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Sample records for airtightness

  1. Stimulation of good building and ductwork airtightness through EPBD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyot, Gaelle; Carrié, Remi; Schild, Peter;

    Building and ductwork leakage are detrimental to energy conservation, comfort, and hygiene. They can cause building damage and it can prevent proper control of the ventilation airflow rates. Through the ASIEPI project, we have identified that while some key elements for a market transformation...... on envelope airtightness are under development in many countries, status quo seems to prevail for the duct market. With the objective of all new constructions being “nearly zero energy buildings” in 2020, policy makers need to know how better airtightness can be stimulated....

  2. Two applications of airtightness control techniques on big assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Devallan, C; Marcellin, J

    1973-01-01

    Deals with two airtightness control techniques respectively applied on intersecting storage rings (ISR) at CERN in Geneva and on a liquid methane storage tank. These two big assemblies called for two different control techniques which use helium and ammonia respectively as tracer gas. Existing practical leakage detection techniques to meet industrial needs are discussed at the end of the article. (2 refs).

  3. Radiological risk of building materials using homemade airtight radon chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab.; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Soil based building materials known to contain various amounts of natural radionuclide mainly {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series and {sup 40}K. In general most individuals spend 80% of their time indoors and the natural radioactivity in building materials is a main source of indoor radiation exposure. The internal exposure due to building materials in dwellings and workplaces is mainly caused by the activity concentrations of short lived {sup 222}Radon and its progenies which arise from the decay of {sup 226}Ra. In this study, the indoor radon concentration emanating from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were measured in a homemade airtight radon chamber using continuous radon monitor 1029 model of Sun Nuclear. Radon monitor were left in the chamber for 96 hours with an hour counting time interval. From the result, the indoor radon concentrations for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples determined were 396 Bq m{sup −3}, 192 Bq m{sup −3}, 176 Bq m{sup −3} and 28 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The result indicates that the radon concentration in the studied building materials have more than 100 Bq m{sup −3} i.e. higher than the WHO action level except for Portland cement sample. The calculated annual effective dose for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement samples were determined to be 10 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.85 mSv y{sup −1}, 4.44 mSv y{sup −1} and 0.72 mSv y{sup −1}, respectively. This study showed that all the calculated effective doses generated from indoor radon to dwellers or workers were in the range of limit recommended ICRP action levels i.e. 3 - 10 mSv y{sup −1}. As consequences, the radiological risk for the dwellers in terms of fatal lifetime cancer risk per million for cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and Portland cement were calculated to be 550, 267, 244 and 40 persons respectively.

  4. Alternative methods for evaluation of airtightness of the building envelope; Alternativa metoder foer utvaerdering av byggnadsskalets lufttaethet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Wahlgren, Paula

    2008-07-01

    Airtightness plays an important role when constructing energy efficient, sustainable and healthy buildings. In order to obtain airtight buildings, the airtightness needs to be evaluated during the construction phase. This enables improvements of the airtightness in an easy and cost-efficient way. During the construction phase, it is difficult to quantify the airtightness. However, detecting and sealing air leakages are good measures to improve the airtightness of the building. Several methods to detect air leakages are presented. A methodology to search for air leakages in buildings during construction has been developed, together with contractors and experts, and the methodology has been used at two building sites. The quantifiable airtightness of a building is determined by measuring the airflow that enters or exits the building at a certain pressure difference over the building envelope. In some cases it is not possible to measure air tightness according to standard. Therefore, a number of alternative methods have been evaluated. These methods include: extrapolation of measured data to a range used in standard measurements, using a buildings ventilation system fans to create a pressure difference over the building envelope, measuring the airtightness of a smaller part of the building (apartment, fire compartment or component) and tracer gas measurements

  5. Tritium Removal System for Airtight Room in High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor (HANARO) - 12110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Airtight room was installed to prevent the diffusion of tritium from the instrument room to other areas in HANARO. It was isolated by a robust structure and the inside was closed tightly. A Tritium removal system located outside the instrument room was connected to the airtight room to lower the tritium concentration when the workers enter the room for maintenance of the instruments. The tritium concentration and the dew point in the airtight room were continuously measured during the operation of the tritium removal system. The data were analyzed by using a model. There was a difference between the measured tritium concentration and the one obtained by the model. It is believed that the difference is due to the change of the generation rate of tritium which would increase as the dew point becomes lower. Based on this assumption, the previous equation was revised to better express the performance of the tritium removal system. It was re-estimated that the change of tritium concentration in an airtight room could be predicted well by using a model and equation proposed in the previous study. It was confirmed that there was a definite difference between the measured tritium concentration and the one obtained by equation from the model. It is believed that the difference is due to the change of the generation rate of tritium which would increase as the dew point becomes lower. Based on this assumption, the generation rate of tritium was controlled to have higher value and the change of tritium concentration in airtight room could be more correctly predicted. By using the revised equation, the tritium removal system would be operated more effectively. (authors)

  6. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings: Field Measurements and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wanyu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Durability of the building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. This paper presents a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007-2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightness of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. A regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL).

  7. Influence of Improvement of Airtightness on Energy Retrofit of Social Housing, a Case Study in a Mediterranean Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Agüera, Jesica; Suárez, Rafael; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    strategies, the study and analysis of the air-tightness of the building envelope (as measured by the degree of infiltration) is a fundamental factor, because of its impact on energy efficiency, thermal comfort of occupants and indoor air quality. For this purpose, it has become a regular research field...

  8. Refinement of a SPR sensor for application within air-tight buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James; Aidoo, Kofi

    2009-08-01

    The development of air-tight buildings to significantly reduce the carbon emissions from buildings is a relatively new building technique. However the side effects of the new approach have not been fully investigated. One potential issue arising is from insufficient ventilation resulting in an increase in poor indoor air quality from exacerbated microbial growth through elevated humidity and temperature. At the moment there is no in situ real-time sensor for the detection of multiple microbes within the built environment. Developing a sensor utilizing the phenomena of Surface Plasmon Resonance as its detection method to continuously monitor in situ multiple microbial species and fungi is being undertaken. The research involves the refinement of the specialised instruments commercially available, simplifying the components and advancing the architecture of the interface allowing for the monitoring of multiple species and a novel output detection method.

  9. An experimental study on removal efficiency of bio-particles in an airtight decontamination chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanju [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); National Biological Protection Engineering Center, Tianjin (China); Hao, Limei; Wang, Shuang; Hou, Lili; Zhang, Jinming; Qi, Jiancheng [National Biological Protection Engineering Center, Tianjin (China)

    2009-11-15

    Many bacteria and viruses lead to global dissemination of respiratory diseases, such as SARS, influenza, tuberculosis, pneumonia and asthma, by clinging to particles and transmission through aerosol. In this paper, an experiment was conducted to investigate the removal efficiency of bio-particles when exposed to ventilation in an airtight decontamination chamber made of stainless steel. After the bio-particles (Serratia marcescens) exposure condition was established in the chamber, the bio-particles removal efficiency was investigated. And a comparison experiment was then conducted with polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) as general particles under the same environmental condition. The comparison results indicate that the removal efficiency of bio-particles is lower than that of PSL during the first 300 s, but both removal efficiencies reached 90% almost at the same time. Furthermore, the differences between bio-particles and PSL, the influence of bio-particle size, environmental velocity, temperature and relative humidity on bio-particle removal efficiency were analyzed and discussed comprehensively. These data could not only underpin future numerical simulations of bio-particles, but also give information to aid in decisions for decreasing the risk of bio-particles pollution in a microbe exposure environment. (author)

  10. Airtight negative pressure dust-control technology and application of transpersite in the coal conveyer belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yun-dong; JIA Hui-yan; ZHANG Da-ming

    2008-01-01

    Presented a new coal dust control program that was airtight negative pressure dust-control technology at the transpersite,combining with analysis with the movement of air currents and numerical simulation of gas-solid flow at the transpersite,and proved the mechanism of precipitation and proliferation for coal dust-controlt in theory.The technology has made good economic results at the Heidaigou Clean Plant,not only dust concentration control within 10 mg/m3 to the work site,but also substantial energy savings and cost savings.

  11. Airtight negative pressure dust-control technology and application of transpersite in the coal conveyer belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yun-dong; JIA Hui-yan; ZHANG Da-ming

    2008-01-01

    Presented a new coal dust control program that was airtight negative pressure dust-control technology at the transpersite, combining with analysis with the movement of air currents and numerical simulation of gas-solid flow at the transpersite, and proved the mechanism of precipitation and proliferation for coal dust-controlt in theory. The technol-ogy has made good economic results at the Heidaigou Clean Plant, not only dust concen-tration control within 10 mg/m3 to the work site, but also substantial energy savings and cost savings.

  12. High moisture airtight storage of barley and triticale: Effect of moisture level and grain processing on nitrogen and phosphorus solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2015-01-01

    moisture levels (20, 23, 26 and 29% moisture) and to compare HMA storage of cereals with dry storage for 49 days. Dry stored barley and triticale (10 and 13% moisture, respectively) were kept in 10 L plastic buckets for 0 and 49 days. HMA stored cereals were kept in airtight bags (400 g per bag) at 15 °C...... for 0, 14, 29 and 49 days. The cereals were dry stored or HMA stored in rolled or whole form without or with an enzyme combination. Samples in triplicate were measured for dry matter (DM), pH, N and P solubility, phytate P and total P. HMA storage of rolled barley and rolled triticale at 26 and 29......) in HMA storage at 29% moisture to a greater extent compared with dry storage (P levels increased P solubility (rolled barley, whole and rolled triticale) and N solubility (whole and rolled triticale) linearly and decreased Phytate P:Total P (rolled barley) linearly...

  13. A New Tool for Airtight Test%一种新型气密试验工装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易辉; 程红

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of airtight test tool which will reduce the damage of pressure gauge greatly. By removing branch pipe and valve, it can be used as accessories of pressure gauge. It will protect pressure gauge from damage when used in conjunction with pressure gaug.%一种新型气密试验工装,可以大大减少压力表的损坏。除掉支管和闸阀后,它可以充当压力表的配件。它与压力表配套使用,具有更好的仪表保护效果。

  14. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  15. Modification and economy analysis for airtight dehydration in tank farm%罐区密闭脱水技术改造及经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范恺

    2016-01-01

    The safety of tank farm is crucial for oil and gas storage,so it is significant for airtight dehydration by use of current technologies.This paper describes the modification for airtight dehydration in tank farm along with related economic analysis to provide guidance for safety practices.%罐区安全直接威胁石油天然气的储存和运输,所以如何利用现有技术做好罐区密闭脱水处理具有重要意义。本文主要分析罐区密闭脱水技术的改造,并且对其经济型做一分析,目的就是要指导罐区的安全实践。

  16. 新型空气处理机用密闭面板技术%The new air processor with airtight panel technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙长安

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍一种空气处理机用密闭面板结构,属空调技术领域。本结构密闭面板内外金属板扣合在边框上,形成的密闭空间充填有保温材料层,内外金属板并不直接接触,杜绝了冷桥的产生;面板整体性好、强度高、外形美观、无需装饰;降低了加工工时,提高了产品的性价比。%This paper introduces a kind of air processor with airtight panel structure,air conditioning technology. This structure closed panel fit inside and outside the metal plate on the frame, form the airtight space filling with insulation layer,inner and outer metal plate is not in direct contact,put an end to the cold bridge. Panel,integral sex is good,high strength,good appearance,no decoration; Reduces the processing time,increase the product price.

  17. 煤矿井下煤层密闭取心装置%Study on Coal Seam Airtight Coring Facility in Coalmines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丁亮

    2015-01-01

    The underground sampling facilities now available for CBM content test in coalmines have a defect of coal core exposing, thus caused incorrect measuring of lost gas, and impact CBM content measuring accuracy;while the airtight (pressure-tight) coring fa-cilities used in oil and gas fields should be matched with wire-line coring tools on surface, thus expensive and unfit for underground coal seams. The USC-1 coalmine underground airtight coal coring facility is a swivel barrel corer, including coring bit, outer barrel and drill rod sub connected in turn;within outer barrel, an inner barrel hanging, on upper end of inner barrel connected a ball-seat swivel and hanging assemblage, on lower end connected an inner barrel airtight ball valve;a hydraulic closing setup installed between inner and outer barrels;the upper end of hydraulic closing setup connected with ball-seat swivel, while the lower end connected with closing ball valve semi-slip ring. Taking the Hujiahe coalmine of the Shaanxi Binchang Mining Group as the application site, main mineable coal No.4 as the coring test target, using a borehole in the site carried out common coring barrel and airtight coring facility gas content determination respectively, the result has shown that the later can make the coal core under airtight status during the coring, thus can reduce sample gas loss, thus can effectively improve coalmine underground CBM content measuring accuracy.%现有煤矿井下煤层气含量测试取样装置在提心过程中煤心暴露,致使损失气测算不准,影响煤层气含量测定精度,而油气田上使用的密闭(保压)取心装置需在地面配合绳索取心工具使用,且费用高昂,不适合井下煤层.USC-Ⅰ型煤矿井下煤层密闭取心装置为一个双筒单动式取心器,包括依次连接的取心钻头、外筒和钻杆接头;外筒内悬挂有内筒,内筒上端连接有球座分水接头和悬挂总成,内筒下端连接有内筒密闭球阀;内筒和外筒之

  18. Investigations of initial airtightness after non-anatomic resection of lung parenchyma using a thulium-doped laser with different optical fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Andreas; Höchsmann, N; Steinfeldt, T; Seyfer, P; Pehl, A; Bartsch, D K; Palade, E

    2016-08-01

    Lung metastases in healthy patients should be removed non-anatomically whenever possible. This can be done with a laser. Lung parenchyma can be cut very well, because of its high energy absorption at a wavelength of 1940 nm. A coagulation layer is created on the resected surface. It is not clear, whether this surface also needs to be sutured to ensure that it remains airtight even at higher ventilation pressures. It would be helpful, if suturing could be avoided, because the lung can become too puckered, especially with multiple resections, resulting in considerable restriction. We carried out our experiments on isolated and ventilated paracardiac lung lobes of pigs. Non-anatomic resection was carried out reproducibly using three different thulium laser fibres (230, 365 and 600 μm) at two different laser power levels (10 W, 30 W) and three different resection depths (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 cm). Initial airtightness was investigated while ventilating at normal frequency. We also investigated the bursting pressures of the resected areas by increasing the inspiratory pressure. When 230- and 365-μm fibres were used with a power of 10 W, 70 % of samples were initially airtight up to a resection depth of 1 cm. This rate fell at depths of up to 2 cm. All resected surfaces remained airtight during ventilation when 600-μm fibres were used at both laser power levels (10 and 30 W). The bursting pressures achieved with 600-μm fibres were higher than with the other fibres used: 0.5 cm, 41.6 ± 3.2 mbar; 1 cm, 38.2 ± 2.5 mbar; 2 cm, 33.7 ± 4.8 mbar. As laser power and thickness of laser fibre increased, so the coagulation zone became thicker. With a 600-μm fibre, it measured 145.0 ± 8.2 μm with 10 W power and 315.5 ± 6.4 μm with 30 W power. Closure with sutures after non-anatomic resection of lung parenchyma is not necessary when a thulium laser is used provided a 600-μm fibre and adequate laser power (30 W) are employed. At deeper

  19. The article presents a method for the assessment of the quality and durability of adhesive joints in the airtightness layers in buildings.; Qualitaetssicherung klebebasierter Verbindungstechnik fuer Luftdichtheitsschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Anton [Lehrstuhl fuer Bauphysik, Fakultaet fuer Bauingenieur- und Vermessungswesen, TU Muenchen (Germany); Gross, Rolf [Zentrum fuer Umweltbewusstes Bauen (ZUB), Kassel (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The basics for the assessment and strain of adhesive joints are described as well. A crucial point of the assessment is the view on the creep and peel behaviour of adhesive tapes. Three different investigations for the assessment of an adhesive joint have been carried out: measurement of the peel resistance under standard climate conditions, measurement of the tack at low air temperatures, and the test on the durability of an adhesive joint under investigation for accelerated ageing. The results of these investigations will be summarised in the so-called ''N{sub D/A}-identification'' of adhesive joints. By means of this identification, it is possible to declare co-ordinated connection agents. The application of suitable materials leads to an improved quality and durability of airtightness layers. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Beitrag beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Qualitaet und Dauerhaftigkeit von Klebeverbindungen fuer Luftdichtheitsschichten von Gebaeuden. Dabei wird zunaechst auf die Grundlagen zur Beurteilung und Beanspruchung von Klebeverbindungen eingegangen. Ein Schwerpunkt liegt in der Betrachtung des Kriech- und Schaelverhaltens von Klebebaendern. Zur Beurteilung einer Klebeverbindung werden drei Untersuchungen vorgenommen: die Messung des Schaelwiderstandes unter Normklima, die Messung der Anfangshaftung bei niedrigen Lufttemperaturen und die Pruefung der Dauerhaftigkeit einer Klebeverbindung im Versuch der kuenstlichen Alterung. Eine Zusammenfassung der Untersuchungsergebnisse erfolgt ueber die sog. ''N{sub D/A}-Kennzeichnung'' der Klebeverbindung. Die Kennzeichnung dient zur Deklaration aufeinander abgestimmter Verbindungsmittel und ermoeglicht damit die Verbesserung der Qualitaet und Dauerhaftigkeit von Luftdichtheitsschichten. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Development of a micro-circumstance airtight cabin for bioaerosol testing%一种用于生物气溶胶检测的微环境密闭舱室的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 温占波; 杨文慧; 王洁; 胡凌飞; 张柯; 李劲松

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a micro-circumstance airtight cabin for in the study of biological aerosols detection with such functions as airflow control and temperature and humidity detection .Methods Wind speed sensors , temperature and humidity sensors , electrical control valves , high efficiency filters and the vacuum pump formed the micro-circumstance regulating system .The techniques of airflow direction control , temperature compensation , air pressure control and aerosol uniformity distribution were used .Numerical simulation of aerosol concentration distribution in the airtight cabin was achieved using Fluent software .The bioaerosol concentration in different locations was tested by experiments .Results The micro-circumstance airtight cabin consisted of an airtight cabin and a control cabin .The control cabin used a single-chip microprocessor to provide air supply and exhaust air to the airtight cabin in a seaparate exhaust mode and cyclic ventilation mode.It worked under a negative pressure condition .Through numerical simulation,the aerosols were distributed through-out the cabin after five minutes of generation and the bottom airflow arrived at the top .The distribution of aerosol concentra-tion was approximately uniform .Conclusion The micro-circumstance airtight cabin is suited to various bioaerosols testing research thanks to its negative pressure working without bioaerosol leakage .%目的:研制一种具备气流控制和温湿度检测功能的微环境密闭舱室用于生物气溶胶检测研究。方法利用风速传感器、温湿度传感器、电动调节阀、管道高效过滤器和真空泵组成控制系统,解决气流流向控制、温度补偿技术、压力控制和气溶胶均匀分布技术。利用Fluent 软件对该密闭舱室气溶胶浓度分布状况进行数值模拟,并测试不同位置的气溶胶浓度。结果该微环境密闭舱室由一个气密舱和一个控制柜组成,控制柜采用单片机控制,并

  1. The Construction of 30 m~3 Controlled Ventilation Biology Airtight Cabin%30立方米可控通风生物学实验舱的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙茜; 杨继红

    2012-01-01

    为建立室内生物污染物动力学模型,研制了30 m3可控通风生物学实验舱,为研究室内气体中病原体如细菌,病毒等在室内气候环境下的动力学提供了实验平台。采用不锈钢及钢化玻璃为主体框架搭建长4 m、宽3 m、高2.5 m的长方体密闭舱;舱内配备防护器材、气体发生及采样设备、消毒设备、排风净化装置及控制装置等设备。运行30 m3可控通风生物学实验舱进行室内多种适合人居住气候的模拟,各项指标均达到设计要求。%To establish indoor biological contaminants dynamics model,30 m3 controlled ventilation biology airtight cabin was developed.It provided the dynamics experimental platform for research in indoor gas pathogens such as bacteria,viruses,etc in indoor climate environment.The stainless steel and toughened glass as the main frame structures 4 meters long,wide 3 meters,2.5 metres high cuboid airtight cabin;equipped with protective equipment in the cabin,gas happen and sampling equipment,disinfection equipment,exhaust air purification equipment and control devices and other facilities.Running the biology airtight cabin to simulate human habitation climate,and all kinds of the indexes accorded with the design requirements.

  2. 航天器人-机-环境密闭舱试验系统构建方法研究%Research on Construction Methods of Man-machine-environment Airtight Cabin Test System for Spacecrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯红旗; 郭烈锦; 刘力涛; 杨京松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the contents and methods to construct the man-machine-environment airtight cabin test system for manned spacecrafts.Methods Based on analysis of the distinction between ground test and space flight,the contents and methods to design the man-machine-environment test system were determined under the guidance of similarity theory.Results A ground test system with satisfactory performance was conconstructed using the method.It was applied to research the performance of environment control and life support system in rendezvous and docking missions.Comparing with spaceflight data,the test system is in good accordance with the data in microgravity environment in air flow and heat transfer condition.Conclusion The method to construct a ground test system is reasonable,effective and easy to realize.It can meet the demands of current missions and provides reference for the development of similar facilities in the future.%目的 研究载人航天器人-机-环境密闭舱试验系统的构建内容和构建方法.方法 依据相似理论试验方法,分析地面试验与空间飞行的主要差异,保证环控生保系统重力下可靠工作,确定了人-机-环境试验系统的设计内容和设计方法.结果 利用该方法构建了0套试验系统,试验系统性能良好、运行稳定,已应用于交会对接任务环控生保系统性能研究.与飞行数据比对表明,该试验系统空气流动和换热状态与微重力环境下基本一致.结论 提出的人-机-环试验系统构建方法合理有效,易于实现,满足当前任务需要,可为后续任务类似试验系统研制提供参考.

  3. Design of an airtight or automatic cleaning machine of small tanks%小型容器或工件全封闭全自动清洗设备设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝战焱

    2012-01-01

    本文对盛装有毒有害介质的小型容器或工件的全封闭、全自动清洗设备的设计进行阐述。该设备由控制系统、贮存系统、浸泡清洗系统、烘干系统、压力测控系统、温度测控系统、液位测控系统、状态调节系统和输送系统组成,使用氮气、自来水、三级水和配制好的浸洗液,对小型容器或工件实现清洗和烘干,确保清洗效果达标。该设备适合清洗一端敞口的容器或工件。设备执行过程分为全自动控制、步序控制和全手动控制三种模式,全自动模式清洗时间约为7h。设备组成材料为对介质一级相容材料。浸洗液可反复使用,失效后收回、统一处理;废气通往专用废气处理装置。设备设有触摸屏作为操作界面,并有实时监测装置及显示,用以随时监控清洗效果。设备流程及布局合理,操作简单方便,提供人员及环境的安全保护,清洗效率高,可广泛应用于各类有毒有害介质容器或工件的清洗。%This article depicts design of an airtight automatic cleaning machine of small tanks or workpieces which filled or covered with toxicant or injurant.This machine is composed of control system,storage system,dippingcleaning system,drying system,pressure measure-control system,temperature measure-control system,liquid level measure-control system,state-adjustment system and transportation system.Working with nitrogen,tap water,class-Ⅲ water for analytical laboratory use,and confected dipping liquor,it can carry out cleaning and drying small tanks or workpieces,making sure cleaned effect up to par.This machine is designed for workpieces or tanks with one-end open.Procedure includes three modes: automatic,step control,hand control.Whole process in automatic mode needs about 7h.Each material made of it has class 1 copatibility with all media.Confected dip-ping liquor could be reclaimed and reused until disabled,then be drawn back for disposal by rule

  4. 苹果郁闭园不同间伐方式对果树群体结构和果实品质的影响%Effects of Different Thinning Methods on Group Structure and Fruit Quality in Airtight Apple Orchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军帅; 董晓颖; 段艳欣; 王金政; 李培环

    2012-01-01

    以成龄‘红富士’苹果郁闭园为试材,设计隔行间伐(处理A)、隔株间伐(处理B)、行内隔3去1间伐(处理C)3种处理和对照(CK),研究它们对果树群体结构和果实品质的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,各间伐处理的枝类组成得到了不同程度的优化,叶丛枝、短枝和长枝比例增加,徒长枝比例减小;3个处理的每公顷的总枝量、树冠覆盖率开始时下降明显,以后逐年恢复;处理A的行间交接率明显下降,而处理B的株间交接率下降明显;各处理的叶面积系数降低,叶片变大,百叶厚度增加;果园的通透条件明显改善.间伐处理的果实外观品质如单果重、色泽、着色面积、优质果率均明显的好于对照;果实的内在品质如含糖量增加、滴定酸含量下降、硬度增大,果实的风味和质地等也都优于对照.试验得出结论,适宜的间伐方式可从根本上改善苹果郁闭园的群体结构,提高果实品质,各间伐处理的综合效果以处理B最佳,处理A次之.%The being grown 'Red Fuji' apple airtight orchard was used to study, there were three different thinning methods, interlaced thinning (A), septum strain thinning (B), every four trees cutting one in the line (C) and the control (CK), and the effects of different methods on group structure and fruit quality. The results showed that compared with CK, three different thinning methods got different degree of optimization, the ratio of leaves witches branches, short shoot and long shoot increased while water sprout decreased; at the beginning, the coverage rate and branch quantities per hectare declined significantly and recovered year by year; the overlap rate among individual trees of A declined while the overlap rate between the lines B declined significantly; the leaf area index reduced, leaves size largened and thickness of hundred leaves increased; the connect fully conditions of the orchard improved obviously. Fruit appearance quality

  5. 1-week habitation of two people in an airtight facility, CEEF with two goats and 23 crops, conducted with 89% self-sufficiency in food and without O2-addition and CO2-release - analysis of exchange of carbon and oxygen among organisms and water circulation in the CEEF -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Y.; Tsuga, S.; Tani, T.; Arai, R.; Komatsubara, O.; Shinohara, M.

    Three 1-week experiments were conducted from September to October of 2005 in which two human subjects named as eco-nauts were enclosed and worked in an airtight facility called Closed Ecosystem Experiment Facilities CEEF The test involved connecting a Plant Module PM with 23 crops including rice soybean peanut and sugar beet to an Animal Habitation Module AHM which included the eco-nauts and two Shiba-goats Although only 34 weight of the food consumed by the eco-nauts was produced by crops in the PM in the first experiment it was 81 in the second and third experiments As for feed to the goats 40 rice straw was produced in the PM in the first experiment and all of the feed rice straw soybean leaf and peanut shell was produced in the PM in the second and third experiments In all these experiments the crops produced more oxygen than the amount consumed by respiration of human and animals The oxygen build-up in the atmosphere of the PM from crop photosynthesis was separated and supplied to atmosphere of the AHM Carbon dioxide build-up in atmosphere of the AHM from respiration of eco-nauts and Shiba-goats was separated and supplied back to atmosphere of the PM Carbon in waste except for a part of that in human feces was withdrawn and not recycled for these experiments Therefore carbon dioxide from respiration compensated the demand for photosynthesis of the crops Amounts of carbon in edible and inedible parts of harvested crop biomass and amount of carbon taken by the eco-nauts and Shiba-goats were also estimated Water transpired through

  6. Effects of Different Thinning Methods on Illumination, Photosynthetic,Growth and Fruiting in Airtight Apple Orchard%苹果密闭园不同间伐方式对光照、光合和生长结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培环; 吴军帅; 董晓颖; 王金政; 薛晓敏; 路超

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究苹果密闭园的不同间伐方式对果园光照状况、叶片光合指标、果树生长和产量质量的影响,为密闭园的合理改造提供理论依据.[方法]以‘红富士’苹果郁闭园为试材,设计隔行间伐(A)、隔株间伐(B)和行内隔3去1间伐(C)3种处理和不间伐的对照(CK),对它们的光照、光合、树体生长以及产量和质量的相关指标进行测定分析.[结果]3年的结果表明,除CK外,各处理的树冠覆盖率在3年间均有不同程度的增长,但仍表现为CK>C>B>A;果园透光率和树冠内透光率表现为A>B>C>CK;在生长季,各处理叶片的净光合速率、羧化效率和水分利用效率表现为A>B>C>CK,各处理叶片的胞间CO2浓度结果与此相反;3处理每公顷的产量在间伐当年均明显低于CK的,但间伐第二年就可恢复,到间伐第三年处理A、B每公顷的产量则显著高于处理C和CK的;3年间各处理的平均单果重、着色指数、可溶性糖含量、滴定酸的含量、优质果率等质量指标均好于CK,具体表现为处理A、B的明显好于处理C和CK的.[结论]适宜的间伐方式除在短时间内产量有一定下降外,可从根本上改善果园光照状况、提高光合效率和果品质量.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to study the effects of different thinning methods on illumination, photosynthetic, growth and fruiting in airtight apple orchard, and then provide a theoretical basis for the renovation of the old orchard. [Method! The 'Red Fuji' apple airtight orchard was used in this study, and three different thinning methods, were interlaced thinning (A), septum strain thinning (B), every four trees cutting one in the line (C) and the control (CK), and then the related indexes of illumination, photosynthetic, growth and fruiting were determined and analyzed. [Result] The results showed that in different treatments, except CK, despite the different levels of growth of

  7. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  8. Effect of Stresses and Strains of Roadway Surrounding Rocks on Borehole Airtightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, many high gas and outburst mines have poor gas drainage effects. An important reason influencing the gas drainage effect is a poor hole-sealing effect. Most studies on gas drainage borehole sealing focus on local and foreign borehole sealing methods, borehole sealing equipment, and borehole sealing materials. Numerical simulations of initial drilling sealing depth are insufficient because studies on this subject are few. However, when the initial sealing depth of the borehole is not chosen reasonably, air can enter the gas drainage drill hole through the circumferential crack of roadway surrounding rocks under the influence of suction pressure of the drainage system. This phenomenon ultimately affects the hole-sealing effect. To improve the drilling hole sealing of gas drainage boring, we deduced the expression formulas of the crushing zone, plastic zone, and elastic zone around the coal-seam floor stone drift and conducted a stress–strain analysis of the coal-seam floor stone drift of the 2145 working surfaces of the Sixth Coal Mine of Hebi Coal Mine Group Company by using theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and on-scene verification. Finally, we obtain the initial drilling sealing depth, which is a main contribution of this study. The results prove the following. The performed hole-sealing process with an initial drilling sealing depth of 8 m has a gas drainage efficiency of 55%. Compared with the previous 6.8 m initial drilling sealing depth with a gas drainage efficiency of less than 30%, which was adopted by the mine, the initial sealing depth of 8 m chosen in the numerical simulation is reasonable and conforms to the actual situation on the spot. Therefore, the initial drilling sealing depth chosen in the numerical simulation will produce practical and effective guidance to study the field hole-sealing depth.

  9. An airtight paddy storage system for small-scale farmers in Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adhikarinayake, T.B.; Müller, J.; Oostdam, J.W.M.; Huisman, W.; Richards, P.

    2007-01-01

    The farmers in Sri Lanka's dry zone are the main contributors to the paddy production in the country. However, due to various reasons, they face difficulties in obtaining a reasonable income for their produce at harvesting time. According to the survey carried out in the paddy producing regions, it

  10. Elastic airtight container for the compaction of air-sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, W. Taylor; Locke, Richard; Gaume, Romain M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a simple and versatile elastic canister for the compaction and hot-pressing of air-sensitive materials. This device consists of a heated double-ended floating die assembly, enclosed in a compressible stainless steel bellows that allows the action of an external hydraulic press in a uniaxial motion. The enclosure is fitted with vacuum, gas, and electrical feedthroughs to allow for atmosphere control, heating, and in situ process monitoring. The overall chamber is compact enough to be portable and transferrable into and out of a standard laboratory glovebox, thus eliminating the problem of exposing samples to ambient atmosphere during loading and unloading. Our design has been tested up to 600 °C and 7500 kg-force applied load, conditions within which transparent ceramics of anhydrous halides can be produced.

  11. Effects of suspension of air-conditioning on airtight-type racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, M; Fujieda, M; Furukawa, T

    2001-10-01

    Although isolation racks are superior to open-type racks in terms of securing breeding conditions for laboratory animals, the contingency-proofing capability of the former has yet to be determined. Therefore, from the view of risk management, we studied the environmental change in isolation racks by forcibly suspending ventilation and air-conditioning and confirming the maximal time length for complete recovery to the original condition after restarting their operations. The isolation racks were placed in a room that was equipped with an independent air-conditioning system. When the inside condition of the racks reached 22-24 degrees C and 59-64% of relative humidity, the air-conditioning and ventilation were forcibly suspended and the subsequent temperature, relative humidity, ammonium and CO2 concentrations in the racks were measured over time. We found that after suspending the air-conditioning and ventilation, it took 40-60 min for temperature, and about 10 min for relative humidity to exceed the maximum values (temperature and relative humidity) referred to in the Showa 58 Nenban Guideline Jikken Doubutsu Shisetsu no Kenchiku oyobi Setsubi (Guidelines of buildings and facilities for experimental animals in Japan; Year 1983 edition). After 17 hr 25 min of the suspension of air-conditioning and ventilation, two rats were found dead. Then, the air-conditioning and ventilation were restarted. It took about 2 hr for temperature, and 50 min for relative humidity to regain the guideline values. The ammonium concentration stayed within the guideline value with a maximum concentration of 2 ppm in the experimental period, whereas the CO2 concentration was found to exceed 9% at the time of animal death.

  12. Field investigation survey of airtightness, air movement and indoor air quality of high rise apartment buildings, prairie region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, B.W.; Stewart, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    A field investigation survey was conducted to determine exfiltration rates through the building envelope, inter-suite air leakage, and indoor air quality in two 13-storey high-rise apartment buildings located in Winnipeg. The survey also established the effect the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system has on the pressure differential across the building envelope. Building residents were surveyed to establish the general environmental conditions, and five specific pollutants were identified and quantified. The applicability of procedures used was documented for use in future investigations and as candidate procedures for a standardized testing protocol.

  13. Field investigation survey of airtightness, air movement and indoor air quality in high-rise apartment buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulay, B.W.; Stewart, C.D.; Foley, G.J.

    1993-07-01

    A summary is presented of five independent field investigation surveys conducted across Canada for the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. The intent of the investigations were to determine air exfiltration rates through the building envelope, inter-suite and inter-floor room leakage rates, and indoor air quality in a representative number of residential high rise apartment buildings. Air exfiltration, inter-suite and inter-floor air leakage rates were determined by conducting suite, floor and whole building fan depressurization tests. Indoor air quality was established by means of a survey of the tenants of the buildings, and by testing and monitoring for specific pollutants. Air leakage rates were found to be in excess of proposed guidelines of 0.05-0.14 l/s/m[sup 2] at 75 Pascals. The overall air leakage rates per unit of exterior wall during suite fan depressurization testing was in the range 2.10-3.15 l/s/m[sup 2] at a pressure differential of 50 Pascals across the exterior wall. When the corridor wall was not isolated leakage rates increased to 4.54-8.33 l/s/m[sup 2]. Air movement within a building with a high exterior wall leakage rate is predominately influenced by stack effect, combined with exterior wind direction and speed, while within a building with low leakage rates the predominant influences are stack effect and internal building activities such as elevators moving, doors opening, and movement of people. Ventilation supply air rates were generally inadequate to satisfy occupant requirements. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Test Study on Airtight Capability of Filter Cakes for Slurry Shield and Its Application in a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlu Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To learn the airproof capacity of filter cakes as opening chambers under air pressure, a series of tests were carried out. The variations of discharged water with air pressure and time were observed, and the relationship between airproof capacity of filter cakes and surrounding air pressure was analysed. The test results indicated that there were three stages as compressed air acting on filter cakes: completely not infiltration, a very small amount of infiltration, and penetration leakage. The certain air pressure between the first and second stages was called the airproofing value of filter cake. And a capillary bundle model was used to explain the mechanism of air tightness of filter cakes. In Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel, a 5 cm thickness filter cake was formed in gravel sand, and its airproofing value was a little lower than 0.12 MPa. The air pressure used as opening chamber should be equal to the summation of water pressure in sand and airproofing value of filter cake. While the air pressure is larger than the summation, the filter cake would be gas permeable. The slurry formulation and airproofing value of filter cakes obtained in the tests were applied successfully in Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel.

  15. Nearly zero energy buildings and proliferation of microorganisms a current issue for highly insulated and airtight building envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giuseppe, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a concise review of the thermo-physical phenomena which regulate heat and moisture transportation in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings envelopes, and their relationship with the growth of biological organisms. It describes the main microorganisms proliferating on contemporary building elements and within buildings. It also states the consequences of biological growth on durability, aesthetics and human health; and provides the main methods for the analytical and experimental evaluation of proliferation. Finally, through the review of recent developments, remedial actions to count

  16. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1 ½-Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team analyzed five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. These homes were chosen for testing as they are common in Minnesota and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled the team to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  17. Airtightness Results of Roof-Only Air Sealing Strategies on 1-1/2 Story Homes in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, C.; Murry, T.; Mosiman, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this second study on solutions to ice dams in 1-1/2 story homes, five test homes located in both cold and very cold climates were analyzed for air leakage reduction rates following modifications by independent contractors on owner-occupied homes. The reason for choosing this house type was they are very common in our area and very difficult to air seal and insulate effectively. Two projects followed a roof-only Exterior Thermal Moisture Management System (ETMMS) process. One project used an interior-only approach to roof air sealing and insulation. The remaining two projects used a deep energy retrofit approach for whole house (foundation wall, above grade wall, roof) air leakage and heat loss reduction. All were asked to provide information regarding project goals, process, and pre and post-blower door test results. Additional air leakage reduction data was provided by several NorthernSTAR Building America industry partners for interior-applied, roof-only modifications on 1-1/2 story homes. The data represents homes in the general market as well as homes that were part of the state of Minnesota weatherization program. A goal was to compare exterior air sealing methods with interior approaches. This pool of data enabled us to compare air tightness data from over 220 homes using similar air seal methods.

  18. Estimation of the hydrogen concentration in rat tissue using an airtight tube following the administration of hydrogen via various routes

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Liu; Ryosuke Kurokawa; Masayuki Fujino; Shinichi Hirano; Bunpei Sato; Xiao-Kang Li

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen exerts beneficial effects in disease animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as inflammatory and neurological disease. Additionally, molecular hydrogen is useful for various novel medical and therapeutic applications in the clinical setting. In the present study, the hydrogen concentration in rat blood and tissue was estimated. Wistar rats were orally administered hydrogen super-rich water (HSRW), intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of hydrogen super-rich sali...

  19. The thermal simulation of airtight cabinets%密闭机箱的热仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁圣杰; 李维忠

    2008-01-01

    运用CFD软件Flotherm对密闭机箱内部采取不同风道结构和选择不同风机时流体流动和换热过程进行了数值模拟,获得了密闭机箱内部的流场、压力场以及温度场的变化规律.仿真结果表明,为使系统达到较好的冷却目的,应当首先测得系统的阻力特性,根据风道的阻力特性曲线正确选择风机.

  20. Test Study on Airtight Capability of Filter Cakes for Slurry Shield and Its Application in a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Fanlu Min; Wei Zhu; Shengquan Xia; Rui Wang; Daiwei Wei; Teng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    To learn the airproof capacity of filter cakes as opening chambers under air pressure, a series of tests were carried out. The variations of discharged water with air pressure and time were observed, and the relationship between airproof capacity of filter cakes and surrounding air pressure was analysed. The test results indicated that there were three stages as compressed air acting on filter cakes: completely not infiltration, a very small amount of infiltration, and penetration leakage. Th...

  1. Improvement of airtight property and workability of joint packing material; Teikeimejizai no shirusei oyobi sagyosei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tatsuya.; Harada, Tsutomu.; Ando, Hideyuki.; Yamato, Tsugio. [Kurosaki Corp., Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Center

    1999-09-01

    It is connected, and many refractories s are being used with continuous cast law. An including air volume from these union parts causes the quality decline of the steel and the problem of unusual loss around the union part of the refractories. Therefore, there is a big thing in the part, which the eye area material used for the union part of the refractories for the continuous cast plays. This time, the fixed form area material of the hard type which has a sticker and work between the excellent heat could get it in comparison with the usual fixed form area material for the purpose of the improvement in the sticker of the eye area material and the work (acceptable convenience time in the normal temperature form, the space of the heat) as a result of examining the application of the Al metal which doesn`t react easily with the new binder and the water. As for the utility test as well, it is reported because it was used without problem and that validity could be confirmed. (NEDO)

  2. 活塞杆镀层气密性改善研究%Research on Airtight Function Improvement of Piston Rod Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田禾; 宁保国; 潘新

    2014-01-01

    起落架活塞杆镀铬表面的渗漏现象是飞机常见的一种故障现象,严重影响飞行安全.通过对渗漏现象产生机理的分析,来寻求一种切实可行的解决方法.试验验证了“金刚石碾压+超精”这种工艺方法可有效改善活塞杆镀层的气密性,消除渗漏.由于该工艺方法简单,性能稳定,在航空武器装备零部件加工和维修方面具有良好的应用和推广价值.

  3. 某飞机气密座舱球面框设计研究%Study of an air-tight bulkhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雁飞; 赵占文; 梁尚清

    2015-01-01

    The primary parameters of an aircraft bulkhead is studied using theoretical formulas and finite element method, and it is obtained that the optimum angle of bulkhead is 60°and the skin thickness and the number of stiffeners have great impact on the buckling performance of bulkhead. For an aircraft with fuselage diameter of 1000mm, the optimum design is that the bulkhead angel is 60°,and the skin thickness is 0.8mm and the number of stiffeners is 8.%以某飞机球面框设计为例,应用理论计算以及有限元方法对影响气密框设计的主要参数进行研究,得到球面框设计的最佳角度为60度,球皮厚度与筋条数目均为影响球面框稳定性的重要因素。对于机身半径为1000mm 的某型飞机,飞机球面框结构的最优设计为球面框角度60度,球皮厚度0.8mm,纵向加筋数目8根。本结论对于球面框初步设计具有指导意义。

  4. One-week habitation of two humans in an airtight facility with two goats and 23 crops Analysis of carbon, oxygen, and water circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tako, Y.; Tsuga, S.; Tani, T.; Arai, R.; Komatsubara, O.; Shinohara, M.

