels of available carbon, since carbon stimulates microbial activity in the soil. In comparison, two different levels of gypsum (calcium sulfate) were used, 7.7 and 34.65 μg/g of soil, to test the effect of directly available inorganic sulfate without carbon addition. The soil was flooded with a buffer solution at pH 7.07 in airtight serum vials and kept as a slurry on a shaker at 25 °C. We measured pH, alkalinity, ferrous iron, ferric iron, sulfide, sulfate, total iron, sulfur, and arsenic in the

  18. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  19. Theory and Experimental Research of Rapid Separation Process by Explosion Ignition%爆炸点火快速分离过程的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬龙; 黄正祥; 顾晓辉; 郑应民

    2012-01-01

    为了使前级分离体达到快速分离和快速增速的目的,以满足工程应用的要求,设计了一种快速分离装置.利用爆炸点火方式点燃发射药,实现前级分离体的快速分离、发射,并应用密闭爆发器原理和内弹道理论,建立爆炸点火方式下快速分离、发射的理论模型.结合四阶龙格库塔法,对上述理论进行数值计算,得到了爆炸点火分离过程各物理参数的规律,并通过静态台架实验进行验证.结果表明,分离时间达到μm级,分离速度达到200m/s,理论计算与实验结果吻合较好.%In order to make the pre-stage separate&body separate rapidly and accelerate rapidly,and meet the requirements of engineering application, a kind of fast separation device was designed. Explosion ignition method was designed to realize rapid separation of the pre-stage separated-body. Based on the outbreak of airtight device principle and interior ballistic theory,a theoretical calculation model of rapid separation by explosion ignition was established. Combined with four-order Runge-Kutta method, the law of each physical parameter of the blast ignition separation process was obtained by numerical simulation, and it was verfied by the static bench experiment. The experimental results indicate that the separation time reaches microsecond level,and the separation speed reaches 200 m/s. The experimental results are coincident with the theory results.

  20. Heat transfer through a well insulated external wooden frame wall. An investigation of the effects of normal defects in the insulation resulting from incident wind and air flow through the wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roots, P.

    1997-05-01

    The heat requirement of a building can turn out to be greater than was calculated at the design stage. The reason for this may be that heat transport through the building envelope is greater than expected. This in turn can be due to the structure not fulfilling the design requirements in respect to windtightness and airtightness. In addition, there may be defects in the quality of the workmanship of the insulation that significantly reduce the thermal resistance of the external wall. The objective of this investigation has been to ascertain how normal variations in the insulation can affect heat transport through a well-insulated wooden frame external wall under the influences of incident wind or wind flow through the wall. These `normal variations` have been taken to be the presence of electrical conduits, breaks in the insulation, airgaps and nogging pieces, either singly or in combination. For incident wind, measurements in a hotbox and theoretical simulations have shown that the presence of electrical conduits, breaks in the insulation, airgaps or nogging pieces in a well-insulated wooden frame external wall, whether singly or in combination, have negligible effect on thermal transport when subjected to incidnet wind. Heat transport is affected, however, by the presence of a break in the insulation: the combination of electrical conduits, airgaps, a nogging piece and a 16 mm gap in the insulation increased the U-value of the wall by 0.028 W/(m{sup 2.}K) at the most. Measuring the effects of a flow of air through the insulation involved simulating a break in the air seal. A pressure difference of between 10 Pa and 20 Pa was established, causing air to flow from the cold side to the warm side. Measurements and calculations have shown that normal variations in the insulation have a negligible effect on the transmission losses on the cold side, due to the heat exchange effect of the insulation, which raises the temperature of the air flowing through it. This has

  1. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  2. ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES IN DEEP SEATED PRESSURE ULCERS USING A NOVEL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE OF ANAEROBE ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalbiaktluangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Isolation of an anaerobe is usually neglected in hospitals with limited resources due to the expensive and complicated technique of anaerobic isolation methods, which is difficult to arrange in such resource poor settings. Conventionally adopted anaerobic culture methods such as Anaerobic jar, Gas-Pak, Anoxomat or Automated glove-box systems are extremely costly and cumbersome for single unit testing, but not suitable for small scale laboratories. However, anaerobic bacteria are not to be overlooked as they have made a comeback in clinical settings and are even showing resistance to Metronidazole, once thought to be the gold standard bullet against anaerobes. Deep seated pressure ulcers are usually the site where anaerobe causes an infection in synergy with aerobes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Isolation of anaerobes in deep seated pressure ulcers using a novel innovative technique and to study their antibiogram profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS Swabs taken from depth of deep seated pressure ulcers were immediately inoculated in Brucella blood agar at bedside and placed in polycarbonate airtight jar for anaerobic incubation using a novel innovative Modified Candle Jar technique. In this technique five grams of grease-free grade zero steel wool were dipped in 50ml freshly prepared acidified copper sulphate solution until the copper colour appeared. Excess solution was drained and the steel wool was moulded into a loose pad to fit on an open Petri plate placed on top of the inoculated Brucella blood agar plates. A white-wax candle was placed at the centre of this plate. A small test tube containing mixture of 0.5g sodium-bicarbonate and 0.5g magnesium carbonate was kept ready to be placed inside the jar, just after placing the inoculated plate and incubated for 48 hours. RESULTS Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides fragilis were successfully isolated from deep seated pressure ulcers by this method. Antibiogram studies were done using the

  3. Laboratory Simulation of CO2 Ice Condensation on Mars by Radiative Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. E.; Paige, D. A.; Smythe, W. D.

    1997-07-01

    We have performed realistic laboratory simulations of the thermal and radiative environment at the surface of Mars to produce the first samples of carbon dioxide ice formed as it does on Mars, by radiative cooling from a 600 Pa, near-pure CO2 gas. It is important to determine the physical characteristics of Mars' seasonal CO2 polar ice caps because these determine their radiative properties which, in turn, control the polar energy balance and the seasonal variation in global surface pressure. It is not known whether they form as fluffy fine-grained deposits, dense solid ice, or something in between. Previous simulations have used conductive cooling, condensing CO2 onto a substrate cooled by liquid nitrogen (Kieffer 1968, Ditteon and Kieffer 1979). This technique favors the growth of grains having the best thermal contact with the surface, resulting in large grain sizes and a coarse texture. On Mars, however, the latent heat released by condensation must be lost radiatively to space. To simulate this process in a lab it is necessary to separate the gas from the space simulator (a lN2-cooled black copper plate) using a material which is transparent at the appropriate thermal infrared wavelengths (> 10 /mu). For this experiment, we have constructed a Mars simulation chamber, an air-tight copper pot containing low thermal conductivity "soil" and CO2 gas, placed inside a thermal/vacuum chamber for insulation. To enable radiative cooling of the gas and "soil" inside the Mars chamber, its top is an infrared window; thin (12 /mum) polypropylene film. To be sure that the latent heat of condensation is not lost conductively to the chamber, the walls of the Mars chamber are maintained at a temperature just slightly higher than the condensation temperature. As the CO2 condenses, the pressure is maintained at 600 Pa automatically with a pressure control system. We will present measurements of the physical and radiative properties of the ice including; temperature, texture

  4. 地铁颗粒物PM2.5的SEM和微束XRF分析%Study on airborne particulate matter in PM2.5 in Shanghai city's subway by SEM and SR-XRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永兴; 包良满; 雷前涛

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the composition, morphology and structure of airborne particulate matter in PM2.5 in Shanghai city's subway and urban street were studied using SEM-EDS and synchrotron radiation technique micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (XRF). SEM results showed that subway particles had a flat surface in combination with parallel scratches and sharp edges and looked like metal sheets or flakes, whose morphology was obvious different from that of urban street particles. Furthermore, the atomic composition of typical subway particles was analyzed by EDS. The results showed that oxygen and iron dominated the mass of the particles. It is a relative airtight microenvironment for the people who works in the subway stations or takes the subways every day. The work suggested that great attentions should be paid to the influence of subway's particles on the health of people in subways.%采用扫描电镜和X-射线能谱分析(SEM-EDS)以及同步辐射X射线荧光分析(SR-XRF)技术,对地铁PM25颗粒物样品进行了形貌及元素成分分析.SEM结果表明地铁颗粒物形貌不同于室外颗粒物,地铁颗粒物粒径较大,形状不规则,具有片状刮擦特性.EDS分析表明地铁单颗粒物中Fe、O元素成分含量最高,铁氧化物是地铁颗粒物的主要成分.结果表明,地铁大气环境明显有别于地铁外环境,地铁在运行过程中产生了大量富含对人体有害的金属颗粒物.地铁环境对城市人群健康的影响需要引起重视.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri B. [Washington University

    2015-01-29

    The potential for developing commercially viable microbial H2-production systems as a renewable source of biofuel has been limited by the need for an anaerobic environment to enable photobiological H2-production in capable bacterial and algal species. In this project, we have shown that the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has the capacity for highly efficient H2-production under natural aerobic conditions. The marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has a diurnal metabolic cycle; photosynthesis and carbon fixation occur during daylight hours and then at night, high rates of respiration create a suboxic intracellular environment that enables O2-sensitive processes to occur, including N2-fixation and H2-production. We developed a two-stage approach to monitor H2-production by Cyanothece 51142. In the first stage, we grew the bacteria aerobically in an alternating 12 hour light/dark cycle. A second ‘incubation’ stage was then carried out in which we took cells from the end of a 12 hour light growth period and incubated them in air-tight vials for a further 12 hours under continuous illumination. Analysis of the headspace in the vial revealed high specific rates of H2-production (>150 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour) during this incubation period. Furthermore, the rate of H2-production could be enhanced by growing the cells in the presence of high levels of CO2 or glycerol. We also confirmed that H2-production was mediated by the nitrogenase system found in these Cyanothece cells. Interestingly, in the absence of molecular N2, nitrogenase systems channel all available electrons towards H2-production. Accordingly, when we incubated glycerol-supplemented Cyanothece 51142 cells in the absence of N2, the rate of H2-production increased up to 467 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour, which is an order of magnitude greater than those rates previously observed in other wild type H2 producing model photosynthetic microorganisms under anaerobic

  6. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  7. Hybrid endotracheal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakezles, Christopher Thomas

    Intubation involves the placement of a tube into the tracheal lumen and is prescribed in any setting in which the airway must be stabilized or the patient anesthetized. The purpose of the endotracheal tube in these procedures is to maintain a viable airway, facilitate mechanical ventilation, allow the administration of anesthetics, and prevent the reflux of vomitus into the lungs. In order to satisfy these requirements a nearly airtight seal must be maintained between the tube and the tracheal lining. Most conventional endotracheal tubes provide this seal by employing a cuff that is inflated once the tube is in place. However, the design of this cuff and properties of the material are a source of irritation and injury to the tracheal tissues. In fact, the complication rate for endotracheal intubation is reported to be between 10 and 60%, with manifestations ranging from severe sore throat to erosion through the tracheal wall. These complications are caused by a combination of the materials employed and the forces exerted by the cuff on the tracheal tissues. In particular, the abrasive action of the cuff shears cells from the lining, epithelium adhering to the cuff is removed during extubation, and normal forces exerted on the basement tissues disrupt the blood supply and cause pressure necrosis. The complications associated with tracheal intubation may be reduced or eliminated by employing airway devices constructed from hydrogel materials. Hydrogels are a class of crosslinked polymers which swell in the presence of moisture, and may contain more than 95% water by weight. For the current study, several prototype airway devices were constructed from hydrogel materials including poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The raw hydrogel materials from this group were subjected to tensile, swelling, and biocompatibility testing, while the finished devices were subjected to extensive mechanical simulation and animal trials

  8. The purification effects of two air purificants to the volatile pollutants in tunnels%两种空气净化剂对坑道挥发性污染物的净化效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东明; 郁兴明; 唐雨德

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察选取的两种空气净化剂对坑道内挥发性污染物氨气和硫化氢的净化效果.方法 将植物空气净化剂及竹炭滤料分别放入密闭的容积为1m3的小型环境舱内,用采样器往其中吹入有害气体,用风扇混匀后测定空间内有害气体的浓度,每0.5h分别观察空气净化剂对几种挥发性污染物的净化率.结果 植物空气净化剂对氨气和硫化氢的两小时最大净化率分别为50%和37.5%,竹炭滤料净化剂对氨气和硫化氢的两小时最大净化率分别为60%和62.5%.结论 选用的两种空气净化剂对坑道挥发性污染物氨气和硫化氢都有较好的净化效果,可以用于坑道内有害气体的消除.%Objective To observe the purification effects of two different air purificants on the volatile pollutants ( NH3 and H2S) in tunnels. Methods The plant air purificant and the bamboo charcoal were put into a 1 m3 box of airtight minitype environment, respectively. The harmful gases were insufflated into the box with sampling implement and mixed them. At an interval of half an hour,the concentration of harmful gases was mensurated to observe the purification rates of two air purificants. Results The maximal purification rates of the plant air purificant to NH3 and H2S in 2 h were 50% and 37.5% ,respectively. The maximal purification rates of the bamboo charcoal air purificant to NH3 and H2S in 2 h were 60% and 62.5% ,respectively. Conclusion The purification effects of two air purificants are preferable to the volatile pollutants ( NH3 and H2S) in tunnels.The air purificants can effectively eliminate the harmful gases in tunnels.