    Human habitation and animal holding experiments in a closed environment, the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), were carried out. The CEEF were established for collecting experimental data to estimate carbon transfer in the ecosystem around Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Circulation of O2 and CO2, and supply of food from crops cultivated in the CEEF were conducted for the first time in the habitation experiments. Two humans known as eco-nauts inhabited the CEEF, living and working in the Plant Module (PM) and the Animal and Habitation Module (AHM), for a week three times in 2005. On a fresh weight basis, 82% of their food was supplied from 23 crops including rice and soybean, cultivated and harvested in the PM, in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. For the goats, the animals held in the experiments, all of their feed, consisting of rice straw, soybean plant leaves, and peanut shells and peanut plant leaves, was produced in the PM in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. The O2 produced in the PM by photosynthesis of the crops was separated by the O2 separator using molecular sheaves, then accumulated, transferred, and supplied to the AHM atmosphere. The CO2 produced in the AHM by respiration of the humans and animals was separated by the CO2 separator using solid amine, then accumulated, transferred, and supplied to the PM atmosphere. The amount of O2 consumed in the AHM was 46 51% of that produced in the PM, and the amount of CO2 produced in the AHM was 43 56% of that consumed in the PM. The surplus of O2 and the shortage of CO2 was a result of the fact that waste of the goats and the crops and part of the human waste were not processed in these habitation experiments. The estimated amount of carbon ingested by the eco-nauts was 64 92% of that in the harvested edible part of the crops. The estimated amount of carbon ingested by the goats was 36 53% of that in the harvested inedible part of the crops. One week was not enough time for determination of gas exchange especially for humans and animals, because fluctuation of their gas exchange was quite high. The amount of transpired water collected as condensate was 818 938 L d-1, and it was recycled as replenishing water compensating transpiration loss of nutrient solution. The amount of waste nutrient solution discharged from the PM was 1421 1644 L d-1. The waste nutrient solutions from rice and other crops were processed through micro filters (MFs) separately. The MF filtrated solutions were processed with reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter separately and divided into filtrated water and concentrated waste nutrient solution. The concentrated waste nutrient solution from the crops other than rice was processed through an ultra-micro filter (UF) and reused, although that from rice was discharged in 2005. Concentrations of nutritional ions in the UF filtrated solution were determined, the depleted ions were added back, the UF filtrated solution was diluted with the RO membrane filtrated water, and the nutrient solution for the crops other than rice was regenerated. The nutrient solution for rice was newly made each time, using concentrated solution from an external source and the RO membrane filtrated water. Average amounts of water used in the AHM (L d-1) were determined as follows: drinking by humans (filtrated water), 1.5; cooking, etc. (filtrated water other than for drinking), 14.3; drinking by goats, 3.8; showering (hot water), 13.2; showering (cold water), 0.1; washing of hand and face and brushing teeth, 4.1; washing of dishes, dish clothes and towels, 36.4; and washing of animal holding tools, 0.3. The waste water was processed by a RO purification system and recycled for toilet flushing and animal pens washing. A circulation experiment for water was started in 2006 and a circulation experiment for waste materials is planned for 2007. In 2006, a single duration of the air circulation experiments was 2 weeks, although the human habitants were changed after 1 week.

  5. Simulation of Cooling System Improvement in Ship Airtight Cabin%舰船密闭舱室温降系统改进仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一术; 朱波; 刘家磊

    2014-01-01

    利用仿真建模软件对舰船密闭舱室与内部发热体用简化模型进行模拟。采用高Reynolds数k-ε模型与壁面函数法对舱室内空气湍流传热进行计算,分析同等送风量条件下不同送风方式以及不同送、回风口尺寸对舱室温度分布的影响。研究表明:采用下侧送风、上侧回风方式对舱室降温效果更好;回风速度与回风口尺寸对舱室温度无明显影响;送风速度小且送风口尺寸大时,舱室温度分层明显,整体温度更低。%By means of the modeling and simulation software,ship cabin and internal heating element were designed with simplified model.High Reynolds number k-εmodel and wall function method was used in-side the cabin turbulent heat transfer calculation.With different mode of air supply and different size of air intake and return under the same amount of air supply,the influence for cabin temperature distribution were analyzed.The studies indicate that with downside air intake and upside air return the cabin cooling effect is better,and the speed of return air and the size of air return have no obvious effect on the cabin temperature.While the speed of air supply is low and the size of air intake is large,the cabin temperature layer is obvious and the overall temperature is lower.

  6. Maisons consommant peu d'énergie: isolation et étanchéité à l'air/Low-Energy Houses: Insulation and Airtightness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxhof, Bjarne; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    1983-01-01

    The Hjortekar project of six low energy house designs north of Copenhagen has become renowned. Here, the authors, from the Thermal Insulation Laboratory, the Technical University of Denmark, explain some of the construction details to avoid cold bridges, including a new-type structural element...

  7. 密闭舱室内科学实验致心肌酶升高原因分析%Causal analysis of hoisted myocardial enzymes in the course of scientific experiments in airtight cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程万里; 张洪波; 王岚; 张玉清; 孙红霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:本文旨在探讨实验者在密闭舱室内短期实验后,心肌酶升高的原因,为科技人员在工作过程中的自我防护提供科学依据。通过对有身体不适的实验者2例进行生化全项、血气分析、胸片、心电图、心脏彩超等检查。结果显示2例实验者心肌酶都有不同程度的升高。通过分析推测砷化氢等有害气体可能是造成心肌酶升高的主要原因,因此,加强实验过程中的劳动防护至关重要。%We explore the causes of elevated cardiac enzymes of the experimenter in the closed chamber with short-term experiments in order to provide scientific basis for the scientific and technical personnel in the work process of self protection.The experimenter with physical discomfort receive biochemical items,blood gas analysis,chest X-ray,ECG,heart color ultrasound examination and so on.The results show that the myocardial enzyme were all increased in different degrees.Through the analysis, we hypothesize that arsenic cyanide and other harmful gases may be the main cause of elevated cardiac enzymes.Strengthening labor protection is very important in the process of experiment.

  8. 红萍对受控密闭系统中O2-CO2浓度变化影响研究初报%Effects of Azolla on the change of O2-CO2 concentration under controlled airtight system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 卞祖良; 张朝阳; 刘晖; 陈炳焕

    1999-01-01

    建立受控密闭系统,研究在动物和红萍共存情况下,系统中O2-CO2浓度的变化规律.红萍的光合作用与狗的呼吸作用相辅相成,使系统中O2-CO2浓度从急骤变化达到基本保持平衡.由于系统中O2浓度大于16%,CO2浓度小于2%,狗生活正常;而仅有动物存在情况下,狗消耗系统中O2并释放CO2,很快出现严重缺O2和CO2中毒症状.

  9. 人防医疗救护工程第一密闭区通风和防化设计问题探讨%Discussion on ventilation and NBC protection design in the first airtight space of medical aid works of civil air defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刻铭; 郭春信; 马吉民

    2013-01-01

    从防化的角度分析了人防医疗救护工程的特点,认为《人民防空医疗救护工程设计标准》将第一密闭区定义为轻微染毒区有悖于人民防空工程相关规定的要求,会给战时工程使用带来严重后果,提出了解决上述问题的技术措施.

  10. Simulation of Dust Sedimentation on the Calibration Targets for the Surface Stereo Imager Onboard the Phoenix Mars Lander 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drube, L.; Madsen, M. B.; Olsen, M.; Jørgensen, J.; Britt, D.; Lemmon, M.; Shinohara, C.; Smith, P.

    2006-10-01

    The dust sedimentation experiments were done in a 2 meter high closed chamber (not airtight) using several dust types. These experiments were made to fill the gap the wind tunnel left with respect to slow dust sedimentation from the atmosphere.

  11. 9 CFR 147.9 - Standard test procedures for avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Incubator or airtight container for room temperature (approximately 25 °C) incubations. (iv) Autoclave. (v... room temperature (approximately 25 °C) in a closed chamber to prevent evaporation. Humidity should...

  12. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight - Kacin Homes, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    Building America/Builders Challenge fact sheet on Kacin Homes, an energy-efficient home builder in cold climate using airtight envelope, efficient lighting, and tankless water heater. Evaluates cost impacts.

  13. Continuous organic waste digester and methane gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araneta, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A patent on the construction of a utility model of an industrial product of a continuous organic-waste digester and methane-gas generator is described. It comprises an airtight chamber to receive slurry of organic waste; a gas-water scrubber to purge carbon dioxide, odor-omitting gases and froth or scrum from newly formed methane gas evolving from said slurry of organic wastes; and two dually functioning slurry-feed and -discharge pipes connected to a reversible pump. It has one pipe with an opening at the base of an airtight chamber and the other pipe with up-ended openings below the fluid level of the slurry to be accumulated in the airtight chamber.

  14. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  15. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    on gypsum boards with airtight connectionswas created utilizing the full potential of diffuse layer without undesirable crack flow reported by otherauthors. The measured values were used to validate the detailed Large Eddy Simulation model of testroom created in CFD software with aim to evaluate an indoor...

  16. Research on some functions of Azolla in CELSS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Min, Chen; Xia-shi, Liu; Chungchu, Liu

    This article detailed the possibility of using Azolla in CELSS system, the characters of Azolla; the experiments on using Azolla as O 2-releasing plant to provide O 2 for human in airtight chamber; using Azolla as an important biological part for urine solution purification was also introduced.

  17. 7 CFR 319.73-3 - Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Coffee § 319.73-3 Conditions for transit movement of certain products through Puerto Rico or Hawaii. (a) Mail. Samples of unroasted coffee that are transiting Hawaii or Puerto Rico en route... not limited to, sealed cartons, airtight containers, or vacuum packaging. Samples of unroasted...

  18. 75 FR 80110 - Panda Power LLC, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Company, LTD, Guangzhou City, China. Paragraph S7.7 of FMVSS No. 108 requires: S7.7 Replaceable light... chapter. An airtight seal exists when no air bubbles appear on the low pressure (connector) side after the... Statement is available for review in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78)....

  19. Building America Case Study: Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, thus driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  20. Energy conserving dehumidification of greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    2014-01-01

    As greenhouses become better insulated and increasingly airtight, the humidity of the inside air rises easily and may become unfavourably high. Therefore, most greenhouses frequently open their vents to remove the moisture excess. When heated, opening the vents will increase the energy consumption.

  1. The Effect of Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions on the Atomization and Distribution of Fuel Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W

    1933-01-01

    The atomization and distribution characteristics of fuel sprays from automatic injection valves for compression-ignition engines were determined by catching the fuel drops on smoked-glass plates, and then measuring and counting the impressions made in the lampblack. The experiments were made in an air-tight chamber in which the air density was raised to values corresponding to engine conditions.

  2. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten;

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows higher...

  3. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf p

  4. Vacuum-assisted closure : indications and clinical experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schasfoort, RA; Obdeijn, MC; Nicolai, JPA; van der Werf, J.F.A.; de Lange, M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of subatmospheric pressure to promote wound healing has gradually found support in the past few years. The vacuum-assisted closure system uses a pump providing a continuous negative pressure of preferably 125 mmHg, which is distributed over the wound surface by an airtight covered foam. The

  5. 21 CFR 868.5750 - Inflatable tracheal tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inflatable tracheal tube cuff. 868.5750 Section 868.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... cuff. (a) Identification. An inflatable tracheal tube cuff is a device used to provide an airtight...

  6. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  7. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [ABT Systems, LLC, Annville, PA (United States); Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  8. Design challenges for a climate adaptive multi-functional lightweight prefab panel for energy-efficient retrofitting of residential building based on one-room model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkmans, T.J.A.; Donkervoort, D.R.; Phaff, J.C.; Valcke, S.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current solutions for highly energy-efficient retrofitting rely on thick static insulation, airtight construction and extensive ventilation systems to become independent from variable outdoor conditions. A building skin that adapts to the outdoor conditions to regulate the indoor conditions could pr

  9. More than Just Hand Waving: Review of "Hearing Gestures--How Our Hands Help Us Think"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Laura L.; Newcombe, Nora S.

    2008-01-01

    Susan Goldin-Meadow's "Hearing Gestures: How Our Hands Help Us to Think" synthesizes findings from various domains to demonstrate that gestures convey meaning and comprise a critical and fundamental form of communication. She also argues convincingly for the cognitive utility of gesture for the gesturer. Goldin-Meadow presents an airtight case…

  10. The effect of relative humidity on germination of Sporangia of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporangia of three isolates of P. ramorum representing three different clonal lineages were subjected to relative humidity (RH) levels between 80 and 100% for exposure periods ranging from 1 to 24 h at 20°C in darkness. Airtight snap-lid plastic containers (21.5 x 14.5 x 5 cm) were used as humidity ...

  11. Chinese IIR's Supply & Demand Situation and Development Prospect%Chinese IIR's Supply & Demand Situation and Development Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    IIR is a kind of rubber polymerized by isobutylene and a little isoprene with such performances as good airtightness, heat resistance, aging resistance, acid-alkali resistance, ozone resis- tance, solvent resistance, electric insulation, shock absorption and low water absorption, which is widely applied on the inner tubes, tire bags, vulcanized bladders, air barriers, sidewalls,

  12. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten;

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  13. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  14. Technical validation of a face mask adapted for dry powder inhalation in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) for horses requires the use of an adapted face mask. In experiment I, 4 masks (A, B, C and D) were tested and factors influencing the delivery of the dry powder were determined. Mask A was one which is commercially available for metered-dose inhalation. Mask B had the same shape as Mask A but an airtight rubber seal was added for the connection between the mask and horse's head. Mask C was a prototype adapted for DPI with connection for the DPI device between the nostrils, airtight expiratory valves in front of each nostril and airtight rubber seal to attach the mask on the horse's head. Mask D was the same as Mask C but the airtight expiratory valve was situated in front of one nostril and the connection for the DPI device was placed in front of the other nostril. Inhalet emptying and peak inspiratory pressure were measured on 5 healthy horses with each face mask. Both Masks A and B gave a low rate of inhalet emptying. Inspiratory pressures created in Masks C and D were negative enough to ensure inhalet emptying rates of mean +/- s.d. 98.28 +/- 1.79% and 100% respectively. In experiment 2, the face masks giving the greatest inhalet emptying were used to test the therapeutic efficacy of ipratropium bromide DPI. This was tested on 6 horses suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At a dose of 200 micrograms/100 kg bwt, ipratropium administered with Mask D improved significantly pulmonary function measurements compared to baseline values and placebo inhalation. With Mask C, a double dose of ipratropium (400 micrograms/100 kg bwt) was necessary to improve these parameters compared to baseline values. This indicated the importance of locating the DPI device in front of one nostril. It was concluded that inhalet emptying is correlated to inspiratory pressures measured in the face masks. Secondly, these pressures are in turn dependent on the air-tightness of the mask, i.e. air-tightness

  15. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Grin, A. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program 2 project in Wyandotte, MI, and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the high R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable method of achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to help secure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the city officials supervising the project.

  16. Hybrid Wall Construction and Quality Control Issues in Wyandotte, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukachko, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grin, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is the second report on the Wyandotte NSP2 project in Wyandotte, MI and documents refinements to the design, construction, and quality control for the High R-value enclosure. The report will be of interest to designers and builders of production housing in Cold Climates. The focus of the second round of research was on using the hybrid insulation approach to develop a reliable methodof achieving consistently low airtightness numbers. There are two primary outcomes from this research. First, the airtightness measurements demonstrate that with a shallow learning curve, even new builders entering the program having little experience with the technology package are able to achieve consistent results that are less than 1.5 ACH50. Second, the process changes implemented to helpsecure these results were straightforward and ended up encouraging better communication between designer, builder, and the City officials supervising the project.

  17. How to Ensure Low Radon Concentrations in Indoor Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Wraber, Ida Kristina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on methods for measuring radon levels in the indoor air in buildings as well as on concrete solutions that can be carried out in the building to prevent radon leakage and to lower the radon concentration in the indoor air of new buildings. The radon provision in the new Danish...... Building Regulations from 2010 has been tightened as a result of new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Radon can cause lung cancer and it is not known whether there is a lower limit for its harmfulness. It is therefore important to reduce the radon concentration as much as possible in new...... buildings. The airtightness is a major factor when dealing with radon in buildings. Above the ground it is important to build airtight in compliance with energy requirements and against the ground it is important to prevent radon from seeping into the building. There is a direct connection between...

  18. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and...

  19. 屋内塵性ダニの卵に対する脱酸素剤の致死効果

    OpenAIRE

    亀崎, 宏樹; 大橋, 和典; 石原, 圭朗; 佐々木, 義昭; 高藤, 晃雄

    2007-01-01

    The lethal effects of two types of oxygen absorbers on the eggs of the house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae were studied. For D. farinae, and D. pteronyssinus, the mortality obtained after 2 days in an air-tight container with iron (Fe)-type oxygen absorbers was 100%, while an ascorbic-acid-type oxygen absorber needed 5 days to obtain 100% mortality. On the other hand, the two types of oxygen absorbers showed no significant lethal differen...

  20. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California.

  1. Performances of DAHT connected to building airthightness and indoor hygrothermal climate

    OpenAIRE

    Masy, Gabrielle; Lebrun, Jean; Gendebien, Samuel; Hansen, Nicolas; Lengele, Marc; Prieels, Luc

    2011-01-01

    As building insulation level increases, the coupling of ventilation systems with building enveloppe airtightness becomes an important issue in order to improve buildings energy performances. A building ventilation model can be built on a set of resistances and generators in order to handle infiltration, natural ventilation as well as fan driven air flows. The model is able to assess the indoor air humidity level and the building energy balance. Double flow ventilation can be ha...

  2. The efficiency increase in suppression of ship fires by optimization of the existing fire extinguishing means

    OpenAIRE

    Мосейчук, Юрий Павлович

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the ways of improving the effectiveness of putting out onboard fires. The main aim of the research is substantiation and selection of the tools aimed at firefighting procedures optimization through the application of the least expensive way to modernize existing onboard firefighting. Decreasing of oxygen concentration in an airtight ship compartment is one of the perspective ways of firefighting activities optimization. That is achieved by aligning the in-compartmental ...

  3. CLEAN CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing is making every effort to handle its garbage in an environmentally sound manner Xu Yannian has gotten up at six in the morning each day for many years, so he can be ready when the garbage truck comes at 6:30 to collect the trash from the community in Beijing where he handles rubbish disposal. Xu manages the garbage room, an airtight, 50-square-meter space with more than

  4. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application

    OpenAIRE

    Surath Amarnath; Mettu Rami Reddy; Chayam Hanumantha Rao; Harsha Vardan Surath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatu...

  5. Modular manifold for integrated fluidics and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Douglas Ray

    2010-03-30

    An airtight preconcentrator housing and/or a sensor housing for chemical testing, the housing(s) comprising internal dimensions such that a pre-manufactured preconcentrator and/or sensor can be disposed therein. The housings can also comprise electrical contacts disposed therein which align with and thus provide electrical connection to the preconcentrator and/or sensor. The preconcentrator and/or sensor can be easily and quickly replaced.

  6. エアータイト型展示ケースにおける相対湿度分布の数値シミュレーション

    OpenAIRE

    板倉, 嘉哉; 島村, 敏昭; 神庭, 信幸; イタクラ, ヨシヤ; シマムラ, トシアキ; カンバ, ノブユキ; ITAKURA, Yoshiya; SHIMAMURA, Toshiaki; KAMBA, Nobuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The control of the relative humidity in the display case is especially important for the cultural properties to avoid chemical and mechanical damage. In this paper, the transitional relative humidity distribution in the display case are estimated under various conditions by solving three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations coupled with thermal and humidity transport equations. The results show that the unsteady relative humidity distribution in the airtight type display case is stron...

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States, using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu).

  8. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  9. Development of a differential pressure switch for precise operation under negative pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative atmospheric pressure is an isolation technique used in nuclear facilities including vessels and hot-cells to prevent release of radioactive materials. In the related system, differential pressure switches are very important function for process monitoring such as liquid level and negative pressure in a reprocessing process. Although air-tight switches have been using to avoid radioactive contamination, such type of switch have not meet requirements for precise operation under deep negative pressure. Therefore, we have been investigation an improved types of switches to overcome the problem. We have developed a prototype switch and made some vibration and endurance tests. Their results are described in this paper. (author)

  10. Benthic mineralization and nutrient exchange over the inner continental shelf of western India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pratihary, A.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Narvenkar, G.; Kurian, S.; Naik, H.; Naik, R.; Manjunatha, B.R.

    exchange and, in turn, on the shelf ecosystem, we carried out the first ever intact-core incubations during two contrasting seasons – spring inter- monsoon and fall intermonsoon (late southwest monsoon) at a 28 m-deep fixed site on the inner shelf off Goa..., which was further attached to three-way Leur locks. The caps had nylon O rings to make the liners completely airtight. Two more Teflon tubes were attached through the holes roughly at the center of the liners. One was used to pass air in the case...

  11. Novel approach for evaluation of air change rate in naturally ventilated occupied spaces based on metabolic CO2 time variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Markov, Detelin G.

    2014-01-01

    , air-tight space, constant indoor pressure and temperature. The proposed approach for ACR evaluation can be applied to time intervals with any length, even with varying parameters of both indoor and outdoor air, in which metabolic CO2 generation rate is known and constant. This approach makes possible......IAQ in many residential buildings relies on non-organized natural ventilation. Accurate evaluation of air change rate (ACR) in this situation is difficult due to the nature of the phenomenon - intermittent infiltration-exfiltration periods of mass exchange between the room air and the outdoor air...

  12. Dynamic simulations to develop a natural ventilation concept for an office building

    OpenAIRE

    Thewes, Andreas; Maas, Stefan; SCHOLZEN, Frank; Waldmann, Danièle; Zuerbes, Arno

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainability Group of the University of Luxembourg defined for their new buildings a maximum thermal end-energy of 14 kWh/(m3a) and an electricity consumption for HVAC and lighting below 6 kWh/(m3a). Therefore it was necessary to avoid active cooling loads and mechanical ventilation in the offices and small lecture rooms. The well insulated and air-tight façade, including special outside shading elements which were designed as a grid over the complete building envelope, was ...

  13. Indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Berge, Magnar

    2012-07-01

    There is currently a major focus on measures to reduce global warming. Several international studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings is the easiest and most cost-effective climate action. Passive houses are characterized of that the buildings are more airtight, have more insulation and has balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. This report discusses about this one-sided focus on energy conservation, and if {sup c}hange{sup }in building methods can have a negative impact on indoor air quality and people's health. (Author)

  14. The final recommendations of the ASIEPI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Aggerholm, Søren

    requirements; • impact, compliance and control of legislation; • effective handling of thermal bridges; • stimulation of good building and ductwork airtightness; • support for the market uptake for innovative systems; • stimulation of better summer comfort and efficient cooling. This report compiles the major...... findings and recommendations for each of these 6 topics. It also gives an overview of all other project materials, and thus helps the reader to quickly pinpoint the material most relevant to his/her question at any given time....

  15. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  16. History of neonatal resuscitation - part 3: endotracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation to resuscitate neonates was used by Scheel in 1798. A century before endotracheal anesthesia was developed, inventive obstetricians constructed devices for endotracheal intubation of infants and mastered their insertion, localization, and airtight sealing. Fell's laryngoscope, Magill's intubation forceps and tissue-friendly materials were significant contributions of the 20th century to endotracheal intubation of the newborn. The striking absence of scientific studies on the most efficient resuscitation techniques for neonates can be explained by the difficulty to adjust for the personal skills of the resuscitator.

  17. Technology Solutions for New Homes Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed the construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), which is a development of 20 very efficient homes in Greenfield, Massachusetts. The homes feature R-40 walls, triple-pane windows, R-50 attic insulation, and airtight construction. All homes also have photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. Auxiliary water heating is provided by tankless gas water heaters. With the SDHW systems, RDI hoped to eliminate most of the need for gas for water heating and get the homes closer to zero energy.

  18. Destiny of microbial aerosol in confined habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Novikova, Nataliya; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..; Kharin, Sergey; Pasanen, Pertti

    Biomodeling experiment was performed at the Institute of Biophysics in Krasnoyarsk dedicated to modeling the bacterial aerosol behavior in airtight chamber. The experiment was perform an one of workpackages of FP-7 project BIOSMHARS. Bacterial aerosol included particles of bacteria and fungi: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus licheniformis and Penicillium expansum The experiments allowed the following conclusions: 1. The major trend in air and surface contamination is permanent presence of the microbial factor throughout the time of generation. In the course of generation, level of contamination was gradually dropping except for the upward trend at the end of generation. These patterns were confirmed equally by the results of sedimentation studies and measurements using the Andersen impact 2. Sedimentation of airborne particles containing microbes went on at least two hours after the generation had been finished. However, level of this late sedimentation was approximately 10 folds less as compared with that in the course of generation. 3. Horizontal surfaces appear to be particularly vulnerable loci in airtight rooms. Their contamination was the highest. Levels of their contamination were higher than elsewhere. The closer is the source, the higher the level of contamination. 4. Walls were least contaminated. The ceiling was essentially clean. Air in the vicinity of the ceiling contained microbiota little if any. To summarize, the modeling experiments showed that the microbial component is a permanent resident of airtight rooms no matter decontamination effort (HEPA filters). The gravitational forces ensure that air cleans from microbiota by way of sedimentation. At the same time, together with microparticles microflora accumulates on horizontal surfaces which become the loci of microbes deposition and development. Therefore, despite the system of microbial control, risks of infection still raises the major concern for those who work in airtight facilities

  19. Aerogel Use as a Skin Protective Liner In Space Suits and Prosthetic Limbs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke Bennett

    2014-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications for use in space suits and orthopedics. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material, and our initial findings demonstrated that these materrials would be excellent candidates for liner applications for prosthetics and space suits. The project is currently on hold until additional funding is obtained for application testing at the VH Hospitals in Tampa

  20. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  1. Study on Simulated Human Load in Unmanned Spaceship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lidong; WANG Xianmin; LU Yaofeng; YIN Rui; XIAO Zhijun

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the methods for testing and verifying the performance of a new type of oxygen supply apparatus as well as the performance of the Environment Control and Life Support System(ECLSS)in the airtight unmanned space capsule,with a simulated human load instead of animals or human in China's Manned Space Program.The simulated human load also supplies a dummy for the spaceship to instal the envirmental testing equipment,to wear spacesuit,and to match the weight in spaceship.

  2. Operating Room Environment Control. Part A: a Valve Cannister System for Anesthetic Gas Adsorption. Part B: a State-of-the-art Survey of Laminar Flow Operating Rooms. Part C: Three Laminar Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. S.; Kosovich, J.

    1973-01-01

    An anesthetic gas flow pop-off valve canister is described that is airtight and permits the patient to breath freely. Once its release mechanism is activated, the exhaust gases are collected at a hose adapter and passed through activated coal for adsorption. A survey of laminar air flow clean rooms is presented and the installation of laminar cross flow air systems in operating rooms is recommended. Laminar flow ventilation experiments determine drying period evaporation rates for chicken intestines, sponges, and sections of pig stomach.

  3. Enhancing the Security of Customer Data in Cloud Environments Using a Novel Digital Fingerprinting Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya Chidambaram; Pethuru Raj; Thenmozhi, K.; Rengarajan Amirtharajan

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid rise of the Internet and electronics in people’s life, the data related to it has also undergone a mammoth increase in magnitude. The data which is stored in the cloud can be sensitive and at times needs a proper file storage system with a tough security algorithm. Whereas cloud is an open shareable elastic environment, it needs impenetrable and airtight security. This paper deals with furnishing a secure storage system for the above-mentioned purpose in the cloud. To become el...

  4. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  5. Passive hygrothermal control of a museum storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    For optimal conservation of the stored objects, museum storage buildings require a very stable interior climate, with only minimal and slow variations in temperature and relative humidity. Often extensive HVAC is installed to provide such stable indoor conditions, which results in a great amout...... of C02 emission. The purpose for this paper is to show that it is possible to reach the goal of using renewable energy for museum storage buildings by rethinking the strategy for the dehumidification design and in this way contribute to a C02 neutral environment. The solution is to construct a very...... airtight building and use concentrated dehumidification....

  6. Long-Term Results. New Construction Occupied Test House, Urbana, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Allison, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    For this study, a house was designed and built to the Passive House (Passivhaus) Standard for low energy consumption. The house incorporates an airtight, super-insulated thermal enclosure, southern facing windows with overhangs, a single point mini-split heat pump and electric resistance heaters, and a balanced energy recovery ventilator (ERV). The house was instrumented with sub-metering on all major electrical circuits, temperature and humidity measurements in each room, domestic hot water consumption, and recovery efficiency of the ERV. The energy performance was documented and compared to modeled predictions, and the thermal comfort performance of the heat pump was assessed.

  7. Long-Term Results: New Construction Occupied Test House, Urbana, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, D.; Allison, K.

    2012-10-01

    For this study, a house was designed and built to the Passive House (Passivhaus) Standard for low energy consumption. The house incorporates an airtight, super-insulated thermal enclosure, southern facing windows with overhangs, a single point mini-split heat pump and electric resistance heaters, and a balanced energy recovery ventilator (ERV). The house was instrumented with sub-metering on all major electrical circuits, temperature and humidity measurements in each room, domestic hot water consumption, and recovery efficiency of the ERV. The energy performance was documented and compared to modeled predictions, and the thermal comfort performance of the heat pump was assessed.

  8. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie E. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, Robin K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fairey, III, Phillip W. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Jr., Charles [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  9. Psychiatry, bio-epistemes and the making of adolescence in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béhague, Dominique Pareja

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on an ethnographic study in southern Brazil, this paper explores how therapists' attempts to "resist bioreductionist" pharmaceutical use both succeed and crumble. Using a comparative framing, I show that pharmaceuticalization can become an anesthetizing "lid" that interacts with young people's polarizing micro-politics and is an outgrowth of multi-generational medico-political family histories. This lid, however, is not air-tight and exceptionalities are born out of these very same histories. I argue that both pharmaceuticalization and exceptions to it emerge not through "resistance" to biopsychiatric logics but from the transformative possibilities that the patterned co-production of social, political, and psychiatric life affords.

  10. Present State and Perspectives of Research on Carbon Dioxide Purification Technology for Coal Mine Refuge Chamber%矿用救生舱二氧化碳净化技术研究现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建会; 张小波; 孙瑞科

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍并比较了应用于矿用救生舱及其它密闭舱室内常用二氧化碳净化技术,指出了现有净化技术存在的问题,同时对二氧化碳净化技术的发展方向进行了探讨。%In this paper, the carbon dioxide purification technology in coal mine refuge chamber and other airtight cabin is introduced and compared. The problems that exist in the carbon dioxide purification technology are pointed out; finally the development direction is discussed.

  11. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure (3 ACH50) for single-family and multifamily construction (in climate zones 3–8). The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification program and ASHRAE Standard 189 have comparable compartmentalization requirements. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 will soon be responsible for all multifamily ventilation requirements (low rise and high rise); it has an exceptionally stringent compartmentalization requirement. These code and program requirements are driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  12. Information security governance simplified from the boardroom to the keyboard

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Security practitioners must be able to build cost-effective security programs while also complying with government regulations. Information Security Governance Simplified: From the Boardroom to the Keyboard lays out these regulations in simple terms and explains how to use control frameworks to build an air-tight information security (IS) program and governance structure. Defining the leadership skills required by IS officers, the book examines the pros and cons of different reporting structures and highlights the various control frameworks available. It details the functions of the security d

  13. THERMAL BLOOMING OF HIGH POWER LASER BEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Philbert, M.; Billard, M.; Fertin, G.; Lefèvre, J.

    1980-01-01

    With a view to better predicting the effects of thermal defocusing within the atmosphere, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed at ONERA. This consists essentially of a vertical airtight cell containing a gas or gas mixture sufficiently absorbing to induce "blooming" of a CO2 laser beam over a distance of about 3 m. A return wind tunnel, integrated within the cell, creates a uniform wind on the beam propagation path ; the wind velocity may be precisely adjusted between 0.1 and 2...

  14. IEA SHC Task 37: advanced housing renovation - Final report; IEA SHC Task 37: advanced housing renovation - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, R.

    2010-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling program. The project addressed the energy consumption of residential buildings and their renovation. The report discusses the goals set for the project and reports on five projects that were initiated. These include the refurbishment of apartment buildings to meet the 'Passive House' standard, air-tightness, potential for the use of solar energy, solar facades and the renovation of historic listed buildings. Conclusions resulting from these projects are presented and discussed.

  15. A Low-energy Building under Arctic Conditions - Experiences After Five Years of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Vladyková, Petra; Kotol, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , advanced windows, a ventilation system with heat recovery, and a solar collector that supplies a significant proportion of the domestic hot water. A very ambitious target was set for the annual energy consumption for heating, which was less than half of the value for permissible heat consumption according...... matches the expectations regarding low energy consumption and a high indoor climatic standard. The house did not meet the anticipated low target for energy consumption, and some reasons have been found which could explain why. Insufficient air-tightness of the building envelope, malfunction of some...... building services, insufficient insulation of ventilation ducts, and higher indoor temperatures than anticipated were among the main reasons....

  16. Silk fibroin diaphragm-based fiber-tip Fabry-Perot pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Linghao; Wang, Cengzhong; Huang, Yunyun; Liang, Hao; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2016-08-22

    A miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot is built on the tip of a single mode fiber with a thin silk fibroin film as the diaphragm for pressure measurement. The silk fibroin film is regenerated from aqueous silk fibroin solution obtained by an environmentally benign fabrication process, which exhibits excellent optical and physicochemical properties, such as transparency in visible and near infrared region, membrane-forming ability, good adhesion, and high mechanical strength. The resulted Fabry-Perot pressure sensor is therefore highly biocompatible and shows good airtightness with a response of 12.3 nm/kPa in terms of cavity length change. PMID:27557238

  17. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker;

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...

  18. Studies on safety and efficiency of gamma-irradiated ginseng

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation was applied to the biological quality improvement and preservation of white ginseng which has problems in a hygienic quality and storage stability. The current phosphine treatment showed no influence on microorganisms contaminated even though it was very useful for disinfestation of the sample, while 5 kGy irradiation effectively controlled the biological quality of the stored sample, with minimal effects on the quality parameters of white ginseng. Thus, it is concluded that gamma irradiation at a range of 5 kGy can be an alternative method of chemical fumigants provided air-tight packaging excluding recontamination is used for the stored product. (Author)

  19. Biodegradation of [(sup14)C]Benzo[a]pyrene Added in Crude Oil to Uncontaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaly, R.; Bartha, R.; Fogel, S; Findlay, M

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the possible cometabolic biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), crude oil spiked with [7-(sup14)C]BaP and unlabeled BaP was added to soil with no known pollution history, to give 34 g of oil and 67 mg of BaP/kg of dry soil. The oil-soil mixture was amended with mineral nutrients and incubated in an airtight container with continuous forced aeration. Total CO(inf2) and (sup14)CO(inf2) in the off-gas were trapped and quantified. Soil samples were Soxhlet extracted with dichlorom...

  20. Development of Simplified Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Ichiki, Ryuta; Maeda, Akihide; Yamanouchi, Kenta; Akamine, Shuichi; Kanazawa, Seiji; Oita University Team

    2015-09-01

    Nitriding treatment is one of the surface hardening technologies, applied to dies and automobile components. In recent industry, low-pressure nitriding treatment using vacuum system is mainstream. On the other hand, we have originally developed an atmospheric-pressure plasma nitriding which do not need vacuum system. However we needed an air-tight container to purge residual oxygen and external heater to control treatment temperature. To make this technique practical, we addressed to construct a simplified treatment system, where treatment temperature is controlled by thermal plasma itself and oxygen purging is achieved by a simple cover. This means that any air-tight container and external heater is not necessary. As a result, surface temperature is controlled by changing treatment gap from nozzle tip to steel surface. We succeeded in controlling well thickness of hardened layer by adjusting treatment temperature even in such a simplified system. In the conference, we also discuss experimental results for hardening complex shaped materials by using our simplified nitriding.

  1. Modeling ventilation and radon in new dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon concentrations were estimated for various ventilation conditions, the differences being mainly related to the airtightness of the dwelling and the ventilation behavior of its occupants. The estimations were aimed at describing the variation in air change rates and radon concentrations to be expected in the representative newly built Dutch dwellings and identifying the most important parameters determining air change rate and indoor radon concentration. The model estimations were compared with measurements. Most of the air was predicted to enter the model dwelling through leaks in the building shell, independent of the ventilation conditions of the dwelling. Opening the air inlets was shown to be an efficient way to increase infiltration and thus to decrease radon concentration. The effect of increasing the mechanical ventilation rate was considerably less than opening the air inlets. The mechanical ventilation sets the lower limit to the air change rate of the dwelling, and is effective in reducing the radon concentration when natural infiltration is low. Opening inside doors proved to be effective in preventing peak concentrations in poorly ventilated rooms. As the airtightness of newly built dwellings is still being improved, higher radon concentrations are to be expected in the near future and the effect of occupant behavior on indoor radon concentrations is likely to increase. According to the model estimations soil-borne radon played a moderate role, which is in line with measurements. (au)

  2. Relations between thickness of UHMWPE's wear debris and positive pressure of tribological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HongTao; GE ShiRong

    2008-01-01

    MiaoXAM2.5X-50X Ultrahigh Precision Surface 3D Profiler is introduced to research the relations be-tween thickness of UHMWPE's wear debris and positive pressure of tribological system. Research re-sults show that thickness of wear debris owns evident classification, and the first grade thickness math model and the second grade thickness math model are built. By the second grade thickness math model, the true force condition in the tribological system can be gotten, and the model can be used as a tool to modify simulating parameters of the tribological system, and it is an important inspecting method to the airtight system which cannot be examined in real time. The first grade thickness math model can describe the true working load and surface condition of work piece in the tribological sys-tem, and is an effective description method for the running condition of frictional pairs. The research results at different lubricating conditions testify the relations between thicknesses of wear debris and positive pressure of the tribological system. The fractal relation between maximal thickness of wear debris and positive pressure is discussed. The conceptions of the immutability principle and charac-teristic granularity of wear debris thickness are brought forward and discussed. In conclusion, as a stable tribological parameter owning mechanical theory basis, wear debris thickness will play an im-portant part in fault diagnosis, especially for the airtight system such as artificial joint.

  3. Application of a flexible-film isolator for rearing specific pathogen-free chickens and investigating poultry pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, D P; Bagust, T J

    1979-07-01

    A commercially-available flexible-film isolator kit was adapted for rearing specific pathogen free poultry and for carrying out experiments with avian pathogens. By increasing the standard air hose diameter from 32 mm to 75 mm and incorporating large metal filter canisters in place of the standard plastic filter sleeves, air flow rates were increased up to 8-fold. These changes allowed a greater number of birds to be maintained for longer periods without the previous problems of condensation of water vapour on the inside surfaces of the isolator. Fibreglass mat filters were shown to be efficient in retaining Newcastle disease virus when challenged by aerosol produced experimentally. Cross-contamination by virus infections between adjacent isolators was prevented for at least 12 weeks. The use of air-tight seals between the isolator canopy and structural components, air-tight feeder and light supports, an automatic watering system and facilities to improve portability are described. The adaptations resulted in an isolator which was efficient to use and maintain.

  4. A novel system solution for cooling and ventilation in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    As a response to new energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need both in summer and in winter. In order to effectively save energy, new interests in cooling concepts using passive cooling technolo......As a response to new energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need both in summer and in winter. In order to effectively save energy, new interests in cooling concepts using passive cooling...... technologies and renewable energy sources have risen. Based on a literature review of natural ventilation, building thermal mass activation and diffuse ceiling ventilation, this paper proposes a new system solution combining these three technologies for cooling and ventilation in office buildings. This new...... solution has the special function of using natural ventilation all the year around without draught risk, even in very cold seasons. A case study of a typical office room using this solution and other traditional HVAC systems is carried out by energy simulation. The results show that there is a large energy...

  5. 预镀铜对铝基电沉积镍层的影响%The Effect of Pre-Cu-plating on Aluminum Base for Ni Electrodeposited Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩新博; 肖跃军; 刘谦; 刘继文; 赵巍; 张文良; 宋林红; 王雪; 廖震宇

    2013-01-01

    为了改善铝基电沉积镍层的性能,在电沉积镍之前采用了预镀铜的工艺.通过SEM,EDS,划痕法和氦质谱检漏法等方法研究预镀铜层与化学浸锌层的相组成和组织形貌,以及各沉积镍层的气密性和结合力等性能.研究结果表明,预镀铜工艺的添加使电沉积镍层性能得到显著改善;镍层内表面光亮,气密性大大提高.%In order to improve the performance of aluminum electrodeposited nickel layer, pre-copper plating process was adopted before electrodeposited nickel. The testing techniques such as SEM, EDS, scarification, helium mass spectrometer leak detection method were used to study performance of the phase composition and microstructure of pre-copper plating layer compared with immersion zinc layer, to study airtightness and combination of the deposited nickel layers. The results show that electrodeposited nickel layer performance has been significantly improved as the addition of the pre-copper plating, nickel layer surface is brighter, the airtightness is greatly improved.

  6. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  7. Water shielding nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor container of the present invention contains a reactor pressure vessel, and has double steel plate walls endurable to elevated inner pressure and keeping airtightness, and shielding water is filled inside from a water injection port. It is endurable to a great inner pressure satisfactorily and keep airtightness by the two spaced relatively thin steel plates. It exhibits radiation shielding effect by filling water substantially the same as that of a conventional reactor container made of iron reinforced concretes. Then, it is no more necessary to use concretes for the construction of the reactor container, which shortens the term of the construction, and saves the construction cost. In addition, a cooling effect for the reactor container is provided. Syphons are disposed contiguously to a water injection port and the top end of the syphon is immersed in an equipment temporarily storage pool, and further, pipelines are connected to the double steel plate walls or the syphons for supplying shielding water to enhance the cooling effect. (N.H.)

  8. The stability of glyceryl trinitrate tablets during patient use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, J; Shaw, J; Hunt, D

    1983-04-01

    The stability of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) tablets stored in ways commonly used by patients was investigated to enable pharmacists and physicians to give better advice about tablet storage. Analysis of 43 samples of tablets collected from hospital patients showed that the GTN content of these samples differed significantly from that of fresh tablets. Tablets kept in the manufacturer's bottle contained significantly more GTN than those transferred to other airtight vials (p less than 0.05) or pill boxes (p less than 0.005). The content of GTN was also significantly lower in tablets stored in pill boxes compared with other vials (p less than 0.01). Similar trends were found when tablets were stored in glass or plastic vials, pill boxes or were left exposed to air in the laboratory. These results emphasize that the best way to store GTN tablets is in the manufacturer's container. However, since many patients find that this bottle is awkward and inconvenient, a suitable alternative would be to carry a few tablets in a small airtight container (preferably glass). The unused tablets should be discarded every two weeks and nothing else should be added to the container. The use of pill boxes should be strongly discouraged. PMID:6412672

  9. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination. PMID:27339205

  10. A novel method for measuring the diffusion, partition and convective mass transfer coefficients of formaldehyde and VOC in building materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The diffusion coefficient (D(m and material/air partition coefficient (K are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (h(m. Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1 the K, D(m and h(m can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2 it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3 the determination of h(m is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring h(m of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC by using that of VOC.

  11. A general analytical model for formaldehyde and VOC emission/sorption in single-layer building materials and its application in determining the characteristic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Yinping

    2012-02-01

    A general analytical model for characterizing emission and sorption of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in single-layer building materials is developed. Compared with traditional models, the present model can be applicable for four kinds of typical physical processes, i.e., emission in ventilated and airtight chambers, and sorption in these two types of chambers. Based on the general analytical model, a novel method is proposed to determine the characteristic parameters (the diffusion coefficient, Dm, and the material/air partition coefficient, K) of formaldehyde and VOC sorption in ventilated and airtight chambers. It establishes a linear relationship between the logarithm of dimensionless excess concentration and sorption time, and the Dm and K can be conveniently obtained from the slope and intercept of the regression line. The results of applying the present model are compared with the experimental data in the literature. The good agreement between them not only validates the model but also demonstrates that the measured characteristic parameters are accurate and reliable. The general analytical model should prove useful for unified characterization and prediction of emission/sorption in building materials as well as for parameter measurement.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-03-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States (US), using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu). Annual energy costs were reduced $1,283±$804 (n=31), from a pre-retrofit average of $2,738±$1,065 to $1,588±$561 post-retrofit (n=25 and n=39). The average reported incremental project cost was $40,420±$30,358 (n=59). When financed on a 30-year term, the median change in net-homeownership cost was only $1.00 per month, ranging from $149 in savings to an increase of $212 (mean=$15.67±$87.74; n=28), and almost half of the projects resulted in reductions in net-cost. The economic value of a DER may be much greater than is suggested by these net-costs, because DERs entail substantial non-energy benefits (NEBs), and retrofit measures may add value to a home at resale similarly to general remodeling, PV panel installation, and green/energy efficient home labels. These results provide estimates of the potential of DERs to address energy use in existing homes across climate zones that can be used in future estimates of the technical potential to reduce household

  13. Determination of Nutritional Composition and Effect of Various Storage Conditions on the Vitamin C Content in Garcinia Dulcis, in Fresh and Dry Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Abdul Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried to determine the nutritional properties of fresh Garcinia dulcis fruit, an indigenous fruit growth in Sabah, included proximate content of moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, total dietary fibre and total carbohydrate, vitamin C as well as several minerals content. The effect of different drying techniques and storage conditions on the vitamin  C content in dried Garcinia dulcis was investigated. The fruit slices were separated into four groups which subjected to four drying techniques, which were sun drying, hot air drying at 50C and 60C and vacuum drying, and dried to the moisture content of 16 ± 1 %. After drying, the sample was subjected to four storage conditions, which were dark and air-tight, dark and non-air-tight, light and air-tight and light and non-air-tight, and the vitamin C content was analyzed for sample subjected to each condition once per 7 days of storage until 28 days of storage. From the analysis, the nutritional properties of fresh fruit with the content of moisture (86.64 ± 0.21 %, ash (0.68 ± 0.01 %, crude protein (0.59 ± 0.03 %, crude fat (0.40 ± 0.02 %, crude fibre (1.89 ± 0.04 %, total carbohydrate (9.80 ± 0.18 % and total dietary fibre (8.21 ± 0.38 %, vitamin C (6.88 ± 0.33 mg AA/100g ww and several minerals (potassium, 64.63 ± 0.02 mg/100 g ww; phosphorus, 7.79 ± 0.13 mg/100 g ww; calcium, 7.59 ± 0.06 mg/100 g ww were determined. The hot air drying at 50C and vacuum drying retained highest amount of vitamin C among the four drying techniques just after the sample was dried. The best storage conditions for all the drying techniques were dark and air-tight conditions. It was found out that the drying technique interdependent to each other in order to retain the highest content of vitamin C in dried Garcinia dulcis sample for a longer period of time.

  14. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  15. Exploring plasmonics for monitoring applications within the built and natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James; Aidoo, Kofi

    2008-09-01

    Plasmonics is an area of nanophotonic research involving the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and conduction electrons on a metallic surface, resulting in enhanced optical properties. Plasmonics is the mechanism behind Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR.) Developing a sensor using SPR to monitor conditions within the built and natural environment is explored in this paper. A plasmonic sensor involves exciting surface plasmon polaritons (SPP's) present at the sensor interface by polarized light. SPP's have sensitivities that respond rapidly to changes at the interface through the presence of analytes, compounds or contaminants; this provides a real time label free detection method. This renders plasmonic sensors ideal as condition monitors. Possible applications include, microbial loading within airtight buildings, soil, water and air pollutant monitoring and structural deterioration monitoring. The advances and learning curves in the development of a new novel sensor for deployment within the built and natural environment are presented along with initial research findings.

  16. Cold climate radon mitigation-opportunities and perils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon mitigation systems in cold climates present opportunities, challenges and perils. Innovative radon mitigation systems were installed in a commercial building with curtain walls, a farm house connected to a field tile, and for a family that needed to improve its indoor air quality. Conventional active soil depressurization radon mitigation systems can cause backdrafting of natural draft water heaters and furnaces in the relatively air-tight homes found in cold climates. The effluent radon concentrations in many Iowa homes may be low enough to make side-wall venting a safe alternative to venting above the roofline. Side-wall venting is less expensive than above the roofline venting and thus may encourage more people to install radon mitigation systems

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  18. Learning-Memory Function and Swimming Capability of Rat and Ergonomic Evaluation Under Hypoxic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ding-yu; DAI Rong-ji; LI Bo; MAO Jian; GENG Li-na; DENG Yu-lin

    2009-01-01

    Effects of hypoxia on learning-memory function and swimming capability of rat were studied and the ergonomics under hypoxic condition was also evaluated from the biological point of view. Three modes of hypoxia were designed and plots of oxygen concentration versus time for each group in hypoxic environment were produced. Results showed that the effects of hypoxia on learning-memory function and swimming capability were related with the time and strength of hypoxia. It had nothing to do with the individual difference of rat models. 10% O2 long-term intermittent anamorphosis hypoxia could improve the swimming capability of rat model significantly. Stimulating with proper level of hypoxia, carbon dioxide could improve ergonomics in airtight hypoxia environment. Under hypoxia condition, from the ergonomic point of view, 6% O2 is the important threshold and might belong in critical region.

  19. The mechanical ventilation of suspended timber floors for radon remediation - a simple analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical ventilation of the underfloor space is one of the most effective ways of reducing radon levels in buildings with suspended timber floors. There is a question, however, whether this ventilation should be supply or extract, sometimes extract is more effective, sometimes supply is more effective. This report presents a simple analysis of the problem and suggests the hypothesis that the relative effectiveness of supply or extract ventilation to the underfloor space depends on the relative airtightness of the floor and the soil or oversite surface. The analysis suggests that if the floor is relatively tight then supply ventilation may be more effective whereas if the floor is relatively leaky or there is oversite concrete then extract may be better. It is suggested that in either case it is better to keep the underfloor pressure low and that when mechanical ventilation is provided to the underfloor space it may be necessary to increase the number of airbricks. (author)

  20. Development study on subcriticality monitor. 1. Report under business contract with Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    In this trust fund, we reviewed subcriticality measuring methods and neutron or gamma ray measuring and date transmission systems appropriate for realizing inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance systems, which is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Since the neutron flux level in subcritical systems is fairly low without external neutron sources, it is desirable to use pulse type neutron detectors for subcritical measurement systems. This logically implies that subcriticality measurement methods based on the temporal domain should be used for developing an on-line criticality surveillance system. In the deep subcriticality conditions, a strong external neutron source is needed for eactivity measurement and a D-T tube can be used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurement. A D-T tube is convenient since it is free from Tritium problem since Tritium is sealed in an airtight container and also can be controlled by power supply. Hence, under deep subcritical condit...

  1. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per;

    2009-01-01

    emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m-2 h-1 were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO2, CH4......) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH4 independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol...... storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m3 cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation...

  2. Welding nuclear reactor fuel rod end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for applying a vacuum to a nuclear fuel rod cladding tube's interior through its open end while girth welding an inserted end plug to its other end. An airtight housing has an orifice with a seal which can hermetically engage the tube's open end. A vacuum hose has one end connected to the housing and the other end connected to a vacuum pump. A mechanized device which moves the housing to engage or disengage its seal with the tube's open end includes at least one arm having one end attached to the housing and the other end pivotally attached to a movable table; an arm rotating device to coaxially align the housing's orifice with the welding-positioned tube; and a table moving device to engage the seal of the coaxially aligned orifice with the tube's open end. (author)

  3. Out-pile tests for improved type rabbits in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation tests by hydraulic rabbit are expected to increase the demand of medical use radioisotope productions and nuclear human resource development after restart of Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Therefore, it is necessary to shorten fabrication period of hydraulic rabbits. In this study, applicability of the pressure welding type hydraulic rabbit, which was used in Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3), was examined. As the results, it was confirmed that the fabricated hydraulic rabbit kept airtightness of the external pressure of 2.45 MPa, impact of the fall from 5m in height and every 5 times of thermal cycle under conditions such as 110°C ,200°C and 300°C. Furthermore, it was clear that the fabricated hydraulic rabbit had the endurance up to the inner pressure of 1 MPa. Therefore, there were bright prospects that the pressure hydraulic type rabbit has the applicability of the irradiation test in JMTR. (author)

  4. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide fumigation on some chemical quality of white ginseng powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginseng saponins and proximate components were considerably resistant to both gamma irradiation at less than 10 kGy and commercial ethylene oxide cycle, while sulfur-containing amino acids, reducing sugar, pH, and acidity of white ginseng powder were significantly changed by EO fumigation. The contents of saponins, reducing sugar, pH and acidity were relatively liable to change under the higher relative humidity (90%), especially in the non-treated control sample. However, irradiated samples at optimum-dose range (5 to 10 kGy) depending on the microbial load following airtight packaging showed a good chemical quality for 7 months of storage at 30 pm 2 deg. C irrespective of relative humidity

  5. A Simple Fabrication Process based on Micro-Masonry for the Realization of Nanoplate Resonators with Integrated Actuation and Detection Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu eNicu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the micro-masonry technique to fabricate nanoplate resonators with integrated electrostatic actuation and capacitive detection in a few steps. Our approach is an alternative solution to the current fabrication methods used to create membranes and plates that usually rely on the selective etching of a sacrificial layer. Highly doped silicon plates were transfer-printed using microtip elastomeric stamps onto insulated bases displaying cavities in order to form suspended structures with airtight gaps. By post-processing adequate interconnections, the fabricated resonators were actuated and their resonant frequency measured in a fully integrated manner. The tested nanoplate devices behave as predicted by theory and offer quality factors of more than 30 in air. Because the cavities used for electrostatic actuation/sensing of the devices are tight sealed, nanoplates fabricated via micro-masonry are suitable for liquid environment operation and are thus a promising solution for biosensing applications.

  6. Power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lige; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Huang, Jiang; Liu, Kaifeng; Zuo, Chen

    2015-12-01

    The filament is a key component for the electron emission in the high-voltage electron accelerator. In order to guarantee the stability of the beam intensity and ensure the proper functioning for the power supply in the airtight steel barrel, an efficient filament power supply under accurate control is required. The paper, based on the dual-switch forward converter and synchronous rectification technology, puts forward a prototype of power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage accelerator. The simulation is conducted with MATLAB-Simulink on the main topology and the control method. Loss analysis and thermal analysis are evaluated using the FEA method. Tests show that in this prototype, the accuracy of current control is higher than 97.5%, and the efficiency of the power supply reaches 87.8% when the output current is 40 A.

  7. Numerical Description of Dynamic U-value Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2016-01-01

    for cooling. Therefore in order to achieve zero-energy-building, optimum static U- and g-value solutions in zero-energy-building concepts needs to be supplied with renewable energy harvesting technologies. In order to lower the energy demand for heating without increasing the energy demand for cooling......The transparent part of the façade has the largest heat loss, when compared to the opaque part and an airtight envelope solution. A reduction of the heat loss through the transparent part of the façade leads to a decrease in energy demand for heating; however it increases the energy demand...... requires the development and usage of dynamic U-value technologies. A full-scale test facility, divided into two identical facades, is used, enabling the development of a calculation model for dynamic U-value technologies. The model focuses on the energy transport through the insulated part...

  8. The application of irradiation techniques to food and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish concrete infrastructure required for food irradiation commercialization, the project was designed to investigate the efficiency of irradiation techniques, such as preserving boiled-dried anchovy and improving its safety, improving the physical quality of soybeans and microbial-immobilization with radiation-induced polymer. Dried anchovies could be kept in a sanitary quality for over one year at cooling conditions (<10 deg C) instead of freezing by using 5 KGy-irradiation and airtight packaging(NY/PE). Gamma irradiation below 10 KGy was significantly effective for improving the hydration and cooking properties of soybeans. Immobilized microorganisms showed an increased-catalytic activity, producing lactic acid 15 times higher than that of free culture. (Author)

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulated Siding Retrofit in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the U.S. Department of Energy’s team Building America Partner¬ship for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC) worked with Kinsley Construction Company to evaluate the real-world performance of insulated sid¬ing when applied to an existing home. A 1960s home was selected for analysis. It is located in a cold climate (zone 6) where the addition of insulated siding and a carefully detailed water-resistive barrier have the potential to offer significant benefits. In particular, the team quantified building airtightness and heating energy use as a function of outdoor temperatures before and after the installa¬tion of the insulated siding.

  10. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    saving potential and the steady-state and dynamic energy performance of this system. The presented work utilizes building simulation method to investigate the energy saving potential of this novel system. Afterwards, an experimental set-up is built in the laboratory to simulate a real office environment......As a response to new stringent energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need in both summer and winter. This study proposes a novel system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet...... and thermally activated building systems (TABS) for cooling and ventilation in future Danish office buildings. The new solution would have the special potential of using natural ventilation all year round even in the extremely cold seasons without any draught risk. The main focuses of this study are the energy...

  11. Euclid in the rain forest discovering universal truth in logic and math

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Like Douglas Hofstadter’s Gödel, Escher, Bach, and David Berlinski’s A Tour of the Calculus, Euclid in the Rainforest combines the literary with the mathematical to explore logic—the one indispensable tool in man’s quest to understand the world. Underpinning both math and science, it is the foundation of every major advancement in knowledge since the time of the ancient Greeks. Through adventure stories and historical narratives populated with a rich and quirky cast of characters, Mazur artfully reveals the less-than-airtight nature of logic and the muddled relationship between math and the real world. Ultimately, Mazur argues, logical reasoning is not purely robotic. At its most basic level, it is a creative process guided by our intuitions and beliefs about the world.

  12. Modernisation of ventilation systems; Modernisierung von Lueftungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    When redeveloping buildings it is common to use window constructions with air-tight rabbets which obviate the inflow of fresh air almost entirely. This leads to the well-known structural-physics and hygienic consequences. As an added effect, the distinctly enhanced thermal insulation results in changes in dynamic heat loss. The paper focuses on the issues of how to safeguard the inflow of fresh air, and the heating capacity of radiators. (MSK) [Deutsch] Da die bei Gebaeudesanierungen eingesetzten fugendichten Fensterkonstruktionen die Nachstroemmoeglichkeiten fuer die Zuluft fast ganz unterbinden, fuehrt das zu den bekannten bauphysikalischen und hygienischen Konsequenzen. Dazu kommen veraenderte dynamische Waermverlustverhaeltnisse aufgrund der deutlich verbesserten Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden wird schwerpunktmaessig auf die Probleme Zuluftsicherung und Waermeleistung von Heizkoerpern eingegangen.

  13. Thermal evaluation of the mean fatigue limit of a complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Olivier; Bremond, Pierre; Hild, Francois

    2005-03-01

    The study deals with the long-term reliability of a high precision pressure sensor using bellows mainly made of electroplated Ni. Bellows are expected to stay in service for many decades. Their high cycle fatigue behavior has to be known to assess the probability of airtightness loss. A specific high cycle fatigue setup, put in a resonant machine that is displacement-controlled, has been designed. An infrared thermographic technique is used to determine the mean fatigue limit of bellows. Increases in the mean temperature of the bellows with the displacement range are monitored. Several authors empirically relate the mean fatigue limit of a flat specimen to a rapid temperature change. A similar analysis is performed in the present case by using the bellows mean temperature. Finite element computations allow us to estimate a mean fatigue stress threshold for electroplated Ni. This result is compared with those obtained mechanically in a Woehler diagram.

  14. A tyrosine hydroxylase assay in microwells using coupled nonenzymatic decarboxylation of dopa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, J.R.; Le, W.D. (Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (USA))

    1991-01-01

    A radiometric assay for tyrosine hydroxylase employing a coupled nonenzymatic decarboxylation of L-{sup 14}CDopa formed from L-{sup 14}Ctyrosine has been adapted for performance in a 96 microwell culture plate. The method uses an easily manufactured plate holder to compress blotting paper impregnated with methylbenzethonium hydroxide against the top rim of each well. This forms isolated, airtight compartments in which 14CO2 is evolved and quantitatively absorbed into the blotting paper. The method is sensitive enough to detect the production of less than 5 pmol of 14CO2. A major advantage of this system is that cells can be grown in tissue culture and subsequently assayed for tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the same well. The method is more facile than previously devised procedures, allowing for the simultaneous assay of up to 96 samples totally contained in a single, compact, portable unit.

  15. EFFECT OF STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHINESE FIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment often brings about some negative effects on mechanical properties of wood. Chinese fir is currently underutilized due to some inherent properties that limit its further applications. Using steam as a heating medium and a shielding gas, the heartwood and sapwood of Chinese fir were treated at a temperature ranging from 170ºC to 230ºC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an airtight chamber. Both the modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE were increased for the sapwood specimens under the temperature less than 200ºC for short treatment times. The hardness was increased for both two kinds of specimens under the temperature less than or about 200ºC, compared to the untreated specimens. The temperature has a stronger effect on mechanical properties of wood than the time, and the temperature of 200 ºC is a critical point in modifying mechanical properties of wood.

  16. Investigation of Indoor Climate in a Naturally Ventilated Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2008-01-01

    A measuring program in a naturally ventilated office building in Copenhagen was carried out to document the indoor climate and ventilation system performance during a year. It included a questionnaire regarding the perceived indoor environmental quality and physical measurements of thermal comfort...... to a combination of poor control of solar shading and a very high local heat load that was above the Danish recommendations for naturally ventilated office buildings. Both measured and perceived indoor air quality in the building was in general very high. The measured air flow rates was relatively high due...... to the need for cooling in the office building, while the level of infiltration was quite low indicating an airtight construction....

  17. An energy efficient building for the Arctic climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladyková, Petra

    of a super energy efficient house in which the normal hydronic heating system can be omitted. The savings in investment for a traditional hydronic heating system are spent on energy conserving components such as increased insulation in a super airtight building shell, super efficient windows to produce...... usage of an extreme energy efficient building in the Arctic. The purpose of this Ph.D. study is to determine the optimal use of an energy efficient house in the Arctic derived from the fundamental definition of a passive house, investigations of building parameters including the building envelope...... in the Arctic needs to take into account also different socioeconomic conditions, building traditions and use of buildings, survival issue, sustainability and power supply, among others. In the Arctic, the energy efficient house based on a passive house concept offers a sustainable solution to the operation...

  18. Cooling Tests of the NectarCAM camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Moulin, E; Durand, D; Feirreira, O; Fesquet, M; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J -F; Loiseau, D; Louis, F; Nunio, F; Rateau, S; consortia, CTA

    2015-01-01

    The NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes in the framework of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the next-generation observatory for very-high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The cameras are designed to operate in an open environment and their mechanics must provide protection for all their components under the conditions defined for the CTA observatory. In order to operate in a stable environment and ensure the best physics performance, each NectarCAM will be enclosed in a slightly overpressurized, nearly air-tight, camera body, to prevent dust and water from entering. The total power dissipation will be ~7.7 kW for a 1855-pixel camera. The largest fraction is dissipated by the readout electronics in the modules. We present the design and implementation of the cooling system together with the test bench results obtained on the NectarCAM thermal demonstrator.

  19. 石墨端面封严装置密封性检测装置%Leakage Detection Device of Graphite End Face Sealing Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘渊; 马达; 赵四洋

    2013-01-01

    According to the regulations, an airtight test special jig for graphite end face sealing device is designed and manufactured by simulating the actual assembly state of graphite end face sealing device. Through test verification, the aim of simple clamping and operation, strong operability and visualized test result is realized.%本文根据规定要求,模拟石墨端面密封装置实际装配状态设计制造了石墨端面密封装置气密试验专用夹具,经过试验验证,达到了装夹、试验操作简单,可操作性强,试验结果直观的目的。

  20. Improving propulsive efficiency through passive mechanisms using a Starling vortex generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Robert; Dabiri, John

    2011-11-01

    Ruiz et al. (2011) demonstrated that pulsed propulsion with vortex rings, much like those seen in the wake of jellyfish and squid, can greatly enhance the overall efficiency of submersible vehicles. The objective of the present research is to achieve pulsed propulsion passively using a Starling vortex generator which consists of a collapsible tube within an airtight box. Recent work has shown that a Starling vortex generator is able to generate vortex rings, which indicates enhanced propulsion, while requiring less energy to generate pulsatility than the system by Ruiz et al. (2011). Current work is focused on conducting an experimental parameter study to determine an empirical scaling law suitable for design purposes, with the aim to integrate the device into a full-scale unmanned undersea vehicle. Support is greatly appreciated from ONR Awards N000140810918 and N000141010137.

  1. Energy Savings of Vending Machine; Jido hanbaiki no sho enerugi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Yukio. [FUJI Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-28

    By the end of 1997, the number of cending machines used in Japan reached about 5.5 million units. Vending machines areindispensable, playing an important role in our daily lives. Various environmental problems have made the world pay more attention to the vending machine industry. We, the industry, therefore have been struggling with these problems from many angles. For the saving energy project, we have focused on insulation and air-tightness improvement, fan motor control, fluorescent light inverter control and so forth. The goal set by Japan Vending Machine Manufacturers Association is, by 2001, to cut the level of electric power consumption from 1996 by 15%. This report focuses on the diffused units of vending machines in Japan, and concrete measures which we, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., have taken, and will be taking, for the reduction of energy consumption. (author)

  2. Constrained space camera assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  3. [Reconstruction of the anterior chest wall by a sandwich-type combination of a synthetic support and a muscle flap from the latissimus dorsi. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfrey, E; Grolleau, J L; Glock, Y; Chavoin, J P; Costagliola, M

    1996-04-01

    Reconstruction of the chest wall after balistic or other trauma requires good and muscle cover and creation of a new, stable and airtight wall. The authors present a case of balistic trauma of the right anterolateral chest wall which was urgently debrided and subsequently reconstructed by sandwich combination of a latissimus dorsi muscle flap and synthetic material composed of a sheet of PTFE and creation of two methylmethylacrylate ribs. The advantage of this technique is that it avoids the use of autologous tissue from an already weakened chest wall and confers a new chest stability in several sites corresponding to the wall defect with easily available and easy-to-use materials. PMID:8761064

  4. Welding nuclear reactor fuel rod end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for applying a vacuum to a nuclear fuel rod cladding tube's interior through its open end while girth welding an inserted end plug to its other end. An airtight housing has an orifice with a seal which can hermetically engage the tube's open end. A vacuum hose has one end connected to the housing and the other end connected to a vacuum pump. A mechanized device moves the housing to engage or disengage its seal with the tube's open end. Preferably the mechanized device includes an arm having one end attached to the housing and the other end pivotally attached to a moveable table; an arm rotating device to coaxially align the housing's orifice with the welding-positioned tube; and a table moving device to engage the seal of the coaxially aligned orifice with the tube's open end

  5. Toxicity of methyl tert butyl ether to soil invertebrates (springtails: Folsomia candida, Proisotoma minuta, and Onychiurus folsomi) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Matthew; Addison, Janet A

    2010-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the toxicity of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE) to three species of Collembola (Proisotoma minuta, Folsomia candida, and Onychiurus folsomi) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using an artificial Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) soil and field-collected sandy loam and silt loam soil samples. Soil invertebrate tests were carried out in airtight vials to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of the test units and to allow for direct head-space sampling and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for residual MTBE. The use of the airtight vial protocol proved to be very successful, in that the measured MTBE concentrations at the beginning of the experiments were within 95% of nominal concentrations. The test methods used in this study could be used to test the toxicity of other volatile organic compounds to Collembola. The soil invertebrates tested had inhibitory concentration (ICx) and lethal concentration (LCx) values that ranged from 242 to 844 mg MTBE/kg dry soil. When the three test species of Collembola were tested under identical conditions in the artificial OECD soil, O. folsomi was the most sensitive collembolan, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50; reproduction) of 296 mg MTBE/kg dry soil. The most sensitive endpoint for lettuce was an IC50 for root length of 81 mg MTBE/kg dry soil after 5 d of germination in OECD soil. Data on the loss of MTBE from the three test soils over time indicated that MTBE was retained in the silt loam soil longer than in either the sandy loam or the artificial OECD soil. PMID:20821452

  6. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.

    2013-01-15

    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  7. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  8. Synthesis of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ whiskers and cross-whisker intrinsic Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synthesis technique of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single-crystal whiskers was studied. The whiskers were synthesized by heating glassy melt-quenched Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (3:2:2:4 in cationic ratio) plates. The atmospheric condition of the whisker growth, especially oxygen partial pressure and gas flow, was investigated. It was found out that the whisker growth rate shows a maximum at PO2=2/3 bar. For the crystalline quality of the whiskers, the airtight condition was found to be useful as compared to the conventional oxygen stream condition. The crystalline quality, especially the straightness and morphology of the surface, could be improved by keeping the growing whiskers under the equilibrium PBi condition. Over 20-mm-long whisker crystals have been successfully synthesized by choosing optimum oxygen partial pressure around the PO2=2/3 bar in the airtight condition. The growth condition and mechanism of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ whiskers were investigated by an in-situ high-temperature x-ray diffraction analysis and an in-situ high-temperature microscope observation. It was found that the whiskers grow in a partially melted state at a temperature of 10-40 degrees below the melting point. The result obtained demonstrates that Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ whiskers grow at their bottom by the conventional liquid-phase growth mechanism, as was proposed by Matsubara et al. (author)

  9. 矿井避难硐室正压密闭系统研究%Study on confined positive pressure system in mine refuge station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩海荣; 金龙哲; 高娜; 王岩

    2011-01-01

    矿井避难硐室在灾变时为矿工提供了隔绝密闭的避难空间,内部正压密闭系统起到了隔绝有毒有害气体的作用.本文对矿井避难硐室正压系统进行研究,确定影响矿井避难硐室正压数值的因素,通过理论计算确定了矿井避难硐室正压值,同时确定了矿井避难硐室的正压维持方式并设计了相应的余压阀.为保证矿井避难硐室正压的实现,对矿井避难硐室密闭系统进行研究,包括建筑密闭和设施密闭.%Mine refuge station can provide the isolated refuge confined space in the disaster, and the internal positive pressure-confined system plays the role of isolating toxic and harmful gases. In this article positive pressure system in mine refuge station was studied, the factors affecting the positive pressure values of mine refuge station were determined. Through theoretical calculations, the positive pressure value of mine refuge station and the way of maintenance positive pressure, were determined and also residual pressure valve was designed. In order to ensure the realization of positive pressure in the refuge station, the confined system of mine refuge station was studied, which include construction airtight and facilities airtight.

  10. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  11. Development Of The Nuclear Optical Penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Koike, K.; Imada, Y.

    1984-10-01

    We have developed the nuclear optical penetration to be incorporated in the wall penetration of the shell to introduce a data transmission system using optical fibers into a nuclear power plant with a pressurized water reactor. Radiation-induced coloration in optical glass seriously affects transmission characteristics of optical fibers, whereas it has been revealed that the pure-silica core optical fiber without any dopant in the core has wide applicability in radiation fields thanks to its very low radiation-induced attenuation. The wall penetration of the shell should have airtightness and resistivity to heat, vibration, and pressure, let alone radiation, excellent enough to be invariable in data transmission efficiency even when subjected to severe environmental tests. The sealing modules of this newly developed nuclear optical penetration are hermetically sealed. The gap between the optical fiber rod (100 pm in core diameter and 5 mm in rod diameter) and stainless steel tube is sealed with lamingted glass layer. As the result of He gas leakage test, high airtightness of less than 10 cc/sec was achieved. No thermal deformation of the core was caused by sealing with laminated glass layer, nor was observed transmission loss. Then the sealiing modules were subjected to the irradiation test using 60 Co gamma ray exposure of 2 x 10 rads. Though silica glass layer supporting the fiber rod and sealing glass portion turned blackish purple, transparency of the fiber was not affected. Only less than 0.5 dB of connecting loss was observed at the connecting point with the optical fiber cable. The sealing modules were also found to have resistivity to vibration and pressure as excellent as that of existing nuclear electric penetrations. We expect the nuclear optical fiber penetration will be much effective in improving reliability of data transmission systems using optical fibers in radiation fields.

  12. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  13. Design and Optimization on Simulation System of Mine CO2 Open Loop Cycle Refrigeration%矿用CO2开放式制冷仿真系统设计与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹利波

    2013-01-01

    According to the importance of the CO2 open loop cycle refrigeration applied to the rescue cabin, the refuge chamber and other limited airtight space, the FLOWMASTER simulation software of the thermal fluid system was applied to design the simulation system of the CO2 open loop cycle refrigeration applied to a limited airtight space. Under the conditions to meet the designed refrigeration value and the pressure drop and temperature drop at the inlet and outlet of the pneumatic blower, the tube length of the evaporator was optimized and the optimum length of the evaporator was obtained. Meanwhile the refrigeration system features and the different refrigeration value under the non designed performances were checked.The test certification was conducted on the refrigeration simulation system.The simulated value and the test value were well fitted and the simulation accuracy and precision of the system were verified.%针对CO2开放式制冷在避难硐室、救生舱等有限密闭空间中应用的重要性,利用FLOWMASTER热流体计算仿真软件,设计了一种用于有限密闭空间的CO2开放式制冷仿真系统,在满足设计制冷量和气动风机进出口压降、温降的条件下,对蒸发器管长进行优化,获得了最佳蒸发器长度,同时对非设计工况下的制冷系统特性及不同制冷量进行校核,并对该制冷仿真系统进行了试验验证,仿真值与试验值吻合良好,验证了系统仿真的准确性和精确性.

  14. Studies on Using Azolla for O2-Supplementation and Its Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.-C.; Liu, X.-S.; Chen, M.; Bian, Z.-L.

    Establishment of Controlling Ecological Life Safety System (CELSS) is a key technical part in the study on manned station. In order to meet the requirement of long-term out-earth man-carrying flight, it is necessary to build plant-based O2-supplying CELSS. It also possesses the possibility to contribute the realization of mankind dream to live in out-earth planets. Using the physiological reaction of organisms, this system settled the problem in food supply, O2 and water recycle, the regeneration and utilization of CO2 and life residues, thus guarantee the spacemen the health, safety and efficient work when they are far from earth and arrived the space where human is difficult to life in. Azolla as a plant that possesses high growing speed, short growing cycle, high photosynthesis and O2-releasing capacity, and can be artificially grow in multi-layer facilities, it is hopeful to be an important biological part in CELSS for it's the function in O2 production and to be a part of fresh vegetable as well as CO2 absorption. This paper described the study in Azolla as a plant for supplementary O2 supply in future space station flight. The "Azolla-dog" controlling tight system was firstly established in order to determine the regulation of O2-CO2 variation and balance using different weights of dogs with different Azolla growing areas. The further studies included the development of air-tight cabinets where "Azolla-human" airtight experiments were conducted, and the relationship between Azolla-growing area and O2 requirement by human was analyzed. Based on these works, the further experiment on supplementary O2-supply of Azolla-human system was conducted in demonstration cabin for environmental controlling and life security. The O2-supplying amount of Azolla was further gained, and it will provide the experimental basis to probe optimum condition to grow Azolla in space and human-machine combining experiment, also to lay a basis for Azolla as a biological part to enter

  15. 'Minergie' as an opportunity for trade; 'Minergie' als Chance fuer das Gewerbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, R.; Buergi, H.; Hotz, R.

    2000-07-01

    This collection of short articles is dedicated to the promotion of the Swiss 'Minergie' building standard, covering the following points: 'Minergie' - a standard for the future; well-insulated and air-tight - two of the three main 'Minergie' requirements; solar collectors as a 'Minergie' component; radiators for low-energy-consumption buildings; hot water from the sun on six out of seven days; the 'Minergie' module as a factor for success; the 'Habitus' ventilation unit - a new Swiss product. The first contribution introduces the 'Minergie' Standard. Its application in the building and building technical services trades offers from considerable advantages and opportunities for profit. The Standard, which aims to increase the comfort and reduce the energy consumption of buildings, is introduced and the basic principles involved, including energy usage figures, are discussed. A second contribution describes two of the three main requirements for reaching the 'Minergie' Standard, air-tightness and good thermal insulation. The main advantage of the standard - a higher level of comfort - is emphasised and an example is given. The third short article takes a look at the use of thermal solar collectors as a source of heat in 'Minergie' buildings. A solution involving a combined solar heating and hot-water supply is discussed. The fourth contribution discusses the use of low-temperature radiators in 'Minergie' buildings. Examples are given of heat requirements calculation and the factors involved in dimensioning the radiators are discussed. A fifth article describes a commercially available compact solar hot-water system and discusses questions of solar fraction. Returning to basic aspects, the sixth contribution introduces a labelling system for the various components of a 'Minergie' building - such as ventilation units, insulation material, radiators, boilers etc

  16. 鱼雷涡轮机叶片顶部气封流场数值研究%Numerical Investigation on the Tip Leakage Flow of Rotor Blade of Torpedo Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊进宝; 赵卫兵; 师海潮

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional(3D) viscous and steady computational fluid dynamics(CFD) analysis is performed for calculating turbine rotor tip leakage flow field of a torpedo by solving RANS-Navier-Stocks equations. The effect of different seal structure on turbine passage efficiency and rotor tip leakage flow is studied. Different numbers of sealing fins at the rotor blade are simulated, and the influence of the number of sealing fins on turbine passage efficiency and rotor tip leakage flow characteristic is analyzed. The results show that the turbine efficiency is improved remarkably after applying the seal technology. Compared with comb-type seal structure, the labyrinth seal exhibits better airtight performance. The leakage flow in the labyrinth seal housing forms 3D vortex current which transform the kinetic energy of the leakage flow into heat energy, and leads to a decrease in the seal leakage flow rate of the labyrinth seal. Airtight performance gets better with increasing number of fins.%通过求解雷诺平均的NAVIER-STOKES方程组,数值计算了带气封围带结构的鱼雷涡轮机动叶顶部间隙内部3D流场及特性,研究了不同气封结构形式对涡轮机通流效率和动叶顶部泄漏流动的作用,比较了迷宫式气封不同齿数下动叶间隙泄漏气流的流动特性,分析了迷宫式气封齿数对鱼雷涡轮机通流效率和泄漏特性的影响.研究表明,在叶片顶部间隙中采用气封结构能够有效减小燃气泄露流量,提高涡轮机通流气动性能;在相同气封齿数下,迷宫式气封结构要比一般梳齿型气封结构密封效果好;迷宫气封通过气流在气封齿间空腔形成的3D涡流,将气流动能转化为热能,从而起到密封效果;气封齿数越多,密封效果越好,对涡轮机通流性能的改善也越大.

  17. 用粉末冶金方法制造压缩机法兰%Sintering processing of compressor flanges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.K.Park; H.S.Park; S.T.Choi; 韩凤麟

    2012-01-01

    To manufacture a flange for a compressor with a relief groove by using powder metallurgy in order to prevent deformation to the compressor in operation, powder material for the flange is charged into a mold; an ablative member having a melting point lower than that of the powder material is positioned at a place where a relief groove is to be formed;the flange is formed by compressing the powder material and the ablative member;and the formed flange is sintered at a temperature between the melting point of the powder material and the ablative member so as to melt and remove the ablative member. It made according to the new method has more excellent strength and airtight property than the conventional one. It is analyzed that the ablative member is melted and penetrated into the flange structure during the sintering process, which results in improvement of the airtight property and increase of the strength.%为防止压缩机在运行中变形,用粉末冶金方法制造了带减压槽的压缩机法兰.将制造法兰的粉末材料装于模腔中,然后,将熔点比粉末材料低的熔渗件置于减压槽位置进行成形;将粉末材料与熔渗件压制成形为法兰;在粉末材料与熔渗件熔点之间的温度下进行烧结,使熔渗件熔化和渗入粉末材料之中.用新方法制造的法兰比用常规方法生产的强度高、密封性好.根据分析,在烧结时,由于熔渗件熔化与渗透到法兰结构中,改进了气密性,增高了强度.

  18. 基于共面电容的非接触式液位线性测量系统的研究%Non-contact Linear Liquid Level Measurement System Based on Coplanar Capacitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊龙; 施隆照

    2015-01-01

    一种基于共面电容传感器的非接触式液位线性测量系统主要包括前端平面电容传感器的设计、中间电容信号转换电路、后级的单片机数据处理以及液晶显示功能设计。与传统的线性液位电容传感器相比较本系统所设计的电容液位传感器,传感器可以直接安装在密闭容器外面,避免与容器内的液体接触造成污染或腐蚀传感器等问题。设计中采用差分电容的设计方案提高了系统的抗干扰能力。该测量系统具有结构简单,灵敏度高,稳定性好,动态响应特性好,可以在高温、强磁场、强辐射环境下精确测量非金属密闭容器内液位的实时状态。该系统可以广泛应用于液位在线监测领域。%This paper designed a non-contact linear liquid level measurement system based on coplanar capacitive sensor. The system includes the coplanar capacitive sensor, the capacitance to voltage conversion circuit, the process of converted capacitance data and the liquid crystal display. Compared with the traditional linear liquid level sensor in this system design of the capacitance liquid level sensor, the sensor can be installed directly outside the airtight container, avoid contact with the liquid container which brings the problems such as pollution or corrosion sensors. Adopted in the design of the differential capacitance design scheme to improve the anti-interference a-bility of the system. The measurement system has simple structure, high sensitivity, good stability, good dynamic response characteristics, it can accurately measure the level of liquid in an airtight container in real time in high temperature, strong EMI environment. It can be widely used in the online monitoring of the liquid level.

  19. Indoor air quality in 24 California residences designed as high-performance homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mullen, Nasim [Gap, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. In addition, these similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve

  20. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  1. Homing pigeons only navigate in air with intact environmental odours: a test of the olfactory activation hypothesis with GPS data loggers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gagliardo

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has shown that anosmic pigeons are impaired in their navigation. However, the role of odours in navigation is still subject to debate. While according to the olfactory navigation hypothesis homing pigeons possess a navigational map based on the distribution of environmental odours, the olfactory activation hypothesis proposes that odour perception is only needed to activate a navigational mechanism based on cues of another nature. Here we tested experimentally whether the perception of artificial odours is sufficient to allow pigeons to navigate, as expected from the olfactory activation hypothesis. We transported three groups of pigeons in air-tight containers to release sites 53 and 61 km from home in three different olfactory conditions. The Control group received natural environmental air; both the Pure Air and the Artificial Odour groups received pure air filtered through an active charcoal filter. Only the Artificial Odour group received additional puffs of artificial odours until release. We then released pigeons while recording their tracks with 1 Hz GPS data loggers. We also followed non-homing pigeons using an aerial data readout to a Cessna plane, allowing, for the first time, the tracking of non-homing homing pigeons. Within the first hour after release, the pigeons in both the Artificial Odour and the Pure Air group (receiving no environmental odours showed impaired navigational performances at each release site. Our data provide evidence against an activation role of odours in navigation, and document that pigeons only navigate well when they perceive environmental odours.

  2. Synthesis and Storage Stability of Diisopropylfluorophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derik R. Heiss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor commonly used in toxicological studies as an organophosphorus nerve agent surrogate. However, LD50 values for DFP in the same species can differ widely even within the same laboratory, possibly due to the use of degraded DFP. The objectives here were to identify an efficient synthesis route for high purity DFP and assess the storage stability of both the in-house synthesized and commercial source of DFP at the manufacturer-recommended storage temperature of 4°C, as well as −10°C and −80°C. After 393 days, the commercial DFP stored at 4°C experienced significant degradation, while only minor degradation was observed at −10°C and none was observed at −80°C. DFP prepared using the newly identified synthesis route was significantly more stable, exhibiting only minor degradation at 4°C and none at −10°C or −80°C. The major degradation product was the monoacid derivative diisopropylphosphate, formed via hydrolysis of DFP. It was also found that storing DFP in glass containers may accelerate the degradation process by generating water in situ as hydrolytically generated hydrofluoric acid attacks the silica in the glass. Based on the results here, it is recommended that DFP be stored at or below −10°C, preferably in air-tight, nonglass containers.

  3. Development of zooplankton culture subsystem for a closed ecological recirculating aquaculture system (CERAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Katsunori; Oguchi, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Ten parthenogenetic females of Moina macrocopa were placed in small cells with different flow conditions. The cells were opened after three-days of cultivation, and the water fleas in each cell were counted. It appeared that M. macrocopa were cultured effectively in a relatively slow current, 10 cm/min., but the population growth was not significantly influenced by the difference in flow direction. Subsequent, filtration efficiencies of filters with various pore sizes were compared. Four available porous hollow-fiber membrane modules, ACP-1010, AHP-1010, PSP-103, and PMP-102 (Asahi-Kasei Corp.), were tested. The module with the larger pore size initially filtered a greater amount of water but clogged up sooner. ACP-1010, which has the smallest pores, was considered to be suitable to filter condensed algal water due to its durability and stable filtration. An improved zooplankton culture device (IZCD) was designed and constructed based on these examinations. IZCD is a 13.2L airtight device characterized by a short and thick rearing tank and alternate filtration with paired fine hollow-fiber membrane modules. It must be tested and revised to be used in research into the optimal conditions for a zooplankton culture in a closed environment.

  4. Factory-built integrated solar homes - A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlings, L.K.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past fifteen years, hundreds of people across the US have built for themselves highly advanced residences which integrated passive solar architecture; photovoltaic power systems; high-efficiency lights, appliances, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and cooling) equipment; high-level insulation and airtight construction; and other renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. Such a home can be referred to as an {open_quotes}integrated solar home{close_quotes}. As the essential technologies have improved in performance, price, and availability, the performance of such homes has steadily advanced to the point where they could provide amenities at more-or-less normal US standards of luxury, yet require as little as 5% to 10% of the level of fossil fuel or biomass use that are required in an average US home. However, the resources required to build such a home, both in terms of the time and dedication needed for research, design, and construction of the homes, and in terms of the additional cost of the renewable energy/energy efficient features, have prevented such construction from moving beyond a tiny handful of highly motivated homeowners and into the mainstream of residential construction. This paper has design summaries of six different houses.

  5. Modern technical solutions of gas-fired heating devices of household and communal use and analysis of their testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodzon, L.; Radwan, W. [Oil Mining and Gas Engineering Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A review of technical solutions for gas-fired heating devices for household and communal use in Poland is presented. Based upon the analysis it is stated that the power output of Polish and foreign boilers ranges between 9 and 35 kW. The carbon monoxide content in flue gases reaches (on average) 0.005 vol.%, i.e., it is much lower than the maximum permissible level. Temperature of flue gases (excluding condensation boilers and those with air-tight combustion chamber) ranges between 150 and 200{degrees}C and their heating efficiency reaches 87-93%. The best parameters are given for condensation boilers, however they are still not widespread in Poland for the high cost of the equipment and assembling works. Among the heaters, the most safe are convection devices with closed combustion chamber; their efficiency is also the highest. Thus, it is concluded that a wide spectrum of high efficiency heating devices with good combustion parameters are available. The range of output is sufficient to meet household and communal requirement. They are however - predominantly - units manufactured abroad. It is difficult to formulate the program aimed at the improvement of the technique of heating devices made in Poland, and its implementation is uncertain because the production process is broken up into small handicraft workshops.

  6. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  7. Efficacy of killing cockroaches with smoke in three different kitchens%烟剂对厨房蟑螂的灭效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫鹏; 任兴联; 宋谦; 胡和文

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察15%优士B型乳油烟剂现场灭蟑效果及影响因素.方法 现场实验观察.结果 15%优士B型乳油1∶20、1∶15、1∶10 3种稀释药液烟剂对连队、幼儿园、宾馆的厨房进行熏杀,均可以在短时间内迅速降低蟑螂密度.结论 15%优士B型乳油烟剂熏杀灭蟑效果好,影响因素较小,具有推广应用价值.%Objective To observe the efficacy of killing cockroaches on spot with 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke.Methods Experiment observing on spot.Results To kill cockroaches in company, kindergarten and hotel kitchen with 1:20,1: 15,1:10 three different diluted 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke,it could decrease the density of cockroaches rapidly in a little time.Conclusion It is an efficacy method to kill cockroaches with 15% Youshi B missible oil smoke.It is good enough to kill cockroaehes in large areas with airtight space.

  8. Short-Term Test Results. Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30%-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  9. Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

    2013-02-01

    This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

  10. Soundness confirmation through cold test of the system equipment of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HTTR was established at the Oarai Research and Development Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for the purpose of the establishment and upgrading of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology infrastructure. Currently, it performs a safety demonstration test in order to demonstrate the safety inherent in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, it conducted confirmation test for the purpose of soundness survey of facilities and equipment, and it confirmed that the soundness of the equipment was maintained. After two years from the confirmation test, it has not been confirmed whether the function of dynamic equipment and the soundness such as the airtightness of pipes and containers are maintained after receiving the influence of damage or deterioration caused by aftershocks generated during two years or aging. To confirm the soundness of these facilities, operation under cold state was conducted, and the obtained plant data was compared with confirmation test data to evaluate the presence of abnormality. In addition, in order to confirm through cold test the damage due to aftershocks and degradation due to aging, the plant data to compare was supposed to be the confirmation test data, and the evaluation on abnormality of the plant data of machine starting time and normal operation data was performed. (A.O.)