  9. Analysis on Character of Temporal-Spatial Distribution and Effect Factors of Dustfall in Nantong%南通市降尘时空分布特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛媛; 姚颖

    2012-01-01

    对2004年-2009年南通市降尘监测数据进行分析,结果表明,市区降尘污染较轻,年均值全部达标,在6年间呈波状变化态势;从各月分布来看,3-7月降尘污染较为严重;在各功能区中,受降尘污染程度从大到小依次为:居民区>工业区>商业交通区>文教区.提出,应继续推进城区企业工艺改造升级,加快燃煤锅炉淘汰;施工(运输)期间对易产生扬尘的建筑材料应采取密闭存储、设置围挡等有效措施并保证建筑垃圾及时清运、施工车辆及道路及时清扫冲洗;加大城市的绿化建设和道路的硬化建设,尽量避免道路开挖.%The monitoring data of dust fall in Nantong was analyzed during the year from 2004 to 2009. The results indicated annual average values of dust fall in urban area reached the standard of air quality and showed a wave trend in the six years. The monthly values were high from March to July and showed dust fall pollution level as follow as residential area > industrial zone > commercial and traffic area > cultural and educational area. Some suggestion was made for improvement environment such as to upgrade urban enterprise process, to leave the coal boiler off, to take dust airtight storage for building materials at construction and transportation, to remove waste in time and wash construction vehicles and road promptly, to increase the city's green area and road pavement as well as try to avoid road excavation.

  10. Development of Bio-Oil Commodity Fuel as a Refinery Feedstock from High Impact Algae Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, James [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Mani, Sudhagar [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Das, K. C. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Hilten, Roger [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering; Jena, Umakanta [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-11-30

    A two-stage hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process was developed to 1) reduce nitrogen levels in algal oil, 2) generate a nitrogen rich stream with limited inhibitors for recycle and algae cultivation, and 3) improve downstream catalytic hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the algal oil to refinery intermediates. In the first stage, low temperature HTL was conducted at 125, 175, and 225°C at holding times ranging from 1 to 30 min (time at reaction temperature). A consortium of three algal strains, namely Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella minutissima, and Scenedesmus bijuga were used to grow and harvest biomass in a raceway system – this consortium is called the UGA Raceway strain throughout the report. Subsequent analysis of the final harvested product indicated that only two strains predominated in the final harvest - Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus bijuga. Two additional strains representing a high protein (Spirulina platensis) and high lipid algae (Nannochloropsis) strains were also used in this study. These strains were purchased from suppliers. S. platensis biomass was provided by Earthrise Nutritionals LLC (Calipatria, CA) in dry powder form with defined properties, and was stored in airtight packages at 4°C prior to use. A Nannochloropsis paste from Reed Mariculture was purchased and used in the two-stage HTL/HDO experiments. The solids and liquids from this low temperature HTL pretreatment step were separated and analyzed, leading to the following conclusions. Overall, these results indicate that low temperature HTL (200-250°C) at short residence times (5-15 min) can be used to lyse algae cells and remove/separate protein and nitrogen before subsequent higher temperature HTL (for lipid and other polymer hydrolysis) and HDO. The significant reduction in nitrogen when coupled with low protein/high lipid algae cultivation methods at scale could significantly improve downstream catalytic HDO results. However, significant barriers and

  11. 过氧化氢气体对净化空间内细菌杀灭效果的观察%OBSERVATION ON GERMICIDAL EFFICACY OF VAPOR PHASE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ON THE PURIFICATION SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张遐耘; 祝文卿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the germicidal efficacy of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide on the purification space.Methods The vacuum evaporation of hydrogen peroxide was put in airtight space and in touch with artificial bacterial carrier. Then the carrier quantitative germicidal test was used to observe the germicidal efficacy. Results When hydrogen peroxide vaporized at 115℃ was put in 2 m3 purification space for 30 minutes, the Bacillus stearothermophilus spore at 7 sampled points in purification space were totally killed. And the Bacillus subtilis var. niger spore at 7 sampled points in purification were also totally killed under the same condition for 40 minutes. Conclusion Hydrogen peroxide vaporized at 115 ℃ putting in 2 m3 purification space has strong germicidal efficacy on spores of bacteria on carriers and enables the indoor air aseptic.%目的 观察过氧化氢气体对净化空间内细菌的杀灭效果.方法 用载体定量杀菌试验方法,把气态的过氧化氢气体通入密闭空间内,与人工染菌菌片接触达到杀灭细菌的效果.结果 在密闭的2 m3净化室内,通入经115℃汽化的过氧化氢气体作用30 min,使净化室内7个采样点上的所有嗜热脂肪杆菌芽孢达到完全杀灭;在相同条件下作用40 min,使净化室内7个采样点的所有枯草杆菌黑色变种也能达到完全杀灭.结论 在密闭空间内通人经115℃汽化的过氧化氢,对载体上细菌芽孢具有较强的杀灭作用,能使净化室内空气达到无菌.

  12. 臭氧杀虫除菌技术的实仓应用%FIELD APPLICATION OF OZONE IN CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN INSECTS AND MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪兵

    2011-01-01

    Compared with the phosphine fumigation, the insecticidal technology by ventilation with ozone has many obvious advantages, such as no residue, no secondary pollution, broad spectrum and high effect, easy to perceive and so on. Compared with the controlled atmosphere technology by CO2 and N2, the technology by ventilation with ozone requires low airtightness of grain warehouse, low cost no need to operate continuously and so on. So far the application of ozone has become wider and wider in grain storage industry, for it can be used in complex fumigation, controlling mold. It also can lower the moisture content of cereal evenly by recirculation ventilation system. By summarizing the results of ozone fumigation in large warehouse, it contributes to technology of ozone application in green grain storage and keeping food quality in future.%臭氧通风杀虫与常规的磷化氢熏蒸杀虫相比,具有无残留、无二次污染、广谱高效抗菌杀虫、易于察觉等显著特点.与利用CO2和N2的气调储粮相比较,臭氧通风杀虫具有对粮仓密封性要求较低,运行成本低,无需连续处理等优点.目前臭氧在粮食仓储中的应用已越来越广泛,可用于综合熏蒸、灭菌防霉,配合良好的环流通风系统更能达到使粮食均匀降水的目的.总结了开展大型仓房整仓臭氧熏蒸杀虫除霉菌工作成果,为未来臭氧在绿色仓储以及食品的保鲜保质方面的应用提供参考.

  13. Evaluación, diseño y propuestas de sistemas de ventilación en la rehabilitación de edificios residenciales españoles. Estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiss, A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, building retrofitting has grown in importance, due to the need to improve construction and energy conditions, but omitting those relating to ventilation. This is due to the difficulty to estimate the available natural ventilation and the limited solutions derived from DB-HS3. This work aims to present a methodology, through numeric simulations and climate data, able to solve the seasonal pressure gradient in the building’ envelope and, once known the airtightness with on-site pressurization tests, the calculation of the ventilation flows in three representative conditions (summer, winter an annual average. To fulfill the HS3 requirement is advisable to use the performance-based nature of CTE, which allows other alternative solutions to the DB. But it is necessary to introduce changes in the regulations to allow the proposed solution of an individual ventilation system with variable flow or Controlled Cross Ventilation.En los últimos años, la rehabilitación de edificios ha experimentado un gran impulso, haciendo hincapié en aspectos constructivos y energéticos, pero omitiendo los relativos a la ventilación. Esto se debe a la dificultad de conocer la ventilación natural disponible y en las escasas soluciones derivadas del DB-HS3. Este trabajo pretende exponer una metodología para, a partir de simulaciones numéricas y datos climáticos, obtener el gradiente estacional de presiones en los cerramientos y, conocida su permeabilidad mediante ensayos de presurización in situ, obtener los caudales disponibles en tres períodos del año (verano, invierno y media anual. Para el cumplimiento de la exigencia HS3 es recomendable acudir al carácter prestacional del CTE, que admite otras soluciones alternativas al Documento Básico, pero es necesario introducir una serie de cambios para la solución propuesta de proyectar un sistema individual de ventilación con caudal variable o Ventilación Cruzada Controlada.

  14. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  15. EXPERIMENT OF BROWN RICE STORAGE IN HIGH ATHTUDE AND LOW TEMPERATURE AREA%糙米在低温高海拔地区的储藏试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩蔼; 李琛; 彭真华; 赵志诚; 和敢武; 余旭

    2011-01-01

    The paper studied the storage environment and the quality of brown rice by adopting natural ventilation in low-temperature seasons and taking thermal insulation and airtight measures in high-temperature seasons based on the natural conditions of the high attitude and low temperature area. The results showed that the brown rice could be stored safely for 3 years when in-silo low-temperature environment was well controlled. After the 3-year storage, the increase amount of fatty acid value was 13.7 mg/100g,the annual average increase amount was 4.6 mg/100g, and the change range substantially met the set requirement (the change range equal to or smaller than 5 mg/100g every year, and the fatty acid value equal to or smaller than 37 mg/100 g), which met the requirement of moderate storage quality of hsien rice (≤37 mg/100 g). The germination rate of brown rice was slightly smaller than that of rice, but had little difference. Compared to rice stored for the same time period, the brown rice stored for 3 years had no significant change of the taste quality. The moisture content of the brown rice did not decrease but rose to reach the expected target.%利用低温高海拔地区的自然条件,采取低温季节自然通风和高温季节保温密闭措施,对糙米储藏环境及其品质进行了研究.结果表明:仓内低温环境控制良好,可以实现糙米安全储藏3 a.糙米储藏3 a后,脂肪酸值增量为13.7 mg/100 g,年平均增量为4.6 mg/100 g,变化幅度基本满足设定的变化要求(变化幅度≤5 mg/100 g·年,脂肪酸值≤37 mg/100 g),符合籼稻储存品质轻度不宜存(≤37 mg/100 g)的要求.糙米发芽率略低于稻谷,但差别不大.糙米储藏3 a与同期储藏的稻谷相比,食味品质变化不大;糙米水分未降低,反而有所升高,达到了预期的目标.

  16. Biodegradation of a Light NAPL under Varying Soil Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B. K.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Kleingeld, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    To see the impact of different soil environmental conditions on LNAPL biodegradation, a series of batch, microcosm, column and 2-D tank experiments under controlled conditions have been planned. Microcosms along with batch experiments have been designed for five different moisture contents ranging from residual to saturated, and under varying temperature condition. The batches are being used for two saturated soils containing toluene. For the unsaturated cases, fifteen microcosms are designed to mimic natural conditions more closely. The microcosms consist of a transparent outer column and an air permeable, but watertight, inner tube comprised of toluene phobic material. The space between the outer column and the inner porous tube is filled with a soil having a particular moisture content with a known amount of toluene. The inner porous tube is filled with air at atmospheric pressure, providing sufficient oxygen for the degradation of considered light NAPL. A special sampling mechanism has been fabricated to enable airtight soil sampling. Four columns have been designed for studying the impact of water table fluctuation on the LNAPL fate and transport in variably-saturated soil. Water table in two columns will be static and remaining two will be subjected to a fluctuation. Finally a 2-D tank setup, made of a steel box and a glass cover, has been refurbished for bioremediation process of LNAPL from start to finish. The main body is constructed of one piece of 1.5 mm thick stainless steel formed into a box with inner dimensions of 200cm-long x 94cm-high x 4cm-deep. The front cover is made of glass wall having 19-mm thickness. The soil is going to be packed between the two walls. The groundwater will be flowing horizontally from left to right and the water table level in the tank will be controlled by two end chambers. The chambers are separated from the soil by a fine meshed stainless steel sheet. The spatial and the temporal distributions of the LNAPL and its

  17. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  18. Take-Home Challenges: Extending Discovery-Based Activities beyond the General Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. K.; Sarquis, A. M.