  11. Indoor air quality and allergy. Airborne dust and its effect of health; Shitsunai kukishitsu to seitai allergy. Fuyu funjin to seitai eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irie, T. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1998-05-05

    This paper describes the effect of airborne dust on health. Among fiber dusts in usual houses, cotton-derived dust occupies 71%, paper-derived 11%, chemical fiber-derived 10%, hair-derived 5%, and others occupy the rest. Cotton, silk and hair can be allergens which are antigens causing allergy. Cigarette smoke composes of various gaseous substances, and by-flow smoke from the ignition part is hazardous. The dust generation by smoking provides ten times of standard concentration in a Japanese 6 rush-mat room per one cigarette. Asbestos can be a carcinogen due to their accumulation. They do not have an allowable standard for absolute safety, and they should be removed by manual method under an obligation. This paper also describes the effect of ticks and mold particles as allergen dusts on health, and the measures for them. Pollens and their measures are described. Air cleaners are usually used for removing airborne dusts in the houses with high air-tightness. Nearly 100% of particles with a diameter more than several {mu}m can be collected with a fan filter-type air cleaner. However, the collecting performance is decreased to 70 to 80% for submicron particles such as cigarette smoke. An ion-type air cleaner can not be so promising. 24 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. 初探神经网络在电动洗胃中的应用%Preliminary Study on Application of Neural Network in Electric Gastric Lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊

    2012-01-01

    A method is proposed for intelligent gastric lavage design in this paper. The microprocessor collects and computes gastric lavage pressure and its rate of change, liquid level and its rate of change, turbidity, and PH signals in the analogue stomach lavage test, which are processed by neural network algorithm, and then infer gastric lavage work status. Pipe plug, incomplete pipe plug, fault, normal operating, clean etc can be distinguished by neural network. Neural network algorithm can be used for flexible airtight container cleaning.%提出一种智能洗胃的设计方案.利用微处理器采集和计算模拟洗胃试验中的洗胃压力、压力变化率、液位、液位变化率、浑浊度和PH值等信号,通过神经网络算法对信号进行处理,判断洗胃工况.采用神经网络算法能区分管路堵塞、不完全堵塞、故障、洗胃正常和清洁等运行状态.神经网络算法可用于柔性密闭容器的清洗工作.

  13. A Proposed Batch In vitro Apparatus for Conducting Rumen Fermentation Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-qin; REN Hong-tao

    2008-01-01

    This research proposes a batch in vitro rumen apparatus modified from Daisy incubator and procedures of measuring feed digestion by using nylon bag to replace the traditional centrifuging and filtration methods, for the purpose of studying ruminal fermentation. The apparatus consists of 8 sets of airtight reaction vessels which rotated at a speed of 1 r/min and located inside a thermostatic cabin. Optimum procedures was proved to be that the volume of incubation fluid was 400 mL; fineness and size of test feed were 0.125-0.25 mm and 0.4 g, respectively; amount of bags in one vessel was 6; fermentation diet in a single incubation was 4-5 g. Comparing experiments showed that fermentation speed attained with the apparatus was about 15-20% greater than that attained with flask-shaking machine method (revolutionary speed is 100 r/min) and more accurate results could be obtained with the new apparatus. In conclusion, this apparatus could provide an efficient mixing action, and the procedure could allow sensitive detection of differences in ruminal fermentation in a time-saving way.

  14. 提高唇形油封寿命的装配新工艺开发%New assembly technology development on increase of lip-shaped oil seal life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽英; 张宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Various shafts surface treatment were adopted,and the seal abrasive experiments were carried on fitting with the lip-shaped oil seal,so the shaft surface treatment technology was obtained with good seal,little abrasion and long service life.The assembly technology was analyzed and tested on the oil seal quality and the lifespan effect,and three-dimension Pro/e assembly technology was obtained,which could better ensure the oil seal assembly quality and remarkably increase the lip-shaped oil seal life and airtight performance.%采用多种轴表面处理方式,并与唇形油封进行配合密封磨损试验,得到一种密封良好、磨损小、使用寿命长的轴表面处理工艺;就装配工艺对油封质量及寿命的影响进行了分析及试验,得出采用三维Pro/e装配工艺可更好地保证油封的装配质量,显著提高唇形油封的寿命及密封性能。

  15. Monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination at market food chain in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina A. Rahmianna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is a cheapest source of protein especially for developing countries communities and mostly it obtained from traditional markets. Earlier studies showed that aflatoxin incidence was relatively less at the farmer/trader levels while it is significantly higher at retail levels especially in traditional markets. Present study was conducted to understand the factors leading to the post-harvest building up of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in traditional market and in supermarket. This study was carried out at Pasuruan regency, East Java Province, Indonesia from March 2005 to June 2006. During study period peanut grains were collected from wholesalers, retailers and supermarkets at three months interval. In each sampling point, 2kg of grains was obtained and then was divided into eight parts for the analysis of parameters namely seed moisture content, physical quality, Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The results showed that seed water contents at wholesalers, collectors, and retailers in traditional wet markets were almost lower than 10%. They were thus ‘safe’ from aflatoxin B1 contamination as seed moisture contents were below the aflatoxin risk zone. Time of sampling did not affect the level of aflatoxin B1 contamination. Under controlled condition generated from air-tight container, the influence of seed moisture content and A. flavus infection on aflatoxin production was significant.

  16. Passive house optimization for Southern Italy based on the 'New Passivhaus Standard'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zangheri, Paolo; Pagliano, Lorenzo; Carlucci, Salvatore (end-use Efficiency Research Group, Dept. di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy)). e-mail: paolo.zangheri@polimi.it

    2009-07-01

    In Germany and in other countries of Central and Northern Europe more than 8,000 homes conforming to the Passivhaus standard have been built since 1991. The applicability of this Standard has not yet been sufficiently tested in European areas with warm climates, where reducing cooling needs under growing summer comfort requirements poses a challenge. The IEE Passive-On project has drafted a proposal to adapt that Standard to the conditions that characterize Southern Europe, which is described in this paper together with its rationale. Compared with the original definition, one of the main changes is the introduction of explicit requirements on internal comfort during summer, in parallel to a limit to energy needs for cooling. The dynamic simulations conducted to test the new definition of the Standard in the context of Southern Italy (e.g. Palermo) show that the requirements identified by the Passivhaus Standard can be met by simplifying the envelope technologies (e.g. relaxing air-tightness design value) used in the context of Central Europe and adopting passive cooling strategies appropriately adjusted. Some simplifications of the ventilation system can be compensated by an increased role of thermal insulation of the building envelope and some of the choices can make energy needs tend to zero. In accordance with EN 15251, thermal comfort is characterized according to Fanger's PMV in cases where mechanical cooling is still required for peak situations, and according to the adaptive model where no mechanical cooling is required.

  17. Application of Vacuum Impregnation Technology in Aluminum Alloy Cylinder Block%浸渗技术在铝合金机体铸件中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰银在; 吴志强; 渠栋; 原建明; 崔灵; 张丽萍; 张威

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at the problem of often forming the casting defects, such as dispersed shrinkage, shrinking holes and gas holes, in aluminum alloy castings, affecting the air-tightness and press resistance performance of the parts, local press impregnation technology was adopted, and penetrating agents and total vacuum pressure penetrating process were introduced. It was proved that the cylinder block by impregnation process was not leakage after 50 hours bench scale test.%铝合金铸件在铸造过程中形成的疏松、缩孔、气孔等缺陷,会影响零件的气密性和抗压性能.为了解决铝合金机体废品率高的问题,采用了局部加压浸渗技术.此外,还介绍了浸渗剂与整体真空加压浸渗工艺,通过50 h台架试验后,经过浸渗处理后的机体没有发生渗漏.

  18. ALICE upgrades its powerful eyes

    CERN Multimedia

    Yuri Kharlov, ALICE Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) is a high-resolution photon detector that measures the photons coming out of the extremely hot plasma created in the lead-lead collisions at the LHC. Taking advantage of the long accelerator shut-down, the ALICE teams are now repairing and upgrading the existing modules and getting ready to install the brand-new module in time for the next run. The upgraded PHOS detector will be faster and more stable with wider acceptance and improved photon identification.   PHOS crystal matrix during repair. The key feature and the main complexity of the ALICE PHOS detector is that it operates at a temperature of -25°C, which makes it the second-coldest equipment element at the LHC after the cryogenic superconducting magnets. Since 2009 when it was installed, the PHOS detector, with its cold and warm volumes, has been immersed in airtight boxes to avoid condensation in the cold volumes. The 10,752 lead tungstate crystals of the PHOS were completely insulated fr...

  19. 传统钧瓷窑炉结构及装烧工艺%THE TRADITIONAL KILN STRUCTURE AND FIRE TECHNOLOGY FOR JUN PORCELAIN WARES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎飞; 王双华

    2009-01-01

    通过对传统钧瓷窑炉中比较有代表性的馒头窑和风箱炉钧窑的基本结构和装烧工艺的研究,分析了窑炉的不同结构和不同的装烧方式对烧成效果的影响.结果表明密封性能好的窑炉以及相应的保温烧成制度与钧瓷釉面呈色、纹路和釉画的形成有重要的关系.%This paper researched the basic structure and fire technology of traditional Jun wares such as dome kiln and air box kiln. The different structure and fire technology was described. The results show that the kiln with good airtight coating and according heat holding system affected the color of Jun ware's glaze, glaze line and painting made by the fire.

  20. Equipment for thoracoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M S; Trastek, V F; Daly, R C; Deschamps, C; Pairolero, P C

    1993-09-01

    The combining of miniaturized video technology with thoracoscopy now allows surgeons to perform a variety of thoracic procedures percutaneously. Both rigid and flexible video thoracoscopes are available. The rigid endoscope has a camera located proximally at the eye-piece and is capable of excellent resolution. However, visualization of the entire pleural cavity is difficult because of the rigid chest wall. Placing the video camera at the distal end of a flexible thoracoscope, as in the electronic video thoracoscope (EVE-L; Fujinon, Wayne, NJ), yields better visualization of these relatively inaccessible areas. However, disadvantages of the flexible thoracoscope include increased expense and complexity, reduced resolution as compared to rigid systems, and the need for a strobed light source, thus making video-assisted surgery more difficult. Thoracoscopic wedge excisions of the lung are now possible because of the adaptation of gastrointestinal staplers for percutaneous use. The initial design consisted of a reloadable 30-mm disposable stapler. Newer models, however, have a longer staple line and some are reusable. Future refinements may allow the head of the instrument to articulate, thus permitting it to be applied to the lung at various angles. Thoracoscopic ports that provide an air-tight seal are available but are not essential; therefore, standard thoracotomy instruments can be utilized through small open incisions. Specialized disposable thoracoscopic instruments are also available, including scissors, dissectors, and fan retractors. It is hoped that the future will bring improved optics, better staplers, and refined percutaneous instrumentation. PMID:8379754

  1. Off-grid in a cold city: The Alberta sustainable home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, T.; Byrne, J. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    The Alberta Sustainable Home is a new suburban three-bedroom house and office that will soon be independent of the sewer, electric, and water systems. Located in the cold, dry, sunny climate of Calgary, AB, the home is now demonstrating the feasibility of environmentally sustainable, cost-saving devices-from Eco-studs in the framework to graywater heat recovery devices. Although it was built for about the same price as a comparable conventional home, the Alberta Sustainable Home has received a preferential mortgage rate, is expected to have an unusually high resale value, and will cost about $1,500 per year (Canadian) less for utilities. The Alberta Sustainable Home was built privately by Autonomous and Sustainable Housing Incorporated (ASH), in partnership with some 215 companies worldwide. Construction began in September 1993, and the designers and builders have lived and worked in the building since April 1994. Topics include the following: space and water heating; airtight construction; insulation; windows; refrigeration; saving water; low embodied energy; retrofitting; pollutant control; less power.

  2. Modeling the effects of exhaust ventilation on 222Rn entry rates and indoor 222Rn concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous mechanical exhaust ventilation of moderately air-tight residences is common in Scandinavia and has recently been employed in several U.S. residences. Exhaust ventilation decreases the indoor pressure and, thus, increases the pressure difference which drives 222Rn entry. Relatively simple analytical (i.e. closed form) models were developed and used to examine the impacts of exhaust ventilation on 222Rn entry rates and concentrations in houses with either a crawl space or a basement. A more complex finite difference model was also developed for the house with a basement and yielded soil gas entry rates within 16% of those predicted with the analytical model. The models indicate that exhaust ventilation is suitable, but not optimal (from the perspective of indoor 222Rn), for houses with a vented crawl space. Exhaust ventilation is also indicated to be suitable for houses with basements surrounded by relatively impermeable soil (10(-12) m2 or less). If soil permeabilities are between 10(-12) and 10(-10) m2, exhaust ventilation may cause substantial increases in indoor 222Rn when soil gas 222Rn concentrations are above average. If soil permeabilities are greater than 10(-10) m2, exhaust ventilation is indicated to be inappropriate, unless some procedure is employed to inhibit soil gas entry. These conclusions should be considered tentative, since extensive verification of the models is still required

  3. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.

    2007-02-01

    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  4. SIMULATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE TEMPERATURE PROFILE IN A SILO BAG FOR BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Hauth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems encountered with storage of agricultural products has warranted studies related to finding alternative methods of grain storage, thereby avoiding unnecessary losses. Stored grain deteriorates quickly at high temperatures. The moisture content of the grain influences the respiratory process; therefore, when at the recommended humidity of between 11 and 13%, this rate remains low, it prolongs maintenance of the product quality. The silo bag being airtight enables the grain mass to consume the entire internal O2 purse within it, and in that low or absent oxygen environment the grain mass saturates the CO2 atmosphere, inhibiting the multiplication of insects and fungi, thus providing a controlled environment. This study aims at simulating, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, the time it would take for the entire grain mass contained in a silo bag to reach thermal equilibrium with the environment and analyzes the feasibility of the technique employed here. The simulations were performed based on the data of the average air temperature in the region at each harvest time and the average storage temperature of the bean mass (60°C. The results obtained from the simulations reveal that after one month of silo storage the entire bag remains in thermal stabilization, and four months later when it hits the entire mass, all the beans are in thermal equilibrium. Therefore, maintaining stable temperature and humidity within the recommended silo bag preserves the grain quality well.

  5. Mean lung pressure during adult high-frequency oscillatory ventilation: an experimental study using a lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Takahiro; Nagano, Osamu; Shiba, Naoki; Yumoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Keiji; Terado, Michihisa; Ugawa, Toyomu; Ichiba, Shingo; Ujike, Yoshihito

    2014-12-01

    In adult high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), stroke volume (SV) and mean lung pressure (PLung) are important for lung protection. We measured the airway pressure at the Y-piece and the lung pressure during HFOV using a lung model and HFOV ventilators for adults (R100 and 3100B). The lung model was made of a 20-liter, airtight rigid plastic container (adiabatic compliance: 19.3 ml/cmH2O) with or without a resistor (20 cmH2O/l/sec). The ventilator settings were as follows: mean airway pressure (MAP), 30 cmH2O; frequency, 5-15 Hz (every 1 Hz); airway pressure amplitude (AMP), maximum;and % of inspiratory time (IT), 50% for R100, 33% or 50% for 3100B. The measurements were also performed with an AMP of 2/3 or 1/3 maximum at 5, 10 and 15 Hz. The PLung and the measured MAP were not consistently identical to the setting MAP in either ventilator, and decreasing IT decreased the PLung in 3100B. In conclusion, we must pay attention to the possible discrepancy between the PLung and the setting MAP during adult HFOV. PMID:25519026

  6. Preliminary studies of the welding zone of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel capsules, for Cs137 sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the treatment for cervix, endometrium and vaginal cancer, uses radioactive seeds, shaped like spheres, seeds or threads, with the brachytherapy technique. The brachytherapy sources are encased in surgical grade stainless steel cylinders. This geometry aims to contain the radioactive material, by providing safe barriers, thereby reducing other undesirable radiations from the radioisotopes during their disintegration and by providing rigidity to the source. The properties of the stainless steels are greatly influenced by their chemical composition, which also determines the microstructural characteristics of these alloys. AISI 316L steel is one of the raw materials used most frequently for surgical use, due to its stability and inert character when in contact with the human organism. Small stainless steel cylindrical capsules (about 10 mm long, 2mm diameter) were prepared for this work, with caps welded at both ends using the TIG process, producing an airtight closure. The welds are described by cut, surface, grain-revealing chemical attack, and chemical analysis using dispersive energy spectroscopy and metallographic analysis. Vickers hardness measurements are also presented in the zones affected by the welding. The dendritic-granular interface of the welded stainless matrix under the TIG process, shows resistance to corrosion from human plasma at 36.5oC

  7. Building America Case Study: Apartment Compartmentalization with an Aerosol-Based Sealing Process - Queens, NY; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Air sealing of building enclosures is a difficult and time-consuming process. Current methods in new construction require laborers to physically locate small and sometimes large holes in multiple assemblies and then manually seal each of them. The innovation demonstrated under this research study was the automated air sealing and compartmentalization of buildings through the use of an aerosolized sealant, developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at University of California Davis.
    CARB sought to demonstrate this new technology application in a multifamily building in Queens, NY. The effectiveness of the sealing process was evaluated by three methods: air leakage testing of overall apartment before and after sealing, point-source testing of individual leaks, and pressure measurements in the walls of the target apartment during sealing. Aerosolized sealing was successful by several measures in this study. Many individual leaks that are labor-intensive to address separately were well sealed by the aerosol particles. In addition, many diffuse leaks that are difficult to identify and treat were also sealed. The aerosol-based sealing process resulted in an average reduction of 71% in air leakage across three apartments and an average apartment airtightness of 0.08 CFM50/SF of enclosure area.

  8. Control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, W J; Lamers, J G; Termorshuizen, A J; Bollen, G J

    2000-03-01

    ABSTRACT A new method for the control of soilborne plant pathogens was tested for its efficacy in two field experiments during two years. Plots were amended with fresh broccoli or grass (3.4 to 4.0 kg fresh weight m(-2)) or left nonamended, and covered with an airtight plastic cover (0.135 mm thick) or left noncovered. In plots amended with broccoli or grass and covered with plastic sheeting, anaerobic and strongly reducing soil conditions developed quickly, as indicated by rapid depletion of oxygen and a decrease in redox potential values to as low as -200 mV. After 15 weeks, survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi, Rhizoctonia solani, and Verticillium dahliae in inoculum samples buried 15 cm deep was strongly reduced in amended, covered plots in both experiments. The pathogens were not or hardly inactivated in amended, noncovered soil or nonamended, covered soil. The latter indicates that thermal inactivation due to increased soil temperatures under the plastic cover was not involved in pathogen inactivation. The results show the potential for this approach to control various soilborne pathogens and that it may serve as an alternative to chemical soil disinfestation for high-value crops under conditions where other alternatives, such as solarization or soil flooding, are not effective or not feasible. PMID:18944617

  9. QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE MORINGA EM FUNÇÃO DO TIPO DE EMBALAGEM, AMBIENTE E TEMPO DE ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LETÚZIA MARIA DE OLIVEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The moringa oleifera Lam. tree, a native plant species from tropical Africa, although it has been in introduced in Brazil as an ornamental tree, it can be used for industrial and medicine purposes. The work was to evaluate the physiological quality of the jug with different reservoirs and environmental conditions for a period of six months. The study was conducted in the laboratory of plant physiology in UFERSA, where the seeds were obtained, which were stored after the harvest in three different containers: plastic bag, paper bag and glass which were stored at room temperature and cold for a period of three and six months. After 12 days of sowing, evaluations were made of the speed of germination index (IVG, height and fresh and dry matter of seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a factorial 3 x 2 x 2, and studied three containers (plastic bag, paper bag and glass, two environments (temperature and cold and two storage periods (3 and 6 months with four replications. The results showed that the seeds are orthodox behavior, remaining viable for six months when stored in cold and room temperature, regardless of packaging, if they are wrapped in airtight packaging.

  10. Phosphogypsum as an alternative building material: preliminary modeling and simulation of radon-222 exhalation from blocks and indoor accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product from the phosphate fertilizer industry and its large-scale utilization as an alternative construction material copes with radiological issues related to radon-222. Zero-order models for radon-222 exhalation from phosphogypsum building blocks and its time-varying accumulation in closed domains (e.g. indoor accumulation) presume homogeneous distribution of radon-222 throughout the enclosure. Having in mind radiological protection design, exhalation characterization of a block sample is a valuable parameter for the corresponding building performance simulation and it can be accomplished by placing a test block inside a test chamber together with a suitable nuclear detector (their relative positioning depends on the chamber geometry). As breakdown of the uniform concentration hypothesis is likely to occur, this preliminary work numerically investigates such model oversimplification. Along with emanation and decay processes, the present mathematical model assumes time-dependent two-dimensional diffusion-dominant mass transfer in a domain containing a sample of porous material, namely the phosphogypsum block of finite thickness. Conversely, as the test chamber is quite small and air-tight closed, convective mass transfer is neglected. Numerically simulated results have confirmed that a non-uniform radon-222 distribution takes place, which can obviously influence the position of the nuclear detector (or its primary element), thus affecting its readings. (author)

  11. A plethysmographic method for measuring function in locally irradiated mouse lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plethysmograph has been developed to measure pulmonary function in mice after single doses of X rays to both lungs. The apparatus consists of a whole-body airtight chamber fitted with a Lavalier microphone. The microphone acts as a sensitive electrical capacitance manometer converting pressure changes in the chamber into an electrical signal which is electronically processed and recorded on a pen recorder. Two parameters of lung function were simultaneously monitored, breathing rate and amplitude. Lung function has been tested in male CBA mice aged two to six months and in animals which have received graded X-ray doses to both lungs. No diurnal rhythm or age-related increase has been observed up to six months in control mice. The two lung-function parameters exhibited a dose-dependent response in irradiated lungs tested 16 weeks after irradiation; the response was reproducible in successive experiments. Respiration rate was increased above a threshold dose of 11 Gy (1100 rad), while amplitude decreased, also with a threshold at 11 Gy. These changes were observed before hisotological evidence of fibrosis became apparent and before pulmonary insufficiency led to deaths in the higher dose groups. The measurement of lung function by plethysmography is an alternative to lethality for assessing radiation damage in the lungs of small animals. The technique is non-destructive, responding to lower doses than LD50, and allows quantitative assessment of sequential changes in the lungs in each mouse over long post-irradiation times. (author)

  12. Introduction of hot cell facility in research center Rez

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to present the hot cell facility which is being constructed as part of the project SUSEN at the Rez research center (Czech Republic). The Sustainable Energy Project (SUSEN) is implemented as a regional Research/Development center in Priority Axis 2 and its objective is to act as a relevant research partner for cooperation with other European research centers. The project is fully funded by the European Union. Within this project a new complex of 10 hot cells and one semi-hot cell will be built. There will be 8 gamma hot cells and 2 alpha hot cells. In each hot cell a hermetic, removable box made of stainless steel will home different type of devices. The hot cells and semi hot cell will be equipped with devices for processing samples (cutting, welding, drilling, machining) as well as equipment for testing (sample preparation area, stress testing machine, fatigue machine, electromechanical creep machine, high frequency resonance pulsator...) and equipment for studying material microstructure (micro-hardness and nano-hardness probes, scanning electron microscope). An autoclave with water loop, installed in a cell will allow mechanical testing in control environment of water, pressure and temperature. The transportation system for samples and materials is based on a mobile cask with an airtight connection and vertical access. The installation is designed to work with an activity level up to 300 TBq and to receive materials from decommissioned power reactors as well as highly irradiated materials for fusion applications

  13. Monitoring transport conditions of key comparison travelling standards using a data logger. Experiences from key comparison CCAUV.U-K3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julian; Koch, Christian

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the international key comparison CCAUV.U-K3.1, a data logger was used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and acceleration during transportation of an artefact travelling between participating laboratories. From the recorded data, environmental conditions of different kinds of transportation have been investigated and corresponding recommendations for the safe and proper transfer of artefacts between laboratories could be deduced. Transportation by courier services bears the risk of strong mechanical shocks and exposure to comparably high or low temperatures due to inappropriate handling or storage and is thus only suitable for insensitive or well-packed artefacts. Quite low temperatures (T  ≈  5 °C) have been observed in the cargo area during flights, so that hand-carrying of an artefact with transportation in the passenger cabin during flights is recommended, particularly for temperature-sensitive artefacts. Significant decreases of the pressure (p  ≈  750 mbar) have been recorded both for transportation in the passenger cabin and in the cargo area. Air-tight packing is thus recommended for pressure-sensitive devices. In general, the suitability of a data logger to provide evidence of the transport conditions during a key comparison has been demonstrated and the use of such a device is recommended for all key comparisons. The data logger has also been successfully employed to validate the protection properties of the passively insulating packaging of the artefact against pressure and temperature changes.

  14. Rhinacanthus nasutus protects cultured neuronal cells against hypoxia induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimson, James M; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2011-07-26

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) is an herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, known for its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species in cells and is a leading cause of neuronal damage. Cell death caused by hypoxia has been linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including some forms of dementia and stroke, as well as the build up of reactive oxygen species which can lead to diseases such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzeheimer's disease. In this study we used an airtight culture container and the Mitsubishi Gas Company anaeropack along with the MTT assay, LDH assay and the trypan blue exlusion assay to show that 1 and 10 µg mL⁻¹ root extract of R. nasutus is able to significantly prevent the death of HT-22 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, and 0.1 to 10 µg mL⁻¹ had no toxic effect on HT-22 under normal conditions, whereas 100 µg mL⁻¹ reduced HT-22 cell proliferation. We also used H₂DCFDA staining to show R. nasutus can reduce reactive oxygen species production in HT-22 cells.

  15. Rhinacanthus nasutus Protects Cultured Neuronal Cells against Hypoxia Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Brimson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhinacanthus nasutus (L. Kurz (Acanthaceae is an herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, known for its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species in cells and is a leading cause of neuronal damage. Cell death caused by hypoxia has been linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including some forms of dementia and stroke, as well as the build up of reactive oxygen species which can lead to diseases such as Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Alzeheimer’s disease. In this study we used an airtight culture container and the Mitsubishi Gas Company anaeropack along with the MTT assay, LDH assay and the trypan blue exlusion assay to show that 1 and 10 µg mL−1 root extract of R. nasutus is able to significantly prevent the death of HT-22 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, and 0.1 to 10 µg mL−1 had no toxic effect on HT-22 under normal conditions, whereas 100 µg mL−1 reduced HT-22 cell proliferation. We also used H2DCFDA staining to show R. nasutus can reduce reactive oxygen species production in HT-22 cells.

  16. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  17. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Berger, D. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zuluaga, M. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  18. Marketing program for R2000 in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Ontario new housing market, Ontario Hydro's goal is to reduce the demand for electricity, increase the utility's visibility in this market, and increase customer satisfaction. Analyses have demonstrated that it costs less to construct new houses according to R-2000 insulation standards than to install new power production and transmission facilities. Research has also shown that R-2000 houses have better air quality and energy efficiency than ordinary houses. Nevertheless, most home builders have little enthusiasm for R-2000 houses; the strictness of airtightness standards, the slowness of certification, excessive paperwork, and a lack of promised marketing support are cited as the reasons for this. Ontario Hydro and builders' associations have signed a cooperative agreement for certifying new houses with the object of self-financing the program. The program intends to see construction of 1,000 R-2000 houses in 1990. To carry out this objective, some elements have been added to Ontario Hydro's marketing program in order to make potential customers aware of the advantages of the R-2000 house. Field staff will receive rigorous training in order to prepare them for helping the diverse types of builders. A mail campaign, focusing on areas not served by natural gas where significant numbers of new houses are being built, intends to bring home builders and buyers together. In February 1990, Ontario Hydro signed agreements with four major housing manufacturers to construct a significant proportion of the R-2000 housing stock

  19. MR imaging of lung ventilation with aerosolized Gadolinium-chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance assessment of human lung ventilation with aerosolized Gd-chelates in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adults (mean age 37 years) were studied with a 1.5 T unit. The volunteers were instructed to inhale the aerosol through an airtight facial mask for 10 minutes. The aerosol was generated with a jet-type small particle nebulizer with attached heater. Ventilation imaging was performed using a respiration-gated dynamic T1-weighted turbo spin echo sequence (TR=199 ms, TE=8.5 ms, 12 signal averages, slice thickness 10 mm). Pulmonary signal intensity changes were calculated before and after nebulization. Results: The investigation was successfully carried out in all volunteers. An acute or delayed allergic reaction to the aerosolized contrast medium was not observed. In 4 of 5 experiments (80%), a homogeneous signal intensity increase was readily visualized with an average signal increase of 35% after 10 minutes; in one experiment, the aerosol distribution was slightly heterogeneous. (orig.)

  20. 载人飞船密封舱热舒适性评价%Thermal Comfort Assessment in Manned Spaceship Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新刚; 满广龙; 范宇峰

    2014-01-01

    结合在轨飞行数据,采用PMV-PPD模型对载人飞船密封舱热舒适性进行了评估,基于在轨飞行数据计算了载人飞船PMV值,分析了密封舱空气温度、湿度以及舱内壁温度对热舒适性的影响。同时针对目前载人飞船实际情况,提出了通过提高舱壁辐射温度改善密封舱热舒适性的方法,可为后续的载人航天器特别是载人飞船密封舱在热控设计中提高热舒适性提供参考。%Based on flight data , thermal comfort of the airtight cabin in manned spaceship was as-sessed using PMV-PPD model.The effects of cabin temperature , humidity and wall temperature on thermal comfort were presented in detail .To improve thermal comfort in manned spaceship cabin , a method of raising cabin wall temperature was suggested , which provided a reference for thermal de-sign of manned spaceship .

  1. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  2. Preparing the Building Industry for the New Euratom BSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the proposed new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (EU-BSS), a reference level of 1 mSv/a is set for indoor external exposure to gamma rays emitted by building materials. An activity concentration index (ACI) is proposed as a conservative screening parameter for identifying building materials that may cause the reference level to be exceeded. An alternative in situ ACI determination method was developed and the validation of this method is discussed. This screening method was used to analyse numerous building materials available on the Belgian market. An attempt was made to identify building materials containing residues from naturally occurring radioactive material processing industries that pass through Belgium, by analysing results from a large scale radiological study of the container traffic in the port of Antwerp. In addition to the regulation provided on the gamma exposure from building materials, specific parts of the proposed new EU-BSS are dealing with radon issues separately. A reference level of 300 Bq/m3 for indoor radon concentration is proposed for the EU-BSS. Relationships between radon exposure and type of building material used, the airtightness of the building and the stage of construction work were determined. (author)

  3. Climate and energy use in glazed spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, M.

    1996-11-01

    One objective of the thesis has been to elucidate the relationship between building design and the climate, thermal comfort and energy requirements in different types of glazed spaces. Another object has been to study the effect of the glazed spaces on energy requirements in adjacent buildings. It has also been the object to develop a simple calculation method for the assessment of temperatures and energy requirements in glazed spaces. The research work has mainly comprised case studies of existing buildings with glazed spaces and energy balance calculations using both the developed steady-state method and a dynamic building energy simulation program. Parameters such as the geometry of the building, type of glazing, orientation, thermal inertia, airtightness, ventilation system and sunshades have been studied. These parameters are of different importance for each specific type of glazed space. In addition, the significance of each of these parameters varies for different types of glazed spaces. The developed calculation method estimates the minimum and mean temperature in glazed spaces and the energy requirements for heating and cooling. The effect of the glazed space on the energy requirement of the surrounding buildings can also be estimated. It is intended that the method should be applied during the preliminary design stage so that the effect which the design of the building will have on climate and energy requirement may be determined. The method may provide an insight into how glazed spaces behave with regard to climate and energy. 99 refs

  4. Development of electrical cable penetration for secondary containment vessel of BWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration holes in the walls and floors of the secondary containment vessel of the nuclear power plants must be air-tight, shielded against the radiation, and fire-resistant. At present, the penetration holes are air-tightened with iron plates and sealing material after the cables are laid. However, installation of a number of cables and its sealing work now pose a serious problem in nuclear power plant construction in relation to the installation of reactor system components. The authors have recently developed a method for electric wall penetration in an attempt to solve this problem. This method is provided with prefabricated cable portions for wall penetration, reducing field work, saving labor in wiring work through use of multicore cables, and increasing the reliability of the sealing and caulking work. This wall penetration consists of an iron sleeves to be embedded into the wall, a header-plate, and an assembly of modules in which a specified number of insulated conductors are set up, and furthermore termination boxes are installed on both ends of the penetration holes. This paper deals with the design standard and construction of the wall penetration and the results of tests which were performed under various environmental conditions, which has shown excellent properties, such as sealing quality and electric characteristics, of the wall penetration. (author)

  5. The Building Fabric Thermal Performance of Passivhaus Dwellings—Does It Do What It Says on the Tin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Johnston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passivhaus (or Passive House Standard is one of the world’s most widely known voluntary energy performance standards. For a dwelling to achieve the Standard and be granted Certification, the building fabric requires careful design and detailing, high levels of thermal insulation, building airtightness, close site supervision and careful workmanship. However, achieving Passivhaus Certification is not a guarantee that the thermal performance of the building fabric as designed will actually be achieved in situ. This paper presents the results obtained from measuring the in situ whole building heat loss coefficient (HLC of a small number of Certified Passivhaus case study dwellings. They are located on different sites and constructed using different technologies in the UK. Despite the small and non-random nature of the dwelling sample, the results obtained from the in situ measurements revealed that the thermal performance of the building fabric, for all of the dwellings, performed very close to the design predictions. This suggests that in terms of the thermal performance of the building fabric, Passivhaus does exactly what it says on the tin.

  6. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B. [ETH Nuclear Engineering Lab., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  7. Development of New Generation of Thermally-Enhanced Fiber Glass Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    This report presents experimental and numerical results from thermal performance studies. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and John s Manville was to design a basic concept of a new generation of thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation. Different types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been tested as dynamic components in buildings during the last 4 decades. Most historical studies have found that PCMs enhance building energy performance. Some PCM-enhanced building materials, like PCM-gypsum boards or PCM-impregnated concretes have already found their limited applications in different countries. Today, continued improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that throughout Southern and Central U.S. climates, residences may soon be routinely constructed with PCM in order to maximize insulation effectiveness and maintain low heating and cooling loads. The proposed thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation will maximize this integration by utilizing a highly-efficient building envelope with high-R thermal insulation, active thermal mass and superior air-tightness. Improved thermal resistance will come from modifications in infrared internal characteristics of the fiber glass insulation. Thermal mass effect can be provided by proprietary thermally-active microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). Work carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the CRADA is described in this report.

  8. 洛阳出土铁镜初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永建

    2011-01-01

    洛阳古代墓葬中出土的汉~唐代铁镜百余枚,通过外观和X光照片观察,这些铁镜与同时期铜镜的形式及纹饰基本相同。由于铁质文物极易锈蚀,对出土铁镜的及时保护显得尤为重要,用石蜡密封对铁镜进行保护是行之有效且简便易行的保护方法。%More than one hundred of Han to Tang periods iron mirrors have been unearthed from ancient tombs in Luoyang. Exterior examination and X - ray photography revealed them to be roughly the same as contemporary bronze mirrors in shape and decoration. As iron cultural relics are easy to become rust - eaten, it is especially important to conserve them in time. One of the simple and effective methods is airtight sealing with paraffin wax.

  9. REVIEW ON AFLATOXIN IN INDONESIAN FOOD- AND FEEDSTUFFS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a human carcinogen that could contaminate food- and feedstuffs, and hence is a major food qua lity problem throughout the world. Afiatoxi n is produced by certain strains of AspergillusJlavus and //. parasiticus. A number of studies have been carried out in Indonesia on atlatoxin contamination in Indonesian food- and feedstuffs and their products from 1990 up to present. They were maize, maize product, peanuts, soybean and soybean meal, black and white pepper, feed ingredients; chicken and duck feeds. Samples were collected from farmers, traders (middlemen, retailers (markets, supermarkets, exporters; poultry and duck community-based farms; and feed mi ll industries. High levels of aflatoxins were often found in maize, peanuts, chicken feed derived from markets, and duck feed. Low levels of aflatoxins were found in soybean meal and chicken feedstuff. Aflatoxins were not detected in soybean, black and white pepper. Other studies have also been carried out on the effect of carbondioxide (CO2, phosphine, black pepper extract and antagonistic fungi on aflatoxin production of A. flavus in vitro and the effect of airtight storage, phosphine, ammonium hydroxide, fermentation process, bag types, and phosphine in combination with different bag types on atlatoxin contents of maize, peanuts and soybean meal. Some of these methods reduced aflatoxin contents significantly

  10. Efficient use of energy in buildings - Activities and projects in 2002; Rationelle Energienutzung in Gebaeuden. Aktivitaeten und Projekte 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.

    2003-07-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy reviews the activities and projects of the Swiss Programme on the Efficient Use of Energy in Buildings in 2002. The aims of the programme, which concerns itself with building systems, technical installations and the use of solar energy in buildings, are reviewed. Areas targeted in the period 2002 - 2006 are listed, including high-insulation technologies, so-called 'passive' low-energy consumption housing, environmental technology and sustainable neighbourhood development. Progress made in the environmental technology area is described including eco-assessment methods and the development of alternative insulation materials. The topics of solar sustainable housing, low-energy consumption building standards, aids for the optimisation of solar installations in larger buildings and lighting are covered, as is progress in the development of vacuum insulation and translucent elements with latent energy storage and guidelines for air-tightness and mechanical ventilation in 'passive' housing. In the technical services area, the validation of planning tools and manuals for purchasers and operators of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems are discussed. Co-operation with national and international institutions is discussed. A list of pilot and demonstration projects completes the report.

  11. Why did Comet 17P/Holmes burst out?

    CERN Document Server

    Altenhoff, W J; Menten, K M; Sievers, A; Thum, C; Weiss, A

    2009-01-01

    Based on millimeter-wavelength continuum observations we suggest that the recent 'spectacle' of comet 17P/Holmes can be explained by a thick, air-tight dust cover and the effects of H2O sublimation, which started when the comet arrived at the heliocentric distance <= 2.5 AU. The porous structure inside the nucleus provided enough surface for additional sublimation, which eventually led to the break up of the dust cover and to the observed outburst. The magnitude of the particle burst can be explained by the energy provided by insolation, stored in the dust cover and the nucleus within the months before the outburst: the subliming surface within the nucleus is more than one order of magnitude larger than the geometric surface of the nucleus -- possibly an indication of the latter's porous structure. Another surprise is that the abundance ratios of several molecular species with respect to H2O are variable. During this apparition, comet Holmes lost about 3% of its mass, corresponding to a 'dirty ice' layer o...

  12. Macromodel for assessing residential concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants: Model development and preliminary predictions for CO, NO/sub 2/, and respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Aceti, J.C.; Apte, M.G.; Smith, B.V.; Green, L.L.; Smith-Reiser, A.; Novak, K.M.; Moses, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation model (also called a ''macromodel'') has been developed to predict residential air pollutant concentration distributions for specified populations. The model inputs include the market penetration of pollution sources, pollution source characteristics (e.g., emission rates, source usage rates), building characteristics (e.g., house volume, air exchange rates), and meteorological parameters (e.g., outside temperature). Four geographically distinct regions of the US have been modeled using Monte Carlo and deterministic simulation techniques. Single-source simulations were also conducted. The highest predicted CO and NO/sub 2/ residential concentrations were associated with the winter-time use of unvented gas and kerosene space heaters. The highest predicted respirable suspended particulate concentrations were associated with indoor cigarette smoking and the winter-time use of non-airtight wood stoves, radiant kerosene heaters, convective unvented gas space heaters, and oil forced-air furnaces. Future field studies in this area should (1) fill information gaps identified in this report, and (2) collect information on the macromodel input parameters to properly interpret the results. It is almost more important to measure the parameters that affect indoor concentration than it is to measure the concentrations themselves.

  13. Long-termed field survey of indoor air quality and health hazards in sick houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, H.; Amano, K.; Matsumoto, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Urban Planning and Building Science; Ikeda, K. [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Nozaki, A. [Tohoku Bunkagakuen Univ., Sendai (Japan); Kakuta, K. [Saka General Hospital (Japan); Hojo, S. [Shokei Woman' s Junior College (Japan); Ishikawa, S. [Kitasato Inst. Hospital (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    A 3 year field study was conducted in which the indoor air quality in 35 hospitals in Japan was measured in order to determine the etiological factor of Sick House Syndrome (SHS). The occupants in the hospitals were suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) with symptoms such as mucosa, eye irritation, sore throat and cough. The study examined the concentration of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds. It also examined airtightness and ventilation rate. The study also consisted of a questionnaire on the environmental conditions, subjective symptoms and lifestyle. Medical exams were conducted on residents with severe symptoms. The formaldehyde concentrations in more than 65 per cent of the rooms was found to be greater than the guidelines set by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations also exceeded the recommended value in 66 per cent of the rooms. The study revealed that the respiratory symptoms were more severe in houses with higher concentrations of TVOC. A graph was included to show the relationship between chemical substance concentration and building age. In general, the TVOC was reduced over the three year period, but the formaldehyde concentration did not change. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. FY 1980 Report on research and development of plant related to Sunshine Project. Final report on commissioned researches; 1980 nendo sunshine keikaku ni kakawaru plant kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu kanryo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-31

    Reported herein are the FY 1980 results of research and development of the plant for hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at elevated temperature and pressure, as part of Sunshine Project. The 4 Nm{sup 3}/h hydrogen production test plant, constructed in the previous year, is equipped with a data acquisition system, safety and protective devices, and emergency power monitoring system, and operated for testing performance at high current density, vapor/liquid separation effects, and electrolytic solution concentration changes. Of the electrodes tested, the electrode of ultrafine nickel particles with expanded surfaces, developed by Government Industrial Research Institute, Osaka, has exhibited the highest efficiency of approximately 90%. The tests for plant development include the tests of a 900 mm class air-tight insulation tester, development of a double-polarity plate mold with irregular surfaces for the electrodes, development of self-propelling valves on a trial basis, improvement and development, on a trial basis, of electrodes and diaphragms, and acceleration tests using a galvanic corrosion tester. Researches on metallic constituent materials include corrosion tests by an autoclave, constant-load type tester and low strain rate type tester. (NEDO)

  15. Direct coupling of a laser ablation cell to an AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In rare cases, cleaned samples can be directly inserted into a negative ion source of an AMS and still meet the requirements for long-term and stable measurements. We present the coupling of a laser ablation system to the gas ion source of an AMS system (MICADAS, ETH Zurich) for direct and continuous CO2 introduction. Solid carbonate samples like stalagmites or corals are suitable sample materials, which can be ablated and decomposed continuously using a pulsed laser focused onto the surface of a solid sample, which is placed in an airtight ablation cell. CO2 formed during the ablation of a CaCO3 sample is continually flushed with He into the gas ion source. The production rate of CO2 can be adjusted via the laser pulse repetition rate (1–20 Hz), the crater diameter (1–150 μm) and the energy density applied (0.2–3 mJ/pulse) of the laser (frequency quintupled Nd:YAG at 213 nm with 5 ns pulse duration). In our first test, measurements of one sample with known age were replicated within one sigma. Blanks showed 5% contamination of modern carbon of yet unknown origin. In order to develop LA-AMS into a routine sampling tool the ablation cell geometry and settings of the gas ion source have to be further optimized.

  16. Mortality of insects and quality of maize grains in hermetic and non-hermetic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila C. Viebrantz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Due to the need to improve the quality and safety of foods, chemical methods used to control grain pests have been replaced by alternative methods. For example, modified atmosphere within the storage units has been used. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate maize grain quality and mortality of insects of the species Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum in hermetic and non-hermetic environments for 50 days of storage. The hermetic units consisted of polyethylene "bags" with capacity for 60 kg. A cage with 20 adults of each species and 200 g of maize was placed inside each unit. The oxygen level was quantified every five days. Evaluations of insect mortality and survival occurred at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days of storage. At 0, 30 and 50 days, density, moisture and fungal incidence analyses were conducted. The airtight system is efficient in the control of insects, with satisfactory mortality values for both species. Insects favor the development of fungi during the storage, regardless of the storage system.

  17. Using vacuum in the treatment of surgical wounds complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Miroljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Using vacuum in medicine has been known from long ago, however, it has not been used for the treatment of wounds. The first experiments in this field were performed by Wagner Fleischmann, University of Ulm, Ulm, West Germany, in 1993. The aim of this study was to present our clinical experience with the treatment of surgical wounds complications in vascular patients by the use of controled vacuum. Method. In a period October 2006 - December 2009 a total of 18 patients with infection and surgical wound dehiscence were treated by the use of vacuum. Vacuum was applied to wounds by placing a polyurethane sponge on them and by fixing a polyurethane foil and a sponge to the surrounding healthy skin so to completely airtight wounds. Over a foil vacuum of - 150 mmHg was applied for a 5-day period, and on the day 6 a foil and a sponge were removed. Results. In all the 18 wounds treated by the use of vacuum secondary wound closing was achieved with no complications and with a significantly shortened time period treatment. Wound infections were healed using this method and only in 2 patients antibiotics were used at the same time. Conclusion. The use of vacuum in the treatment of operative wounds complications is an easy and reliable method contributing significantly to wounds better healing.

  18. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  19. Timber Chips as the Insulation Material for Energy Saving in Prefabricated Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the feasibility of a roof insulation method for prefabricated offices that uses vinyl packed timber chips to reduce air conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads and which also improves indoor thermal comfort. The advantages of the new roof insulation method were revealed through comparing the impacts of four roof types on prefabricated offices. The AC load and indoor thermal comfort (surface temperature and air temperature were evaluated. The disposal of scrap timber discarded from building construction projects is costing money, and is also a waste of natural resources. The assessment of a new roof insulation method with timber chips demonstrates the advanced usage of timber chips, reducing the environmental load in the building construction process. On the other hand, since prefabricated offices have lower thermal storage capacities and are less airtight than RC (reinforced concrete or S (steel structured buildings, the AC load consumption and indoor thermal comfort exacerbation in prefabricated offices is more serious. Especially in summer, a large amount of solar energy absorption from the roof raises the indoor air temperature and significantly increases the cooling load. This research contributes to the environmental design for prefabricated offices, and develops a method for the reuse of wood chips.

  20. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  1. Thermal Assessment of Low-Cost Rural Housing—A Case Study in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Miño-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to assess the indoor thermal performance of rural dwellings in the Ecuadorian highlands through both experimental and numerical analysis. A three-step methodology was applied to conduct the research: (a field data collection, (b building thermal model development and calibration, and (c comparison analysis and assessment of traditional improvement strategies. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two representative rural dwellings under typical usage conditions. The first is a traditional construction, medium-exposed thermal mass dwelling (Case A. The second is a local common, uninsulated, lightweight construction (Case B. The thermal model was calibrated by comparing hourly temperature values of the observed and the predicted indoor air temperature. A high correlation level (R2 was achieved between the observed and predicted data; 0.89 in Case A and 0.94 in Case B. The results show that the roof, floor, and the airtightness are the critical building parameters affecting the indoor thermal environment. Likewise, the indoor air temperature is increased up to 4 °C through the implementation of traditional strategies. However, despite the rise in indoor air temperature, acceptable thermal comfort ranges were only reached for 25% of the total hours.

  2. Hypoxia induced expression of endogenous markers in vitro is highly influenced by pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    Ha and FaDu(DD) cells Ca9 and LOX reached the highest level of expression at 1% oxygen. In FaDu(DD) cells, a pH of 6.5 had a medium suppression effect on the hypoxia induced expression of Ca9. pH 6.3 resulted in severe suppression of expression for Ca9 and LOX in both SiHa and FaDu(DD). Glut1 and LDH-A had....... The current study is a detailed investigation using a range of pH values from 6.3 to 7.5 in two human cell lines to establish the pH dependency of hypoxia induced gene expression. METHODS: Human tumour cell lines (uterine cervix squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa) and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma [Fa......Du(DD)]) were used. Hypoxia was induced by gassing cells in airtight chambers with various oxygen concentrations (21%, 1%, 0.1%, 0.01% and 0%) for up to 24h. The media were titrated to a range of pH values (7.5, 7.0, 6.7, 6.5 and 6.3). Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. RESULTS: In both Si...

  3. Insulating correctly. Manual for up-to-date construction in existing buildings; Richtig daemmen. Handbuch fuer zeitgemaesses Bauen im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenssmantel, Juergen; Geburtig, Gerd

    2008-07-01

    The authors show clearly what have to be taken into account during modernization or retrofitting of an existing building or during new construction an optimal planning according to energetic points of view. Content: selection of a suitable insulation materials; airtightness and thermography; overview on insulating materials; selection of manufacturers and correct contracts; ventilation by heat recovery. (GL) [German] Die beiden Autoren zeigen auf, welche Beobachtungen und Ueberlegungen anzustellen sind, bevor ein Daemmstoff in die Hand genommen wird. Das Buch hilft dem Praktiker die verschiedenen Gegebenheiten, Anforderungen und Materialien zu beurteilen. Dazu werden auch grundlegende bauphysikalische Kenntnisse vermittelt, wie sie heute fuer jeden auf einer Baustelle verantwortlich Taetigen unerlaesslich sind. Diskutiert werden neben den Moeglichkeiten auch die Grenzen des Daemmens. Die zahlreiche Uebersichten und Checklisten erhoehen den praktischen Nutzen dieses Buches. Bei konkreten Bauvorhaben helfen sie, aus dem Buendel von Anforderungen, Gebaeudedaten und Beobachtungen zu einem Urteil zu kommen. Das Buch bietet Entscheidungshilfen und Antworten zu den Fragen: - Wo lohnt es sich nachtraeglich zu daemmen? - Wie waehlt man den geeigneten Daemmstoff aus? - Welche Checklisten kann man bei der Auswahl anwenden? - Warum haben auch energetische Nachruestungen ihre Grenzen? - Weshalb muessen bauphysikalische 'Spielregeln' beachtet werden? Ein umfangreicher Adressteil mit den Angaben zu den Herstellern von Waermedaemm-Verbundsystemen, Daemmputzen und Daemmstoffen ergaenzt das Werk. Das Buch wendet sich in erster Linie an die Fachunternehmer und Handwerker, die im Bereich des Bauens im Bestand taetig sind, darueber hinaus auch an Energieberater und Planer. (orig.)

  4. Biodegradation of Gaseous Chlorobenzene by White-rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAN WANG; JIN-YING XI; HONG-YING HU; XIANG-HUA WEN

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on removal of gaseous chlorobenzene.Methods Fungal mycelium mixed with a liquid medium was placed into airtight bottles.A certain amount of chlorobenzene was injected into the headspace of the bottles under different conditions.At a certain interval,the concentrations in the headspace were analyzed to evaluate the degradation of chlorohenzene by P.chtysosporium.Results The degradation effects of P chrysosporium on chlorobenzene under different conditions were investigated.The difference in the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi and chlorobenzene degradation was observed.The data indicated that a lower temperature (28℃) would promote the degradation of chlorobenzene than the optimum temperature for the growth of the fungi (37℃).A low nitrogen source concentration (30 mg N/L) had a better effect on degrading chlorohenzene than a high nitrogen source concentration (higher than 100 mg N/L).A high initial concentration (over 1100 mg/m3) of chlorobenzene showed an inhibiting effect on degradation by P.chrysosporium.A maximum removal efficiency of 95% was achieved at the initial concentration of 550 mg/m3.Conclusion P.chrysosporium has a rather good ability to remove gaseous chlorobenzene.A low nitrogen source concentration and a low temperature promote the removal of chlorohenzene by P.chrysosporium.However,a high initial chlorobenzene concentration can inhibit chlorobenzene degradation.

  5. New types of concrete elements corresponding to BR2005 energy requirements; Nye typer betonelementer svarende til BR2005 energikrav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In this project new solutions have been developed for buildings with concrete facade panels without ribs at window reveals and at horizontal joints, corresponding to panels with an un-broken insulation layer and limited thermal bridge effect. New general solutions for the mounting of windows have been developed together with airtight covering solutions at the window reveal based upon added window board and a separate vapor barrier. At the same time detailed calculations of the heat loss effects at the window-wall joint and foundation have been carried out and new solutions that reduce the heat loss substantially have also been shown. The new developed standard solutions are obvious means to meet the expected future energy demands in the new Building Regulations expected in 2005. The project has revealed that it is possible to obtain significant thermal improvements with only a minor increase in the insula-tion thickness. The new and, in many ways, better solutions will mean added costs regarding mounting of windows, stronger fittings etc. but the effect of a standardization of the window-placement could reduce those additional costs considerably. The total life cycle costs regard-ing these new types of concrete facade panels are economically reasonable. (au)

  6. Enhancing the Security of Customer Data in Cloud Environments Using a Novel Digital Fingerprinting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise of the Internet and electronics in people’s life, the data related to it has also undergone a mammoth increase in magnitude. The data which is stored in the cloud can be sensitive and at times needs a proper file storage system with a tough security algorithm. Whereas cloud is an open shareable elastic environment, it needs impenetrable and airtight security. This paper deals with furnishing a secure storage system for the above-mentioned purpose in the cloud. To become eligible to store data a user has to register with the cloud database. This prevents unauthorized access. The files stored in the cloud are encrypted with RSA algorithm and digital fingerprint for the same has been generated through MD5 message digest before storage. The RSA provides unreadability of data to anyone without the private key. MD5 makes it impossible for any changes on data to go unnoticed. After the application of RSA and MD5 before storage, the data becomes resistant to access or modifications by any third party and to intruders of cloud storage system. This application is tested in Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud Web Services.

  7. Timer switch to convert suction apparatus for negative pressure wound therapy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surath Amarnath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is an established modality in the treatment of chronic wounds, open fractures, and post-operative wound problems. This method has not been widely used due to the high cost of equipment and consumables. This study demonstrates an indigenously developed apparatus which gives comparable results at a fraction of the cost. Readily available materials are used for the air-tight dressing. Materials and Methods: Equipment consists of suction apparatus with adjustable pressure valve set to a pressure 125-150 mmHg. An electronic timer switch with a sequential working time of 5 min and a standby time of 3 min provides the required intermittent negative pressure. Readily available materials such as polyvinyl alcohol sponge, suction drains and steridrapes were used to provide an air tight wound cover. Results: A total of 90 cases underwent 262 NPWT applications from 2009 to 2014. This series, comprised of 30 open fractures, 21 post-operative and 39 chronic wounds. The wound healing rate in our study was comparable to other published studies using NPWT. Conclusion: The addition of electronic timer switch will convert a suction apparatus into NPWT machine, and the results are equally effective compared to more expensive counter parts. The use of indigenous dressing materials reduces the cost significantly.

  8. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Selamento apical proporcionado por diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlel Tristão Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To have success in endodontic treatment it is necessary that the sealing airtight as possible of the root canal system, with suitable material such as gutta-percha and sealer. There are sealers of different compositions, which should allow the sealing of the root canal system, preventing recontamination place and favoring the success of endodontic therapy. In this study were evaluated the apical microleakage after obturation using different root canal sealers widely employed in the market, with different compositions. For this study, 85 single rooted teeth premolars which have removed their crowns and root canals prepared and filled using four types of cement: AH Plus, Endofill, Acroseal and Real Seal SE. All samples were sealed and submitted to microleakage with Indian ink; longitudinal cuts made on both sides of the tooth and cleaved; apical images were obtained. The areas of dye penetration were measured on a computer using specific software and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that the Acroseal ® showed the highest mean microleakage with no statistically significant difference in relation to the RealSeal SE®, but with significant differences compared to Endofill ® and AHPlus ®.

  10. Processing and geologic analysis of conventional cores from well ER-20-6 No. 1, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, L.B., Townsend, M.J.; Drellack, S.L. Jr. [and others

    1997-09-01

    In 1996, Well Cluster ER-20-6 was drilled on Pahute Mesa in Area 20, in the northwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The three wells of the cluster are located from 166 to 296 meters (m) (544 to 971 feet [ft]) southwest of the site of the underground nuclear test code-named BULLION, conducted in 1990 in Emplacement Hole U-20bd. The well cluster was planned to be the site of a forced-gradient experiment designed to investigate radionuclide transport in groundwater. To obtain additional information on the occurrence of radionuclides, nature of fractures, and lithology, a portion of Well ER-20-6 No. 1, the hole closest to the explosion cavity, was cored for later analysis. Bechtel Nevada (BN) geologists originally prepared the geologic interpretation of the Well Cluster ER-20-6 site and documented the geology of each well in the cluster. However, the cores from Well ER-20-6 No. 1 were not accessible at the time of that work. As the forced-gradient experiment and other radio nuclide migration studies associated with the well cluster progressed, it was deemed appropriate to open the cores, describe the geology, and re-package the core for long-term air-tight storage. This report documents and describes the processing, geologic analysis, and preservation of the conventional cores from Well ER20-6 No. 1.

  11. Energy and Environmental Performance of Multi-Story Apartment Buildings Built in Timber Construction Using Passive House Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wall

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents energy and environmental performance analyses, a study of summer indoor temperatures and occupant behavior for an eight story apartment building, with the goal to combine high energy efficiency with low environmental impact, at a reasonable cost. Southern Portvakten building is built with prefabricated timber elements using passive house principles in the North European climate. Energy performance was analyzed through parametric studies, as well as monitored energy data, and complemented with analysis of occupant behavior during one year. Results show that airtight, low-energy apartment buildings can be successfully built with prefabricated timber elements in a cold climate. The monitored total energy use was 47.6 kWh/m2, excluding household electricity (revised to a normal year, which is considerably lower than of a standard building built today in Sweden—90 kWh/m2. However, the occupancy level was low during the analyzed year, which affects the energy use compared to if the building had been fully occupied. Environmental analysis shows that the future challenges lie in lowering the household and common electricity use, as well as in improving the choices of materials. More focus should also lie on improving occupant behavior and finding smart solar shading solutions for apartment buildings.

  12. Actinide-handling experience for training and education of future expert under J-ACTINET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer schools for future experts have successfully been completed under Japan Actinide Network (J-ACTINET) for the purpose of development of human resources who are expected to be engaged in every areas of actinide-research/engineering. The first summer school was held in Ibaraki-area in August 2009, followed by the second one in Kansai-area in August 2010. Two summer schools have focused on actual experiences of actinides in actinide-research fields for university students and young researchers/engineers as an introductory course of actinide-researches. Many efforts were made to awaken interests into actinide-researches inside the participants during short periods of schools, 3 to 4 days. As actinides must be handled inside special apparatuses such as an air-tight globe-box with well-trained and qualified technicians, programs were optimized for effective experiences of actinides-handling. Several quasi actinide-handling experiences at the actinide-research fields have attracted attentions of participants at the first school in Ibaraki-area. The actual experiments using actinides-containing solutions have been carried out at the second school in Kansai-area. Future summer schools will be held every year for the sustainable human resource development in various actinide-research fields, together with other training and education programs conducted by the J-ACTINET. (author)

  13. Micro-structured electrochromic device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in consumer electronics, e.g. smartphones, tablet PCs or compact cameras, demand the development of very compact, active, optical microsystems. Because of their low power consumption, low operation voltage and cheap fabrication, voltage-controlled electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on polymer materials are promising candidates. However, the broad application of ECDs is still hindered by crucial technological obstacles. In this paper, we address two main issues: the structuring of the electrochromic material (ECM) and its underlying transparent conductive electrode on a microscale and additionally, the assembly of the ECD as an electrochemical cell with the challenges of airtight sealing, appropriate chemical stability, electrical insulation and the necessity of defining a compartment to hold the liquid electrolyte inside the cell. We first introduce a technological sequence consisting of batch processes (UV lithography and dry and wet etching) to render the microscale structuring of the ECM possible. Furthermore, we exploit the outstanding properties of the thick film dry photoresist Ordyl SY 300 to complete the assembly of ECDs with single-layer technology. As a proof of principle, we present the first results of an ECD device based on a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) material that works as an aperture stop with three coaxial segments, each individually controlled by an external voltage. (paper)

  14. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single-family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings. Builders and practitioners have found that fire-resistance rated wall assemblies are a major source of difficulty in air sealing/compartmentalization, particularly in townhouse construction. This problem is exacerbated when garages are “tucked in” to the units and living space is located over the garages. In this project, Building Science Corporation examined the taping of exterior sheathing details to improve air sealing results in townhouse and multifamily construction, when coupled with a better understanding of air leakage pathways. Current approaches are cumbersome, expensive, time consuming, and ineffective; these details were proposed as a more effective and efficient method. The effectiveness of these air sealing methods was tested with blower door testing, including “nulled” or “guarded” testing (adjacent units run at equal test pressure to null out inter-unit air leakage, or “pressure neutralization”). Pressure diagnostics were used to evaluate unit-to-unit connections and series leakage pathways (i.e., air leakage from exterior, into the fire-resistance rated wall assembly, and to the interior).

  15. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  16. Analytical solutions for a single vertical drain with time-dependent vacuum combined surcharge preloading in membrane and membraneless systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, X. Y.; Indraratna, B.; Rujikiatkamjorn, C.

    2010-06-01

    Vertical drains combined with vacuum pressure and surcharge preloading are widely used to accelerate the consolidation process of soft clay in order to decrease the pore pressure as well as to increase the effective stress. Currently there are two types of vacuum preloading systems commercially available; (a) membrane system with an airtight membrane over the drainage layer and, (b) membraneless system where a vacuum system is connected to individual drain. Their effectiveness varies from site to site depending on the type of soil treated and the characteristics of the drain-vacuum system. This study presents the analytical solutions of vertical drains with vacuum preloading for both membrane and membraneless systems. According to the field and laboratory observations, the vacuum in both of the membraneless and membrane system was assumed to be decreasing along the drain whereas in the membrane system, it was maintained at a constant level. This model was verified by using the measured settlements and excess pore pressures obtained from large-scale laboratory testing and case studies in Australia. The analytical solutions improved the accuracy of predicting the dissipation of pore water pressure and the associated settlement. The effects of the permeability of the sand blanket in a membrane system and the possible loss of vacuum were also discussed.

  17. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Biswas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasites in Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Approximately, 10 g of feces was collected from recently voided feces in airtight fecal collection vials (HiMedia, India. Fecal samples were subjected to the direct method and centrifuge flotation method for finding out parasitic ova. The ova were identified on the basis of morphological characters described by Soulsby, 1982. Result: A total of 78 fecal samples were collected. Of 78, 44 (56.41% samples were found positive. Most of the positive fecal sample showed mixed infection of different helminths parasites egg. Fasciola spp. and Amphistome spp. were the two predominant parasites among the flukes. In nematodes infection, Toxocara vitulorum was the least prevalent GI nematodes. In the case of cestodes Moniezia expansa was little higher (14% in semi-intensive. Conclusion: The present study reveals that Mithun is infected by several GI parasites. Among trematodes, Fasciola, and Amphistomes are predominantly spp. whereas, Strongyle and Trichuris are more prevalent spp. among nematodes and Moniezia among cestodes parasites.

  18. COLOR CHANGE OF CHINESE FIR THROUGH STEAM-HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Cao,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown wood color is a current trend and widely appreciated by consumers in the furniture and decoration markets. Heat treatment is one of the most effective methods to darken wood’s appearance. The influence of steam-heat treatment on color change of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb. Hook. was investigated within the temperature range from 170 to 230 oC and time from 1 to 5 hours in an air-tight chamber within an atmosphere comprising less than 2 percent oxygen. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (△C* decreased gradually, while the color difference (△E* and hue difference (△H* increased with an increase in temperature and length of time. An analysis of variance (ANOVA and a multi-comparison analysis revealed that the treatment temperature plays a more important role in darkening wood color during the process of steam-heat treatment in comparison with the treatment time. The results suggest that a more desirable wood color can be achieved with the technology of steam-heat treatment.

  19. The acetylene inhibition technique to determine total denitrification (N2 + N2O losses from soil samples: potentials and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neftel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The loss of N2 from intensively managed agro-ecosystems is an important part of the N budget. The monitoring of N2 emissions at the field scale is impossible due to the high atmospheric background of 78%, which precludes the measurement of fluxes. The acetylene (C2H2 inhibition technique is a rather simple, albeit imperfect, method to determine N2 losses from entire soil cores. Despites serious limitations it is one among very few methodological options to estimate total denitrification at high temporal resolution and on small spatial scale, with limited workload and costs involved. A laboratory system with two different detection systems (photoacoustic IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography is presented, which allowed parallel measurements of up to 7 intact soil cores in air-tight glass tubes in a temperature controlled cabinet (adjusted to field conditions with an automated C2H2 injection. A survey of total denitrification losses (N2 + N2O over 1.5 yr in soil from an intensively managed, cut grassland system in central Switzerland showed a lower bound loss in the range of 6 to 25 kg N ha−1 yr−1 (3–13% of added N, roughly 3.4 times higher than the N2O loss. However, several drawbacks of the C2H2 inhibition technique preclude a more precise determination of the total denitrification loss.

  20. Results from the SynergieHaus programme of PreussenElektra; Ergebnisse aus dem SynergieHaus-Programm der PreussenElektra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussenbrock, K. [Preussen Elektra, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The `SynergieHaus` project is an initiative by PreussenElektra and 25 regional and municipal utilities. Its objective is to contribute towards the further development and propagation of energy-saving building techniques. Within the framework of the project, funding was granted for more than 400 residential units erected between 1995 and 1997. The main prerequisites for funding were as follows: an at least 30 % shortfall of annual heating energy demand from the specifications of the thermal protection ordinance (WSchV `95) currently in force; installation of mechanical ventilation; and an airtight building envelope. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das SynergieHaus-Projekt ist eine Initiative der PreussenElektra und 25 Regionaler und Kommunaler Versorgungsunternehmen. Ziel ist es, einen Beitrag zur Weiterentwicklung und Verbreitung energiesparender Bauweisen zu leisten. Im Rahmen dieses Projektes wurden zwischen 1995 und 1997 mehr als 400 neuerrichtete Wohneinheiten finanziell gefoerdert. Voraussetzung fuer eine Foerderung waren insbesondere die Unterschreitung des Jahres-Heizwaermebedarfs gemaess geltender Waermeschutzverordnung (WSchV `95) um mindestens 30%, der Einbau einer mechanischen Wohnungslueftung sowie eine luftdichte Gebaeudehuelle. (orig.)

  1. Aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance: Evidence against an association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation will focus on only one side of the debate as to whether high levels of aerobic fitness have a deleterious effect on tolerance to gravitational stress. This issue was raised in the early 1970's as a result of two research publications. The first work investigated the carotid sinus baroreflex of humans with an airtight chamber that surrounded the head and neck. The steady-state reflex changes in blood pressure that were recorded 3 minutes after application of the head and neck stimuli, were attenuated in an athletic group compared to a sedentary group of volunteers. A second report in the NASA literature indicated that five endurance-trained runners were less tolerant to LBNP than five nonrunners. These early research findings have stimulated a considerable amount of interest that has lead to a growing number of research efforts seeking an association between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans. I will briefly review some of the more pertinent published research information which suggests that there is no relationship between aerobic fitness and orthostatic tolerance in humans.

  2. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  3. Distribution of 137Cs in sediments in Xiangshan, Xiamen and Yangpu harbours, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiangshan Harbour (Zhejing Province), Xiamen Harbour (Fujian Province) and Yangpu Harbour (Hainan Province) are tide-channel type bays, located on the southeast coast of China. Six sediment cores were collected in the Harbours in several projects respectively. Sediment samples were collected with a Lehigh gravity corer which utilized a 10.3 cm diameter, PVC core barrel. Styrofoam sediment core retainers were fitted into the top of the core barrel following core recovery to facilitate core sampling without loss of sediment from the barrel. The core barrels were split lengthwise using a circular saw. Following visual inspection for geological parameters (colour, texture, etc.) and photography of the cores, they were subsampled at 1-2 cm or 5 cm intervals for the entire length of the core. The sediment samples were stored in air-tight, plastic containers and returned to Nanjing University for 137Cs and other types of analysis. The sediment samples were oven dried at approximately 100 deg. C. at the Nanjing University isotope laboratory and the % loss of water used to determine the wet and dry densities. The contents of 137Cs were counted using an n-type HPGe γ-ray spectrometry system. The coaxial detector has an efficiency of 25%, with a lead shield 12 cm thick. Each sample was measured for 12h

  4. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  5. Retrofit of a MultiFamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Kerrigan, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  6. Novel in situ pretreatment method for significantly enhancing the signal in MALDI-TOF MS of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kakimoto

    Full Text Available The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-based mass spectrometry (MS to the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue presents significant technical challenges. In situ enzymatic digestion is frequently used to unlock formalin-fixed tissues for analysis, but the results are often unsatisfactory. Here, we report a new, simplified in situ pretreatment method for preparing tissue sections for MS that involves heating with vapor containing acetonitrile in a small airtight pressurized space. The utility of the novel method is shown using FFPE tissue of human colon carcinoma. The number and intensity of MALDI peaks obtained from analysis of pretreated tissue was significantly higher than control tissue not subjected to pretreatment. A prominent peak (m/z 850 apparently specific to cancerous tissue was identified as a fragment of histone H2A in FFPE tissue pretreated using our method. This highly sensitive treatment may enable MALDI-MS analysis of archived pathological FFPE samples, thus leading to the identification of new biomarkers.

  7. Resource use efficiency of closed plant production system with artificial light: concept, estimation and application to plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozai, Toyoki

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has recently been conducted on plant factory with artificial light, which is one type of closed plant production system (CPPS) consisting of a thermally insulated and airtight structure, a multi-tier system with lighting devices, air conditioners and fans, a CO2 supply unit, a nutrient solution supply unit, and an environment control unit. One of the research outcomes is the concept of resource use efficiency (RUE) of CPPS.This paper reviews the characteristics of the CPPS compared with those of the greenhouse, mainly from the viewpoint of RUE, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of the resource fixed or held in plants to the amount of the resource supplied to the CPPS.It is shown that the use efficiencies of water, CO2 and light energy are considerably higher in the CPPS than those in the greenhouse. On the other hand, there is much more room for improving the light and electric energy use efficiencies of CPPS. Challenging issues for CPPS and RUE are also discussed.

  8. Identification of Abiotic and Biotic Factors Causing Deterioration During Storage and Development of Storage Techniques for Mahua (Madhuca indica Syn. Bassia latifolia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta Kumar Das

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mahua (Madhuca indica syn. Bassia latifolia flowers, occupy an important position in the life of the tribal in many parts of India. Particularly, the flowers of the plant are sugar rich and in certain cases it is the only source of livelihood for those people. However, its nutrient quality deteriorates during the postharvest storage and thus, poses a serious problem of adequate storage. In order to determine the cause of spoilage and to develop the measures to check it, collected flowers were stored using two methods in this investigation; first, under normally practiced conditions (NPS, i.e., the practice adopted by the flower’s collectors, and second, oven dried, powdered with liquid nitrogen, and stored at 00C (±10C in different small airtight sterilized vials labelled as laboratory processed samples (LPS. Both LPS and NPS were stored for a year i.e. from one harvesting season to the next. Experiments were carried out, at every month interval, to identify the factors responsible for spoilage of flowers during storage. LPS did not exhibit deterioration in the nutrient value throughout the year of storage, but NPS showed spoilage due to various biotic and abiotic factors comprised of moisture, temperature and microorganisms. To check postharvest spoilage various innovative storage techniques like physical and chemical treatments were experimented. Results revealed that storage at low temperature by liquid nitrogen treatment and chemical conversion to oxalic acid were the most effective techniques for a long-term storage.

  9. Documented outbreaks of botulism:the impact of food-borne transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victoria Rebagliati; Sabrina Chianelli; Mariela Tornese; Laura Rossi; Alcides Troncoso

    2008-01-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum's toxins.Although the disease is uncommon,causes great concern due to its high rate of mortality;foodborne outbreaks of botulism occur world-wide and require immediate public health and acute care resources.This study had a review of outstanding out-breaks published;Journals articles related to the subject.From the outbreaks analysis we found the most in-volved food products were:fermented fish products in Alaska;home canning food,oil preservation and restau-rant sauce in London and USA;home canned vegetables,food airtight packed with inappropriate refrigeration and aerosols in Argentina.In conclusion,the diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food.Botulism must be immediately identified as one case suggests an epi-demic and should be treated as a public health emergency.Therefore the purpose of the following review is to recognize the associated risks with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods,to help work our way on pre-vention for every public health professional to be aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  10. Regulations concerning the disposal of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Definition of terms is provided under Article 1. The provisions under Article 2 deal with safety measures, including measures for waste disposal outside of plants or business establishments composed of refining facilities, processing facilities, nuclear reactor facilities or reprocessing facilities. Waste to be abandoned should carry a marking which shows such data as name of the refining plant or plant manager and the serial number. Requirements for waste abandonment site, abandonment operation, exposure of workers to radioactive rays are also specified. The provisions under Article 3 are related with the application for confirmation of various matters concerning disposal of radioactive wastes, such as strength and airtightness of container, strength and stability of solidified waste, method and results of strength and specific gravity measurement, method for measuring concentration of radioactive nuclide, and site for abandonment of waste. The provisions under Article 4 and Article 5 deal with procedures for confirmation of matters concerning disposal and procedures for issue of confirmation certificate, respectively. Measures for emergency and procedures for submission of reports are described under Article 6 and Article 7, respectively. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Overview of the use of refrigerating fluids in thermodynamical machines; Panorama de l`utilisation des fluides frigorigenes dans les machines thermodynamiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, J. [Syrec SA (France)

    1996-12-31

    The R-22 refrigerant has been used as a substitute of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigerating machineries but its use will become prohibited very soon. This paper raises the problem of its replacement by other HFC or natural fluids. The problem of natural fluids like ammonia or propane concerns their toxicity, flammability and explosion risk. If a regulation about the greenhouse effect is defined, the performance of the installation will be the decisive parameter for the choice of a refrigerant. R-22 fluid has multiple applications from air-conditioning systems to freezing tunnels and the most suitable substitutes will be different from one application to the other. The different criteria that influence the choice of a refrigerating fluid are: the condensation pressure, the delivery temperature, the compressor volume efficiency, the volume refrigerating power, the coefficient of performance, the variation of vaporization temperature, the global greenhouse effect, the toxicity, flammability and explosive character. A comparison between several fluids has been performed with a single-stage airtight compressor of 10 m{sup 3}/h, at a 40 deg. C constant condensation temperature, a 5 deg. C overheating and a 3 deg. C under-cooling. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  12. Hyperoxia accelerates Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis in the lungs of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Yoshinari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen supplementation is commonly given to the patients with severe pneumonia including Legionella disease. Recent data suggested that apoptosis may play an important role, not only in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia, but also in oxygen-induced tissue damage. In the present study, the lethal sensitivity to Legionella pneumonia were compared in the setting of hyperoxia between wild-type and Fas-deficient mice. Findings C57BL/6 mice and B6.MRL-Faslpr mice characterized with Fas-deficiency were used in this study. After intratracheal administration of L. pneumophila, mice were kept in hyperoxic conditions (85-90% O2 conc. in an airtight chamber for 3 days. Bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with L. pneumophila were also kept in hyperoxic conditions. Caspase activity and cytokine production were determined by using commercially available kits. Smaller increases of several apoptosis markers, such as caspase-3 and -8, were demonstrated in Fas-deficient mice, even though the bacterial burdens in Fas-deficient and wild type mice were similar. Bone-marrow derived macrophages from Fas-deficient mice were shown to be more resistant to Legionella-induced cytotoxicity than those from wild-type mice under hyperoxia. Conclusions These results demonstrated that Fas-mediated signaling and apoptosis may be a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of Legionella pneumonia in the setting of hyperoxia.

  13. Characterisation of aerosols produced by laser cutting; Caracterisation de l'aerosol emis lors d'une decoupe laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRU/SERAC, Lab. de Physique et Metrologie des Aerosols, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Dinechin, G. de [Groupe d' Interet Public Groupement d' Etudes et de Recherche pour les Applications Industrielles des Lasers de Puissance, 94 - Arcueil (France)]|[CEA Saclay, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique (DRT/LITEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Gosse, X. [Cogema, Dir. de l' Assainissement et des Projets, Maitrise d' Oeuvre Projets, 30 - Marcoule (France); Arnaud, P. [Ligne de Produit Demantelement, SGN, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2007-07-01

    Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A stuunded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m{sup 3} connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)

  14. Studying the Internal Ballistics of a Combustion Driven Potato Cannon using High-speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, E D S

    2013-01-01

    A potato cannon was designed to accommodate several different experimental propellants and have a transparent barrel so the movement of the projectile could be recorded on high-speed video (at 2000 frames per second). Both combustion chamber and barrel were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Five experimental propellants were tested: propane (C3H8), acetylene (C2H2), ethanol (C2H6O), methanol (CH4O), and butane (C4H10). The amount of each experimental propellant was calculated to approximate a stoichometric mixture and considering the Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) and the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL), which in turn were affected by the volume of the combustion chamber. Cylindrical projectiles were cut from raw potatoes so that there was an airtight fit, and each weighed 50 (+/- 0.5) grams. For each trial, position as a function of time was determined via frame by frame analysis. Five trials were taken for each experimental propellant and the results analyzed to compute velocity and acceleration as functions...

  15. A validated near-infrared spectroscopic method for methanol detection in biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andrea; Bräuer, Bastian; Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Ent, Hugo; Bremser, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel quality control is a relevant issue as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance and integrity. Within the European metrology research program (EMRP) ENG09 project ‘Metrology for Biofuels’, an on-line/at-site suitable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method has been developed in parallel with an improved EN14110 headspace gas chromatography (GC) analysis method for methanol in biodiesel. Both methods have been optimized for a methanol content of 0.2 mass% as this represents the maximum limit of methanol content in FAME according to EN 14214:2009. The NIRS method is based on a mobile NIR spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic coupled probe. Due to the high volatility of methanol, a tailored air-tight adaptor was constructed to prevent methanol evaporation during measurement. The methanol content of biodiesel was determined from evaluation of NIRS spectra by partial least squares regression (PLS). Both GC analysis and NIRS exhibited a significant dependence on biodiesel feedstock. The NIRS method is applicable to a content range of 0.1% (m/m) to 0.4% (m/m) of methanol with uncertainties at around 6% relative for the different feedstocks. A direct comparison of headspace GC and NIRS for samples of FAMEs yielded that the results of both methods are fully compatible within their stated uncertainties.

  16. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  17. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  18. Suspended core subwavelength fibers: practical designs for the low-loss terahertz guidance

    CERN Document Server

    Rozé, Mathieu; Mazhorova, Anna; Walther, Markus; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2011-01-01

    In this work we report two designs of subwavelength fibers packaged for practical terahertz wave guiding. We describe fabrication, modeling and characterization of microstructured polymer fibers featuring a subwavelength-size core suspended in the middle of a large porous outer cladding. This design allows convenient handling of the subwavelength fibers without distorting their modal profile. Additionally, the air-tight porous cladding serves as a natural enclosure for the fiber core, thus avoiding the need for a bulky external enclosure for humidity-purged atmosphere. Fibers of 5 mm and 3 mm in outer diameters with a 150 \\mu m suspended solid core and a 900 \\mu m suspended porous core respectively, were obtained by utilizing a combination of drilling and stacking techniques. Characterization of the fiber optical properties and the near-field imaging of the guided modes were performed using a terahertz near-field microscopy setup. Near-field imaging of the modal profiles at the fiber output confirmed the effe...

  19. Effect of Simulated Microgravity Environment on Canopy Photosynthesis Characteristics in Azolla%模拟微重力环境对红萍群体光合作用的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 邓素芳; 杨有泉; 林营志; 雷锦桂

    2013-01-01

    红萍作为空间受控生态生命保障系统中的重要生物部件,为航天员提供O2和新鲜蔬菜,并吸收环境中CO2.本试验旨在弄清模拟微重力环境下红萍群体光合作用规律,为红萍生物部件的空间应用奠定基础.建立能模拟空间微重力效应的三维旋转式植物栽培装置,将红萍湿养在装置的受控密闭舱内,通过测定舱内O2和CO2浓度的变化来研究红萍群体光合作用的特征.试验结果显示,在模拟微重力环境下红萍净光合效率与光照强度成正相关,光照强度在7 000 lx时,单位能耗红萍放O2量和固定CO2量最大.红萍净光合效率还与密闭舱内大气CO2浓度环境成正相关,并与大气O2浓度环境成负相关.尤其在低O2浓度环境伴随高CO2浓度环境下,红萍的净光合效率较正常O2和CO2浓度环境的要高,这说明红萍光合放O2能力很强,有效促使密闭舱内O2和CO2浓度朝着有利于人生存的环境方向平衡,进而验证红萍的空间应用前景.%Azolla is an important biological component of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS),because it can supply O2 and absorb CO2 from the environment,and can be used as fresh vegetable by the astronauts.The aim of this study is to clarify the canopy photosynthesis regular pattern of Azolla in simulated microgravity environment,and to lay the foundation of Azolla space's application.Azolla was moistly cultured in the controlled airtight cabin of 3D-rotary plant clinostat,which could stimulate space microgravity effect.The canopy photosynthesis characteristics of Azolla were studied by measuring the O2-CO2 concentrations in airtight cabin.The results showed that net photosynthesis efficiency of Azolla in stimulated microgravity environment had a positive correlation with illumination intensity.When illumination intensity was 7 000 lx,the amount of released O2and fixed CO2 by photosynthesis perunit energy consumption was the largest.Azolla net

  20. 不同浓度臭氧水对口腔综合治疗台水道系统中乙肝病毒作用的研究%Study on Effects of Different Concentrations of Ozone Solution on the HBV Virus in Dental Unit Waterlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫; 冯海; 王玉亮; 殷恺

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study effects of different concentrations of ozone solution on the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), and find out the lowest ozone water concentration to achieve maximum HIV viral inactiva-tion. Methods: The human 2215 cells were cultured. Under the room temperature 5℃, concussion mixed and airtight conditions, different concentrations of aqueous solution of ozone were prepared. The ozone solution was added into the 2215 culture flask. Different concentrations of aqueous solution of ozone acted with the supernatant liquid of the human 2215 cells in different time points. The HBV-DNA was extracted from the 2215 cell supernatant. Following fluorescence quantitative PCR amplification, HBV-DNA was detected by FQ-PCR. Results: It was found that water temperature and airtight affected the mass concentration of ozone solution. Under those conditions, the aqueous solution of ozone was stable. The higher the ozone concentration, the stronger the inactivation of HBV-DNA expression in 2215 cells. In activation of HBV-DNA was found in the ozone concentration of 0.6 mg/l, for 10 minutes and the ozone concentration of 0.5 mg/L for 15 min. Conclusion: The ozone concentration of 0.5-0.6 mg/L can be used to inactivate HBV in DUWLs.%目的:研究不同质量浓度臭氧溶液对口腔综合治疗台水道系统(DUWLs)中乙肝病毒(HBV)的灭活作用,探讨限时灭活HBV的最低臭氧溶液浓度.方法:常规培养2215细胞,在室温5 ℃、震荡混合、密闭等条件下配制不同浓度的臭氧溶液.将臭氧溶液加入2215细胞培养瓶中,作用不同时间后,取其上清液,提取HBV-DNA,聚合酶链式反应(PCR)扩增,荧光定量(FQ-PCR)检测HBV-DNA.结果:水温、密闭条件对臭氧溶液的质量浓度有影响,在上述条件下配置的臭氧溶液浓度稳定,臭氧溶液能抑制2215细胞表达HBV-DNA,臭氧浓度越高,其对HBV-DNA的灭活作用越强.臭氧浓度为0.6 mg/L 10 min及0.5 mg/L15min能将设

  1. Residential space heating with wood burning stoves. Energy efficiency and indoor climate; Boligopvarmning ved braendefyring. Energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, A.; Bergsoee, N.C.; Carvalho, R. [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aalborg Univ.. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2012-11-01

    Two issues turn up concerning how to use wood-burning stoves in modern homes. The first is whether wood-burning stoves in future may still act as a genuine heat source, given that new and refurbished single-family houses retain the heat much better than older ones and therefore need less and less energy for space heating. The second issue is whether it will still be possible to use wood-burning stoves in modern houses where the air exchange is controlled by mechanical ventilation or possibly heat recovery. It is a question whether firing techniques can be developed that will work in airtight houses with mechanical ventilation and negative pressure, so that harmful particle emissions can be avoided. To illustrate the first issue, a field study was designed to look carefully at seven modern wood-burning stoves that were set up in six new houses and one older house and investigated, both in terms of firing and heat release. As a background for this part of the study, a heat balance calculation was made for each house. The question is, whether wood-burning stoves will also in the future have a role to play as a heating source. Modern houses grow ever tighter and only need to be supplied with a small quantity of heat. The new Danish Buildings Requirement, 2010 has resulted in a further reduction of 25 % of the energy demand, including the energy supply for heating. However, the new requirements imply that the heating season eventually become so short that a traditional central heating installation becomes superfluous. This means that by using the small amounts of wood cut in gardens and hedgerows of the neighbourhood, a wood-burning stove will, in principle, cover the heating demand. Therefore, the question is rather whether a wood-burning stove is manufactured that can successfully be adapted to new houses. As a consequence of this development, future stoves must be further scaled down in order to meet the heating demand of a modern low-energy house and the stoves must

  2. 41种植物精油对淡色库蚊的熏蒸活性%Fumigation activity of 41 essential oils against Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付臣臣; 万涛; 江志利; 吴华; 冯俊涛; 马志卿; 张兴

    2013-01-01

    为发现具有较高杀蚊活性的精油,推动植物精油类卫生杀虫剂的创制,本研究采用三角瓶熏蒸法测定了17科41种植物精油对淡色库蚊Culex pipiens pallens雌成蚊的熏蒸活性,并进一步采用密闭圆筒法验证其杀虫毒力大小.三角瓶熏蒸法测定表明,在12μL/L浓度下,留兰香油(spearmint oil)、薰衣草油(lavender oil)、山苍子油(Litsea cubeba oil)等26种精油均有较强的熏蒸作用,KT50小于15 min.该26种精油用密闭圆筒熏蒸法进一步测定表明,在浓度为10 μL/L时,冬青油(wintergreen oil)、艾叶油(blumea oil)、薄荷油(peppermint oil)、桉叶油(Eucalyptus robusta oil)和蓝桉油(E.globulus oil)等植物精油熏蒸活性较强,其KT50分别为16.91,21.20,22.57,18.43和19.48 min.结果证明冬青油、艾叶油、薄荷油、桉叶油和蓝桉油等5种精油对淡色库蚊具有较强的熏蒸活性,具备作为淡色库蚊防控剂开发的潜力,值得进一步研究.%To find the essential oils with high insecticidal activity and promote the development of hygienic insecticides,essential oils from 41 plants belonging to 17 families were evaluated for adulticidal activity against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens by airtight fumigation in conical flask and hermetic round canister method.The results showed that 26 essential oils (12 μL/L) including spearmint oil,lavender oil and Litsea cubeba oil were very toxic to the mosquito (KT50 < 15 min) by airtight fumigation in conical flask.Further assay using hermetic round canister method indicated that 5 essential oils (wintergreen oil,blumea oil,peppermint oil,Eucalyptus robusta oil and E.globulus oil) had high fumigation toxicity at the concentration of 10 μL/L,and their KT50 values were 16.91,21.20,22.57,18.43 and 19.48 min,respectively.The results demonstrate that wintergreen oil,blumea oil,peppermint oil,E.robusta oil and E.globulus oil all have high fumigation activity against C.pipiens pallens,with the

  3. Studies on construction of the wetland ecosystem in the closed geosphere experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Closed Geosphere Experiment Facility (CGEF) is designed to investigate carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems because of its airtightness, and to estimate radiocarbon transfer and accumulation in ecosystems. A wetland ecosystem is scheduled for introduction into the CGEF. The CGEF is a 5.8x8.7 m2 ground area with 11.9 m average height, including 3.1 m soil depth. First, a 3-m soil core was taken and soil characteristics were investigated to determine the soil depth for introduction from Takahoko wetland to the CGEF. Soil characteristics, such as total C and N contents, microbial biomass carbon, and dehydrogenase activity, showed that soils below 1 m depth are expected to contribute little to the carbon cycle of the wetland ecosystem. Second, effects of disturbances from the surface to 1 m depth soil on plants and soil environmental conditions were investigated to devise a method of transferring plants and soils from the wetland to the CGEF. Soil temperature, soil redox potential, and water table showed similar values for disturbed and control plots. Total C and N contents, microbial biomass carbon, and dehydrogenase activity at 0-20 cm soil depth were higher in disturbed than in control plots, indicating increases in soil organic carbon in disturbed plots. The characteristics of free groundwater were also compared between disturbed and control plots. Enhancement of decomposition was inferred from the increase in soil nitrogen content and microbial activity, then ammonium nitrogen content at 25 cm depth increased at disturbed plots. No significant difference was found in the other characteristics of free groundwater between disturbed and control plots. Above-ground biomass showed similar values although shoot density increased in disturbed plots. These results suggest that continuous monitoring of free groundwater characteristics is needed and that no serious problem is attributable to disturbance of plants. (author)

  4. Specific corrosion product on interior surface of a bronze wine vessel with loop-handle and its growth mechanism, Shang Dynasty, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yang; Bao Zhirong; Wu Taotao [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jiang, Junchun [Xiaogan Museum, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen Guantao [Center for Archaeometry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Pan Chunxu, E-mail: cxpan@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Electron Microscopy and MOE Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Center for Archaeometry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-06-15

    In this paper, a kind of specific stalactitic product was found on the interior surface of a covered bronze wine vessel with loop-handle (Chinese name is you), which was fabricated in Shang Dynasty (1700 B.C.-1100 B.C.) and now is collected in Xiaogan Museum, Hubei province of China. The microstructures of the product were characterized systematically by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Raman microscopy. The experimental results revealed that the product belonged to a kind of malachite with high purity and high crystallinity. The growth of the product was considered to be a possible reason that the vessel was overly airtight within a museum display cabinet besides a lid of the vessel, which made the excess of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} gas concentrations inside the vessel during long-term storage. This corrosion product is very harmful to bronze cultural relics, because of a large amount of copper consumption from the matrix which will reduce its life. The growth mechanism of the specific stalactitic product and the suggestions for preservation of the similar bronze relics in museum were proposed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stalactitic product was the high purity and good crystallinity malachite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its growth was related to the excess of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} gas concentrations in museum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is harmful to the bronzes, because copper will be consumed from the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The suggestions for preservation of the similar bronzes in museum were proposed.