    1996-04-01

    "belch bottle"? Introductory Remarks. Have you ever belched? Belching is caused when there is an accumulation of gas in the digestive system. The "belch" occurs when the gas is released through the mouth. You can construct a "belch bottle" to imitate this action. Try this activity to find out how. Materials. 2 plastic soft-drink bottles of the same size one of the following sets of materials: potato; barrel of a Bic pen; tape (cellophane, electrical, or masking); 8-in. piece of wire, or 2 1-hole #3 stoppers; barrel of a Bic pen; tape (cellophane, electrical, or masking) water shallow tray or sink (optional) food color (optional) narrow-necked bottle made of glass (or other rigid material) Getting Ready. Cut one of the soft-drink bottles a few inches above the bottom to make a tall funnel as shown in Figure 1. Fill the second, uncut bottle half-full with water. If there is a hole in the side of the pen barrel, wrap tape around it. If 1-hole stoppers are available, slide one onto each end of the pen barrel and use this assembly to connect the cut funnel and the half-filled, uncut bottle. Alternatively, push the barrel all the way through a potato, leaving an approximately equal amount of pen barrel sticking out each side of the potato. If potato becomes lodged inside the pen barrel (that would restrict air or water flow), use a wire to push it out. Slide one end of the pen barrel into the mouth of the funnel all the way to the potato and gently screw the potato onto the thread of the funnel. Gently screw the other end of the potato onto the threads of the neck of the half-filled, uncut bottle. (See Fig. 2.) Your goal is to create an airtight seal between the funnel and the uncut soft-drink bottle. Procedure. Place the apparatus in a shallow tray or sink. Fill the funnel 3/4 full with water. (Colored water is easier to see.) Give the bottle a slight squeeze. Watch for several minutes. What do you observe? Explain your observations. Disconnect the bottle from the connector

  19. Development of 2-axes rotary device for plant wet culture%二轴旋转式植物湿润栽培装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 杨有泉; 邓素芳; 林营志; 张翔

    2013-01-01

    为了满足在地面进行空间植物生长试验和研究的需要,该文研制了能模拟空间微重力效应的二轴旋转式植物湿润栽培装置,介绍了该装置的总体设计、结构特点和工作原理。植物三维旋转栽培盘同时绕着2根相互垂直的旋转轴进行旋转,转速可独立在线无级调节。通过盘内植物湿润栽培介质材料筛选与优化组合,结合渗水管路和旋转水接口等关键部件的结构设计,介质始终保持整体湿润而外层表面无明水出现,且易于植物根部的固定,为植物生长提供良好的水、气、肥等生态环境。建立具备严格气密性的受控密闭舱,并配置植物生长监控和综合环境监测系统。应用试验分析表明,湿润栽培方法可以满足植物悬空低速三维旋转栽培的要求,装置各项性能指标均达到设计要求。%In order to study and operate plant stimulant space growth test on the ground, a 2-axes rotary device for plant moist culture was developed to simulate a space microgravity effect. The overall design, structural features, and operating principle were introduced in this paper. Plant 3-dimensional rotary culture plate rotated on both two orthogonal rotation axes. Revolving speed can be independently and steplessly regulated on line. By the screening and optimizing of medium material in the plant wet culture plate, combining the structural design of critical components such as the water seepage line and a rotating water connector, the medium was always kept wet, but there was no visual water on the face, which was also easy to fix plant root, and provided a good ecological microenvironment for plant growth. The machine outside profile size is 980 mm×1 450 mm ×880 mm, Active area of plant cultivation is 0.12 m2. Revolving speed can be adjusted steplessly on line between 0.5-5 rpm, control accuracy up to ±3%. In the device, a controlled airtight cabin of 0.38 m3 volume with strict air

  20. 烟雾吸入性损伤大鼠肺组织丝裂原活化蛋白激酶通路的变化%Study on activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in lung tissue of rats with smoke inhalation injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安辉; 孙磊; 周燕虹; 曹佳

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解烟雾吸入性损伤大鼠肺组织丝裂原活化蛋白激酶(MAPK)通路及炎性细胞因子含量的变化,探讨其损伤机制. 方法建立密闭舱内烟雾吸入性损伤模型,将30只SD大鼠分为烟雾吸入性损伤后1、6、24、72 h及7 d组,另设正常对照组(6只).取各组大鼠肺组织行病理学观察,检测肺组织匀浆液中肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)、巨噬细胞炎性蛋白2(MIP-2)和白细胞介素1β(IL-1β)含量,用蛋白质印迹法检测肺组织p38MAPK、c-Jun氨基末端激酶(JNK)、细胞外信号调节激酶1/2(ERK1/2)及各酶磷酸化水平.收集大鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF),检测TNF-α、MIP-2、IL-1β含量并行粒细胞分类、计数. 结果烟雾吸入使大鼠产生急性肺损伤样病理改变.伤后1 h组大鼠肺组织及BALF中TNF-α和IL-1β含量均高于正常对照组(P0.05),伤后1 h组BALF中MIP-2水平高于正常对照组(P0.05).结论 密闭舱室内非金属材料燃烧释放的毒性气体能诱导肺组织产生明显的炎性反应,激活细胞MAPK通路中重要激酶的表达,这可能是毒性混合气体导致肺损伤的重要机制之一.%Objective To investigate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) path- way and the expression of inflammatory cytokine in lung tissue of rats with smoke inhalation injury, and to explore the injury mechanism. Methods The model of smoke inhalation injury in airtight cabin was estab- lished. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group( n = 6,NC group) and inhalation injury group (n = 30, Ⅱ group). The rats in Ⅱ group were observed at 1,6,24,72 post injury hour(PIH) and 7 post injury day(PID). The pathological changes in lung tissue were observed by optical microscope. The contents of TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β in lung tissue homogenate were examined. The level of p38MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2 and their phosphorylation in lung tissue were measured by Western blotting. The contents of TNF-α, MIP-2,and

  1. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  2. Study on Indoor Plant Germplasm Resources which Generate Negative Air Ions%具备释放负离子功能室内植物的种质资源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴仁烨; 邓传远; 王彬; 黄德冰; 林丽; 黄建民; 郑金贵

    2011-01-01

    通过对植物释放负离子的研究,筛选出可产生较高浓度负离子的室内植物,以保持和提高室内环境的负离子浓度,改善室内空气质量.在密封的玻璃室(80 cm ×80 cm×80 cm)内对天南星科、百合科等25个科中的36种植物释放的负离子浓度进行测量,结果表明:桑科的琴叶榕(Ficus lyrata)产生的负离子浓度最大达76 ion/cm3,景天科的玉树(Crassula portulacea)最低为26 ion/cm3.以全天的均值来看,蓬莱松(Asparagus myrioeladus)和四季秋海棠(Begonia semperflorens)的负离子浓度为43 ion/cm3最高,是对照试验的2.4倍.大部分植物在自然状态下产生的负离子浓度都表现出白天时段高于夜晚时段.植物在不同时段产生的负离子浓度值除个别植物变化幅度较大外,大部分植物在全天的浓度值都较为平稳.%Generation of negative air ion (NAI) by indoor plants which belong to 25 families (Araceae,Liliaceae, etc.) was studied. Those plants which can produce high concentration of NAI to maintain, even to increase the amount of NAI indoor was screened out. And they were capable of improving the quality of indoor environment. Measurements of NAI concentration generated by 36 species of plants were taken inside an airtight glass container. The results showed that: Ficus lyrata produced 76 ion/cm3 which was the highest while Crassula portulacea produced 26 ion/cm3, the lowest. By mean of concentration in a whole day, Asparagus myrioeladus and Begonia semperflorens respectively produced a highest level of 43 ion/cm3, which was also 2.4 times as controlled experiment. In the state of nature, most plants produced higher NAI concentration during daytime than during night. And the concentration of NAI generated by most plants kept steady at different times of day while a few plants kept larger rate of change in the concentration of NAI.

  3. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  4. Versatile and Rapid Plasma Heating Device for Steel and Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, G.S.

    2006-03-14

    The main objective of the research was to enhance steel and aluminum manufacturing with the development of a new plasma RPD device. During the project (1) plasma devices were manufactured (2) testing for the two metals were carried out and (3) market development strategies were explored. Bayzi Corporation has invented a Rapid Plasma Device (RPD) which produces plasma, comprising of a mixture of ionized gas and free electrons. The ions, when they hit a conducting surface, deposit heat in addition to the convective heat. Two generic models called the RPD-Al and RPD-S have been developed for the aluminum market and the steel market. Aluminum melting rates increased to as high as 12.7 g/s compared to 3 g/s of the current industrial practice. The RPD melting furnace operated at higher energy efficiency of 65% unlike most industrial processes operating in the range of 13 to 50%. The RPD aluminum melting furnace produced environment friendly cleaner melts with less than 1% dross. Dross is the residue in the furnace after the melt is poured out. Cast ingots were extremely clean and shining. Current practices produce dross in the range of 3 to 12%. The RPD furnace uses very low power ~0.2 kWh/Lb to melt aluminum. RPDs operate in one atmosphere using ambient air to produce plasma while the conventional systems use expensive gases like argon, or helium in air-tight chambers. RPDs are easy to operate and do not need intensive capital investment. Narrow beam, as well as wide area plasma have been developed for different applications. An RPD was developed for thermal treatments of steels. Two different applications have been pursued. Industrial air hardening steel knife edges were subjected to plasma beam hardening. Hardness, as measured, indicated uniform distribution without any distortion. The biggest advantage with this method is that the whole part need not be heated in a furnace which will lead to oxidation and distortion. No conventional process will offer localized

  5. 一种新型复方过氧化氢手消毒液的消毒相关性能观察%OBSERVATION ON DISINFECTION PROPERTIES OF A NEW-TYPE COMPOUND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HAND DISINFECTANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁金平; 户华雄; 张冬生; 缪军; 洪倩; 梁琼

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究复方过氧化氢手消毒液的消毒相关性能.方法 采用悬液定量杀菌试验和理化分析方法,对该复方消毒液的杀菌效果和稳定性进行了实验观察.结果 该复方消毒液原液含过氧化氢15.5 g/L和含体积分数20%乙醇.以含过氧化氢10.85g/L的该复方消毒液对悬液内的金黄色葡萄球菌作用1 min,对铜绿假单胞菌作用0.5 min,平均杀灭对数值均≥5.00.以含过氧化氢12.40g/L的该复方消毒液作用1 min,对白色念珠菌的杀灭对数值≥4.00.用含12.40g/L过氧化氢的该复方手消毒液作擦拭消毒作用1 min,对手上自然菌的杀灭对数值>1.00.将该复方消毒液原液密封保存在37℃90 d,其过氧化氢含量平均下降率为5.81%.结论 该复方过氧化氢手消毒液对细菌繁殖体和酵母菌均具有优良的杀灭效果,其储存性能稳定.%Objective To study the disinfection properties of a compound hydrogen peroxide hand - disinfectant. Methods Suspension quantitative test and physical and chemical method were used to observe the germicidal efficacy and stability of this compound disinfectant. Results This compound disinfectant contained 15.5g/L hydrogen peroxide and 20% (v/v) alcohol. The killing logarithm values of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to this compound disinfectant containing 10.85 g/L hydrogen peroxide for 1 min and 0.5 min respectively were ≥5.00. That of Candida albicans exposed to this compound disinfectant containing 12.40 g/L hydrogen peroxide for 1min was ≥4.00. The killing logarithm value of natural bacteria on hands wiped with this compound disinfectant containing 12.40 g/L hydrogen peroxide for 1 min was >1.00. The content of hydrogen peroxide decreased by 5.81% in average after stored at 37℃ for 90 days in airtight package. Conclusion The compound hydrogen peroxide hand - disinfectant has good germicidal efficacy on vegetative form of bacteria and yeast fungus and has good

  6. 怒江中游河谷地区民居冬季室内热环境评价与分析%Evaluation and Analysis on Winter Indoor Thermal Environment of Dwellings in River Valley in the Middle Part of Nujiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 陈敬; 刘加平

    2011-01-01

    as heat source would relieve the situation of low temperature and high relative humidity that caused by the poor airtightness of building envelope. When the fire pond was not used, the envelope thermal performance was worse than that of the stone-wall load-bearing structure house.