  5. Specific corrosion product on interior surface of a bronze wine vessel with loop-handle and its growth mechanism, Shang Dynasty, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a kind of specific stalactitic product was found on the interior surface of a covered bronze wine vessel with loop-handle (Chinese name is you), which was fabricated in Shang Dynasty (1700 B.C.–1100 B.C.) and now is collected in Xiaogan Museum, Hubei province of China. The microstructures of the product were characterized systematically by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Raman microscopy. The experimental results revealed that the product belonged to a kind of malachite with high purity and high crystallinity. The growth of the product was considered to be a possible reason that the vessel was overly airtight within a museum display cabinet besides a lid of the vessel, which made the excess of H2O and CO2 gas concentrations inside the vessel during long-term storage. This corrosion product is very harmful to bronze cultural relics, because of a large amount of copper consumption from the matrix which will reduce its life. The growth mechanism of the specific stalactitic product and the suggestions for preservation of the similar bronze relics in museum were proposed. - Highlights: ► The stalactitic product was the high purity and good crystallinity malachite. ► Its growth was related to the excess of H2O and CO2 gas concentrations in museum. ► It is harmful to the bronzes, because copper will be consumed from the matrix. ► The suggestions for preservation of the similar bronzes in museum were proposed.

  6. Development study on subcriticality monitor. 1. Report under business contract with Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this trust fund, we reviewed subcriticality measuring methods and neutron or gamma ray measuring and date transmission systems appropriate for realizing inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance systems, which is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Since the neutron flux level in subcritical systems is fairly low without external neutron sources, it is desirable to use pulse type neutron detectors for subcritical measurement systems. This logically implies that subcriticality measurement methods based on the temporal domain should be used for developing an on-line criticality surveillance system. In the deep subcriticality conditions, a strong external neutron source is needed for eactivity measurement and a D-T tube can be used in order to improve the accuracy of the measurement. A D-T tube is convenient since it is free from Tritium problem since Tritium is sealed in an airtight container and also can be controlled by power supply. Hence, under deep subcritical conditions, Feynman-α or Rossi-α method should be used. On the contrary, under sallow subcriticality conditions where high neutron counting is expected, we can use current type neutron detectors and a recursive ARMA model identification approach or a digital reactivity meter method for subcriticality measurement. For neutron or gamma ray detection and data transmission systems to develop a reliable critical surveillance system, we propose to use plastic scintillation glass fiber cable. Since this cable can transmit the right signal more than twenty meters, this cable can be applied in such a way of surrounding the outside of the fuel resolving tank. (author)

  7. Cosmic radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM multi-layer external shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Manti, Lorenzo; Rusek, Adam; Belluco, Maurizio; Lobascio, Cesare

    The European module COLUMBUS has been recently installed on the International Space Station. Future plans for exploration involve the use of inflatable modules, such as the REMSIM concept proposed in a previous ESA funded study. We studied the radiation shielding properties of COLUMBUS and REMSIM external shell using 1 GeV/n Feor H-ions accelerated at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Long Island, NY, USA). COLUMBUS has a 22 mm rigid multi-layer shell with Al, Nextel and Kevlar, as materials of the double bumper for meteoroids and debris protection, MLI for thermal reasons and again Al as pressure shell. Inside the module, astronauts are further protected by secondary structures, including racks, a number of electronic devices and payload equipment. This internal equipment has been simulated using Al and Kevlar, bringing the total thickness to about 15 g/cm2. REMSIM consists of a thermal multi-layer (MLI), four Nextel layers used to provide shock of the impacting micro-meteoroids, a ballistic restraint multi-layer of Kevlar used to absorb debris cloud's kinetic energy, a Kevlar structural restraint to support pressure loads incurred from inflating the module. To contain air inside the module, REMSIM adopts three layers of airtight material separated by two layers of Kevlar (air bladder). A final layer of Nomex provide protection against punctures and fire. In the flight configuration there are also spacer elements (foam) needed to guarantee correct spacing between consecutive bumper layers. These spacers were not included in the tests, making the total thickness about 1.1 cm. The internal equipment in REMSIM was not been defined, but due to its application for exploration missions it was decided to exploit water, valuable resource used for drinking, washing and technical usage, as a radiation shielding. In this test, we have included about 8 cm of water. Measured dose attenuation shows that the Columbus module reduces the

  8. A Chinese alligator in heliox: formant frequencies in a crocodilian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Stephan A; Nishimura, Takeshi; Janisch, Judith; Robertson, Mark; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-08-01

    Crocodilians are among the most vocal non-avian reptiles. Adults of both sexes produce loud vocalizations known as 'bellows' year round, with the highest rate during the mating season. Although the specific function of these vocalizations remains unclear, they may advertise the caller's body size, because relative size differences strongly affect courtship and territorial behaviour in crocodilians. In mammals and birds, a common mechanism for producing honest acoustic signals of body size is via formant frequencies (vocal tract resonances). To our knowledge, formants have to date never been documented in any non-avian reptile, and formants do not seem to play a role in the vocalizations of anurans. We tested for formants in crocodilian vocalizations by using playbacks to induce a female Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) to bellow in an airtight chamber. During vocalizations, the animal inhaled either normal air or a helium/oxygen mixture (heliox) in which the velocity of sound is increased. Although heliox allows normal respiration, it alters the formant distribution of the sound spectrum. An acoustic analysis of the calls showed that the source signal components remained constant under both conditions, but an upward shift of high-energy frequency bands was observed in heliox. We conclude that these frequency bands represent formants. We suggest that crocodilian vocalizations could thus provide an acoustic indication of body size via formants. Because birds and crocodilians share a common ancestor with all dinosaurs, a better understanding of their vocal production systems may also provide insight into the communication of extinct Archosaurians. PMID:26246611

  9. Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of an Ultrasonic Molten Metal Treatment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Youli; BIAN Feilong; WANG Yanli; ZHAO Qian

    2014-01-01

    In piezoceramic ultrasonic devices, the piezoceramic stacks may fail permanently or function improperly if their working temperatures overstep the Curie temperature of the piezoceramic material. While the end of the horn usually serves near the melting point of the molten metal and is enclosed in an airtight chamber, so that it is difficult to experimentally measure the temperature of the transducer and its variation with time, which bring heavy difficulty to the design of the ultrasonic molten metal treatment system. To find a way out, conjugate heat transfer analysis of an ultrasonic molten metal treatment system is performed with coupled fluid and heat transfer finite element method. In modeling of the system, the RNG model and the SIMPLE algorithm are adopted for turbulence and nonlinear coupling between the momentum equation and the energy equation. Forced air cooling as well as natural air cooling is analyzed to compare the difference of temperature evolution. Numerical results show that, after about 350 s of working time, temperatures in the surface of the ceramic stacks in forced air cooling drop about 7 K compared with that in natural cooling. At 240 s, The molten metal surface emits heat radiation with a maximum rate of about 19 036 W/m2, while the heat insulation disc absorbs heat radiation at a maximum rate of about 7922 W/m2, which indicates the effectiveness of heat insulation of the asbestos pad. Transient heat transfer film coefficient and its distribution, which are difficult to be measured experimentally are also obtained through numerical simulation. At 240 s, the heat transfer film coefficient in the surface of the transducer ranges from -17.86 to 20.17 W/(m2•K). Compared with the trial and error method based on the test, the proposed research provides a more effective way in the design and analysis of the temperature control of the molten metal treatment system.

  10. Review of low-energy construction, air tightness, ventilation strategies and indoor radon: results from Finnish houses and apartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy and passive house construction practices are characterised by increased insulation, high air tightness of the building shell and controlled mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. As a result of the interaction of mechanical ventilation and high air tightness, the pressure difference in a building can be markedly enhanced. This may lead to elevated indoor radon levels. Minor leakages in the foundation can affect the radon concentration, even in the case where such leaks do not markedly reduce the total air tightness. The potential for high pressures to affect indoor radon concentrations markedly increases when the air tightness ACH50, i.e. the air change per hour induced by a pressure difference of 50 Pa, is -1. Pressure differences in Finnish low-rise residential houses having mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation with heat recovery (MSEV) are typically 2-3 Pa, clearly lower than the values of 5-9 Pa in houses with only mechanical exhaust ventilation (MEV). In MSEV houses, radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower than in MEV houses. In new MSEV houses with an ACH50 of 0.6 h-1, the limit for passive construction, the analytical estimates predict an increase of 100 % in the radon concentration compared with older houses with an ACH50 of 4.0 h-1. This poses a challenge for efficient radon prevention in new construction. Radon concentrations are typically 30 % lower in houses with two storeys compared with only one storey. The introduction of an MSEV ventilation strategy in typically very airtight apartments has markedly reduced pressure differences and radon concentrations. (authors)

  11. MR imaging of lung ventilation with aerosolized Gadolinium-chelates; MR-Bildgebung der Lungenventilation mittels aerosolierter Gadolinium-Chelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haage, P.; Karaagac, S.; Spuentrup, E.; Guenther, R.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Adam, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2003-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance assessment of human lung ventilation with aerosolized Gd-chelates in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Five healthy adults (mean age 37 years) were studied with a 1.5 T unit. The volunteers were instructed to inhale the aerosol through an airtight facial mask for 10 minutes. The aerosol was generated with a jet-type small particle nebulizer with attached heater. Ventilation imaging was performed using a respiration-gated dynamic T{sub 1}-weighted turbo spin echo sequence (T{sub R}=199 ms, T{sub E}=8.5 ms, 12 signal averages, slice thickness 10 mm). Pulmonary signal intensity changes were calculated before and after nebulization. Results: The investigation was successfully carried out in all volunteers. An acute or delayed allergic reaction to the aerosolized contrast medium was not observed. In 4 of 5 experiments (80%), a homogeneous signal intensity increase was readily visualized with an average signal increase of 35% after 10 minutes; in one experiment, the aerosol distribution was slightly heterogeneous. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bestimmung der Durchfuehrbarkeit einer kernspintomographischen Darstellung der Lungenventilation mittels aerosolierter Gd-Chelate bei gesunden Probanden. Methoden: 5 Probanden (Durchschnittsalter 37 Jahre) wurden in einem 1,5T System untersucht. Die Probanden atmeten spontan aerosoliertes Gd-DTPA ueber eine Atemmaske fuer eine Dauer von 10 Minuten. Das Kontrastmittel-Aerosol wurde ueber einen leistungsfaehigen druckluftbetriebenen Vernebler generiert. Die Illustration der Ventilation erfolgte mit einer atemgegateten dynamischen T{sub 1}-gewichteten Turbo-Spin-Echosequenz. Zur Quantitifizerung der Lungenventilation wurden die Signalintensitaeten im Lungengewebe vor und nach Verneblung berechnet. Ergebnisse: Alle Untersuchungen wurden komplikationslos durchgefuehrt und beendet. Eine akute oder verzoegerte Kontrastmittelreaktion wurde nicht beobachtet. In 4 von 5

  12. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  13. Novel Materials for Prosthetic Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragolta, Carolina I.; Morford, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Existing materials for prosthetic liners tend to be thick and airtight, causing perspiration to accumulate inside the liner and potentially causing infection and injury that reduce quality of life. The purpose of this project was to examine the suitability of aerogel for prosthetic liner applications. Three tests were performed on several types of aerogel to assess the properties of each material. Moisture vapor permeability was tested by incubating four aerogel varieties with an artificial sweat solution at 37.0 C and less than 20% relative humidity for 24 hours. Two aerogel varieties were eliminated from the study due to difficulties in handling the material, and further testing proceeded with Pyrogel in 2.0 and 6.0 mm thicknesses. Force distribution was tested by compressing samples under a load of 4448 N at a rate of 2.5 mm/min. Biofilm formation was tested in a high-shear CDC Biofilm Reactor. Results showed that 2.0 mm Pyrogel blanket allowed 55.7 plus or minus 28.7% of an artificial sweat solution to transpire, and 35.5 plus or minus 27.8% transpired through 6.0 mm Pyrogel blanket. Samples also outperformed the load-bearing capabilities of existing liner materials. No statistically significant difference was found between the two Pyrogel thicknesses for either moisture vapor permeability or force distribution. In addition, biofilm formation results showed no change between the two Pyrogel thicknesses. The breathability and load bearing properties of aerogel make it a suitable material for application to prosthetic liners.

  14. 锡制茶叶包装功能及造型设计研究%Research on the Function and Modeling Design of Tin Tea Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿孝臣

    2012-01-01

    以中国茶叶包装的渊源和功能为启示,分析了锡制茶叶包装特有的密闭性功能特点,论述了锡金属的物理性能及其独特的化学性质。在此基础上,提出了锡制茶叶包装具有生态学的思想,并且在真正意义上实现了"生态设计"。最后阐述了锡制茶叶包装的造型与装饰纹样的表现形式及其审美作用,同时对锡器的手工艺研究乃至非物质文化遗产保护也起到积极的现实意义。%Inspired by the origin and function of Chinese tea packaging,it analyzed the special airtight functional characteristics of tin tea packaging,discussed the physical properties and its unique chemical properties of Tin metal.On this foundation,it put forward the tin tea packaging with the idea of ecology,and to achieve a real sense of "ecological design".Finally it explained the manifestation and its aesthetic effects of modeling and decorative patterns of Tin tea packaging,while the research on the tin craft and protection of non-material cultural heritage also played a positive and practical significance.

  15. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

  16. 数码印花技术实践与应用中常见问题分析%Analysis of Common Problem in the Practice and Application of Digital Printing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巍伟

    2014-01-01

    The common problems in the practice and application of digital printing technology were analyzed, and the problems occurred in the application of digital printing machine and ink were discussed in detail, and the effects of pre-treatment and after treatment process and environmental conditions on digital printing technology were expounded.The results show that the design of digital printing ink needs to be done according to the parameters of spray-head; the continuity and airtightness of ink supply system in printing greatly affect printing fluency; the printer needs regular maintenance; the process of pre-treatment and after treatment and envivonmental conditions can greatly affect dye fixing percentage.%对数码印花技术的实践与应用中常见问题进行了分析,具体探讨了数码印花机以及墨水使用中出现的问题,并阐述了前后处理工艺以及环境条件对数码印花技术的影响。结果表明,数码印花墨水的设计要根据喷头不同参数的要求而进行;打印过程中供墨系统的连续性与密闭性对打印流畅性影响很大;打印机需要进行定期的维护和保养;前后处理工艺和环境条件会明显影响固色率。

  17. Air tightness of new houses in the U.S.: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2002-03-01

    Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction.

  18. Real-time indoor and outdoor measurements of black carbon at primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C.; Rivas, I.; Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Bouso, L.; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated the association between Black Carbon in indoor and outdoor air and the occurrence of health risks. Data on air quality in schools is of special interest, as children are more vulnerable to health hazards. In this context, indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) were collected at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. A main contribution of road traffic emissions to indoor and outdoor EBC levels was evidenced through different approaches. Simultaneous measurements of EBC levels at schools under different traffic conditions revealed concentrations by 30-35% higher at schools exposed to higher vehicles intensities. Moreover, a significant correlation was obtained between average outdoor EBC levels at different districts of the city and the percentage of surface area in each district used for the road network (R2 = 0.61). Higher indoor than outdoor levels were recorded at some instances when the indoor sampling location was relatively closer to road traffic, even under low outdoor temperatures. Indeed, the average indoor/outdoor EBC ratios for each school correlate moderately between campaigns in spite of significant differences in temperature between sampling periods. These two facts highlight the strong dependency of the EBC levels on the distance to traffic. The peaks of exposure inside the classrooms seemed to be determined by outdoor concentrations, as shown by the parallelism between indoor and outdoor mean EBC daily cycles and the similar contribution of traffic rush hours to indoor and outdoor daily mean levels. The airtightness of the classroom was suggested as the responsible for the indoor/outdoor ratios of EBC higher than 1 recorded at nights.

  19. Technoeconomic analysis of a biomass based district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussed a proposed biomass-based district heating system to be built for the Pictou Landing First Nation Community in Nova Scotia. The community centre consists of 6 buildings and a connecting arcade. The methodology used to size and design heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, as well as biomass district energy systems (DES) were discussed. Annual energy requirements and biomass fuel consumption predictions were presented, along with cost estimates. A comparative assessment of the system with that of a conventional oil fired system was also conducted. It was suggested that the design and analysis methodology could be used for any similar application. The buildings were modelled and simulated using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP), a detailed 2-in-1 software program which can be used both for HVAC system sizing and building energy consumption estimation. A techno-economics analysis was conducted to justify the viability of the biomass combustion system. Heating load calculations were performed assuming that the thermostat was set constantly at 22 degrees C. Community centre space heating loads due to individual envelope components for 3 different scenarios were summarized, as the design architecture for the buildings was not yet finalized. It was suggested that efforts should be made to ensure air-tightness and insulation levels of the interior arcade glass wall. A hydronic distribution system with baseboard space heating units was selected, comprising of a woodchip boiler, hot water distribution system, convective heating units and control systems. The community has its own logging operation which will provide the wood fuel required by the proposed system. An outline of the annual allowable harvest covered by the Pictou Landing Forestry Management Plan was presented, with details of proposed wood-chippers for the creation of biomass. It was concluded that the woodchip combustion system is economically preferable to the

  20. 氨气胁迫下6种观赏植物的生理抗性比较研究%Physiological Resistance Study of Six Kinds of Ornamental Plants Under Ammonia Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪珊; 贾伟

    2016-01-01

    选取绿萝、金边虎皮兰、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边吊兰、芦荟6种家庭常用观赏植物,采用密闭熏气方式对其进行不同浓度下氨气胁迫试验,测定了6种植物的叶绿素含量、丙二醛含量及相对电导率。试验结果表明:在所测试的3种氨气浓度胁迫下,6种植物抗氨气污染能力由强到弱依次为绿萝、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边虎皮兰、金边吊兰、芦荟。%The research selected 6 species of plants such as Epipremnumaureum , Sansevieria trifasciata ,Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis ,Maranta leuconeura ,Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis , and used airtight fumigation method to undergo ammonia stress with different concentrations. The leaf green content ,malondialdehyde content and the relative electrical conductivity were tested for the above plants. The results showed that under 1,2,4 mg/m3 ammonia concentration stress , the Epipremnum aureum and Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis had strongest ammonia pollution resistance , medium for Maranta leuconeura and Sansevieria trifasciataLanrentii , the weakest for Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis .

  1. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yokota, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  2. [Preservation of bread and pastry products in a controlled atmosphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchon, P

    1978-01-01

    Industrial soft pastries and the various breads are cereals products containing a humidity which is favorable to the development of mouldiness. Different or various methods of conservation has been attempted. One interesting approach to the problem is packaging in controlled atmosphere. It requires adequate machinery and suitable conditioning materials. Jardry-Buquet and Hayssen's machines are rapidly described as well as some of the packing film used for making air-tight bags. Bad results were observed with nitrogen, argon and a mixture of nitrogen-carbon dioxide. The satisfactory results obtained with the nitrous oxide for cakes (especially fruit-cakes) and for the bread with a mixture of ethylene oxide-carbon dioxide are: a good conservation for a period of 4 to 6 months in both cases. Organoleptic qualities of the products are not significantly diminished after eight weeks of preservation. The gases contained on the bags are analysed at different periods and the progressive disappearance of the nitrous oxide as well as the athylene dioxide was measured. The compounds derivated from these gases were researched on different extracts. No derivatives of the nitrous oxide were observed. From the ethylene oxide, the derivatives found in the bread are diethylene glycol and 2-chloroethanol; their concentrations are respectively 100 and 300 ppm in the case of 85 : 15 mixture, but decrease to a mere trace and 45 ppm in the case of 98 : 2 mixture. The measure of humidity, of peroxides and of the staleness of crumb are favourable for a good conservation. PMID:707931

  3. Performance Results for Massachusetts and Rhode Island Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, C.; Neuhauser, K.

    2014-03-01

    Between December, 2009 and December, 2012 42 deep energy retrofit (DER) projects were completed through a DER pilot program sponsored by National Grid and conducted in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. 37 of these projects were comprehensive retrofits while 5 were partial DERs, meaning that high performance retrofit was implemented for a single major enclosure component or a limited number of major enclosure components. The 42 DER projects represent 60 units of housing. The comprehensive projects all implemented a consistent 'package' of measures in terms of the performance targeted for major building components. Projects exhibited some variations in the approach to implementing the retrofit package. Pre- and post-retrofit air leakage measurements were performed for each of the projects. Each project also reported information about project costs including identification of energy-related costs. Post-retrofit energy-use data was obtained for 29 of the DER projects. Post-retrofit energy use was analyzed based on the net energy used by the DER project regardless of whether the energy was generated on site or delivered to the site. Homeowner surveys were returned by 12 of the pilot participants. Based on the community experience, this DER package is expected to result in yearly source energy use near 110 MMBtu/year or approximately 40% below the Northeast regional average. Larger to medium sized homes that successful implement these retrofits can be expected to achieve source EUI that is comparable to Passive House targets for new construction. The community of DER projects show post-retrofit airtightness below 1.5 ACH50 to be eminently achievable.

  4. Analysis on Geological Conditions of Underground Salt Cavern Gas Storage in Hengyang Salt Mine%衡阳盐矿区建立地下盐穴储气库的地质条件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙雪莲; 贺德军

    2016-01-01

    The rock salt main ore-bearing stratum is in Zucha Col of Paleocene Xialiu City of Jinjia Ridge salt mine ore block in Hengyang Salt Mine. The shallowest burial depth is 530m, the deepest is 1131.89m. The burial depth increases gradually in the direction of the North and West. The thickness of deposit is between 224~359m, and is 320m generally, monolayer is between 12~41m; the thickness of middle stone band is between 12~40m; the ore-bearing rate is 60~95%, and is 75% generally. The storage of rock salt has great scale, the thickness is big, the burial depth is moderate, the influence of structure is small, and the airtightness of overlying strata is good. It is a beneficial region for underground salt cavern gas storage construction.%衡阳盐矿区金甲岭岩盐矿段下第三系霞流市组茶山坳段岩盐主矿层埋深最浅 530m, 最深1131.89m,往北往西埋深逐渐加大. 矿层厚224~359m,一般厚320m左右,单层厚12~41m;夹石层累计厚12~40m;含矿率60~95%,一般在75%以上,盐岩储量规模大,厚度大,埋藏深度适中,构造影响小,盖层密封性好,是建设地下盐穴储气库的有利地区.

  5. The effects of amiloride and age on oxygen consumption coupled to electrogenic sodium transport in the human sigmoid colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela E Carra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Aerobic metabolism is necessary for ion transport in many transporting epithelia, including the human colonic epithelium. We assessed the effects of the epithelial sodium channel blocker, amiloride, on oxygen consumption and short-circuit current of the human sigmoid epithelium to determine whether these effects were influenced by the age of the subject. Materials and Methods: Segments of the sigmoid colon were obtained from the safety margin of resections performed in patients of 62–77 years of age. Isolated mucosa preparations were obtained and mounted in airtight Ussing chambers, fit for simultaneous measurement of short-circuit current and oxygen concentration, before and after blocking epithelial sodium channels with amiloride (0.1 mmol/L. Regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between short-circuit current, oxygen consumption, and age of the subject as well as to define the relationship between the decreases in short-circuit current and oxygen consumption after blockade. Results: Epithelial sodium channel blockade caused an 80% reduction in short-circuit current and a 26% reduction in oxygen consumption. Regression analysis indicated that both changes were significantly related (r = 0.884;P = 0.0007. Oxygen consumption decreased by 1 m mol/h/cm2 for each 25 m A/cm2 decrease in short-circuit current. Neither short-circuit current nor oxygen consumption had any significant relationship with the age of the subjects. Conclusion: The decrease in epithelial oxygen consumption caused by amiloride is proportional to the decrease in short-circuit current and independent of the age of the subject.

  6. The Effects of Amiloride and Age on Oxygen Consumption Coupled to Electrogenic Sodium Transport in the Human Sigmoid Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Graciela E.; Matus, Daniel; Ibáñez, Jorge E.; Saraví, Fernando D.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim: Aerobic metabolism is necessary for ion transport in many transporting epithelia, including the human colonic epithelium. We assessed the effects of the epithelial sodium channel blocker, amiloride, on oxygen consumption and short-circuit current of the human sigmoid epithelium to determine whether these effects were influenced by the age of the subject. Materials and Methods: Segments of the sigmoid colon were obtained from the safety margin of resections performed in patients of 62–77 years of age. Isolated mucosa preparations were obtained and mounted in airtight Ussing chambers, fit for simultaneous measurement of short-circuit current and oxygen concentration, before and after blocking epithelial sodium channels with amiloride (0.1 mmol/L). Regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between short-circuit current, oxygen consumption, and age of the subject as well as to define the relationship between the decreases in short-circuit current and oxygen consumption after blockade. Results: Epithelial sodium channel blockade caused an 80% reduction in short-circuit current and a 26% reduction in oxygen consumption. Regression analysis indicated that both changes were significantly related (r = 0.884; P = 0.0007). Oxygen consumption decreased by 1 μmol/h/cm2 for each 25 μA/cm2 decrease in short-circuit current. Neither short-circuit current nor oxygen consumption had any significant relationship with the age of the subjects. Conclusion: The decrease in epithelial oxygen consumption caused by amiloride is proportional to the decrease in short-circuit current and independent of the age of the subject. PMID:26458855

  7. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  8. Morphology and thermochromic phase transition of merocyanine J-aggregate monolayers at the air-water and solid-water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Noritaka; Saito, Kentaro; Serata, Toshinori; Aida, Hiroaki; Uesu, Yoshiaki

    2001-07-01

    Thermal changes of the merocyanine dye (MD) monolayer at the air-water interface were investigated under various subphase conditions in order to elucidate the formation mechanism and to control morphological and chromatic properties of two-dimensional MD J-aggregate crystallites (JC) formed in the monolayer. The dissociation temperature (Td) of the JC to the monomer MD was measured for different counterions of MD molecules in the subphase. The JC size was found to be dependent on the subphase temperature; it becomes larger when the JC is formed at a temperature closer to Td. This phenomenon is qualitatively reproduced by the numerical simulation of the Cahn-Hilliard equation. In the case of the MD monolayer on the subphase which contains two kinds of counterions, it exhibits a reversible thermochromic transition between two different JC states. The chromatic change is discrete, and is attributed to the structural phase transition of the JC induced by the mutual recombination of two kinds of counterions to MD molecules. The structural difference between the high and low temperature JC states is examined by the point dipole model. The transition temperature and thermal hysteresis width can be varied by the fraction of 2 counterions. In situ observations using a multipurpose nonlinear optical microscope revealed that the transition is of first order and the nucleation and growth process of the low temperature phase in the high temperature matrix was observed. The JC size of the low temperature phase became much larger through the recrystallization process. For future application of this phenomenon, an airtight cell consisting of two monolayers at the solid-water interface and the subphase was developed. In the cell, the same reversible transition occurs, but with a slow relaxation.

  9. 以有机酸钾盐为可燃剂的气溶胶灭火剂试验%Experimental study on aerosol fire extinguishing agent with organic acid potassium as combustible material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 李玉

    2011-01-01

    用1 m密闭试验葙进行灭火性能试验,采用半分法得出两种以有机酸钾盐为主要可燃剂的气溶胶灭火剂的配方,并对比其灭火时间.在热气溶胶灭火剂中添加碳酸钾作为热耗散剂,以降低反应速度,减小火焰外喷.用兰利法进行试验,得出了两种灭火剂的99%概率灭火效能,在70~75 g/m之间.经测量,气溶胶灭火剂的燃烧产物是低毒的.气溶胶灭火剂在灭火时的不确定度很大,应以概率论的方法研究其灭火能力.%An airtight box with 1 m3 was used to test fire extinguishing performance; two kinds of aerosol fire extinguishing agents with organic acid potassium as combustible material were got by split- half method, and the fire- extinguishing time was compared. Potassium carbonate was added into aerosol fire extinguishing agents as heat dissipative agents to slow down the reaction and reduce the flame. Langlie method was used in experiments, the 99% application density of these twa extinguishing agents were got, between 70~75 g/m3. At last, the toxicity of combustion product of these two aerosol fire extinguishing agents was tested to be low. The application of probability theory in the study of fire extinguishing performance of aerosol fire extinguishing agent is necessary because of the uncertainty of putting out fire by aerosol fire extinguishing agents.

  10. The effects of adding lactic acid bacteria and cellulase in oil palm (Elais guineensis Jacq. frond silages on fermentation quality, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to evaluate whether oil palm frond (OPF can be successfully ensiled without or with the additives cellulase or lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Thus, fresh OPF was ensiled either without additives or with cellulase or LAB or their combination. Ensiling was carried out by storing 2 kg samples in airtight glass jars at 25- 30°C for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the silage samples were subjected to proximate analyses, an in vitro digestibility assay and measures on selected indices of fermentation. Fermentation of OPF without additives appeared to be unsuccessful as both pH and ammonia content were too high (4.9 and 9.9%, respectively. In contrast, the use of cellulase or LAB resulted in silages with a pH<4.5 and ammonia fractions <8.4%, but the lowest values were found when both cellulase and LAB were used, i.e. pH=4.1 and ammonia fraction=6.7%. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was significantly higher in the cellulase treated silages. The process of ensiling was associated with both a significant decrease of the fat content of OPF and a significant change of the fatty acid profile. However, the proportions of major fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:2n-6 were not affected by the process of ensiling. In conclusion, the use of cellulase additive appears a practical tool to safeguard the process of fermentation. Using a cellulase enzyme or its combination with LAB improves the fermentation profile and increases the nutritional value of the OPF silage.

  11. Cooling-energy Reduction of Air-conditioned Ofifces by Using Night Natural Ventilation%夜间自然通风降低办公室空调制冷能耗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚城名; 张玉辉; 何江海

    2016-01-01

    Night natural ventilation has been successfully applied to many passively-cooled or low-energy office buildings. This paper investigates the applicability of night natural ventilation in office buildings. A thermal and ventilation simulation model, together with suitable weather data were used to examine the energy saving and internal comfort conditions. It was found that natural ventilation strategies could save cooling-energy in typical air-conditioned office. Based on the principle of “the best” application, such as improving air-tightness, and minimization of internal and solar heat gains to improve building structure can effectively improve the energy saving of natural ventilation.%夜间自然通风已经成功运用于许多被动制冷或低能耗写字楼中。介绍了夜间自然通风在写字楼中的适用性。在适当的温度条件下,建立热量计通风模型,以此来检验节能以及内部舒适度改善情况。研究发现,自然通风模式能够减少传统空调写字间的制冷能耗。采用“应用最佳”的原则,如提高气密性、内部发热及日晒生热的最小化等改善建筑结构能有效提高自然通风的节能性。

  12. Experimental study of a semi-passive ventilation grille with a feedback control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, A.; Fontana, L.; Salata, F.

    2011-08-01

    The diffusion of window frames with low air permeability, due to the energy saving regulations, has implied in several cases the worsening of the indoor microclimate and air quality. On the other hand, air-tight window frames imply uncontrolled and too high air change rates. The mechanical ventilation not always is a practicable solution because of economic reasons and because it implies energy waste. Various Italian and European environmental and energetic laws take into consideration and promote the use of controlled natural ventilation, though this definition is not associated to well defined and tested technical solutions. An adequate solution can be achieved by using semi-passive self adjustable ventilation devices, able to ensure controlled changes of indoor air. In this paper, a semi-passive damper with a feedback control system is proposed and its behavior is investigated by means of experimental study. The presented semi-passive grille allows to control the air flow rate, injected into the room by natural or artificial pressure gradient, more effectively than the usual passive ventilation grilles made available by the present industrial production. However, since the semi-passive grille has a one-way flow, in the natural ventilation of a flat the proper functioning of the system could be ensured with a more complex configuration, with respect to the passive self-regulating grilles, able to limit the flow of fresh air in the presence of high levels of Δp; conversely, it could have widespread use in applications requiring a more accurate control of airflow in case of mechanical ventilation plants.

  13. Effects of Carbon in Flooded Paddy Soils: Implications for Microbial Activity and Arsenic Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (originating from erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Microbial activity will enhance or decrease the mobilization of arsenic depending on their metabolic pathways. Among the microbes naturally residing in the soil are denitrifying bacteria, sulfate reducers, metal reducers (Fe, Mn), arsenic reducers, methanogens, and fermenters, whose activity varies based on the presence of oxygen. The purpose of the experiment was to assess how different amendments affect the microbial activity and the arsenic mobilization during the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism after flooding of naturally contaminated Cambodian soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how the relative metabolic rate of naturally occurring microbes could vary with different types of organic carbon. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of carbon (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, manure, and glucose) on the microbial activity and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. All amendments were added based on the carbon content in order to add 0.036 g of carbon per vial. The soil was flooded with a 10mM TRIS buffer solution at pH 7.04 in airtight 25mL serum vials and kept at 25 °C. We prepared 14 replicates per treatment to sample both gas and solution. On each sampling point, the solution replicates were sampled destructively. The gas replicates continued on and were sampled for both gas and solution on the final day of the experiment. We measured pH, total arsenic, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide at 8 hours, 1.5 days, 3.33 days, and 6.33 days from the start of the experiment.

  14. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The μ-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  15. Thermal stability of alkyl carbonate mixed-solvent electrolytes for lithium ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tetsuya; Kimura, Arihisa; Egashira, Minato; Okada, Shigeto; Yamaki, Jun-Ichi

    The thermal stability of some mixed-solvent electrolytes used in lithium cells was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using airtight containers. The electrolytes used were ethylene carbonate ( EC)+ diethyl carbonate ( DEC) , EC+ dimethyl carbonate ( DMC) , propylene carbonate (PC)+DEC, and PC+DMC in which was dissolved 1 M LiPF 6 or 1 M LiClO 4. The influence of water addition and lithium metal addition on the thermal behavior of these electrolytes was also investigated. The exothermic peak of LiPF 6 electrolytes containing DEC was found at 255 °C, and the peak temperature of the electrolytes containing DEC was 15-20 °C lower than that of LiPF 6 electrolytes containing DMC. This effect was also observed in the electrolytes including LiClO 4. DMC was found to be more reactive than DEC. The thermal behavior of various kinds of LiPF 6 electrolytes with lithium metal was measured by DSC. The exothermic reaction of 1 M LiPF 6/EC+DEC, 1 M LiPF 6/EC+DMC, and 1 M LiPF 6/PC+DMC with lithium metal began at the melting point of lithium metal because of the break down of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). The temperature was approximately 180 °C, whereas the self-heating of 1 M LiPF 6/PC+DEC occurred before the melting point of lithium metal. The temperature at which the self-exothermal reaction began was 140 °C. Therefore, the lithium metal in this electrolyte was found to be thermally unstable. When water was added to the above electrolytes with lithium metal, the exothermic reaction began at less than 130 °C, probably due to a collapse of SEI in response to the HF that was a product of the reaction between LiPF 6 and the added water.

  16. Corrosion behaviour of Ti3SiC2 with LiF-NaF-KF molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Recently, the molten salt reactor (MSR), a generation IV fission reactor candidate, has drawn much attention because of its intrinsic safety. However, the harsh service environment of the MSR, especially the corrosion environment, raises many challenges in terms of applying structural materials, such as intergranular cracking and embrittlement. MAX phases materials are promising structural materials that can be used in MSRs. However, the corrosion behaviour of these materials in molten LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) is yet to be evaluated. Purpose: The present work is a preliminary investigation of the corrosion behaviour of MAX phase materials in molten fluoride salts and aims to understand the corrosion mechanism of MAX phases to enable their application in next generation MSR. Methods: We choose two common MAX phases: Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 as experiment subject. The corrosion tests were performed at 850℃ for 144 h in airtight graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Results and Conclusion: The corrosion of these two MAX phases in molten FLiNaK salt mainly showed as the corrosion of element A and then left us mostly cubic TiCx. The difference was that Ti3AlC2 lost Al entirely, however, the loss of Si in Ti3SiC2 occurred only 150 μm depth below the surface. The weight loss data showed that Ti3SiC2 had a much better corrosion resistance than Ti3AlC2. (authors)

  17. Discussion on Liquid Level Measure Technique and Vapor Emission of Gasoline Station in China%我国油站量油技术与油气排放浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小春; 钱华; 戴海夏; 李英杰; 黄海英; 景盛翱; 李智玮; 程养学

    2011-01-01

    The relation of oil and gas emission control with oil tank truck as well as underground oil tanker was discussed to overview refueling methods of China oil gas stations in present, which methods had artificial measurement and airtight automatic liquid level meter measurement. The principle, characteristics and development trend were summarized for capacitive level meter, ultrasonic liquid level meter and magnetostrictive meter. The discussion focused on magnetostrictive technology and management requirements of gasoline transfer process control for oil and gas storage tank. Technology development trend in the future refueling way of oil gas station was prospected.%论述了加油站油气排放控制与运油罐车、地下储罐量油方式的关系,概述了我国加油站量油方式的现状,以及人工测量和液位仪密闭自动测量两种量油方式.综述了电容式液位仪、超声波液位仪和磁致伸缩式液位仪的量油原理、特点及发展趋势,重点介绍了磁致伸缩技术,并结合汽油流转过程中油气密闭性控制的重要性及储油罐的管理要求,展望了未来加油站最油方式的技术发展趋势.

  18. On the Improvement of Meat Quality in Sensory Terms in the Dish Pork Slices in Garlic Sauce through the Cooking Technique of Sous-vide%真空恒温烹饪技术对蒜泥白肉肉质口感的改良研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 乔兴

    2015-01-01

    Sous-vide is a method of cooking food in vacuumed airtight plastic bags in a water bath or in a tem-perature-controlled steam environment for longer than normal cooking time.This paper,based on an explanation of this cooking technique,compares sous-vide with traditional heating approach through experiments.The find-ings suggest that meat quality is enhanced in the respects of color,fragrance,taste,shape and nutrition with the new cooking technique employed,which will provide reference for the innovation of traditional Sichuan dishes.%真空恒温烹饪是利用真空抽取机制造相对低气压、绝氧的环境,使用恒温水浴锅精准控制蛋白质热变性温度点等理化性质的现代烹饪技术方式。文章通过对真空恒温烹饪技术理论依据的阐述,结合实验评鉴,对四川传统菜肴蒜泥白肉初加工方式上使用真空恒温烹饪技术与传统加热方式进行对比,实践得出肉质在色、香、味、形、养等方面的提升,对四川传统菜肴的制作加工及技术革新提供支持。

  19. Soil Organic Carbon Loss: An Overlooked Factor in the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Enhanced Mineral Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, Christiana; Harrison, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of silicate minerals regulates the global carbon cycle on geologic timescales. Several authors have proposed that applying finely ground silicate minerals to soils, where organic acids would enhance the rate of weathering, could increase carbon uptake and mitigate anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Silicate minerals such as olivine could replace lime, which is commonly used to remediate soil acidification, thereby sequestering CO2 while achieving the same increase in soil pH. However, the effect of adding this material on soil organic matter, the largest terrestrial pool of carbon, has yet to be considered. Microbial biomass and respiration have been observed to increase with decreasing acidity, but it is unclear how long the effect lasts. If the addition of silicate minerals promotes the loss of soil organic carbon through decomposition, it could significantly reduce the efficiency of this process or even create a net carbon source. However, it is possible that this initial flush of microbial activity may be compensated for by additional organic matter inputs to soil pools due to increases in plant productivity under less acidic conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of olivine amendments on soil CO2 flux. A liming treatment representative of typical agricultural practices was also included for comparison. Samples from two highly acidic soils were split into groups amended with olivine or lime and a control group. These samples were incubated at 22°C and constant soil moisture in jars with airtight septa lids. Gas samples were extracted periodically over the course of 2 months and change in headspace CO2 concentration was determined. The effects of enhanced mineral weathering on soil organic matter have yet to be addressed by those promoting this method of carbon sequestration. This project provides the first data on the potential effects of enhanced mineral weathering in the soil environment on soil organic carbon pools.

  20. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  1. PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF NORMOGLYCEMIC, ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND DYSLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ON DIABETIC RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Mir Mohammad Reza Seyed; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Mahmudi, Roziahanim

    2016-01-01

    Tinospora crispa is an indigenous medicinal plant belonging to Menispermaceae family, known localy as "akar patawali" or as "akar seruntum". Different parts of this plant are used for various therapeutic purposes for treatment of hypertension, stimulation of appetite, protection from mosquito bites and to treat ailments like jaundice, wounds, intestinal worms and skin infections, tooth and stomach aches, coughs, asthma and pleurisy. The stems were washed, dried, pulverized using Wiley Laboratory Mill apparatus and stored in dry air-tight plastic containers until use. Then, they were extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and finally with water by maceration. The solvent was evaporated from each extract (using rotary evaporator), dried extract were stored at -4°C until used. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and each group having 6 animals for two sets of experiments. In the first test, healthy rats were treated orally with the plant extracts (1 g/kg) suspended in Tween 80. In the second test, the diabetic rats were fasted overnight. The test groups of 6 diabetic rats were treated orally with extracts of Tinospora crispa (1 g/kg), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and 10% Tween 80, (10 mL/kg), respectively. In these results, there was no significant effect on blood glucose levels in normal rats treated with different extracts of Tinospora crispa. The water extract of Tinospora crispa decreased the glucose levels in diabetic rats and has the ability to reduce lipid profile in diabetic rats as compared to control diabetic rats. PMID:27008807

  2. ATEMAC - Usage of passive tracer gases for air flow and indoor pollution measurements; ATEMAC - Application des traceurs passifs pour l'etude des mouvements d'air et de contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.

    2001-07-01

    Tracer gases are used in Switzerland for more than 15 years for air flow and ventilation rate measurements as well as for the simulation of air pollutants. The measurement equipment available in Switzerland is accurate and well performing, but rather expensive and voluminous. Moreover, preparing and carrying out the measurements is relatively time consuming. The general objective of the project was the development of a simple, efficient and cheap methodology for the measurement of air flow rates in buildings. Originally, it was thought that a procedure developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory could be transferred to Switzerland. However, measurements at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA) indicated that the used tracer gases were adsorbed in an unpredictable way by building materials and pieces of furniture, leading to a massive overestimation of air flow rates. Accordingly, the research work plan was modified in the course of 2000 in order to explore three alternative approaches: (1) the aerosol method, using a photo-ionisation particulate counter; (2) identification and evaluation of new analyzer types; (3) analysis of CO{sub 2} concentration recordings. The conclusions were: (1) the aerosol method is not yet reliable. (2) On the market, a number of analyzers are available at a reasonable price and new devices are currently being developed, especially at the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology. (3) In numerous cases, the CO{sub 2} concentration methodology is easy to apply, particularly since a computer code for easy interpretation of the concentration measurements was developed and validated. Moreover, the measurements give an estimate of the air-tightness of the building envelope. (author)

  3. Aerobic biological pretreatment of municipal solid waste with a high content of putrescibles: effect on landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassimidou, Spyridoula; Evangelou, Alexandros; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of aerobic biological pretreatment on the emissions of municipal solid waste (MSW) with a high content of putrescibles after landfilling. For this purpose, the organic fraction of MSW was simulated by a mixture of food waste and office paper at a 2.4:1 wet weight ratio. MSW was first pretreated aerobically for three different time periods (8, 45 and 90 days) resulting in organic matter reductions equal to 15%, 45% and 81% respectively. MSW were then placed in 160-L air-tight anaerobic bioreactors. The control anaerobic bioreactors contained untreated MSW. Anaerobic experiments lasted from 300 to 550 days. Results showed that the biogas production from untreated MSW was 372 NL dry kg(-1) (average of two replications) after 530 days. The MSW that was pretreated aerobically for 45 days and 90 days yielded 130 and 62 NL dry kg(-1) of biogas after 310 days and 230 days respectively. However, the 8-day (very short-term) pretreatment period led to an increase of the biogas yield (550 NL dry kg(-1) after 340 days) compared with that of raw refuse. All three runs with aerobically pretreated MSW reached the steady methanogenic phase faster than raw MSW. Leachate emissions were significantly lower in the aerobically-pretreated MSWthan the untreated ones. The leachate ammonium concentrations had an increasing trend in all anaerobic reactors and reached a plateau of between 2 and 3.5 g L(-1) at the end of the process. PMID:23771878

  4. A preliminary design of interior structure and foundation of an inflatable lunar habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Paul K.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary structural design and analysis of an inflatable habitat for installation on the moon was completed. The concept takes the shape of a sphere with a diameter of approximately 16 meters. The interior framing provides five floor levels and is enclosed by a spherical air-tight membrane holding an interior pressure of 14.7 psi (101.4kpa). The spherical habitat is to be erected on the lunar surface with the lower one third below grade and the upper two thirds covered with a layer of lunar regolith for thermal insulation and shielding against radiation and meteoroids. The total dead weight (earth weight) of the structural aluminum, which is of vital interest for the costly space transportation, is presented. This structural dead weight represents a preliminary estimate without including structural details. The design results in two versions: one supports the weight of the radiation shielding in case of deflation of the fabric enclosure and the other assumes that the radiation shielding is self supporting. To gain some indication of the amount of structural materials needed if the identical habitat were installed on Mars and Earth, three additional design versions were generated where the only difference is in gravity. These additional design versions are highly academic since the difference will be much more than in gravity alone. The lateral loading due to dust storms on Mars and wind loads on Earth are some examples. The designs under the lunar gravity are realistic. They may not be adequate for final material procurement and fabrication, however, as the connection details, among other reasons, may effect the sizes of the structural members.

  5. Estudos sôbre a conservaç��o de sementes: XII - Melancia The influence of humidity and temperature on viability of watermelon seeds in storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Zink

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de melancia (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. dos cultivares «Charleston Gray» e «Yamato Satô» foram conservadas em ambientes que diferiam entre si na umidade e na temperatura. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo com rapidez, quando conservadas em ambientes de alta umidade e temperatura elevada, cêrca de 30°C. Queda menos pronunciada foi observada quando se baixou a temperatura para 20ºC. Reduzindo-se apenas a umidade do ar, as sementes conservaram muito bem o poder germinativo até o final do ensaio. Quando, porém, tais sementes foram mantidas em baixas condições de umidade e temperatura, a capacidade germinativa conservou-se inalterada, ao longo dos dezoito meses de observações.The viability of watermelon seeds kept under different storage conditions, was studied during a period of 18 months. The experimental results presented in this paper drew the following conclusions: 1 Complete viability at the end of 18 months was obtained for seeds stored at 20°C and at relative humidity of 45%. 2 At this same temperature, the longevity of the seeds decreased with the increasing of relative humidity. 3 Seeds kept at 30°C, even in low relative humidity condition, lost their viability in a short time. 4 The seeds of watermelon stored in airtight containers at room temperature, kept their viability well for 12 months, after which time it decreased considerably.

  6. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. IX- Ingá Storage of Inga edulis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada sua extrema sensibilidade à desidratação, a semente de ingá (Inga edulis Mart. tem, em condições normais de armazenamento, uma longevidade bastante curta. Mesmo quando conservada dentro do próprio fruto, sua capacidade germinativa já se apresenta com evidentes sinais de enfraquecimento após 14 dias. De acôrdo com os resultados ora apresentados, o fator umidade constitui, realmente, o principal responsável pela maior ou menor longevidade da semente. Em todos os ensaios realizados, a perda de vitalidade se iniciou quando o teor de umidade das sementes se encontrava ao redor de 35%. A influência da temperatura foi apenas indireta, aumentando ou diminuindo a rapidez de desidratação das sementes. Embora mantendo seu teor inicial de umidade, as sementes conservadas em recipiente hermèticamente fechado perderam totalmente sua vitalidade em apenas 14 dias; isto se deu, provàvelmente, em conseqüência do acúmulo de gás carbônico proveniente da respiração da semente.Like other seeds of various economic crops, those of Inga edulis lose their vitality in a few days when exposed to the air. Storage of these short-lived seeds under different conditions of moisture content, temperature, and carbon dioxide accumulation has given the following information: 1. Seeds lose their viability when the water content is reduced to 35% or less. 2. Temperature seems not to be effective unless on the rale to which this critical point dessication is attained. 3. The rapid loss of vitality of seeds kept in airtight containers is probably due to the carbon dioxide accumulation. Here also the temperature seems to act indirectly, modifyng the rate of respiration of the seeds.

  7. Environmental performance review and cost analysis of MSW landfilling by baling-wrapping technology versus conventional system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first reviews the chemical, physical and biological processes, and the environmental performance of MSW compacted and plastic-wrapped into air-tight bales with low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The baling-wrapping process halts the short and half-term biological activity and consequently the emission of gases and leachates. It also facilitates the handling of the refuse, and considerably reduces the main environmental impacts of a landfill. The main technologies available for baling-wrapping MSW are also presented. Furthermore, a cost analysis comparing a conventional landfill (CL) without baling system versus two landfills using different baling-wrapping technologies (rectangular and cylindrical bales) is carried out. The results are presented comparatively under the conditions of construction, operation and maintenance and postclosure, as required by European Directive 1999/31. A landfill using rectangular plastic-wrapped bales (LRPB) represents an economically competitive option compared to a CL. The increased capacity of the waste disposal zone when using rectangular bales due to the high density of the bales compensates for the increased operating and maintenance (O and M) costs of the method. Landfills using cylindrical plastic-wrapped bales (LCPB's) do not fare so well, mainly because the density within the bales is lower, the cylindrical geometry of the bales does not allow such an efficient use of the space within the landfill, and the processing capacity of the machinery is lower. From the cost model, the resulting unit costs per tonne in a LRPB, a LCPB and a CL for 100,000 t/year of waste, an operation time of 15 years and a landfill depth (H) of 20 m, are 31.52, 43.36 and 31.83 Euro/t, respectively

  8. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per; Adamsen, Anders P S

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution, locally and to the wider environment. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, but there is a need for methodologies to precisely quantify emissions. This paper describes and evaluates a novel storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m(3) cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation duct. The stores can also be used as static enclosures. Ventilation can be regulated within the range of 50 to 250 m(3) h(-1). A gas sampling line enables sampling of odorants using automatic thermal desorption tubes, ammonia using acid traps, and greenhouse gases using gas sampling bags (pooled samples) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH(4) independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO(2) and CH(4) above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m(-2) h(-1) were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O indicated that pooled samples account for the diurnal variations under realistic storage conditions. PMID:19549932

  9. 微波消解石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定茶叶中镍%Determination of Nickel in Tea by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国庚; 李美

    2011-01-01

    [目的]利用微波消解石墨炉原子吸收法测定茶叶中镍含量.[方法]分别从消解液和样品消解量方面进行消解条件的优化,以建立最适合的消解方法.[结果]茶叶样品以5 ml HNO3-2 ml H2O2 混合体系为消解液,坡度升温方式微波高压密闭消解结合石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定,样品检出限为0.15 μg/g,回收率为97.8%,RSD为1.9%.[结论]该方法简单快速,效率高,劳动强度低,是进行茶叶中镍元素测定的高效方法.%[ Objective ] The study aimed to determine the nickel in tea by using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) with microwave digestion. [ Method ] The digestion conditions were optimized separately from the digestion fluid and sample digestion quantity to establish the most appropriate digestion method. [ Result] When 5 ml HNO3 -2 ml H2O2 mixed system was taken as the digestion liquid for digesting the tea samples and the GFAAS combined with the microwave high-pressure airtight digestion under slope heating was used to determine the nickel in the tea samples, the sample detecting limit was 0. 15 μg/g, the recovery was 97.8% and the precise RSD was 1.9%.[ Conclusion ] This method was simple and rapid and had high efficiency and low labor strength, which was a efficient method for detemining nickel element in the tea.

  10. Effect of Natural Ventilation on Thermal Environment in the Open Space of Enclosed Buildings%自然通风对庭院建筑开敞空间热环境影响的实测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁波; 亢燕铭; 钟珂

    2012-01-01

    The thermal environment in the open space of an enclosed building is monitored in winter and summer, respectively. Considering the influences of solar radiation and meteorological condition, air temperature distribution in the courtyard with natural ventilation is analyzed and discussed. The results show that natural ventilation has significant effects on thermal environment in the open space, and it varies with the changes of solar radiation and season. Whether the windows opened or not, solar radiation has an obvious impact on thermal pressure in the courtyard, the higher air-tightness and more solar radiation, the higher the excess air temperature of the courtyard in winter. However, there are no such features in summer.%对典型庭院建筑开敞空间冬、夏季热环境分别进行了连续实测,分析了不同自然通风条件下,太阳辐射和气象条件对庭院内温度分布规律的影响.结果表明,自然通风对庭院热环境有重要影响,且该影响在不同太阳辐射和季节条件下效果不同.无论开窗或关窗,太阳辐射对庭院热压分布都有显著影响,庭院密闭性越好、太阳辐射越强,庭院内冬季空气过余温度就越高,但夏季无此特征.

  11. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  12. [Preliminary processing, processing and usage of Dendrobii Caulis in history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-yu; Tang, Sheng; Shi, Dong-jun; Chen, Xiang-gui; Li, Ming-yuan; Tang, Xian-fu; Yuan, Chang-jiang

    2015-07-01

    On account of the dense cuticles of the fresh stem and the light, hard and pliable texture of the dried stem, Dendrobii Caulis is difficult to dry or pulverize. So, it is very important to the ancient doctors that Dendrobii Caulis should be properly treated and applied to keep or evoke its medicinal effects. The current textual research results about the preliminary processing, processing and usage methods of Dendrobii Caulis showed that: (1) In history the clinical use of fresh or processed Dendrobii Caulis as teas and tinctures were very common. (2) Its roots and rhizomes would be removed before using. (3) Some ancillary approaches were applied to shorten drying times, such as rinsing with boiling mulberry-ash soup, washing or soaking with liquor, mixing with rice pulp and then basking, etc. (4) According to the ancients knowledge, the sufficient pulverization, by means of slicing, rasping, hitting or pestling techniques, was necessary for Dendrobii Caulis to take its effects. (5) The heat processing methods for Dendrobii Caulis included stir-baking, stir-frying, steaming, decocting and stewing techniques, usually with liquor as an auxiliary material. Among above mentioned, steaming by pretreating with liquor was most commonly used, and this scheme was colorfully drawn in Bu Yi Lei Gong Pao Zhi Bian Lan (Ming Dynasty, 1591 CE) ; moreover, decocting in advance or long-time simmering so as to prepare paste products were recommended in the Qing Dynasty. (6) Some different processing programs involving stir-baking with grit, air-tightly baking with ondol (Kangs), fumigating with sulfur, which appeared in modern times and brought attractive outward appearance of the drug, went against ancients original intentions of ensuring drug efficacy. PMID:26666046

  13. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  14. Description of the F-16XL Geometry and Computational Grids Used in CAWAPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, O. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Gortz, S.; Morton, S.; Fritz, W.; Karman, S. L., Jr.; Michal, T.; Lamar, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) was to allow a comprehensive validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics methods against the CAWAP flight database. A major part of this work involved the generation of high-quality computational grids. Prior to the grid generation an IGES file containing the air-tight geometry of the F-16XL aircraft was generated by a cooperation of the CAWAPI partners. Based on this geometry description both structured and unstructured grids have been generated. The baseline structured (multi-block) grid (and a family of derived grids) has been generated by the National Aerospace Laboratory NLR. Although the algorithms used by NLR had become available just before CAWAPI and thus only a limited experience with their application to such a complex configuration had been gained, a grid of good quality was generated well within four weeks. This time compared favourably with that required to produce the unstructured grids in CAWAPI. The baseline all-tetrahedral and hybrid unstructured grids has been generated at NASA Langley Research Center and the USAFA, respectively. To provide more geometrical resolution, trimmed unstructured grids have been generated at EADS-MAS, the UTSimCenter, Boeing Phantom Works and KTH/FOI. All grids generated within the framework of CAWAPI will be discussed in the article. Both results obtained on the structured grids and the unstructured grids showed a significant improvement in agreement with flight test data in comparison with those obtained on the structured multi-block grid used during CAWAP.

  15. Cleavage dynamic propagation analysis in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel steel using a high-speed camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initiation stage of cracks is considered as a key issue, but more and more component integrity analyses investigate the crack propagation and arrest possibility. This study deals with physical mechanisms of cleavage crack propagation and numerical computations related to brittle fracture. Dynamic effects, involved in unstable cleavage crack propagation, have to be taken into account to properly depict brittle crack propagation, arrest and possible propagation re-initiation events. Experiments were carried out on thin CT specimens made of 16MND5 PWR vessel steel at five temperatures (-150 degrees C, -125 degrees C, -100 degrees C, -75 degrees C, -50 degrees C). In addition to standard crack gages, an innovative experimental technique has been used to determine crack propagation. By the means of developments on the experimental protocol (improvements of isolation and airtightness of the thermal chamber, optimization of the experimental protocol to eliminate ice in the thermal chamber and in order to have a good acquisition quality), use of a high speed framing camera was made possible to measure crack propagation on a CT mirror polished surface. This optical device, combined with this optimized experimental process, has allowed the study of straight and branching crack paths with high accuracy. The framing camera (520 000 fps up to 1 100 000 fps) has allowed to have a very accurate estimation of crack speed even up to 1000 m.s-1 and also to detect some phases of crack branching during propagation and phases of arrest-re-initiation. Numerical computations, based on X-FEM and combining a local non linear dynamic approach with a RKR type fracture stress criterion, have been performed to depict experimental crack behavior. This paper describes this innovative experimentation and the interpretation by FE calculations and SEM observations associated with quantitative 3D optical microscopy. (authors)

  16. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  17. Coal fires, fresh air and the hardy British: A historical view of domestic energy efficiency and thermal comfort in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel poverty has been most commonly researched in the UK although it is experienced in other parts of Europe, to varying degrees. showed that energy inefficient buildings and heating systems are the most significant components of fuel poverty and highlighted the legacy of older buildings in this country that remain the majority of those now recognised as hard to treat. This paper considers the historical context for fuel poverty as a particularly British phenomenon. It examines claims that this is due to the mild climate and low indoor temperature expectations. It is concluded that there are significant differences from the European situation. The climate, particularly its characteristic changeability, has influenced building and heating methods, and the low priority given to energy efficiency by legislators. Significantly, economic priorities produced poor quality mass housing during the industrial revolution. The availability of coal encouraged the use of open fires, which demanded high ventilation rates. The British do value warmth but older buildings designed for heating with radiant open fires are difficult to adapt to convective central heating. Lessons can be drawn for newly industrialised economies similarly producing poor quality mass housing with low priorities for energy efficiency. - Highlights: ► Historical reasons for fuel poverty as a particularly UK phenomenon are considered. ► There are significant differences with the European situation. ► The changeable climate influenced building and heating methods as well as health. ► Fuel supply encouraged heating by inefficient open fires that needed draughts. ► Improving airtightness in an oldhousing stock remains challenging.

  18. Investigation of density-dependent gas advection of trichloroethylene: Experiment and a model validation exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, R. J.; Oostrom, M.; Simmons, C. S.; White, M. D.

    1995-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate whether vapor-density effects are significant in transporting volatile organic compounds (VOC's) with high vapor pressure and molecular mass through the subsurface. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was chosen for the investigation because it is a common VOC contaminant with high vapor pressure and molecular mass. For the investigation, a 2-m-long by 1-m-high by 7.5-cm-thick flow cell was constructed with a network of sampling ports. The flow cell was packed with sand, and a water table was established near the lower boundary. Liquid TCE was placed near the upper boundary of the flow cell in a chamber from which vapors could enter and migrate through the sand. TCE concentrations in the gas phase were measured by extracting 25-μl gas samples with an air-tight syringe and analyzing them with a gas chromatograph. The evolution of the TCE gas plume in the sand was investigated by examining plots of TCE concentrations over the domain for specific times and for particular locations as a function of time. To help in this analysis, a numerical model was developed that can predict the simultaneous movements of a gas, a nonaqueous liquid and water in porous media. The model also considers interphase mass transfer by employing the phase equilibrium assumption. The model was tested with one- and two-dimensional analytical solutions of fluid flow before it was used to simulate the experiment. Comparisons between experimental data and simulation results when vapor-density effects are considered were very good. When vapor-density effects were ignored, agreement was poor. These analyses suggest that vapor-density effects should be considered and that density-driven vapor advection may be an important mechanism for moving VOC's with high vapor pressures and molecular mass through the subsurface.

  19. 燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒病区食物干燥方法对玉米和辣椒含氟量的影响%Effect of food drying methods on fluoride content in maize and pepper in coal-burning type of fluorosis regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念恒; 安冬; 何平; 李达圣; 梁音; 靳争京

    2010-01-01

    和辣椒,并养成烹调前淘洗玉米和辣椒的习惯,能有效降低人群总氟摄入量,达到控制地氟病流行的目的 .%Objective To explore the effect of different processing and drying methods of corn and hot pepper on fluorine content in coal-burning type of the endemic fluorosis areas, and to screen food processing and drying methods which meet the quality requirements of grain drying and able to effectively reduce the total fluoride intake of local population. Methods Farmers of endemic fluorosis area in Bijie, Guizhou province were divided into 3 groups: sun-baked drying group, stove drying group with air-tight cover and stove drying group with no cover, 10 households in each group. Corn and fresh hot pepper and samples dried for 2 weeks, or 1, 3, 6-month were collected, and water and fluoride content were detected, and the total daily fluoride intake were calculated in accordance with the "Determination of Water in Food" (GB/T 5009.3-2003) and "Determination of Fluorine in Foods"(GB/T 5009.18-2003). Results Fluoride content in fresh corn and dried for 2 weeks, or 1, 3, 6-month [of sunbaked drying group: (1.40 ± 0.16), (1.56 ± 0.14), (2.15 ± 0.47), (2.70 ± 0.64), (4.06 ± 1.75)mg/kg, stove drying group with air-tight cover: (1.41 ± 0.16), (2.39 ± 0.56), (4.60 ± 0.97), (8.46 ± 5.55), (11.36 ± 3.60)mg/kg,stove drying group with no cover: (1.40 ± 0.13), (4.69 ± 3.97), (4.47 ± 2.77), (9.65 ± 6.47), (26.12 ± 14.52)mg/kg] and pepper[sun-baked drying group: (5.41 ± 1.61), (16.60 ± 7.62), (32.60 ± 7.88), (50.26 ± 17.60),(240.20 ± 272.49)mg/kg, stove drying group with air-tight cover: (754 ± 2.95), (3238 ± 11.50), (119.18 ± 156.45),(224.00 ± 196.58), (495.70 ± 417.29)mg/kg, stove drying group with no cover: (4.82 ± 1.25), (44.30 ± 13.48),(122.89 ± 66.43), (334.23 ± 166.05), (531.01 ± 397.40)mg/kg] increased with elongation of drying time, and the group difference was significant(F = 44.77, 128.71, 126.87, 41.61, 53.63, 170

  20. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  1. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  2. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.

    2015-12-01

    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  3. 基于单片机的磁力泵温度监测系统的设计%Design of temperature monitoring system for magnetic drive pump based on single-chip-microcomputer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丹青; 康仕彬; 丛小青

    2009-01-01

    As most of failures in operating magnetic drive pump are closely related to the temperature of the containment shell, based on the analysis of the development of the monitoring technology in magnetic drive pump and considering the characteristic of airtight, the technology of single chip microcomputer was used to gather the real time temperature signal of the containment shell with temperature sensor, to magnify and correct the signal through converter, to transform the temperature analog quantity into digital quantity with A/D converter, to input the digital quantity to the CPU of the single chip microcomputer, and to monitor the temperature of containment shell of the operating machine. The overheat warning and shutdown protection are realized. The result shows that this system runs steadily and responds rapidly and correctly. This monitor system has practical value to diagnose and prevent failures of the magnetic drive pump, and to ensure the operation to be reliable and safe for the magnetic drive pump.%针对磁力泵运转中多数故障及故障表现形式均与隔离套温度密切相关的特性,在分析磁力泵监控技术发展现状的基础上,结合磁力泵密闭式结构的特点,采用以单片机为核心技术,通过温度传感器对隔离套温度进行采样,将采样得到的模拟量通过转换电路,将温度信号放大修正,由A/D转换器转化为数字量,并由CPU读入单片机对磁力泵运行过程中隔离套温度状态进行实时监测,实现了温度数值实时显示、高温越限报警及停机保护.试验结果表明,该系统运行稳定、响应迅速准确,对磁力泵故障预防与诊断,确保磁力泵系统安全可靠运行,具有一定的实用价值.

  4. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  5. Management issues in a Tasmanian tourist cave: potential microclimatic impacts of cave modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mick J; MacLean, Victoria L

    2008-05-01

    cave entrance leading to microclimatic fluctuations, while stable climatic conditions occur at the end of the cave. Future management strategies that propose a passage from the chamber to the surface via the current end zone would create a potential for airflow induced microclimatic change, leading to a change in both the temperature and moisture regimes, necessitating the construction of an airtight double door system. PMID:17368916

  6. Low energy houses and passive houses - common questions; Laagenergihus och passivhus - vanliga fraagestaellningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Samuelson, Ingemar; Gustavsson, Thorbjoern; Ruud, Svein; Larsson, Krister; Hiller, Carolina; Werner, Goesta; Gabrielii, Kristina

    2009-07-01

    This feasibility study of passive houses and low-energy houses has raised several questions concerning aspects of which more knowledge is needed. Many can be answered by existing knowledge, but there are still several that can only partly be answered, and some that cannot be answered at all. As there is a substantial demand for, and interest in, the construction of low-energy houses and passive houses, it is important that the remaining questions should be addressed so that the building sector can continue to develop. Examples of areas where further knowledge is needed include: moisture safe and energy-efficient building envelopes; demand-responsive ventilation, without risk of poor indoor environmental conditions; thermal comfort (summer and winter); airtight and durable detailing; design systems and working methods to ensure retention of good characteristics when converting or extending buildings; durability aspects of certain components and functions; the effects of occupants on energy use; how indoor environment conditions and functions will cope with climate change; quality assurance in order to ensure that the appropriate knowledge is applied, and that the work is carried out properly. Some important points to emphasise: The design and construction of low-energy houses and passive houses must be firmly based on the correct design principles and appropriate standards of workmanship, in order to ensure that the houses are energy-efficient, have good indoor environmental conditions and can be expected to have long lives. Proper understanding of the principles, coupled with constant quality awareness, are essential in all stages of the work from the developer, designer and construction personnel but also during operation-phase. Hitherto, low-energy houses and passive houses have been built in relatively small numbers, but the expectation is that interest in them will increase. This raises the question of how, if production is to be very much more than at present

  7. Energy saving optimization measures of steam and condensation water of sulfur recovery unit in Wanzhou natural gas purification plant%万州天然气净化厂硫磺回收单元蒸汽与凝结水节能优化措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖铁; 苏梦瑶; 李法璋; 范秦

    2013-01-01

    对万州天然气净化厂硫磺回收单元的蒸汽与凝结水构成进行了分析,并对蒸汽引射器重新选型以实现蒸汽梯级利用,以及采用凝结水罐排空蒸汽回收、凝结水循环利用、凝结水分压回收、蒸汽疏水阀优化选型以实现凝结水密闭式回收等优化措施作了详细的分析探讨。实施各项优化措施后,每处理1×104m3原料天然气(H2S质量分数为1%),综合能耗由1303.38MJ降为最低约1188.23MJ,与每处理1×104m3原料天然气(H2S质量分数为1%)综合能耗为2010MJ的设计值相比,节能效果明显。%Based on the composition analysis of steam and condensation water of sulfur recov-ery unit in Wanzhou branch of Chongqing natural gas purification plant , this paper discussed these optimization measures . The steam ejector was redesigned to realize the application of stream cascading and the methods are used to realize the airtight recycling of condensation water such as recovering steam discharged from the condensation tank ,recycling condensation water ,re-covering condensation water at partial pressure and optimizing the type of steam traps .The com-prehensive energy consumption can be reduced from 1 303 .38 MJ to 1 188 .23 MJ per 1 × 104 m3 containing 1% (mol) of H2S after optimization .Compared with the design which consumes 2 010 MJ per 1 × 104 m3 containing 1% (mol) of H2 S ,the effect of energy saving is obvious .

  8. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  9. Highly insulating glazing in new multi-storey buildings; Hoejisolerende glaspartier i nye etageboliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelund Thomsen, K.; Schmidt, H.; Aggerholm, S.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to illustrate how highly insulating types of glazing can be used in multi-storey buildings for housing in new ways. These are energy efficient and provide good indoor climate and also satisfy requirements to high architectural quality. The project has resulted in a number of design proposal demonstrating how new types of glazing can be fitted into multi-storey buildings and how new facade expressions, space and lighting effects can be obtained by using highly insulating glass areas. The project is collaboration between the architects Boje Lundgaard and Lene Tranberg's Tegnestue, KAB Bygge og Boligadministration and Danish Building and Urban Research. Calculations of heat demand suggest that it is possible to meet the targets outlined in the Danish Government's action plan for energy. Energy 21 by using new types of highly insulating glazing in new buildings. Another 33% reduction of the heating demand is targeted in relation to existing requirements in the Danish Building Regulations 1995 (BR 95) and the Danish Building Regulations for Small Dwellings 1998 (BR-S 98). The project builds on experience gained from 'High-insulated Glass House' (Wittchen and Aggerholm, 1999) built on the housing estage Egebjerggaard in Ballerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. Examples of existing multi-storey buildings with glass facades show extensive use of glazing as early as 1830 in Spain. Walls preceding the curtain wall were built from wood and glass and rested on stone corbels at about 1 m from the load-bearing facade. The first multi-storey buildings with facades entirely made from glass date from the 1920s. The architect Le Corbusier was the first to create a building system that facilitated the construction of non-loadbearing facades. Various conditions must be especially considered at the design of facades with highly insulating glass areas, i.a. type of glass and glazing, solar shadings, frame constructions and airtightness

  10. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  11. Experimental Study of Sand Wall Energy Absorption Effect on Blastwave%沙墙吸能作用对爆炸冲击波影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王等旺; 张德志; 李焰; 王长利; 刘文祥; 李捷; 王惠

    2011-01-01

    在爆炸冲击波作用下沙墙快速飞散,爆炸能量转换为沙粒动能和细化沙粒的摩擦做功,因此由沙袋堆积起来组成的沙墙对强冲击波具有消波吸能作用,对爆炸实验结构起到防护作用.本文利用366gTNT当量的球形药球中心起爆,进行了沙墙消波吸能作用下密闭柱形容器承受栽荷的实验.实验结果表明:沙墙使冲击波峰值超压降低最高可达6倍,到时也明显拉长,容器外壁应变峰值至少降低30%,端盖加速度峰值降幅也达到50%,充分说明了沙墙消波吸能的作用.%Under the effect of blast wave, sand wall quickly scattered. Explosion energy has transformed into kinetic energy of sand-grains and friction work of sand grain refinement. So the wall assembled by sand bags has an effective performance in blast wave energy absorption and structure protection in explosion experiment. An experiment aimed the load endurance ability of an airtight cylindrical vessel lined with sand wall was carried out by using 366g TNT centrally initiated global explosive. Experimental Results show that sand wall causes the reduction of blastwave pressure peak value as high as sixth of original; the arrival-time is prolonged significantly; stain peak value on vessel outer surface is reduced at least 30% ; acceleration peak value at vessel end is reduced as high as 50%.This sufficiently accounts for the effective performance of blast wave energy absorption of sand wall.

  12. 臭氧杀虫除菌技术的实仓应用%FIELD APPLICATION OF OZONE IN CONTROL OF STORED GRAIN INSECTS AND MOLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪兵

    2011-01-01

    Compared with the phosphine fumigation, the insecticidal technology by ventilation with ozone has many obvious advantages, such as no residue, no secondary pollution, broad spectrum and high effect, easy to perceive and so on. Compared with the controlled atmosphere technology by CO2 and N2, the technology by ventilation with ozone requires low airtightness of grain warehouse, low cost no need to operate continuously and so on. So far the application of ozone has become wider and wider in grain storage industry, for it can be used in complex fumigation, controlling mold. It also can lower the moisture content of cereal evenly by recirculation ventilation system. By summarizing the results of ozone fumigation in large warehouse, it contributes to technology of ozone application in green grain storage and keeping food quality in future.%臭氧通风杀虫与常规的磷化氢熏蒸杀虫相比,具有无残留、无二次污染、广谱高效抗菌杀虫、易于察觉等显著特点.与利用CO2和N2的气调储粮相比较,臭氧通风杀虫具有对粮仓密封性要求较低,运行成本低,无需连续处理等优点.目前臭氧在粮食仓储中的应用已越来越广泛,可用于综合熏蒸、灭菌防霉,配合良好的环流通风系统更能达到使粮食均匀降水的目的.总结了开展大型仓房整仓臭氧熏蒸杀虫除霉菌工作成果,为未来臭氧在绿色仓储以及食品的保鲜保质方面的应用提供参考.

  13. Thermal renovation of a 'Gruenderzeit'-house by means of a capillary active inside insulation. Final report; Hygrisch motivierter Waermeschutz. Thermische Sanierung eines Gruenderzeithauses mit einer kapillaraktiven Calciumsilikatinnendaemmung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeupl, P.; Grunewald, J.; Fechner, H.; Jurk, K.; Martin, R.

    1999-04-01

    Energy savings are still the best form of alternative energy. While newly-built houses generally meet at least the heat loss protection codes for wintertime, the thermal improvement of the old building stock is a nation-wide economically relevant energy conservation, despite the fact that modern user habits and demands enforce such measurements anyway. However, the old construction is to be changed only asmuch as no damages can occur. New heating systems, insulation between the rafters in the roof section, additional insulation of the basement ceiling, and above all, heat-loss-protected and air-tight windows often lead to surface condensation and mould formation on the walls. If the outside wall is to be insulated, but the facade to be kept in its original appearance, then only an interior insulation is possible for a thermal retrofitting. The main goal of this project is to realise the idea of a gently capillary active inside insulation without additional vapour barrier for a reference building, to control it with measurement technology over a period of at least two winter- and summertimes, and to quantify the heat- and moisture content by means of a numerical simulation. As specific object with a worth-preserving facade for the application of the above-mentioned inside insulation was chosen, together with the City Redeveloping Association Dresden, a typical 'Gruenderzeit'-apartment house, built 1895 in Dresden-Neustadt, and extensively renovated from 1995 to 97. The main emphasis of the thermal retrofitting lies in the application of a 30 mm strong Calcium-Silicate slab along the inside of the exterior wall of the street facade. This wall made of brick is covered with square sandstone blocks all over the ground level and covered with a clinker layer typical for that time. With this project, the proof of a thermally sufficient and hygrically unproblematic retrofitting of an old building structure by means of inside insulation is given, and the foundation

  14. The 'Vauban' passive house. Progress report; Passivhaus Vauban. Zwischenbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ufheil, M.; Neumann, C.; Herkel, S.; Buerger, V.

    1998-11-01

    The Vauban passive house will have efficient thermal insulation, active and passive solar systems, reduced ventilation losses and technical facilities ensuring efficient use of energy. Heat gaps in the building shell were prevented by close co-operation with all project partners and construction enterprises. Several airtightness measurements were to ensure a high quality standard. The ventilation system of the building achieves 82% heat recovery. Heat is supplied by radiators. The solar system has an area of 46m{sup 2} and a total storage volume of 3,600 l. In the winter season, heat and power are generated by a small gas-fuelled cogeneration unit with a thermal capacity of 14.5 kw{sub th}. The economic efficiency of the house was calculated from the cost-profit ratio; a measure is considered if the cost-profit ratio is higher than 0.05 DM/kWh. [German] Das Energiekonzept des Passivhauses Vauban setzt auf hohen Waermeschutz, aktive und passive Solarenergienutzung, Begrenzung der Lueftungswaermeverluste und den Einsatz rationeller Energiesysteme. Um die Luftundichtheiten in der Gebaeudehuelle zu minimieren wurden die Anschlussdetails in Zusammenarbeit mit Planern und Handwerkern optimiert. Mehrere Luftdichtheismessungen dienen zur Kontrolle der Ausfuehrungsqualitaet. Die eingesetzte Lueftungsanlage erreicht eine Rueckwaermzahl von 82%. Die Beheizung erfolgt durch Heizkoerper. Die Solaranlage mit einer Flaeche von 46 m{sup 2} und einem Speichervolumen von insgesamt 3.600 l deckt 28% des Endenergiebedarfs. In den Monaten April bis September ist eine nahezu 100%ige Deckung des Energiebedarfs moeglich. Ein mit Erdgas betriebenes Klein-BHKW mit einer thermsichen Leistung von 14,5 kW{sub th} dient zur Waerme- und Stromerzeugung im Winter. Als Anhaltspunkt fuer die wirtschaftliche Optimierung der verschiedenen Massnahmen wurde das Preis-Leistungs-Verhaeltnis (PLV) herangezogen. Das Preis-Leistungs-Verhaeltnis ist wie folgt definiert: PLV

  15. The use of banquettes of Posidonia oceanica as a source of fiber and minerals in ruminant nutrition. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C; Mantecón, A R; Sotillo, J; Benedito, J L; Abuelo, A; Gutiérrez, C; Hernández, J

    2014-10-01

    In the search for new food sources that contribute to the optimization of livestock production this paper discusses the possibility of using waste (called banquettes) of a marine plant commonly found on the Mediterranean coasts: Posidonia oceanica. The idea stems from the use of a waste that in summertime generates large costs because it is considered bothersome on the beaches. Thus, tons and tons of residues are collected each year from the beach, being destined for incineration. However, alternative uses for these residues are suggested, such as forage that is particularly relevant for the Mediterranean coast, where the weather does not support abundant grass growth. With this purpose, samples of banquettes of P. oceanica from six different points of a touristic place located in the Murcia Region (S.E. of Spain) were collected in April 2012 on the same day directly from the beach above the water line, washed with distilled water and sun-dried for 48 h. Approximately 500 g of each sample of plant material was chopped and two subsamples of 200 g each were placed in airtight plastic containers and sent to the laboratory for mineral and chemical analysis. This report provides data on the nutritional composition of P. oceanica such as mineral contents (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and chemical composition (ash, CP, ether extract (EE), NDF and ADF, respectively) and ADL. Finally, the in sacco rumen disappearance of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP and NDF were studied. Our results showed that minerals, except for Fe, where within the range of values reported for P. oceanica in other parts of the Mediterranean region. Given the high Fe content further studies assessing the antagonic Fe-Cu interaction and its effect on animal health should be addressed. In relation to chemical composition, it is clear that this seagrass is a poor protein source and has levels of DM degradability at 24 h, similar to those obtained for cereal straw. The information

  16. Evaluation of EGFR and RTK signaling in the electrotaxis of lung adenocarcinoma cells under direct-current electric field stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh-Fu Tsai

    Full Text Available Physiological electric field (EF plays a pivotal role in tissue development and regeneration. In vitro, cells under direct-current electric field (dcEF stimulation may demonstrate directional migration (electrotaxis and long axis reorientation (electro-alignment. Although the biophysical models and biochemical signaling pathways behind cell electrotaxis have been investigated in numerous normal cells and cancer cells, the molecular signaling mechanisms in CL1 lung adenocarcinoma cells have not been identified. Two subclones of CL1 cells, the low invasive CL1-0 cells and the highly invasive CL 1-5 cells, were investigated in the present study. CL1-0 cells are non-electrotactic while the CL 1-5 cells are anodally electrotactic and have high expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, in this study, we investigated the generally accepted hypothesis of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK activation in the two cell lines under dcEF stimulation. Erbitux, a therapeutic drug containing an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, was used to investigate the EGFR signaling in the electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells. To investigate RTK phosphorylation and intracellular signaling in the CL1 cells, large amount of cellular proteins were collected in an airtight dcEF stimulation device, which has advantages of large culture area, uniform EF distribution, easy operation, easy cell collection, no contamination, and no medium evaporation. Commercial antibody arrays and Western blotting were used to study the phosphorylation profiles of major proteins in CL1 cells under dcEF stimulation. We found that electrotaxis of CL 1-5 cells is serum independent and EGFR independent. Moreover, the phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6 in dcEF-stimulated CL1 cells are different from that in EGF-stimulated cells. This result suggests that CL1 cells' response to dcEF stimulation is not through EGFR-triggered pathways. The new large-scale dcEF stimulation

  17. ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES IN DEEP SEATED PRESSURE ULCERS USING A NOVEL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE OF ANAEROBE ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalbiaktluangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Isolation of an anaerobe is usually neglected in hospitals with limited resources due to the expensive and complicated technique of anaerobic isolation methods, which is difficult to arrange in such resource poor settings. Conventionally adopted anaerobic culture methods such as Anaerobic jar, Gas-Pak, Anoxomat or Automated glove-box systems are extremely costly and cumbersome for single unit testing, but not suitable for small scale laboratories. However, anaerobic bacteria are not to be overlooked as they have made a comeback in clinical settings and are even showing resistance to Metronidazole, once thought to be the gold standard bullet against anaerobes. Deep seated pressure ulcers are usually the site where anaerobe causes an infection in synergy with aerobes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Isolation of anaerobes in deep seated pressure ulcers using a novel innovative technique and to study their antibiogram profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS Swabs taken from depth of deep seated pressure ulcers were immediately inoculated in Brucella blood agar at bedside and placed in polycarbonate airtight jar for anaerobic incubation using a novel innovative Modified Candle Jar technique. In this technique five grams of grease-free grade zero steel wool were dipped in 50ml freshly prepared acidified copper sulphate solution until the copper colour appeared. Excess solution was drained and the steel wool was moulded into a loose pad to fit on an open Petri plate placed on top of the inoculated Brucella blood agar plates. A white-wax candle was placed at the centre of this plate. A small test tube containing mixture of 0.5g sodium-bicarbonate and 0.5g magnesium carbonate was kept ready to be placed inside the jar, just after placing the inoculated plate and incubated for 48 hours. RESULTS Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides fragilis were successfully isolated from deep seated pressure ulcers by this method. Antibiogram studies were done using the

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri B. [Washington University

    2015-01-29

    The potential for developing commercially viable microbial H2-production systems as a renewable source of biofuel has been limited by the need for an anaerobic environment to enable photobiological H2-production in capable bacterial and algal species. In this project, we have shown that the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has the capacity for highly efficient H2-production under natural aerobic conditions. The marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has a diurnal metabolic cycle; photosynthesis and carbon fixation occur during daylight hours and then at night, high rates of respiration create a suboxic intracellular environment that enables O2-sensitive processes to occur, including N2-fixation and H2-production. We developed a two-stage approach to monitor H2-production by Cyanothece 51142. In the first stage, we grew the bacteria aerobically in an alternating 12 hour light/dark cycle. A second ‘incubation’ stage was then carried out in which we took cells from the end of a 12 hour light growth period and incubated them in air-tight vials for a further 12 hours under continuous illumination. Analysis of the headspace in the vial revealed high specific rates of H2-production (>150 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour) during this incubation period. Furthermore, the rate of H2-production could be enhanced by growing the cells in the presence of high levels of CO2 or glycerol. We also confirmed that H2-production was mediated by the nitrogenase system found in these Cyanothece cells. Interestingly, in the absence of molecular N2, nitrogenase systems channel all available electrons towards H2-production. Accordingly, when we incubated glycerol-supplemented Cyanothece 51142 cells in the absence of N2, the rate of H2-production increased up to 467 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour, which is an order of magnitude greater than those rates previously observed in other wild type H2 producing model photosynthetic microorganisms under anaerobic