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-29

    The potential for developing commercially viable microbial H2-production systems as a renewable source of biofuel has been limited by the need for an anaerobic environment to enable photobiological H2-production in capable bacterial and algal species. In this project, we have shown that the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has the capacity for highly efficient H2-production under natural aerobic conditions. The marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has a diurnal metabolic cycle; photosynthesis and carbon fixation occur during daylight hours and then at night, high rates of respiration create a suboxic intracellular environment that enables O2-sensitive processes to occur, including N2-fixation and H2-production. We developed a two-stage approach to monitor H2-production by Cyanothece 51142. In the first stage, we grew the bacteria aerobically in an alternating 12 hour light/dark cycle. A second ‘incubation’ stage was then carried out in which we took cells from the end of a 12 hour light growth period and incubated them in air-tight vials for a further 12 hours under continuous illumination. Analysis of the headspace in the vial revealed high specific rates of H2-production (>150 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour) during this incubation period. Furthermore, the rate of H2-production could be enhanced by growing the cells in the presence of high levels of CO2 or glycerol. We also confirmed that H2-production was mediated by the nitrogenase system found in these Cyanothece cells. Interestingly, in the absence of molecular N2, nitrogenase systems channel all available electrons towards H2-production. Accordingly, when we incubated glycerol-supplemented Cyanothece 51142 cells in the absence of N2, the rate of H2-production increased up to 467 μmol of H2 per mg

  8. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Density Aerogel Flyer Target for Extending Loading Time of Laser-Driven Shock Wave%用于冲击波延时的密度梯度气凝胶飞片靶的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洋; 张志华; 李宇农; 周斌; 杜艾; 朱秀榕; 陈珂; 吴培弟; 吴广明; 沈军; 倪星元

    2012-01-01

    The method about fabrication and characterization of graded density aerogel flyer target for extending loading time in laser-driven equation of state (EOS) experiment was introduced. The preparation of the target involved the synthesis of organic resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel. RF hydrosol was prepared via sol-gel process with resorcinol-iormaldehyde-water system and catalyzed by sodium carbonate. Also, an airtight micro-mold was used in layer-by-layer gelation process. After gelation, the RF wet gel was demoulded in ethanol condition and substituted with ethanol one time per day for three days to remove the residual solution. The treated RF wet gel was converted to RF aerogel via vacuum drying after the residual solution was completely removed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),X-ray phase contrast imaging instrument and surface area and porosity analyzer were used to characterize the composition, morphology, density, interlayer coupling and microstructure of the flyer target. A four-layer target with total thickness of about 120 μand density of about 400-1 200 mg/cm3 was obtained and characterized in the experiment.%本文介绍了一种用于激光状态方程实验冲击波延时的密度梯度气凝胶飞片靶的制备及表征方法.以间苯二酚和甲醛为原料,去离子水为溶剂,碳酸钠为催化剂,在溶胶凝胶工艺的基础上采用逐层凝胶和微模具成型工艺,经过脱模、乙醇替换和真空干燥,制备了4层密度梯度渐变间苯二酚-甲醛(RF)有机气凝胶飞片靶,并使用傅里叶红外光谱仪、扫描电子显微镜、X射线相衬成像仪和比表面积及孔隙分析仪对飞片靶的成分、形貌、密度、层间界面耦合情况及微观结构进行表征.实现了总体厚度约120 μm、单层厚度一致、各层均匀性良好且密度变化范围约400~1200 mg/cm3的4层密度梯度RF气凝胶飞片靶的制备和表征.

  10. 管状光催化反应器降解甲醛效果及其降解模型∗%Removal of Formaldehyde with an Annular Reactor and Its Kinetic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 郑洁; 黄锋; 宋雪瑞

    2015-01-01

    A new annular photocatalytic reactor was designed for the removal of indoor formaldehyde. Three fins were added to the reactor and each fin had a triangular gap at one end,making this type reactor continuous and single-pass.The influence of fins on formaldehyde removal was examined in an airtight en-vironmental chamber.The radiation and velocity fields of the reactors were simulated by using computa-tional fluid dynamics (CFD)methods.A theoretical model for the degradation of formaldehyde in a recir-culating system was proposed.When adding fins in the annular reactor,the reaction area and residence time were greatly increased,and the degradation rate was,therefore,obviously enhanced.The CFD simu-lation results showed that the radiation intensity on the internal surfaces of the exterior cylinder was nearly uniform except for the two ends and it decreased slightly for the reactor with fins.The velocity distribution was uniform in the first tube pass and became actually higher near the elbows.The UV intensity was weak while the velocity was large near the elbows,which had a negative effect on degradation efficiency there. The results obtained from the kinetic model were in agreement with experimental data.So the degradation behavior of formaldehyde could be predicted by using this kinetic model.%针对建筑环境中的挥发性有机化合物甲醛,在原有管状反应器内增设带有工艺缺口的直肋片,并在密闭循环系统中对其净化效果进行分析,又利用计算流体力学(CFD)的方法得到了反应器内部的流速和光强分布。同时,基于模型计算的方法,建立了污染物循环降解模型。结果表明:改进后的管状反应器,反应面积增加,气体停留时间延长,平衡了传质-反应能力,反应速率提高了约1倍;增设肋片后,内壁面光强有所减弱,反应器中间段光强与流速耦合较好,而两端由于气流扰动大且光强较弱,反应速率会受影响;另

  11. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    installation labor and materials, and $627 for overhead and management), and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.48. A general trend toward higher-than-average fuel-oil savings was observed in houses with high pre-weatherization fuel-oil consumption. Program savings could likely be increased by targeting higher energy consumers for weatherization, although equity issues would have to be considered. Weatherization measures associated with higher-than-average savings were use of a blower door for air-sealing, attic and wall insulation, and replacement space-heating systems. Space-heating system tune-ups were not particularly effective at improving the steady-state efficiency of systems, although other benefits such as improved seasonal efficiency, and system safety and reliability may have resulted. The Program should investigate methods of improving the selection and/or application of space-heating system tune-ups and actively promote improved tune-up procedures that have been developed as a primary technology transfer activity. Houses were more air-tight following weatherization, but still leakier than what is achievable. Additional technology transfer effort is recommended to increase the use of blower doors considering that only half the weatherized houses used a blower door during air sealing. A guidebook developed by a committee of experts and covering a full range of blower-door topics might be a useful technology transfer and training document. Weatherization appeared to make occupants feel better about their house and house environment.

  12. Establishment of Aats Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Syndrome Model and Evaluation%过敏性鼻炎-哮喘综合征大鼠模型的建立与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史锁芳; 周奎龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rat model of allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome and evaluate its effect .Methods:Clean level 20 healthy male SD rats , were randomly divided into control group and model group , 14 days after the use of intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin, continuous nasal drip with ovalbumin 7 days, starting from 15th, the model group rats in the airtight vessel within (home-made 50 cm ×30 cm ×20 cm transparent plastic box ) with cover , give 2%OVA atomized inhalation solution , build model;In the con-trol group with normal saline instead .Results:The model group after antigen stimulate the mouth breathing , abdominal moved , irrita-bility, restlessness, shaking, hair, nose, sneezing, very oral and ear purple , water quantity increased obviously , listlessness, eat less, unresponsive, activity significantly reduced or prone motionless , the colour yellow curly, such as asthma acute attack.Total num-ber of white blood cells in BALF ( bronchoalveolar lavage ) and classification of eosinophil increased obviously .Nose and a small bron-chus and lung tissue pathology slice see accompanying around blood vessels more inflammatory cells , numerous eosinophils cells infil-trating .Conclusion:The model of allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome is established by the way in this study , which is comparable to the physiopathologic characteristics of human asthma ., the successful molding method has certain popularization value .%目的:建立一种大鼠过敏性鼻炎-哮喘综合征的模型并评价其效果。方法:清洁级健康雄性SD大鼠20只,随机分为对照组和模型组,运用卵白蛋白腹腔注射14天后,用卵白蛋白连续鼻部滴注7天,从第15日开始,将模型组大鼠置于密闭器皿内(自制的50 cm ×30 cm ×20 cm透明带盖塑料盒),给予2%OVA溶液进行雾化吸入,建立模型;对照组以生理盐水代替。结果:模型组经抗原激发后张口喘息,腹部翕动,易激惹,躁动

  13. An Assessment of Envelope Measures in Mild Climate Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Energy end-uses and interior comfort conditions have been monitored in 11 Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) in a mild marine climate. Two broad categories of DER envelope were identified: first, bringing homes up to current code levels of insulation and airtightness, and second, enhanced retrofits that go beyond these code requirements. The efficacy of envelope measures in DERs was difficult to determine, due to the intermingled effects of enclosure improvements, HVAC system upgrades and changes in interior comfort conditions. While energy reductions in these project homes could not be assigned to specific improvements, the combined effects of changes in enclosure, HVAC system and comfort led to average heating energy reductions of 76percent (12,937 kWh) in the five DERs with pre-retrofit data, or 80percent (5.9 kWh/ft2) when normalized by floor area. Overall, net-site energy reductions averaged 58percent (15,966 kWh; n=5), and DERs with code-style envelopes achieved average net-site energy reductions of 65percent (18,923 kWh; n=4). In some homes, the heating energy reductions were actually larger than the whole house reductions that were achieved, which suggests that substantial additional energy uses were added to the home during the retrofit that offset some heating savings. Heating system operation and energy use was shown to vary inconsistently with outdoor conditions, suggesting that most DERs were not thermostatically controlled and that occupants were engaged in managing the indoor environmental conditions. Indoor temperatures maintained in these DERs were highly variable, and no project home consistently provided conditions within the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 heating season comfort zone. Thermal comfort and heating system operation had a large impact on performance and were found to depend upon the occupant activities, so DERs should be designed with the occupants needs and patterns of consumption in mind. Beyond-code building envelopes were not found to be

  14. Combined bio and solar heating system. Handbook for system design; Kombinerade bio- och solvaermesystem. Handbok foer systemutformning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to compile the knowledge available concerning combined pellets and solar system in order to support companies in their systems design. This publication deals with experience gained in research on solar and pellet heating, and gives proposals to system design, various technical solutions, and how systems should be controlled. When solar and pellets are combined, there are many possibilities to interconnect the systems. There are different traditions in different countries, which makes the system solutions vary from country to country. A general conclusion is that conventional Swedish boilers with built-in hot water heater are not appropriate for conventional solar systems. It gives rise to complex solutions and it is difficult to achieve good stratification in the water tank. In a solar system, it is important that the tank can be discharged in such a way that sharp stratification is obtained. This means that the tank bottom must be chilled to the temperature of incoming cold water and that the middle part must be cooled to the same temperature as the radiator return. If solar panels even in winter can work to preheat the cold water of 10 to 20 C, a much better efficiency is obtained on collectors than if the radiator return must be preheated, which at best is at a temperature level of between 30 and 40 C. To this end, the radiator return is placed well up from the bottom of the tank and the tap water is preheated in a loop that starts in the tank bottom. Another important parameter in the tank design is that heat losses are kept low, it is important that the solar heat can produce the hot water even during overcast periods in summer and to keep energy consumption low. In modern houses where the tank is placed in the living area, it is important to avoid high temperatures in the room where the tank is placed. To obtain a good isolation one must ensure that there is an airtight layer across the isolation that also closes tightly against

  15. Determination of cadmium in coal by low temperature ashing-slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry%低温灰化-悬浮液进样石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定煤中镉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙安应; 刘全亨; 吴胜金; 王士魁; 李悦

    2016-01-01

    The composition of coal is complicated .The content of cadmium in coal is low ,and it is easily volatile .According to these characteristics ,the coal was firstly pretreated by oxygen plasma low tempera‐ture ashing .Then ,the palladium nitrate was added as matrix modifier to make cadmium form non‐dissoci‐ative substance in ashing process .The determination method of cadmium in coal by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(GFAAS) with slurry sampling was established .The influence of sample matrix was mainly studied .The samples before and after low temperature ashing were compared and analyzed . The results indicated that the analytical sensitivity and precision could be significantly improved by low temperature ashing treatment .T he ashing temperature and atomization temperature of slurry sample and the dosage of matrix modifier were optimized .The ashing temperature and atomization temperature was 650 ℃ and 2 200 ℃ ,respectively .T he optimal mass concentration of matrix modifier (i .e .,palladium ni‐trate) was 1.0 g/L .Under the optimized conditions ,the standard slurry sample showed good linear in range of 0.1‐2.0 μg/L for cadmium .The linear correlation coefficient was 0.999 5 .The detection limit was 0.012 mg/kg .The actual sample and certified reference material of coal were analyzed according to the experimental method .The relative standard deviation (RSD ,n=5) was between 2.9% and 5.9% .The found results were consistent with those obtained by airtight digestion method or the certified values .%针对煤质复杂,而煤中的镉元素具有低含量且易挥发的特点,提出了采用氧等离子体低温灰化技术对煤进行预处理,再加入硝酸钯作为基体改进剂使镉在灰化过程中生成难离解物质,建立了悬浮液进样石墨炉原子吸收光谱法(GFAAS)测定煤中镉的方法。研究过程中主要探讨了样品基质的影响,通过对比分析低温灰化前后的样品,发现低

  16. Overview of the 2nd Gen 3.7m HIAD Static Load Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Kazemba, C. D.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Cassell, A. M.; Anderson, P.; Lowery, A.

    2015-01-01

    floor to provide an airtight seal. The center body of the inflatable structure was attached to a pedestal mount as seen in Figure 1. Using an impermeable membrane seal draped over the test article, partial vacuum was pulled beneath the HIAD, resulting in a uniform static pressure load applied to the outer surface. During the test series an extensive amount of instrumentation was used to characterize deformed shape, shoulder deflection, strap loads, and cord loads as a function of structural configuration and applied static load. In this overview, the 3.7m HIAD static load test series will be discussed in detail, including the 3.7m HIAD inflatable structure and flexible TPS design, test setup and execution, and finally results and conclusions from the test series.

  17. ZnS-opal与反opal结构ZnS光子晶体的组装%Fabrication and characterization of ZnS-opal and inverse opal ZnS photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段涛; 彭同江; 唐永建

    2009-01-01

    以单分散SiO2微球为基元,在75%~80%湿度、30~45℃恒温密闭烘箱中垂直快速组装opal模板;以Zn(NO3)2(0.035mol/L)、TAA乙醇溶液(0.05mol/L)为前体,通过溶剂热法充填形成ZnS-opal复合光子晶体;ZnS-opal复合光子晶体在2%~5%的HF溶液中浸泡4~5 h后卸载模板,制得反opal结构ZnS基光子晶体;采用XRD、SEM、UV-Vis测试手段对反opal结构ZnS基光子晶体形貌、物相和光学性能进行了表征.结果表明:溶剂热法多次充填可使ZnS纳米晶在模板密堆积形成的空隙中均匀成核;经过酸处理的ZnS-opal中SiO2微球溶解、坍塌,形成蜂窝状三维有序介孔和反opal结构ZnS基光子晶体;相同粒径SiO2微球组装的opal模板、ZnS-opal以及反opal结构ZnS光子晶体均表现出光子带隙特性,但反opal结构ZnS光子晶体带隙位置相比前两者发生了蓝移.%Opal templates were rapidly assembled from monodisperse SiO2 microspheres as building blocks by vertical sedimentation in an airtight oven at 30-45 ℃ and in a certain humidity. With a precursor composed of 0.035mol/L Zn (NO3)2 and 0.05mol/L TAA ethanol solution, ZnS photortic crystals with opal structure were prepared by solvothermal synthesis method repeatly. ZnS photonic crystals with inverse opal structure were obtained by removing the opal template after immersing in 2%-5% HF acid for 4-5 h. The morphology, component and optical properties of the synthetic samples were tested and compared. Results of XRD, SEM, and UV-Vis indicated that ZnS nanocrystals can grow in and fill in the void of opal template, and SiO2 microspheres of templates are dissolved so as to form some three dimensional ordered porous structure and to form the inverse opal ZnS photonic crystals. Compared with opal templates, ZnS-opal and inverse opal ZnS photonic crystals assembled with SiO2 spheres in the same diameter show good optical properties and exhibited photonic band gap. The photonic band gap position of inverse

  18. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2006-02-01

    aluminum smelting and casting operations, their superior performance and durability will give end users marked improvements in uptime, defect reduction, scrap/rework costs, and overall energy savings resulting from higher productivity and yield. The implementation of results of this program will result in energy savings of 30 trillion Btu/year by 2020. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) project, riser tube used in the low-pressure die (LPD) casting of aluminum was selected as the refractory component for improvement. In this LPD process, a pressurized system is used to transport aluminum metal through refractory tubes (riser tubes) into wheel molds. It is important for the tubes to remain airtight because otherwise, the pressurized system will fail. Generally, defects such as porosity in the tube or cracks generated by reaction of the tube material with molten aluminum lead to tube failure, making the tube incapable of maintaining the pressure difference required for normal casting operation. Therefore, the primary objective of the project was to develop a riser tube that is not only resistant to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting, but is also less permeable, so as to achieve longer service life. Currently, the dense-fused silica (DFS) riser tube supplied by Pyrotek lasts for only 7 days before undergoing failure. The following approach was employed to achieve the goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions; (4) Optimize refractory formulations to minimize wetting by molten aluminum, and characterize erosion, corrosion, and spallation rates under realistic service

  19. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 gene modulated mesenchymal stem cells on vasculogenesis in ischemic swine hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-bo; ZHANG Xiao-li; TANG Yao-liang; MA Gen-shan; SHEN Cheng-xing; WEI Qin; ZHU Qi; YAO Yu-yu; LIU Nai-feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation may partially restore heart function in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of MSCs modified with heme xygenase-1 (HO-1) on post-infarct swine hearts to determine whether the induction of therapeutic angiogenesis is modified by the angiogenic cytokines released from the implanted cells.Methods In vitro, MSCs were divided into four groups: (1) non-transfected MSCs (MSCs group), (2) MSCs transfected with the pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-MSCs group), (3) MSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 (HO-1-MSCs group),and (4) MSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 and pretreatment with an HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)(HO-1-MSCs+SnPP group). Cells were cultured in an airtight incubation bottle for 24 hours, in which the oxygen concentration was maintained at <1%, followed by 12 hours of reoxygenation. After hypoxia/reoxygen treatment, ELISA was used to measure transforming growth factor (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in the supernatant. In vivo,28 Chinese mini-pigs were randomly allocated to the following treatment groups: (1) control group (saline), (2)Lacz-MSCs group, (3) HO-1-MSCs group, and (4) HO-1-MSCs + SnPP group. About 1×107 of autologous stem cells or an idertical volume of saline was injected intracoronary into porcine hearts 1 hour after MI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay and postmortem analysis were assessed four weeks after stem cell transplantation.Results Post hypoxia/reoxygenation in vitro, TGF-β in the supernatant was significantly increased in the HO-1-MSCs ((874.88±68.23) pg/ml) compared with Lacz-MSCs ((687.81±57.64) pg/ml, P <0.001). FGF-2 was also significantly increased in the HO-1-MSCs ((1106.48±107.06) pg/ml) compared with the Lacz-MSCs ((853.85±74.44) pg/ml, P <0.001 ).In vivo, at four weeks after transplantation, HO-1 gene transfer increased the capillary density in the peri

  20. Determination of 16 Rare Earth Elements in Banana by Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS%微波消解ICP-MS法结合同时测定香蕉中的16种稀土元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范稚莉; 范稚莲; 闫飞燕; 莫磊兴; 王天顺; 廖洁; 牙禹; 范业赓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the residues of rare earth ele-ments in Guangxi banana from banana-producing area with application of rare earth fertilizers and evaluate the safety of using rare earth fertilizers in banana production. [Method] HNO3+H2O2 mixed acid system with high pressure airtight microwave di-gestion sample pretreatment method and ICP-MS technology were used, to establish a determination method of 16 rare earth elements in banana samples, including Sc45, Y89, La139, Ce140, Pr141, Sm147, Eu153, Gb157, Tb159, Nd144, Dy163, Ho165, Er166, Tm169, Yb172 and Lu175. [Result] Different standard curves present-ed good linearity. Detection limit of the instrument was 0.002-0.01 μg/L; detection limit of the method was 0.1-0.6 μg/kg; recovery rate of standard addition was 94.5%-116%; relative standard deviation was 2.02%-14.21%. [Conclusion] This method has many advantages, such as simple mass spectrogram, high sensitivity and high selectivity, accurate quantification, high precision and accuracy, simple operation, high reproducibility and high recovery rate, which is suitable for the detection of rare earth elements in banana and other fruits, with certain theoretical and applicable val-ue for guiding banana production and high-efficient planting.%[目的]旨在了解广西香蕉产区施用稀土农用肥的稀土元素残留情况,指导香蕉生产,评价稀土农用肥的安全性。[方法]采用ICP-MS等离子体质谱法和使用HNO3+H2O2混酸体系高压密闭微波前处理样品联合技术,建立测定香蕉样品中16种稀土元素(Sc45,Y89,La139,Ce140, Pr141,Sm147,Eu153,Gb157,Tb159,Nd144, Dy163,Ho165,Er166,Tm169,Yb172,Lu175)含量的方法。[结果]各曲线呈良好线性关系,仪器检出限为0.002~0.01μg/L,方法检出限为0.1~0.6μg/kg,加标回收率为94.5%~116%,相对标准偏差为2.02%~14.21%。[结论]该方法质谱图简单,选择性和灵敏度好,定量准确,

  1. Analysis of Air Flow Field in Air Conditioning System and Compartments of High-Speed Trains%高速列车空调系统及车内流场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 李人宪; 陈琳; 李树典

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the rationality of the air-conditioning system design of high-speed trains, an entire geometry model for compartment and air-conditioning system of high-speed trains was built considering the characteristics of negative pressure at fresh-air inlet, complicated air-conditioning pipes and good airtightness. The airflow field in the entire geometry was simulated by solving the governing differential functions of computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) using the finite volume method. The distributions of velocity field, temperature field, humidity field, and CO2 concentration in the chamber were obtained, and the thermal comfort was evaluated by flow field indexes and comfort indexes. The results show that when a train is running at 350 km/h in summer, the temperature distribution is uniform in compartments; the average value of CO2 concentration is 0.07% to meet the demand for comfort (less than 0. 15% ); because of the high wind velocity, effective temperature difference at aisle is -4. 5 °C , which is 2. 8 °C below the standard value of the thermal comfort index; and an appropriate air supply and recycle mode is crucial to obtain uniform flow field and good thermal comfort.%为检验高速列车空调系统设计的合理性,针对高速列车新风入口负压大、空调管路系统复杂、密封性好的特点,建立了车厢内部与空调系统的整体模型.用有限体积法求解计算流体力学的控制微分方程,对整体流场进行数值模拟,得到了风速、温度、湿度和CO2体积浓度在客室内的分布,并用流场指标和热舒适性指标对客室内的热舒适性进行了评价.结果表明:夏季列车以350 km/h的速度行驶时,车厢内温度场分布比较均匀,CO2体积浓度平均值为0.07%,满足不大于0.15%的舒适性要求;过道处风速高,导致有效温度差最大为-4.5℃,低于舒适指标标准值2.8℃;送、回风方式是保证流场参数均匀分布及热舒适性的关键.

  2. 2种慢性间歇性缺氧小鼠模型模拟气阴两虚证临床指征的比较研究%Comparison of Clinical Indications Simulating Deficiency of Both Qi and Yin Syndrome Induced by Two Types of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文萍; 柴程芝; 寇俊萍; 余伯阳

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较钠石灰和低压氧仪2种不同缺氧方式诱导的慢性间歇性缺氧小鼠模型的整体行为变化,为进一步构建气阴两虚证动物模型奠定基础.方法:分别采用氧分压从21%逐渐降至6%,平均下降速度为0.5%/min ~ 1%/min的钠石灰缺氧法和氧分压在短时间内骤降后维持在7% ~8%的低压氧仪缺氧法,考察2种缺氧模式对小鼠体重,摄食量,自发活动以及心率、T波等气阴两虚临床相关指标变化的影响.结果:钠石灰和低压氧仪2种不同的缺氧方式均能够导致小鼠体重下降;摄食量减少;行走格数减少,直立次数增加等自发活动改变;心率加快,T波持续抬高等心电图变化,二者对各项指标的影响呈基本一致的趋势,其结果具有显著相关性.结论:钠石灰和低压氧仪2种缺氧方式诱导的慢性间歇性缺氧小鼠模型均能够模拟形体消瘦,食欲不振,体倦乏力,烦躁,心悸,脉细数等气阴两虚证的主要临床特征.%Objective: To establish foundation for constructing a suitable animal model of deficiency of both Qi and Yin syndrome (DQYS) induced by two types of chronic intermittent hypoxia (soda lime and low-pressureoxygen controller) by comparison the whole behavior in mice. Method: The two modes of oxygen scarcity,including oxygen pressure declining continuously from 21% to 7%-8% with the average speed of 0. 5%/min-l% per minute in airtight wide-mouthed bottle and oxygen pressure falling abruptly within short period and then keeping in the level of 7% -8% ,were adopted respectively to observe the time-course changes in body weight, food intake, locomotive activity and electrocardiogram respectively. The experiments were designed for mimicing clinical features of DQYS. Result; The mice exposed to two different modes of chronic intermittent hypoxia for certain duration showed body weight loss, food intake decline, locomotive activity change of ambulation decrease and rearing increase

  3. 蒸汽介质热处理对毛白杨木材颜色的影响%Effect of Steam Heat Treatment on Color of Chinese White Poplar Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建雄; 黄荣凤; 曹永建; 伍艳梅; 周永东; 赵有科; 吴玉章

    2012-01-01

    Steam heat treatment can darken wood color remarkably. There is a highly relativity among the color change degree, heat treatment time and temperatures. The specimens of Chinese White Poplar (Populus tomentosa) was steam heat- treated in an airtight equipment with an atmosphere within comprising less than 2 percent oxygen content at temperatures from 170 to 230 ℃ for time from 1 to 5 hours, respectively. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (AC* ) was decreased gradually while the color difference (△E * ) and hue difference ( △H* ) were increased with the increase of temperature and the extension of treatment time. This indicated that the color of steam heat-treated wood became darker and darker compared with original color. Compared with treatment time, treatment temperature played a more important role to change the color of heat-treated wood during the process of heat treatment according to the results of ANOVA and multiple comparison analysis. Additionally, the regression models among the color difference, treatment temperatures and times were established. The results suggested that the better color of wood could be obtained after steam heat treatment compared with original color as well as the dimensional stability would be improved. Therefore, the value of the timber could be increased and the application fields could be extended after the steam heat treatment.%以毛白杨木材为研究对象,采用蒸汽介质热处理方法在氧气含量低于2%的密闭容器中以温度170~230℃、时间1~5h的处理条件对其进行热处理.结果表明:随着处理温度的升高和处理时间的延长,色饱和度差△C*逐渐减小、色差△E*和色相差△H*逐渐增大,说明热处理后木材的颜色由原色逐步过渡到深褐色.方差分析和多重比较结果表明:热处理温度比热处理时间对毛白杨木材颜色变化的影响更为重要.此外,进

  4. Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Combustion Sources - Investigations with in-situ techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagels, Joakim

    2005-04-01

    Fine airborne particles are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate methods for in-situ characterisation of fine and ultrafine particles and to determine their deposition in the human airways. The aim was also to increase knowledge about health and environmentally relevant properties of aerosols from biomass combustion and selected indoor sources. The methods include instrumental techniques such as Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI), Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and Tandem Differential Mobility Analysers (TDMA) based on volatility and hygroscopic growth. Filter samplers and impactors were used for collecting particles on substrates for subsequent chemical analysis. Emissions from local district heating plants (0.5-12 MW), based on moving grate combustion of woody fuels, were sampled with a dilution system and characterised. Particles from the indoor sources of cigarettes, incense and candles were examined in the laboratory by using an airtight 22 m{sup 3} stainless steel chamber. A set-up to determine respiratory deposition in humans was constructed. It was automatised and uses an electrical mobility spectrometer with an improved inversion algorithm to perform fast measurements of particles of different sizes in the inhaled and exhaled air. It was evaluated on human test-persons. The investigated biomass combustion sources emit high concentrations of fine and ultrafine particles. The chemical composition is dominated by KCl and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; Zn, Cd and Pb were also quantified. Elemental carbon was identified in particles larger than 150 nm during periods of incomplete combustion. The particle concentration depends on the fuel ash content and the combustion efficiency. The aerosol is essentially internally mixed with hygroscopic growth factors significantly higher than reported for diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The

  5. In situ monitoring with the Tradescantia bioassays on the genotoxicity of gaseous emissions from a closed landfill site and an incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T H; Xu, C; Liao, S; McConnell, H; Jeong, B S; Won, C D

    1996-01-16

    A dual monitoring system composed of the Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-Stamen-Hair-Mutation (Trad-SHM) bioassays was utilized to monitor directly the genotoxicity of the gaseous emission at a closed landfill site and around an incinerator. Four of the commonly emitted gaseous agents from the landfill flare pipes, i.e. toluene, ethylbenzene, trichloroethylene and ethyltoluene were also evaluated for their genotoxicity in the laboratory. The in situ monitoring trips (360 km one way) were carried out by transporting the plant cuttings in a clean air box or in an air-tight plastic bag to the site and exposing these test cuttings for 5-7 h. The exposed plant samples were examined for micronuclei frequencies or the pink mutation rate after the appropriate recovery periods (24 h for MCN, 7-11 days for SHM). A total of 20 monitoring trips were made to the landfill, and 8 to the nearby surroundings (100-500 m from the chimney) of the incinerator site in a two year period. The major findings of the Trad-MCN test on the clastogenicity of the gaseous emission from the flare pipe of the landfill site showed positive responses or toxic effects in 6 out of 20 trips, and that from the incinerator showed positive responses in 5 out of the 8 trips. These positive responses were closely associated with the weather, i.e. low wind velocity, high temperature and relative humidity, and especially the distance from the chimney of the incinerator. The MCN frequencies and mutation rates of the Elementary School site (E. Sch) which is about 200 m from the fence of the landfill site were mostly negative, except the test results of three trips. Trad-SHM tests on the mutagenicity of gaseous emissions from the flare pipe of the landfill showed 12 positive responses out of 20 trials and 2 positives out of 4 trials from the incinerator gaseous emissions. The average mutation rate from 20 Trad-SHM monitoring trips is positive when the ANOVA and Dunnett's t-statistic were

  6. Qualidade do café natural e despolpado após diferentes tipos de secagem e armazenamento Quality of natural and washed coffee after different types of drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Coradi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Para se comparar as alterações na qualidade do café natural e despolpado em condições de umidades relativas de 60 e 80% e temperatura controlada de 23 °C aos 90 e 180 dias de armazenamento, realizou-se este trabalho no Departamento de Engenharia e no Pólo de Tecnologia em Pós-Colheita do Café da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A colheita do café, variedade Topázio, foi seletiva, enquanto uma parte foi despolpada e a outra processada de forma natural; no entanto, uma parcela de cada tipo de café foi conduzida para a secagem em terreiro e a outra parcela para secagem com temperaturas de 40 e 60 °C; após a secagem, o café foi armazenado em ambiente hermético mantendo-se constantes as umidades relativas de 60 e 80%. Para avaliação da qualidade foram feitas análises sensoriais, teste de acidez graxa e avaliação quantitativa da cor. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho permitem concluir que: a acidez graxa aumenta ao longo do tempo de armazenamento nas condições de 60 e 80% de umidade relativa; a descoloração do café é mais intensa ao longo do tempo de armazenamento para as condições de 80% de umidade relativa; aos 180 dias de armazenamento, a análise sensorial do café é menos afetada pela interação secagem, processamento e armazenamento, nas condições de 60% de umidade relativa.For comparing the alterations in the quality of natural and washed coffee under 60 to 80% relative humidity conditions from and controlled temperature of 23 °C at 90 and 180 days of storage, this work was accomplished in the Engineering Department and Coffee Post-Harvest Technology Centre of the Federal University of Lavras. The harvest of coffee, variety Topazio was selective, while a part of the coffee was pulped and the rest processed in the dry method. However, a part of each type of coffee was ground dried and the rest dried at temperatures of 40 and 60 °C; after drying, the coffee was stored in an air-tight place with

  7. Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Bonar, Jacob [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100), which qualifies it for federal energy efficiency and solar incentives. The house is leading to the planned construction of a similar home in Greensburg, Kansas, and 21 staff houses in the Walden Reserve, a 7000-unit "deep green" community in Cookville, Tennessee. Discussions are underway for construction of similar houses in Charleston, South Carolina, Seattle, Washington, Knoxville and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and upstate New York. This house should lead to a 40% and 50% Gate-3, Mixed-Humid-Climate Joule for the DOE Building America Program. The house is constructed with structurally-insulated-panel walls and roof, raised metal-seam roof with infrared reflective coating, airtight envelope (1.65 air changes per hour at 50 Pascal), supply mechanical ventilation, ducts inside the conditioned space, extensive moisture control package, foundation geothermal space heating and cooling system, ZEHcor wall, solar water heater, and a 2.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. The detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 compared to all the houses in this series are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Based on a validated computer simulation of ZEH5 with typical occupancy patterns and energy services for four occupants, energy for this all-electric house is predicted to cost only $0.66/day ($0.86/day counting the hookup charges). By contrast, the benchmark house would require $3.56/day, including hookup charges (these costs are based on a 2006 residential rates of $0.07/kWh and solar buyback at $0.15/kWh). The solar

  8. 耐阴观叶植物对室内甲醛敏感监测能力研究%Research on sensitive monitoring capability of shade tolerant foliage-plant to indoor formaldehyde pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 郭天佑; 闫红梅; 刘顺腾; 赵学明

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde which has been the top indoor chemical pollutant is one of the three indoor“invisible killers”.How to monitor indoor formaldehyde pollution safely,efficiently and constantly has been an urgent issue.As a simple,economical,accurate,sustainable,efficient and environment-friendly method,plant monitoring has become an important technological means to monitor indoor formaldehyde pollution.Airtight fumigation method is used to do stressful experiment with different concentrations of formaldehyde treating eight kinds of indoor shade tolerant foliage-plants.The results show that under the stress of 2 mg/m3 ,4 mg/m3 and 8mg/m3 concentration of formaldehyde,the influences of plants,concentration and their synergistic effect on the change of chlorophyll content, MDA and POD all reach extremely significant level and the influence of concentration is comparatively more significant.From the change of chlorophyll content,MDA and POD,the plants with high monitoring capability include Begonia semperflorens(X2),Impatiens balsamina(X1);the plants with moderate monitoring capability include Melissa officinalis(X7),Pelargonium hortorum(X3),Mentha haplocalyx (X4 ), Zebrina pendula (X8 ); the plant with low monitoring capability include Chlorophytum comosum(X5),Scindapsus aureum(X6).%甲醛是室内“三大隐形杀手”之一,并已成为室内头号化学污染物。如何安全、有效、持久的监测室内甲醛污染,已经成为亟待解决的重大课题。植物监测作为1种简洁、经济、准确、持续高效、环境友好型的方法,已逐渐成为室内甲醛污染监测的重要技术手段。研究运用密闭熏气法对8种室内耐阴观叶植物进行不同浓度的甲醛胁迫试验,对其甲醛污染监测能力的强弱进行综合评价。结果表明:在2、4和8 mg/m3甲醛浓度胁迫下,甲醛浓度与植物种类两因素之间及其协同作用,对植物叶绿素、丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化物酶(POD)变

  9. 磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸对烟草甲虫卵灭杀效果研究%Killing Effect of Mixed Fumigation of Phosphine and Carbon Dioxide on Eggs of Lasioderma serricorne F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭涛; 刘师伟; 谭琳; 余兴江; 郭年梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to investigate the kil ing effect of mixed fumi-gation of phosphine and carbon dioxide on eggs of Lasioderma serricorne F. [Method] The outside-storage phosphine generator was placed in a tabernacled smoke box, and the mortality rates of L. serricorne F. eggs in the smoke box under conditions of different aluminium phosphide usage amount and different fumigation time were studied. In addition, the times needed by tabernacle and smoke box cen-ter to reach the phosphine concentration peak were recorded. [Result] The optimum conditions for kil ing the eggs of L. serricorne were as fol ows: temperature of (27± 2) ℃, relatively humidity of (45±5)%, aluminium phosphide usage amount of 1.5 g/m3 and effective exposure time of 96 h. The kil ing effect of mixed fumigation of phos-phine and carbon dioxide was increased with the extension of fumigation time. The increased usage amount of aluminium phosphide showed no significant effect on kil ing effect. The tabernacle space and smoke box center al required relatively short time to reach the phosphine concentration peak. If the tabernacle had a good airtightness, the overal fumigation time could be shortened. [Conclusion] The fumi-gation method is reliable, and it can be used for the control of L. serricorne F. in tobacco storage.%[目的]考察磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸法测定其对烟草甲虫卵的杀灭效果。[方法]使用仓外磷化氢发生器对帐幕烟箱中的烟草甲虫卵采取磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸法杀虫,测定不同磷化铝使用量和不同熏蒸时间条件下烟草甲虫卵的死亡率,同时测定帐幕空间和烟箱中心磷化氢浓度达到峰值的时间。[结果]帐幕温度在(27±2)℃,RH(45±5)%时,磷化铝在1.5 g/m3的使用量下,有效密闭96 h,对烟草甲虫卵有较好的杀灭效果。磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸杀虫效果随熏蒸时间的延长而提高,磷化铝用量的提高对杀虫效果

  10. CONTROL OF LIPOSCELISH BOSTRYCHOPHILUS BADONNEL BY SUPPLEMENTING PHOSPHINE AND MAINTAINING CONCENTRATION IN AN AYCH STORAGE%补充施药保持磷化氢浓度熏蒸抗性书虱实仓试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘合存; 王殿轩; 王法林; 陈合印; 韩建平; 陈吉汉

    2011-01-01

    A phosphine fumigation trial against Liposcelish bostrychophilus Badonnel with 488 times of phosphine resistance was carried out in an arch storage of 30 seconds half time at 500 Pa pressure. The test included test cage monitoring, applying aluminium tablet on trays, gas recirculation, phosphine concentration monitoring, fumigant supplement etc.. Phosphine concentration decreased quickly after applying 44 kg of the aluminium phosphide tablet, but for maintaining the concentration above 200 ppm for 45 days, 6 kg, 12 kg and 12 kg tablet was supplied on the 14th day, 19th day and 37th day respectively. The pests in the cage would not be killed completely until 45 days at the 200~500 mL/m3 of phosphine concentration exposure. By making up tablet, no Liposcelish bostrychophilus Badonnel has been detected after 180 days in test granary. The results indicated that it was necessary to supplement in granary with poor airtightness performance to keep effective pbosphine concentration, and Liposcelish bostrychophilus Badonnel could be killed completely at the 200~500 mL/m3 of phosphine concentration for enough time.%在500 Pa正压半衰期为30 s的拱板仓中对储藏小麦中抗性488倍的嗜卷书虱Liposcelish bostrychophilus Badonnel进行磷化氢熏蒸,包括预置试虫虫笼、潮解施药、气体环流、检测浓度、补充药剂、检查效果、熏蒸后防护等.主要结果为:初次施入磷化铝片剂44 kg后,仓内磷化氢浓度下降很快,以后分别于第14 d、第19 d和第37 d先后补充施药6 kg、12 kg、12 kg,仓内磷化氢浓度保持在200 mL/m3以上的时间维持45d.在大部分时间保持磷化氢浓度200 mL/m3~500 mL/m3的情况下,虫笼中的害虫到第45 d才全部死亡,试验仓在后期隔离防护的情况下180 d没有检测到书虱.结果说明,密闭较差的仓房熏蒸中补充施药才可能有效保持磷化氢浓度,在200 mL/m3~500 mL/m3的浓度下熏蒸需要很长的时间才能完全杀死抗性嗜卷书虱.

  11. The Effect of Extending Expose Time of Phosphine on Grain Pests%延长磷化氢熏蒸有效时间对储粮害虫熏蒸效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓军; 王凯; 代永; 司雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Effective concentration and fumigation time of phosphine are key factors in phosphine fumigation techniques controlling the stored grain pests successfully. For the limitation of poor storage airtightness in practices, half life of pressure is not accord with the fumigation warehouse criteria, and it is the most challenge of control pests in grain storage. With a complementary application technology of phosphine, phosphine tables will be input when phosphine concentration is less than 250 mL/m3 and exposure time is 40 days in stored wheat warehouses under a whole-warehouse fumigation. The results as follow:(1)the expose time of phosphine concentration more than 200 mL/m3 and 250 mL/m3 were 35 days and 25 days under the complementary application technology, respectively; (2)Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus were all killed after expose 22 days. It showed that expose time of effective concentration was extended with a complementary application technology, it is a available way to controlling stored grain pests with phosphine fumigation.%维持磷化氢的有效熏蒸浓度和有效熏蒸时间是磷化氢熏蒸技术成功防治储粮害虫的决定性因素。实践中,由于储粮维护结构的气密性较差,仓房气密性的压力半衰期往往无法达到熏蒸仓的标准,给储粮害虫的防治带来了一定困难。本研究采用补充施药技术,当磷化氢浓度降至250 mL/m3时开始补药,延长熏蒸时间至40 d以上,采用整仓环流熏蒸的方式,在储有小麦的高大平房仓进行储粮害虫的磷化氢熏蒸防治试验,结果表明:采用补充施药至少可维持磷化氢浓度在200 mL/m3以上可达35 d,在250 mL/m3以上可达25 d;熏蒸22 d后,可全部杀死仓内的赤拟谷盗和锈赤扁谷盗。表明通过补充施药进而延长有效熏蒸时间是保障磷化氢熏蒸成功有效方法。

  12. Viabilidade de sementes de erva-de-touro, sob diferentes condições de armazenamento Seed viability of coat button under different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Guimarães

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção da viabilidade das sementes é muito influenciada pelas condições de armazenamento. No caso das plantas daninhas, essa informação pode servir como suporte para a realização de outras pesquisas e também ajudar na compreensão da dinâmica das infestações. Neste trabalho, a viabilidade das sementes da planta daninha erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens foi monitorada durante dois anos, quando armazenadas em câmara fria (temperatura de 10 ºC e umidade relativa de 50%, em congelador (-18 ºC, em armazém convencional (condições não controladas e no solo. Quando armazenado em câmara fria (em sacos de papel e em congelador (em tubos plásticos herméticos, o lote de sementes mantém a viabilidade inicial (70,5% por no mínimo 730 dias (período experimental. No solo, ocorre perda de viabilidade com o tempo, numa taxa constante de 8,2% para cada 100 dias. Em armazém convencional, a viabilidade das sementes (em sacos de papel é mantida por 200 dias, com redução acentuada entre 300 e 500 dias, chegando ao final de 730 dias com 2,8% de viabilidade. Em nenhuma das formas de armazenamento há indução de dormência secundária nas sementes.Seed viability is strongly influenced by storage conditions. In weeds, this information may serve as support for other research works and help to understand infestation dynamics as well. This work, conducted at Universidade Federal de Lavras, was carried out to evaluate the viability of coat button (Tridax procumbens seeds stored in cold chamber ( temperature of 10 ºC and relative humidity of 50%, in freezer (-18 ºC, conventional warehouse (uncontrolled conditions and soil, over 2 years. Seed lot with 70.5% initial viability, maintained this condition over the experimental period (730 days when stored in cold chamber (in paper bags and in freezer (in airtight plastic tubes. Under soil conditions, viability loss occurred with time, at a constant rate of 8.2% at every 100 days. In a

  13. THE EFFECT OF LOW CONCENTRATION OXYGEN INHALATION ON TRACHEA AND LUNG TISSUE OF THE RATS EXPOSED TO FORMALIN%低浓度吸氧对福尔马林暴露大鼠气管及肺组织的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂晓进; 刘海平; 王切; 任国山

    2012-01-01

    目的 给予福尔马林暴露大鼠吸入低浓度氧气后,观察其气管及肺组织的光、电镜形态学改变,为预防及治疗福尔马林对呼吸系统的损伤提供理论基础.方法 18只雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组、福尔马林暴露组、福尔马林暴露+吸氧组,每组6只.对照组大鼠呼吸自然空气,福尔马林暴露组大鼠及福尔马林暴露+吸氧组大鼠每天吸入福尔马林12h,福尔马林暴露+吸氧组大鼠福尔马林暴露完毕后立即吸入浓度为29%的氧气,1次/d,1h/次.对照组和福尔马林暴露组大鼠此时呼吸自然空气.连续吸入25d后处死大鼠取气管、肺组织,通过光学显微镜和透射电镜观察其形态学改变.结果 与福尔马林暴露组相比,福尔马林暴露+吸氧组大鼠光学显微镜下可见气管及肺组织的水肿及炎性改变均有所减轻,透射电镜下虽然板层小体结构仍显紊乱,但Ⅱ型肺泡上皮细胞胞浆内未见空泡;肺泡腔内虽仍可见红细胞及少量坏死细胞碎片,但也未见空泡.结论 低浓度吸氧可改善福尔马林暴露所导致的大鼠气管及肺组织的病理损伤.%Objective SD rats inhaled low concentration oxygen after exposed to formalin and the morphology change of trachea and lung tissue was observed to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of respiratory system damage induced by formalin. Methods Eighteen SD rats were randomly divided into control group, formalin group and formalin + oxygen group. Control group breathed air in the box. Formalin group and formalin + oxygen group inhaled formalin for 12 hours every day in the box. After formalin exposure,the control group and formalin group breathed air,The formalin + oxygen group was immediately provided with 29% oxygen in a airtight container for one hour every day. After 25 days, the morphology change of trachea and lung tissue was observed by the optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results

  14. A widely adaptable habitat construction system utilizing space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Harry B.

    1993-01-01

    This study suggests that the cost of providing accommodations for various manned activities in space may be reduced by the extensive use of resources that are commonly found throughout the solar system. Several concepts are proposed for converting these resources into simple products with many uses. Concrete is already being considered as a possible moonbase material. Manufacturing equipment should be as small and simple as possible, which leads to the idea of molding it into miniature modules that can be produced and assembled in large numbers to create any conceivable shape. Automated equipment could build up complex structures by laying down layer after layer in a process resembling stereolithography. These tiny concrete blocks handle compression loads and provide a barrier to harmful radiation. They are joined by a web of tension members that could be made of wire or fiber-reinforced plastic. The finished structure becomes air-tight with the addition of a flexible liner. Wire can be made from the iron modules found in lunar soil. In addition to its structural role, a relatively simple apparatus can bend and weld it into countless products like chairs and shelving that would otherwise need to be supplied from Earth. Wire woven into a loose blanket could be an effective micrometeoroid shield, tiny wire compression beams could be assembled into larger beams which in turn form larger beams to create very large space-frame structures. A technology developed with lunar materials could be applied to the moons of Mars or the asteroids. To illustrate its usefulness several designs for free-flying habitats are presented. They begin with a minimal self-contained living unit called the Cubicle. It may be multiplied into clusters called Condos. These are shown in a rotating tether configuration that provides a substitute for gravity. The miniature block proposal is compared with an alternate design based on larger triangular components and a tetrahedral geometry. The

  15. Preliminary study of a radiological survey in an abandoned uranium mining area in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Rabesiranana; M, Rasolonirina; F, Solonjara A.; Andriambololona., Raoelina; L, Mabit

    2010-05-01

    The region of Vinaninkarena located in central Madagascar (47°02'40"E, 19°57'17"S), is known to be a high natural radioactive area. Uranium ore was extracted in this region during the 1950s and the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, mining activities were stopped and the site abandoned. In the meantime, the region, which used to be without any inhabitants, has recently been occupied by new settlers with presumed increase in exposure of the local population to natural ionizing radiation. In order to assess radiological risk, a survey to assess the soil natural radioactivity background was conducted during the year 2004. This study was implemented in the frame of the FADES Project SP99v1b_21 entitled: Assessment of the environmental pollution by multidisciplinary approach, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Cooperation Project MAG 7002 entitled: Effects of air and water pollution on human health. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the geographical coordinates of the top soil samples (0-15cm) collected. The sampling was performed using a multi integrated scale approach to estimate the spatial variability of the parameters under investigation (U, Th and K) using geo-statistical approach. A total of 205 soil samples was collected in the study site (16 km2). After humidity correction, the samples were sealed in 100 cm3 cylindrical air-tight plastic containers and stored for more than 6 months to reach a secular equilibrium between parents and short-lived progeny (226Ra and progeny, 238U and 234Th). Measurements were performed using a high-resolution HPGe Gamma-detector with a 30% relative efficiency and an energy resolution of 1.8 keV at 1332.5 keV, allowing the determination of the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In case of secular equilibrium, a non-gamma-emitting radionuclide activity was deduced from its gamma emitting progeny. This was the case for 238U (from 234Th), 226Ra (from 214Pb and 214Bi) and 232Th (from 228Ac, 212Pb or

  16. Role of GRP78 in sevoflurane preconditioning-induced inhibition of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of rats%GRP78在七氟醚预处理抑制大鼠心肌细胞凋亡中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴裕超; 孙志鹏; 钟良; 向强

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) in sevoflurane preconditioning-induced inhibition of apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of rats.Methods The cultured cardiomyocytes of Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n =30 each) using a random number table:control group (group C),hypoxia-reoxgenation (H/R) group,sevoflurane preconditioning group (group S),siRNA-GRP78 group and siRNA control group.H/R was produced by 2 h exposure of cells to 95% N2-5% CO2 in an air-tight chamber at 37 ℃,followed by reoxygenation with 95% O2-5% CO2 in an air-tight chamber at 37 ℃ for 1 h.In group S,the cells were incubated with 2.5% sevoflurane for 20 min,followed by 10-min washout before H/R.In siRNA-GRP78 group,the cells were transfected with siRNA-GRP78 100 nmol/L,and 24 h later preconditioning with sevoflurane was performed and H/R was produced.In siRNA group,cells were transfected with siRNA,and the other treatments were similar to those previously described in siRNA-GRP78 group.After treatment in each group,the expression of GRP78 in myocardial cells and cytochrome c in cytoplasm and mitochondria was detected by Western blot.Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in the culture medium of each group were determined by ELISA.The apoptosis in myocardial cells was assessed by flow cytometry.Apoptotic rate was calculated.Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the fluorescent probe Fura-2/ AM.The opening of mPTP was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry.Results Compared to group C,the expression of GRP78 in myocardial cells and cytochrome c in cytoplasm was significantly up-regulated,LDH and CK activities in the culture medium,apoptotic rate and [Ca2+]i were increased,and the expression of cytochrome c in mitochondria was down-regulated in H/R group.Compared to group H/R,the expression of GRP78 in myocardial cells and cytochrome c in mitochondria was significantly up

  17. 苯污染胁迫下室内植物叶绿素含量变化分析研究%Analysis of indoor plant chlorophyll content in benzene pollution stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 景荣荣; 赵洁; 闫红梅; 赵学明; 丁珍

    2016-01-01

    Benzene has been known as one of the three invisible killers of indoor pollution,and is severely threatening human health,and the management of indoor Benzene pollution has become a major issue in improving indoor ecological environment. The indoor plants for adversity resistance to indoor Benzene,is essential to control benzene contamination efficiently. The research and choice of strength and ability of resistance of indoor plants to benzene pollution is the basis and premise of effective governance indoor benzene pollution. The change of the chlorophyll content of plants is one of the important bases to evaluate the ability of resistance to benzene contamination. The research does experiments with different concentrations of benzene stress for 9 plants with airtight fumigation method,by analyzing the changes in chlorophyll content under different concentrations of benzene pollution stress in plants, and does research on indoor plants resistant ability to benzene contamination. The results show that the influence of different plant species,benzene concentration and interaction between two factors on variation of the contents of chlorophyll have come to an extremely significant level;the effects of benzene concentration on plant physiological indexes' changes is more significant;Sansevieria trifasciata var. laurentii has the highest resistance against benzene pollution under benzene stress of 15 mg/m3 ,30 mg/m3 and 60 mg · m-3 ,which respectively is 5. 43%,10. 09% and 19. 33%;Melissa officinalis,the lowest,which respectively is 12. 81%, 19. 53% and 35. 18%;under benzene stress of 15 mg/m3 ,Neottopteris antique is the second to resist benzene pollution;under benzene stress of 30 mg/m3 and 60 mg/m3 ,the second is Scindapsus aureun. The physiological indexes of Sansevieria trifasciata var. laurentii has the strongest resistance to benzene pollution,followed by Scindapsus aureun,and the weakest is Melissa officinalis.%苯为室内空气污染的"三大隐形杀手"

  18. 二元包装过氧乙酸的相关性能试验观察%OBSERVATION OF RELATED PERFORMANCE OF PERACETIC ACID IN BINARY PACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 杨宁; 胡顺铁

    2011-01-01

    [目的]二元包装过氧乙酸是由A液(冰醋酸、硫酸)与B液(过氧化氢)按一定比例混合后反应生成过氧乙酸,观察其储存稳定性、杀菌效果和安全性等相关性能.[方法]采用理化分析方法、悬液定量杀菌试验和动物毒性试验进行了检测.[结果]该产品过氧乙酸含量为170.8 g/L,于54℃恒温放置14 d,其含量下降率为4.6%.以50 mg/L过氧乙酸溶液对悬液内大肠杆菌作用3 min,对金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌作用5 min,杀灭对数值均﹥5.00,以含200 mg/L过氧乙酸水溶液对悬液内的白色念珠菌作用5 min,杀灭对数值﹥4.00,以含750 mg/L过氧乙酸水溶液对悬液内的枯草杆菌黑色变种芽孢作用10 min,杀灭对数值﹥5.00.该消毒剂原液对小鼠急性经口毒性LD50值为1 360.5 mg/kg.BW,最高应用浓度5倍溶液的LD50值大于5 000 mg/kg.BW.[结论]本二元包装过氧乙酸消毒剂的稳定性好,对细菌繁殖体、真菌和细菌芽孢的杀菌效果好,动物试验原液属低毒物质、最高应用浓度5倍溶液属实际无毒.%[Objective]To know the bactericidal efficacy, storing stability and toxicity of peracetic acid in binary packing, which was produced by mixing solution A (glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid) and solution B ( hydroden peroxide).[Methods]Suspension quantitative germicidal test, physicochemical analysis method and acute LD50 were used to carry out laboratory observation.[Results]After solution A and solution B of the peracetic acid in binary packing filled separately in air-tight plastic bottles were stored at 54℃ for 14 days, the peracetic acid content produced decreased by 4.6% as compared with before storing.The killing logarithm values of Escherichia coli in suspension exposed to the water solution containing 50mg/ Lperacetic acid for 3 min and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus exposed for 5 min were > 5.00.The killing logarithm value of Candida albicans in suspension exposed

  19. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    to launch in 2002 part (c) of the journal, devoted mainly, but not exclusively, to conference articles. Martin also introduced the publication of Feature Articles, topical issues, and the instrument of the Editor's Choice to highlight articles deemed to be especially interesting. He appointed Regional Editors (6 at this point) which represent the journal in important geographic regions. He also brought the journal online, a must these days. The upheavals that followed the collapse of most of the communist world, the rapid development of science in many emerging nations and the enhanced competitiveness, even in the developed countries, have not ebbed out. Some of them are particular damaging to the reputation of science in a world increasingly skeptical of its values. I am thinking of scientific misconduct and outright fraud, in the form of plagiarism and data fabrication. physica status solidi was also afflicted by this plague: after all, it happened in the best of families. Two of the most notorious offenders of the past decade, J. H. Schön and Y. Park, also visited physica status solidi. In two courageous editorials Martin Stutzmann and Stefan Hildebrandt (Managing Editor of the journal) rapidly exposed these cases of misconduct together with other cases in which there was also good reason to suspect misconduct. Some of the articles involved were rapidly retracted by the authors, others were not. It is reassuring to say that none of them had any impact worth mentioning (1-3 citations, mostly by the authors themselves or in the editorials just mentioned). Only few journal editors dared to convey to the readers a warning that some work of those authors may be faulty even if no air-tight proof was available. However, Martin and Stefan did. We wish that Martin will remain at the helm at least another decade, before he switches to research on the liquid state as practiced in Southern France.

  20. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  1. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  2. Risk factors of urinary tract infections in tumor patients with catheter indwelling%肿瘤患者留置尿管泌尿系感染的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊英

    2013-01-01

    ,7,or 14 days after the catheter indwelling were 5.00%,7.50%,37.50%,and 50.00%,respectively.CONCLUSION Indwelling catheter is the most important factor resulting in the nosocomial urinary tract infections in the tumor patients.Mastering catheterization indications to avoid intubation is the best way to effectively reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections.During the indwelling intubation,strict implementation of aseptic reduce catheter indwelling time,while ensuring airtight environment within the drainage,can effectively reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections in the tumor patients.

  3. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating

  4. 臭氧对离体华支睾虫囊蚴生命力的影响%Effects of ozone on the viability of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫萍; 盛金凤; 刘小玲

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]This research studied the effects of ozone on the viability of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae in vitro to provide reference for exploring methods for killing metacercaria parasite and for meat preservation. [Method] Pseudorasbora parva and silver floating fish liver obtained from the river of Qipuling village, Hengzhou town, Heng County were observed under tabletting microscopy; then, using positive fish tested with liver fluke metacercaria as study subject, the metacercariae from infected fish were obtained using artificial gastric juice digestion. Afterwards, the metacercaria separated into 50/group were divided into several groups in distilled water, effects of different ozone modes, time, and initial concentrations on the isolated metacercariae were compared. [Result]When the ozone passed into the distilled water for 10 min, the mortality rate of metacercariae from first passing the ozone through metacercariae was significantly lower than of the metacercariae from first passing the metacercaria after ozone. By the treatment of first passing metacercaria after ozone, as the ozone access time increased, the metacercaria mortality rate significantly increased. After passing ozone for 10 min, the metacercaria mortality rate reached higher than 70.00%, and the remaining metacercariae without excystation basically exhibited no activities. After passing ozone for 20 min, the metacercaria mortality rate reached 100.00%, so all of the metacercariae exhibited no activities. Under airtight conditions, the higher the initial concentration of ozone in distilled water, the higher the metacercariae mortality rate. The activities of liver fluke metacercaria manifestations in the ozone water were observed as follows: in the beginning of ozone passing, the metacercaria tried to violently break the cercaria walls; as the ozone passing time prolonged, part of the encysted metacercaria broke through the walls, but finally the cercariae activities slowed down until

  5. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Svensson, D. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikatzu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) (Japan); Wersin, P.; Rosch, D. [Gruner Ltd, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated steel cylinder. Since steel is unstable in wet bentonite, it will corrode and the corrosion products will interact with the surrounding bentonite in ways that are not fully understood. Such interaction may seriously impair the bentonite's functioning as a buffer material, e.g. by lowering its CEC or decreasing its swelling capacity. This report presents results from two ironbentonite experiments carried out under quite different conditions at VTT (Finland) and JAEA (Japan). Both studies focused on long-term iron-bentonite interactions under anaerobic conditions. The study at VTT comprised eight years long experiments focused on diffusive based interactions between solid cast-iron and compacted MX-80 bentonite (dry density 1.5- 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}) in contact with an aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution. The study at JAEA comprised ten years long batch experiments, each involving a mixture of metallic iron powder (25 g), an industrially refined Na bentonite, Kunipia F, which contains more than 99% montmorillonite (25 g), and an aqueous solution (250 mL). Samples were sent to B and Tech in airtight steel vessels filled with N{sub 2} and subsequently analyzed at various laboratories in Finland and Sweden. The JAEA samples differed with regard to the initial solution chemistry, which was either distilled water, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.6 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3}, or 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The analyses of the MX-80 bentonite samples were carried out on samples containing a cast iron cylinder and also on corresponding background samples with no cast iron. In addition, the external solution and gas phase in contact with the bentonite were analyzed. Briefly, the gas contained H{sub 2}, most possibly caused by corrosion of the cast iron, and CO{sub 2}, mainly as a result of carbonate dissolution. The eight years old external solution exhibited

  6. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena (BandTech Oy (Finland)); Carlsson, Torbjoern; Muurinen, Arto (VTT (Finland)); Svensson, Daniel (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikatzu (JAEA (Japan)); Wersin, Paul; Rosch, Dominic (Gruner Ltd (Switzerland))

    2010-05-15

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated steel cylinder. Since steel is unstable in wet bentonite, it will corrode and the corrosion products will interact with the surrounding bentonite in ways that are not fully understood. Such interaction may seriously impair the bentonite's functioning as a buffer material, e.g. by lowering its CEC or decreasing its swelling capacity. This report presents results from two iron-bentonite experiments carried out under quite different conditions at VTT (Finland) and JAEA (Japan). Both studies focused on long-term iron-bentonite interactions under anaerobic conditions. The study at VTT comprised eight years long experiments focused on diffusive based interactions between solid cast-iron and compacted MX-80 bentonite (dry density 1.5-1.6 g/cm3) in contact with an aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution. The study at JAEA comprised ten years long batch experiments, each involving a mixture of metallic iron powder (25 g), an industrially refined Na bentonite, Kunipia F, which contains more than 99% montmorillonite (25 g), and an aqueous solution (250 mL). Samples were sent to B+Tech in airtight steel vessels filled with N{sub 2} and subsequently analyzed at various laboratories in Finland and Sweden. The JAEA samples differed with regard to the initial solution chemistry, which was either distilled water, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.6 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3}, or 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The analyses of the MX-80 bentonite samples were carried out on samples containing a cast iron cylinder and also on corresponding background samples with no cast iron. In addition, the external solution and gas phase in contact with the bentonite were analyzed. Briefly, the gas contained H{sub 2}, most possibly caused by corrosion of the cast iron, and CO{sub 2}, mainly as a result of carbonate dissolution. The eight years old external solution exhibited, inter alia

  7. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  8. Study of the follow-up management strategies after installation of improved stoves to prevent coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Guizhou province%贵州省改良炉灶控制燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒后期管理对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 梁音; 胡小强; 张锐智

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the follow-up management strategies after improving stoves for controlling coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Guizhou and to provide a scientific basis for exploring the follow-up management measures.Methods In 2006 - 2009,three counties of Puding,Bijie and Liuzhi with improved stoves in 2005 and implemented follow-up management measures for subsequent three years were chosen,3 towns were chosen randomly in each chosen county,2 villages were selected randomly in each chosen town,10 households were investigated randomly in each chosen village,and 20 students were investigated of the knowledge of fluorosis control.The investigation included also the usage of the stoves,dehydration methods of grain and related conditions.Results ①The head of the family and student awareness of fluorosis control were 82.6%(743/900)and 91.7% (1650/1800),respectively,and 35.0% ( 385/1100 ) and 61.0% (6605/10 835 ),respectively,before the test,and the difference was statistically significant( x2 =33.04,1189.12,all P < 0.01 ).②The rates of chimney out of the house were 88.5%(69/78) and 100.0%(102/102),respectively,compared with those before the trial[74.4%(2125/2856) and 2.1%(104/4984),respectively],the difference was statistically significant(x2 =720.56,4295.38,all P < 0.01).The iron stove and the table stove's airtight utilization rates were 85.9%(67/78) and 100.0%(102/102),respectively.③The corn and the hot pepper's correct drying rates were 100.0%(180/180).Compared with those[27.2%(49/180) and 32.2%(58/180),respectively]before the trial,the difference was statistically significant(x2 =26.68,37.38,all P < 0.01 ).The corn and the hot pepper's washing rates before eating were 95.0%(57/60) and 98.3%(177/180),respectively.Compared with those[85.0%(153/180) and 77.8%(140/180)]before the trial,the difference was statistically significant(x2 =135.00,490.82,all P < 0.01 ).Conclusions The target population's awareness and

  9. 经皮穴位电刺激后鼠耐力训练中体能的变化%Changes in physical fitness of mice and rats in endurance training after transcutaneous electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼; 李章华; 何金森

    2005-01-01

    . Exhausted swimming time was recorded with stopwatch from the beginning of experiment to the exhaustion. The identifying criteria of exhausted swimming time: when the small white mouse was exhausted, the time was recorded since its head was unable to expose on the water surface till it was sunk to the bottom. The training lasted 7days. After the last experiment, the mouse was placed in a 50 mL airtight glass bottle with 10 g lime sodium and the time of breathing stop was recorded with second (asphyxia time). Effect on desk fatigue time and body mass in rats: in TAES group and training control, the rats exercised on the animal running desk at 15-27 m/min, 30 min/time, for 14 days continuously. The exercise stopped once on the 7th day and the 13th day respectively. The transcutaneous electric stimulus was same as the above. Identifying criteria of fatigue: the rat could not followed prearranged speed after the stimulation and retarded on the posterior half section on the desk, and it was stimulated with electricity over 3 times. Body mass of rat was measured with common scale before and after experiment.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Exhausted swimming time and hypoxia endurance time of mice before and after experiment, desk fatigue time and change in body mass in rats.RESULTS: All of the animals accomplished the experiment smoothly and and hypoxia endurance time: the exhausted time in TAES group on the 1st and 7th days was prolonged significantly compared with blank control group [(38.78±4.33), (30.08±3.12) minutes; P < 0.01]; [(41.35±3.45), (30.11 ±3.23)minutes, P < 0.01]. The exhausted time in TAES group on the 7th day was longer remarkably than that on the 1st day (P < 0.05). The hypoxia endurance time in TAES group was longer significantly than blank control fatigue time and body mass in rats: the difference of fatigue time before and after experiment was not big in blank control group (P > 0.05) and the difference was remarkable before and after experiment in