  19. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  20. Cooling via one hand improves physical performance in heat-sensitive individuals with Multiple Sclerosis: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Julie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals afflicted with multiple sclerosis (MS experience a transient worsening of symptoms when body temperature increases due to ambient conditions or physical activity. Resulting symptom exacerbations can limit performance. We hypothesized that extraction of heat from the body through the subcutaneous retia venosa that underlie the palmar surfaces of the hands would reduce exercise-related heat stress and thereby increase the physical performance capacity of heat-sensitive individuals with MS. Methods Ten ambulatory MS patients completed one or more randomized paired trials of walking on a treadmill in a temperate environment with and without cooling. Stop criteria were symptom exacerbation and subjective fatigue. The cooling treatment entailed inserting one hand into a rigid chamber through an elastic sleeve that formed an airtight seal around the wrist. A small vacuum pump created a -40 mm Hg subatmospheric pressure enviinside the chamber where the palmar surface of the hand rested on a metal surface maintained at 18–22°C. During the treatment trials, the device was suspended from above the treadmill on a bungee cord so the subjects could comfortably keep a hand in the device without having to bear its weight while walking on the treadmill. Results When the trials were grouped by treatment only, cooling treatment increased exercise durations by 33% (43.6 ± 17.1 min with treatment vs. 32.8 ± 10.9 min. without treatment, mean ± SD, p -6, paired t-test, n = 26. When the average values were calculated for the subjects who performed multiple trials before the treatment group results were compared, cooling treatment increased exercise duration by 35% (42.8 ± 16.4 min with treatment vs. 31.7 ± 9.8 min. without treatment, mean ± SD, p Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that utilization of the heat transfer capacity of the non-hairy skin surfaces can enable temperature-sensitive individuals with MS to

  1. 新型稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合墙板%Rice-hull mortar lightweight composite wall panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英; 陈睿; 闫凯; 郑文忠

    2012-01-01

    To efficiently reduce building energy wasting,and to provide the energy conservation material and good airtightness enclosure to building field,rice-hull mortar is researched and developed as a material for wall.The strength,density,thermal conductivity and freezing resistance are studied by experiments.The rice-hull mortar lightweight composite wall panel is composed by compositing rice-hull mortar,steel bar and rock wool panel,and the fire resistance,and the sound insulation and heat-insulating properties are studied.The experimental result shows that this wall panel has good properties in fire resistance,sound insulation and heat-insulating,it can satisfy the related code for physical and mechanical properties.The design method and structural measures of rice-hull mortar lightweight composite wall panel are put forward,and the economic benefit of the wall panel is analyzed.%为了有效降低建筑能耗,提供适用于建筑领域的节能型墙体材料和密闭性好的围护结构,研制了可作为墙体材料的轻质稻壳砂浆,通过试验研究了该轻质稻壳砂浆的强度、密度、导热性能和抗冻性等物理力学性能.将轻质稻壳砂浆与钢筋和岩棉板复合成稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合墙板,研究了稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合外墙板的隔声和保温等物理性能,以及耐火极限和力学性能,试验结果表明,稻壳砂浆轻质节能复合墙板具有良好的耐火、隔声和保温性能,能够满足相关规范和标准对建筑材料物理力学性能的要求.给出稻壳砂浆复合墙板的设计方法和构造措施,对此类型复合墙板经济效益进行了分析。

  2. Effect on Micro-Leakage of Composite Resoration with Two Different Adhesives after Bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazish Fatima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two different adhesive systems after bleaching with 38% Hydrogen peroxide onmicroleakage of Class V composite resin restorations. MATERIALS & METHODS: The materials used in this study included Nano composite (Filtek Z350, Scotchbond™ Dual Cure Dental Adhesive (3M™ ESPE™, Prime and bond elect (Dentsply and Power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany. Sixty sound human premolars were stored in thymol solution (Buffered 0.1% pH 7.00 for about one week. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of the teeth. The cavities measured 1.5mm in depth, 2mm in occlusogingival dimension (1mm coronal to CEJ and 1mm apical to CEJ and 3mm mesiodistally. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 30 based on the adhesive system used. In group 1, Scotchbond™ and in group 2, Prime & Bond were used on cavity walls according to manufacturer’s instructions. Filtek Z350 composite resin was used to restore the cavities. Teeth were dried and bleached with Power whitening gel 38 % Hydrogen peroxide for 14 days for 2 hours daily. The specimens were then stored in airtight containers containing 10ml of 5% solution of Methylene blue dye (MERCK and kept in an incubator at 37°C. After storage teeth were dissected then evaluated under a stereomicroscope (Motic DMW-143-FBGC HongKong. Data of microleakage between two materials was examined by Mann-Whitney’s U test. The threshold for level of significance was set to be at-most 0.05 value. RESULTS: The mean microleakage from, Scotchbond™ Universal Adhesive was 3.1 ± 0.5 with median 3.0 (0.5 whereas mean microleakage from Prime and bond elect was 3.7 ± 0.2 with median 3.7 (0.4. Results from Mannwhitney U’s test implied microleakage of Prime and bond elect was significantly more as compare to Scotchbond™ Universal Adhesive material (P < 0.0001. CONCUSION: Microleakage after bleaching with 38% Hydrogen peroxide with Prime and bond elect

  3. Radon emanation of heterogeneous basin deposits in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective radium-226 concentration (ECRa) has been measured in soil samples from seven horizontal and vertical profiles of terrace scarps in the northern part of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The samples belong to the Thimi, Gokarna, and Tokha Formations, dated from 50 to 14 ky BP, and represent a diverse fluvio-deltaic sedimentary facies mainly consisting of gravelly to coarse sands, black, orange and brown clays. ECRa was measured in the laboratory by radon-222 emanation. The samples (n = 177) are placed in airtight glass containers, from which, after an accumulation time varying from 3 to 18 days, the concentration of radon-222, radioactive decay product of radium-226 and radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days, is measured using scintillation flasks. The ECRa values from the seven different profiles of the terrace deposits vary from 0.4 to 43 Bq kg-1, with profile averages ranging from 12 ± 1 to 27 ± 2 Bq kg-1. The values have a remarkable consistency along a particular horizon of sediment layers, clearly demonstrating that these values can be used for long distance correlations of the sediment horizons. Widely separated sediment profiles, representing similar stratigraphic positions, exhibit consistent ECRa values in corresponding stratigraphic sediment layers. ECRa measurements therefore appear particularly useful for lithologic and stratigraphic discriminations. For comparison, ECRa values of soils from different localities having various sources of origin were also obtained: 9.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg-1 in soils of Syabru-Bensi (Central Nepal), 23 ± 1 Bq kg-1 in red residual soils of the Bhattar-Trisuli Bazar terrace (North of Kathmandu), 17.1 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1 in red residual soils of terrace of Kalikasthan (North of Trisuli Bazar) and 10 ± 1 Bq kg-1 in red residual soils of a site near Nagarkot (East of Kathmandu). The knowledge of ECRa values for these various soils is important for modelling radon exhalation at the ground surface, in particular in the vicinity

  4. 矿用避难硐室环境综合监测与通讯传输系统设计%The Design of Mine Escape Capsule Environmental Monitoring and Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文强; 颜静; 郭斌

    2012-01-01

    该文设计了一种新型矿用避难硐室环境综合监测和通讯系统的设计方案。避难硐室是矿井发生矿难时重要的井下紧急避险设施,能为无法撤离的人员提供生命保障。避难硐室的环境监测系统是避难人员在密闭空间内生存依靠的重要保障,它包括硐室内外气体参数(至少CO、CO2、O2、CH4四种)、温湿度等人员生存的必需条件的实时监测。采用LPCI766为核心器件,与非色散红外气体传感器、电化学气体传感器、信号调理、MD模数转换等模块相结合,组成环境参数信号的采集系统,通过RS485通信方式与外部系统进行数据通信,通过现场测试证明,这种方法是完全可行的。%This paper designed a new design scheme of mine asylum cavern environment comprehensive monitoring and the communication systemAsylum cavern is an important underground emergency facili- ties when mining accident happens in the mine,and can provide life security for the people who can't e- vacuate.The environment monitoring system of Asylum cavern is the important guarantee that the refuge personnel in an airtight room in survival depends on,including indoor and outdoor gas safety parameters(at least in CO and CO2, O2, CH4 four),temperature and humidity etc real-time monitoring to assure the vital conditions of the personnel survival.Taking the LPC1766 for the core device,which combines infrared gas sensors,electrochemical gas sensors,signal disposal and A/D conversion module into environmental pa- rameters of signal collection system,and RS485 communication mode is used for data communication.

  5. Life cycle assessment of biogas from separated slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, L.; Wesnaes, M.; Wenzel, H. (Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)); Molt Petersen, B. (Aarhus Univ.. Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The environmental aspects of biogas production based on pre-treated slurry from fattening pigs and dairy cows have been investigated in a life cycle perspective. The pre-treatment consists of concentrating the slurry using a separation technology. Significant environmental benefits, compared to the status quo slurry management, can be obtained for both pig and cow slurry, especially regarding reductions of the contributions to global warming, but the results depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the separation technology. Adding separation after the biogas plant can contribute to a more efficient management of the phosphorus, and this has also been investigated. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that: 1) The environmental benefits of biogas from separated slurry are very dependent upon the separation efficiency (for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous). This particularly applies for carbon, as the separation efficiency defines the extent to which the degradable carbon contained in the slurry is transferred to the biogas plant. Efficient separation can be obtained by using polymer, but also by using a suitable separation technology. It could be mentioned that the decanter centrifuge used has a rather high efficiency of transferring volatile solids (VS) to the fibre fraction also without the use of polymer. 2) Biogas production from separated slurry can lead to significant reductions in the contributions to global warming, provided that the 'best available technologies' described in the report are used. That includes, among others: - a covered and short time storage of the fibre fraction before entering the biogas plant, - a 2-step biogas production where the post-digestion tank is covered with air-tight cover, - a covered storage of the degassed fibre fraction The benefits are also highly dependent upon the source of energy substituted by the biogas. 3) Based on evidences from reviewed studies, the cationic polyacrylamide polymer

  6. Feedback of experience from the first passive houses - indoor environment, durability and user friendliness; Erfarenhetsaaterfoering fraan de foersta passivhusen - innemiljoe, bestaendighet och brukarvaenlighet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Ruud, Svein; Fyhr, Kristina; Svensson, Owe

    2011-07-01

    Experience and evaluation of ten-year-old passive houses - indoor environment, durability and user convenience Although many passive houses and low-energy houses were evaluated while they were still newly built, there has not been much evaluation of them after several years' of occupation. This indicates a need to re-visit older passive houses in order to pick up any aspects that could be improved in the interests of operating aspects, good indoor environmental conditions, moisture safety or continued low energy use. The objective of this project has been to provide the building sector with feedback of experience from the first passive houses in Sweden, which were first occupied in 2001. User experiences have been collected through interviews, and indoor environmental conditions and the performance of technical systems have been monitored and measured. Energy use data for the houses has also been obtained. The work has been carried out on ten of the twenty terrace house units that were built outside Goeteborg. As the houses were thoroughly monitored while they were new, we can see if and how they have changed over their first ten years' occupation. The results shows that, in general, the occupants are very satisfied, although they have put forward proposals for certain improvements, linked to the fact that it is they themselves who operate and look after the houses. Similarly, measurement and monitoring of the indoor conditions and the technical systems shows that, in many respects, the houses have aged well, although there is also scope for improvement in order to ensure that the initially low energy consumption does not tend to increase, and to maintain the good indoor environmental conditions. Interviews, follow-up of energy use and measurements of indoor conditions and the performance of technical systems have included indoor thermal conditions, solar collector systems, performance of heat exchangers, air flows, acoustic conditions, airtightness of

  7. Evaluación, diseño y propuestas de sistemas de ventilación en la rehabilitación de edificios residenciales españoles. Estudio de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiss, A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, building retrofitting has grown in importance, due to the need to improve construction and energy conditions, but omitting those relating to ventilation. This is due to the difficulty to estimate the available natural ventilation and the limited solutions derived from DB-HS3. This work aims to present a methodology, through numeric simulations and climate data, able to solve the seasonal pressure gradient in the building’ envelope and, once known the airtightness with on-site pressurization tests, the calculation of the ventilation flows in three representative conditions (summer, winter an annual average. To fulfill the HS3 requirement is advisable to use the performance-based nature of CTE, which allows other alternative solutions to the DB. But it is necessary to introduce changes in the regulations to allow the proposed solution of an individual ventilation system with variable flow or Controlled Cross Ventilation.En los últimos años, la rehabilitación de edificios ha experimentado un gran impulso, haciendo hincapié en aspectos constructivos y energéticos, pero omitiendo los relativos a la ventilación. Esto se debe a la dificultad de conocer la ventilación natural disponible y en las escasas soluciones derivadas del DB-HS3. Este trabajo pretende exponer una metodología para, a partir de simulaciones numéricas y datos climáticos, obtener el gradiente estacional de presiones en los cerramientos y, conocida su permeabilidad mediante ensayos de presurización in situ, obtener los caudales disponibles en tres períodos del año (verano, invierno y media anual. Para el cumplimiento de la exigencia HS3 es recomendable acudir al carácter prestacional del CTE, que admite otras soluciones alternativas al Documento Básico, pero es necesario introducir una serie de cambios para la solución propuesta de proyectar un sistema individual de ventilación con caudal variable o Ventilación Cruzada Controlada.

  8. Effects of sulfur in flooded paddy soils: Implications for iron chemistry and arsenic mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (amplified by erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Iron and sulfur both interact strongly with arsenic in paddy soils: iron oxides are strong adsorbents for arsenic in oxic conditions, and sulfur (in the form of sulfide) is a strong adsorbent under anoxic conditions. In the process of reductive dissolution of iron oxides, arsenic, which had been adsorbed to the iron oxides, is released. Therefore, higher levels of reduced iron (ferrous iron) will likely correlate with higher levels of mobilized arsenic. However, the mobilized arsenic may then co-precipitate with or adsorb to iron sulfides, which form under sulfate-reducing conditions and with the aid of certain microbes already present in the soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how these processes correlate and which has the greatest influence on arsenic mobilization and potential plant availability. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of sulfur (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, and gypsum) on the iron and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. The two types of rice straw were designed to introduce the same amount of organic sulfur (7.7 μg/g of soil), but different levels of available carbon, since carbon stimulates microbial activity in the soil. In comparison, two different levels of gypsum (calcium sulfate) were used, 7.7 and 34.65 μg/g of soil, to test the effect of directly available inorganic sulfate without carbon addition. The soil was flooded with a buffer solution at pH 7.07 in airtight serum vials and kept as a slurry on a shaker at 25 °C. We measured pH, alkalinity, ferrous iron, ferric iron, sulfide, sulfate, total iron, sulfur, and arsenic in the

  9. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  10. Theory and Experimental Research of Rapid Separation Process by Explosion Ignition%爆炸点火快速分离过程的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬龙; 黄正祥; 顾晓辉; 郑应民

    2012-01-01

    为了使前级分离体达到快速分离和快速增速的目的,以满足工程应用的要求,设计了一种快速分离装置.利用爆炸点火方式点燃发射药,实现前级分离体的快速分离、发射,并应用密闭爆发器原理和内弹道理论,建立爆炸点火方式下快速分离、发射的理论模型.结合四阶龙格库塔法,对上述理论进行数值计算,得到了爆炸点火分离过程各物理参数的规律,并通过静态台架实验进行验证.结果表明,分离时间达到μm级,分离速度达到200m/s,理论计算与实验结果吻合较好.%In order to make the pre-stage separate&body separate rapidly and accelerate rapidly,and meet the requirements of engineering application, a kind of fast separation device was designed. Explosion ignition method was designed to realize rapid separation of the pre-stage separated-body. Based on the outbreak of airtight device principle and interior ballistic theory,a theoretical calculation model of rapid separation by explosion ignition was established. Combined with four-order Runge-Kutta method, the law of each physical parameter of the blast ignition separation process was obtained by numerical simulation, and it was verfied by the static bench experiment. The experimental results indicate that the separation time reaches microsecond level,and the separation speed reaches 200 m/s. The experimental results are coincident with the theory results.

  11. Optimization of the process of egg omelet production with fillings with extended storage period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sukmanov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Optimization of the egg omelets (EO production using high pressure (HP will allow to produce a minimum cost product during manufacturing and also to obtain a product with high consumer properties. Materialsand methods. The concerned product is -EO -a mixture of liquid egg with grated or chopped cheese, xanthan gum, water or milk and spices. The EO manufacturing process consisted of packing the mixture in an airtight container with heating and processing in the high pressure installation. The EO suitability for long-term storage was evaluated by the "water activity" term. The EO quality was evaluated by an expert. There was used the undetermined Lagrange multipliers method to obtain the optimal process parameters. Results. As a result of the central composite rotatabel plan there was developed optimization model allowed to obtain the optimal EO HP processing parameters: pressure – 690 МPа, temperature –1220С, treatment duration –7×60s, 14g of water on 100 g of melange, 13 g of dry milk on 100 g of melange, xanthan gum content -0,75% of the total mixture mass, 25 g of cheese on 100 g of melange. These indicators allow to obtain the EO process parameters with the next indicators: water activity -0.704 and comprehensive quality Score - 0.98 that characterize the product as a product with high quality indicators stable over a long period of storage. The developed model analysis with using of Student's t test, Fisher dyspepsia and predicted optimization values calculation errors confirmed the reliability of the optimization parameters obtained values and the optimization model reliability. The calculations results for the given optimization parameters are presented as confidence intervals, confirming that their experimental values do not exceed the respective intervals and thus confirm the results authenticity . Conclusions. These results have practical significance and were adopted as the basis for the technical documentation

  12. The purification effects of two air purificants to the volatile pollutants in tunnels%两种空气净化剂对坑道挥发性污染物的净化效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东明; 郁兴明; 唐雨德

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察选取的两种空气净化剂对坑道内挥发性污染物氨气和硫化氢的净化效果.方法 将植物空气净化剂及竹炭滤料分别放入密闭的容积为1m3的小型环境舱内,用采样器往其中吹入有害气体,用风扇混匀后测定空间内有害气体的浓度,每0.5h分别观察空气净化剂对几种挥发性污染物的净化率.结果 植物空气净化剂对氨气和硫化氢的两小时最大净化率分别为50%和37.5%,竹炭滤料净化剂对氨气和硫化氢的两小时最大净化率分别为60%和62.5%.结论 选用的两种空气净化剂对坑道挥发性污染物氨气和硫化氢都有较好的净化效果,可以用于坑道内有害气体的消除.%Objective To observe the purification effects of two different air purificants on the volatile pollutants ( NH3 and H2S) in tunnels. Methods The plant air purificant and the bamboo charcoal were put into a 1 m3 box of airtight minitype environment, respectively. The harmful gases were insufflated into the box with sampling implement and mixed them. At an interval of half an hour,the concentration of harmful gases was mensurated to observe the purification rates of two air purificants. Results The maximal purification rates of the plant air purificant to NH3 and H2S in 2 h were 50% and 37.5% ,respectively. The maximal purification rates of the bamboo charcoal air purificant to NH3 and H2S in 2 h were 60% and 62.5% ,respectively. Conclusion The purification effects of two air purificants are preferable to the volatile pollutants ( NH3 and H2S) in tunnels.The air purificants can effectively eliminate the harmful gases in tunnels.

  13. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr-1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 μg/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 μg/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  14. Analysis on Character of Temporal-Spatial Distribution and Effect Factors of Dustfall in Nantong%南通市降尘时空分布特征及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛媛; 姚颖

    2012-01-01

    对2004年-2009年南通市降尘监测数据进行分析,结果表明,市区降尘污染较轻,年均值全部达标,在6年间呈波状变化态势;从各月分布来看,3-7月降尘污染较为严重;在各功能区中,受降尘污染程度从大到小依次为:居民区>工业区>商业交通区>文教区.提出,应继续推进城区企业工艺改造升级,加快燃煤锅炉淘汰;施工(运输)期间对易产生扬尘的建筑材料应采取密闭存储、设置围挡等有效措施并保证建筑垃圾及时清运、施工车辆及道路及时清扫冲洗;加大城市的绿化建设和道路的硬化建设,尽量避免道路开挖.%The monitoring data of dust fall in Nantong was analyzed during the year from 2004 to 2009. The results indicated annual average values of dust fall in urban area reached the standard of air quality and showed a wave trend in the six years. The monthly values were high from March to July and showed dust fall pollution level as follow as residential area > industrial zone > commercial and traffic area > cultural and educational area. Some suggestion was made for improvement environment such as to upgrade urban enterprise process, to leave the coal boiler off, to take dust airtight storage for building materials at construction and transportation, to remove waste in time and wash construction vehicles and road promptly, to increase the city's green area and road pavement as well as try to avoid road excavation.

  15. 一株酵母菌的鉴定及其挥发性物质防病测定%Identification of a Yeast Strain and Effect of Its Volatile Organic Compounds on Disease Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 黄盼; 黄瑞荣; 李国庆

    2015-01-01

    为进一步研究用于防治草莓灰霉病的生防酵母菌,针对一株经平板测定和离体接种筛选得到的酵母菌菌株W4682,进行分类鉴定,并对其产生的挥发性物质防治草莓灰霉病的能力进行测定.结果发现,菌株W4682应属于汉逊德巴利酵母(Debaryomyces hansenii).菌株W4682产生的挥发性物质不但可以抑制灰霉菌的生长,对草莓灰霉病的发生也具有显著的防治效果.同时菌株W4682接种草莓后不仅可以在被接种果实上定殖,控制其病害发生,其产生挥发性物质还可以控制同一密闭空间内未接种的草莓上病害的发生.因而,汉逊德巴利酵母菌株W4682具有较好的应用潜力.%To verify the biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeast fungus in control of strawberry gray mold disease,a yeast strain W4682 which was effective in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea in dual culture and suppressing gray mold disease on strawberry fruits with the live cells,was identified and the efficacy of its volatile organic compounds in control of strawberry gray mould was determined.As a result,the yeast strain W4682 was identi-fied as Debaryomyces hansenii.The volatile organic compounds produced by the strain W4682 could inhibit my-celial growth of Botrytis cinerea and suppress botrytis fruit rot in strawberry obviously.When the strain W4682 was inoculated on strawberry fruits,the yeast cells colonized on fruit surface and controlled the botrytis rot in these fruits effectively,at the same time,the volatile organic compounds produced by these fruits also effectively controlled the botrytis rot in other fruits under the same air-tight space which were not inoculated with yeast cells.This study suggests that the strain W4682 of Debaryomyces hansenii is a promising agent for the control of Botrytis cinerea.

  16. Rôle de l'intensité lumineuse sur les capacités parasitaires d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford et d'Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoïdes des Bruchidae ravageurs de graines de niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndoutoume-Ndong A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Role of light intensity on parasitic capacities of Eupelmus orientalis Crawford and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoids of Bruchidae pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp. seeds. In tropical Africa, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius is a cowpea pest. After the harvest, the disappearance of one of C. maculatus parasitoids (Eupelmus orientalis Crawford limits the duration of stocks conservation. In this study, we used an experimental model imitating the traditional african granaries taking into account the lack of airtightness and the variability of the internal luminous intensity of the different types of granaries. Three kinds of cages were used: cages with an internal luminous intensity of 380 lux, cages with an internal luminous intensity of 3.5 lux, and some others with an internal luminous intensity of 0.2 lux. Four little holes are pierced on the sides of each cage. Each hole was provided with a trap to catch the insects that escaped. Inside each cage, 20 E. orientalis and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford nymphs were placed. In adult stage, the insects faced a choice of either to escape, or to stay in the cage and then parasitize available hosts. The trapped individuals as well as those remaining in the cage are sorted out by species. Available hosts in the cage which had parasites are also sorted out. The results show that the E. orientalis females born in the cage hardly parasitize available hosts and escape in majority compared to E. vuilleti which stay in the cages. In 380 lux cages, 19% of E. orientalis females escape compared to 6% of E. vuilleti. This percentage of evasion increases with the darkning of the enclosure. Thus, 62% of E. vuilleti females escape from the cages of 3.5 lux and only 11% escape from the cages of 0.2 lux. The majority of E. orientalis individuals escape right from birth, which therefore explains their disappearance from storage. This escape behaviour constitutes a factor limiting the use of this parasitoid as

  17. Predicting the Blast of Lunar Soil Under a Rocket's Exhaust Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Carlos J. Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    The blast of lunar soil represents a problem for the future missions planned for the moon. When the lander approached the ground during the Apollo missions, huge showers of dust particles were sent in all directions at extremely high velocities - including upwards towards the landing spacecraft. This represents a clear danger to the lander because the loss of visibility and the damage that can be produced to the vehicle itself. If there had been equipment on the ground, these showers of particles would have created a sand blasting effect over the equipment, possibly damaging optics and contaminating the equipment and depending on the size and velocity of the particles maybe even more extensive damage as the particles penetrated the outer surface of the equipment. Since the there is no air on the moon to slow down the particles, they can travel large distances at high speeds, in fact in some instances they can reach near escape velocity and go into an orbit around the moon and come all the way back to almost the same point where they were at the beginning; meaning that some of the lunar dust that came up during landing will shower back over the site. Once on the surface, the extremely fine dust had a habit of getting itself everywhere. During the Apollo missions it not only covered the astronauts' suits, but managed to work its way inside, damaging airtight joints and scratching up glass visors. The dust found its way inside the spacecraft, contaminating the floor and electronic systems inside, clogging air filters in the process. This is due to the fact that the lunar soil is extremely cohesive. The Lunar soil causes all of the same problems as sand does on Earth but unlike sand particles on Earth, which have smooth spherical shapes, the dust on the Moon is more like small particles of glass with sharper edges since there is no erosion on the lunar surface. During the Apollo missions the dust problem did not cause a big problem due to the fact of the length of

  18. 不同化学型樟树对 SO2吸收的比较分析%Analysis of Different Chemotypes of Cinnamomum camphora on SO2 Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞炎

    2013-01-01

      在密闭条件下,采用静态熏气法研究不同化学型(芳樟型、脑樟型)樟树1年生苗木、枝条在 SO2伤害阈值时(0.5 g/m3×4 h)对 SO2的吸收能力及熏气后的恢复能力,结果表明,芳樟型1年生苗木对 SO2吸收量为450.6 mg/m2,芳樟型枝条对 SO2吸收量为451.8 mg/m2;脑樟型1年生樟树苗对 SO2吸收量为597.6 mg/m2,脑樟型枝条对 SO2吸收量为809.4 mg/m2。芳樟型樟树1年生苗木、枝条与脑樟型樟树1年生苗木、枝条熏气后恢复能力无显著差异。%The resistance and absorbency to gaseous SO2 of linalool­type and camphor­type Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl were studied under airtight conditions. The results showed that the linalool­type of one year old camphor tree absorbed SO2 450.6 mg/m2, the linalool­type of camphor tree branches absorbed SO2 451.8 mg/m2; the camphor­type of one year old camphor tree absorbed SO2 597.6 mg/m2, the camphor­type of camphor tree branches absorbed SO2 809.4 mg/m2. There were not significantly differences between resistance of linalool­ type and of camphor­type C. camphora (L.).

  19. EXAFS investigations of U(IV) species in aqueous solutions with a newly developed spectro-electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, C.; Tutschku, J.; Schmeide, K.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Bernhard, G. [Institute of Radiochemistry, FZR, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Palladino, G. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Poineau, F. [Ecole de Mines de Nantes, Subatech, F-44307 Nantes (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Actinides with their large number of oxidation states are susceptible to redox conditions, forming different aqueous complexes which may greatly differ by solubility and mobility. These complexes are often difficult to investigate due to their thermodynamic metastability. Therefore, we developed a new spectro-electrochemical cell which allows to study the structure and speciation of aqueous actinide complexes in situ by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, while applying and maintaining a constant potential. The safety regulations for handling of radioactive materials at the ESRF prohibit any gas release from samples containing radionuclides. Therefore the electrochemical cell is air-tight and the applied reduction process prevents a water decomposition. The electrochemical cell comprises a double confinement. A well-defined anodic reaction is applied by using Ag as anode in equilibrium with hardly soluble AgCl. Formal cathodic potentials E{sub cs} of the U(VI)/U(IV) couple were verified by cyclic voltammetry. The potential E{sub cs}+{delta}E was then kept constant for the subsequent reduction process of U(VI) to U(IV). The coordination of the U(VI) species before reduction and the electrochemically stabilized U(IV) ions in presence of different ligand systems has been studied by U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS spectroscopy. In non-complexing perchloric acid the U(IV) aquo ion was obtained with 9 spherically arranged atoms in a distance of 2.41 Angstrom. In concentrated chloride solutions we observed between 3 to 9 M [Cl{sup -}] the complexes U(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}Cl{sup 3+}, U(H{sub 2}O){sub 6-7}Cl{sub 2}{sup 2+} and U(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}Cl{sub 3}{sup +} with U-O distances of 2.41 Angstrom and U-Cl distances of 2.71 Angstrom [1]. In presence of sulfuric acid, the coordination with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} seems to change from bidentate with U(VI) to monodentate fashion with U(IV) at low pH. We observed in presence of formic acid tetra-nuclear U(IV) species

  20. A new purge-and-trap headspace technique to analyse volatile organohalogens from fluid inclusions of rocks and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Ines; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, Heinfried

    2010-05-01

    Recently, advances were made in the detection of low boiling point volatile organohalogens (VOCs) at trace gas concentrations of air samples employing sophisticated and complex experimental setups (Sive et al. 2005, Miller et al. 2008) while conventional fluid inclusion gas analysis via GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) do not include halogenated VOCs in their analytical routine (e.g. Samson et al. 2003). At the same time Svensen et al. (2009) have just confirmed the release of chlorinated and brominated VOC from halites after heat treatment using GC/MS into which they injected compounds previously trapped on adsorption tubes. Already in 1998, Harnish and Eisenhauer reported the presence of CF4 and SF6 released from natural fluorite and granite samples after milling but appear to have received little resonance in the scientific community. In this work we present the development of a new method for the analysis of halogenated VOCs from fluid inclusions. The mineral or rock sample is milled in an air-tight tempered steel container that fits into a regular planetary mill. Starting at a particle size of around 2-3 mm a final mean particle fineness of 1000 to 750 nm for quartz and fluorites, respectively, is achieved. The grinding container is equipped with two septa that can be pierced by the two needles through which the sample is connected to the GC/MS system and through which the gases are purged similar to a standard purge-and-trap system. The gases are trapped at liquid nitrogen temperatures before entering directly onto the column of the GC/MS system. Compounds that were released during grinding are separated and detected by an ion trap mass spectrometer. To prevent contamination with fine particles a 0.5 µm sintered steel filter element is interconnected after the sample needle. Optimizations and calibrations were conducted using diluted pure gases. First results show that this modified GC/MS purge-and-trap method appears to be an

  1. Radon and tritium in human life. The real threat aspects and social responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radon is the heaviest radioactive colorless, odorless, undetectable by human feelings and noble atomic gas, contributing by around 54% to the world average total radiation exposure and by more than 58% of the average natural radioactivity. Radon is released from all kind of soils and from building materials and can built up within dwellings and other closed spaces. Established until 1990 as the second cause of lung cancer, the scientists paid more attention to the radon and his daughters effects. The radon maximum permissible level was accepted between 150 Bq/m3 and 600 Bq/m3, being different for different countries. The telluric radon is represented by three abundant isotopes: Rn-222 as successor of U-238 via Ra-226 from uranium chain having more than 90% of effects, Rn-220 from thorium chain and Rn-219 from U-235, both last isotopes having a too short half time to be important in radiological risk by inhalation. The risk by direct body irradiation or by radon ingestion is 104 less than by radon inhalation risk. The interest of different countries in order to reduce the radon effects was sustained by appropriate studies. In USA the radon studies were monitored by National Research Center and as a consequence its Committee for Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI issued a special report regarding radon. The activities regarding the mining, transport and processing are accompanied by radon release. The miner dwellings are located generally into areas of high potential radon release from all kind of natural sources as mountains, faults line or cracks. The existing type of dwellings is very permissive for gaseous elements, especially for radon. The building can accumulate the radon into the airtight or unventilated rooms like gap, cellar, and basement and so on. By the other side many antinuclear NGOs are very active and belligerent against Nuclear Power Plants, especially regarding tritium from CANDU reactor. It must be maintained that all

  2. Fluoride rechargability of a non-resin auto-cured glass ionomer cement from a fluoridated dentifrice: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to their fluoride-releasing properties, glass ionomer cement (GICs have the ability to reuptake and release fluorides from commonly used sources like fluoridated dentifrices. This property has the potential to provide a continuous low concentration of fluoride in the saliva aiding in caries prevention. The superior fluoride-recharging abilities of resin-modified GICs over conventional GICs have been documented. The manufacturer of a non-resin, auto-cured GIC (GC Fuji VII claims fluoride release from the product to be about six times that of conventional GIC. It was hypothesized that perhaps this high fluoride release could translate into a high reuptake and release, when exposed to a 1 000 ppm fluoridated dentifrice every day, thus providing increased fluoride levels in saliva. Aims: This study therefore examined fluoride-recharging abilities of the non-resin, auto-cured glass ionomer cement from a 1 000 ppm fluoridated dentifrice and compared it with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Materials and Methods: Twelve glass ionomer discs each of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji II L C, Group 1 and the non-resin, auto-cured glass ionomer cement (GC Fuji VII, Group 2 were prepared with precise dimensions of 9 x 2 mm. The 12 specimens in each group were further subdivided into two subgroups of six each. Subgroup A involved no fluoride treatment (Control. Subgroup B involved application of a 1 000 ppm dentifrice for 2 minutes twice daily with a soft toothbrush. The disc-specimens were then suspended in airtight plastic bottles containing exactly 20 ml double distilled water. The fluoride concentration of the water in which the specimen discs were immersed was measured by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode connected to an ion selective electrode meter/digital ion analyzer at 1, 2, 7, 15, and 30 days. Statistical Analysis: It was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results and Conclusion: Fuji VII

  3. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  4. Development of 2-axes rotary device for plant wet culture%二轴旋转式植物湿润栽培装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 杨有泉; 邓素芳; 林营志; 张翔

    2013-01-01

    为了满足在地面进行空间植物生长试验和研究的需要,该文研制了能模拟空间微重力效应的二轴旋转式植物湿润栽培装置,介绍了该装置的总体设计、结构特点和工作原理。植物三维旋转栽培盘同时绕着2根相互垂直的旋转轴进行旋转,转速可独立在线无级调节。通过盘内植物湿润栽培介质材料筛选与优化组合,结合渗水管路和旋转水接口等关键部件的结构设计,介质始终保持整体湿润而外层表面无明水出现,且易于植物根部的固定,为植物生长提供良好的水、气、肥等生态环境。建立具备严格气密性的受控密闭舱,并配置植物生长监控和综合环境监测系统。应用试验分析表明,湿润栽培方法可以满足植物悬空低速三维旋转栽培的要求,装置各项性能指标均达到设计要求。%In order to study and operate plant stimulant space growth test on the ground, a 2-axes rotary device for plant moist culture was developed to simulate a space microgravity effect. The overall design, structural features, and operating principle were introduced in this paper. Plant 3-dimensional rotary culture plate rotated on both two orthogonal rotation axes. Revolving speed can be independently and steplessly regulated on line. By the screening and optimizing of medium material in the plant wet culture plate, combining the structural design of critical components such as the water seepage line and a rotating water connector, the medium was always kept wet, but there was no visual water on the face, which was also easy to fix plant root, and provided a good ecological microenvironment for plant growth. The machine outside profile size is 980 mm×1 450 mm ×880 mm, Active area of plant cultivation is 0.12 m2. Revolving speed can be adjusted steplessly on line between 0.5-5 rpm, control accuracy up to ±3%. In the device, a controlled airtight cabin of 0.38 m3 volume with strict air

  5. Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J

    2011-02-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the

  6. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    To achieve sustainable and healthy closed ecological systems requires successful solutions to the challenge of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/soil leachate and evaporateed water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system, total footprint of the airtight area is 12,700 m2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m3 with a total water capacity of some 6 x 106 liters of water presented a complex challenge because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as a range of analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40m3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15m3 - is a very simplified system, but with some similar issues such as salinity management and the provision of water quality sufficient for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, adequately freshwater was needed for terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4x106 liters, soil with 2 x 106 liters, primary storage tanks with a capacity for up to 8 x 105 liters and storage tanks for condensate collection and mixing tanks with 1.5 x 105 liters to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 x 103 liters), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 x 103 liters). Key technologies included condensation from humidity in the airhandlers and from the glass

  7. VOC and VOX in fluid inclusions of quartz: New chemical insights into hydrothermal vein mineralization by GC-MS and GC-IRMS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tobias; Kirnbauer, Thomas; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Fischer, Jan; Spiekermann, Patrik; Schreiber, Ulrich; Mulder, Ines; Schöler, Heinz Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    Fluid inclusions (FIs) in minerals are known to contain a variety of different liquids, gases, and solids. The fluids get trapped during mineral growth and can preserve the original mineral-forming fluid or fluids of later events. A new analytical technique developed by Mulder et al. (2013) [1] allows to measure trace gases in FIs. For the measurements, grains of 3-5 mm diameter are ground in an airtight grinding device, releasing the volatiles from FIs into the gas phase, where they can be measured by GC-MS, GC-FID and GC-IRMS. The Taunus covers the southeastern part of the thrust-and-fold-belt of the Rhenish Massif (Germany). The Variscan rock sequences comprise sedimentary and volcanic units ranging from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous. Several types of hydrothermal mineralization can be distinguished, which are - in regard to the Variscan orogeny - pre-orogenic, orogenic, late-orogenic, post-orogenic and recent in age [2]. They include SEDEX, vein, Alpine fissure, disseminated and stockwerk mineralizations. Thus, the Taunus mineralizations enable investigations of different hydrothermal systems at different age in one region. For most of them extensive studies of stable and radiogenic isotopes exist. Quartz crystals of post-orogenic quartz veins and Pb-Zn-Cu bearing veins [3] were selected for our FI investigation. Sulphur containing compounds like COS and CS2 dominate the FIs but there are also volatile hydrocarbons (VOC) like different butenes, benzene, toluene and cyclopentene that were found very often. In some samples volatile halogenated organic carbons (VOX) like chloro- and bromomethane were found. Some FIs even contain iodomethane, chlorobenzene, vinyl chloride and -bromide. The non-fossil-fuel subsurface chemistry of VOC and VOX is not fully understood. There are a lot of unknown geogenic sources [4][5]. For a better understanding δ13C- and δ2H-values of CH4 were measured by GC-IRMS to examine if the detected organic compounds are formed biotic

  8. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2006-02-01

    aluminum smelting and casting operations, their superior performance and durability will give end users marked improvements in uptime, defect reduction, scrap/rework costs, and overall energy savings resulting from higher productivity and yield. The implementation of results of this program will result in energy savings of 30 trillion Btu/year by 2020. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) project, riser tube used in the low-pressure die (LPD) casting of aluminum was selected as the refractory component for improvement. In this LPD process, a pressurized system is used to transport aluminum metal through refractory tubes (riser tubes) into wheel molds. It is important for the tubes to remain airtight because otherwise, the pressurized system will fail. Generally, defects such as porosity in the tube or cracks generated by reaction of the tube material with molten aluminum lead to tube failure, making the tube incapable of maintaining the pressure difference required for normal casting operation. Therefore, the primary objective of the project was to develop a riser tube that is not only resistant to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting, but is also less permeable, so as to achieve longer service life. Currently, the dense-fused silica (DFS) riser tube supplied by Pyrotek lasts for only 7 days before undergoing failure. The following approach was employed to achieve the goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions; (4) Optimize refractory formulations to minimize wetting by molten aluminum, and characterize erosion, corrosion, and spallation rates under realistic service

  9. Versatile and Rapid Plasma Heating Device for Steel and Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, G.S.

    2006-03-14

    The main objective of the research was to enhance steel and aluminum manufacturing with the development of a new plasma RPD device. During the project (1) plasma devices were manufactured (2) testing for the two metals were carried out and (3) market development strategies were explored. Bayzi Corporation has invented a Rapid Plasma Device (RPD) which produces plasma, comprising of a mixture of ionized gas and free electrons. The ions, when they hit a conducting surface, deposit heat in addition to the convective heat. Two generic models called the RPD-Al and RPD-S have been developed for the aluminum market and the steel market. Aluminum melting rates increased to as high as 12.7 g/s compared to 3 g/s of the current industrial practice. The RPD melting furnace operated at higher energy efficiency of 65% unlike most industrial processes operating in the range of 13 to 50%. The RPD aluminum melting furnace produced environment friendly cleaner melts with less than 1% dross. Dross is the residue in the furnace after the melt is poured out. Cast ingots were extremely clean and shining. Current practices produce dross in the range of 3 to 12%. The RPD furnace uses very low power ~0.2 kWh/Lb to melt aluminum. RPDs operate in one atmosphere using ambient air to produce plasma while the conventional systems use expensive gases like argon, or helium in air-tight chambers. RPDs are easy to operate and do not need intensive capital investment. Narrow beam, as well as wide area plasma have been developed for different applications. An RPD was developed for thermal treatments of steels. Two different applications have been pursued. Industrial air hardening steel knife edges were subjected to plasma beam hardening. Hardness, as measured, indicated uniform distribution without any distortion. The biggest advantage with this method is that the whole part need not be heated in a furnace which will lead to oxidation and distortion. No conventional process will offer localized

  10. Determination of 16 Rare Earth Elements in Banana by Microwave Digestion and ICP-MS%微波消解ICP-MS法结合同时测定香蕉中的16种稀土元素含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范稚莉; 范稚莲; 闫飞燕; 莫磊兴; 王天顺; 廖洁; 牙禹; 范业赓

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the residues of rare earth ele-ments in Guangxi banana from banana-producing area with application of rare earth fertilizers and evaluate the safety of using rare earth fertilizers in banana production. [Method] HNO3+H2O2 mixed acid system with high pressure airtight microwave di-gestion sample pretreatment method and ICP-MS technology were used, to establish a determination method of 16 rare earth elements in banana samples, including Sc45, Y89, La139, Ce140, Pr141, Sm147, Eu153, Gb157, Tb159, Nd144, Dy163, Ho165, Er166, Tm169, Yb172 and Lu175. [Result] Different standard curves present-ed good linearity. Detection limit of the instrument was 0.002-0.01 μg/L; detection limit of the method was 0.1-0.6 μg/kg; recovery rate of standard addition was 94.5%-116%; relative standard deviation was 2.02%-14.21%. [Conclusion] This method has many advantages, such as simple mass spectrogram, high sensitivity and high selectivity, accurate quantification, high precision and accuracy, simple operation, high reproducibility and high recovery rate, which is suitable for the detection of rare earth elements in banana and other fruits, with certain theoretical and applicable val-ue for guiding banana production and high-efficient planting.%[目的]旨在了解广西香蕉产区施用稀土农用肥的稀土元素残留情况,指导香蕉生产,评价稀土农用肥的安全性。[方法]采用ICP-MS等离子体质谱法和使用HNO3+H2O2混酸体系高压密闭微波前处理样品联合技术,建立测定香蕉样品中16种稀土元素(Sc45,Y89,La139,Ce140, Pr141,Sm147,Eu153,Gb157,Tb159,Nd144, Dy163,Ho165,Er166,Tm169,Yb172,Lu175)含量的方法。[结果]各曲线呈良好线性关系,仪器检出限为0.002~0.01μg/L,方法检出限为0.1~0.6μg/kg,加标回收率为94.5%~116%,相对标准偏差为2.02%~14.21%。[结论]该方法质谱图简单,选择性和灵敏度好,定量准确,

  11. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri B. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-29

    The potential for developing commercially viable microbial H2-production systems as a renewable source of biofuel has been limited by the need for an anaerobic environment to enable photobiological H2-production in capable bacterial and algal species. In this project, we have shown that the cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has the capacity for highly efficient H2-production under natural aerobic conditions. The marine cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has a diurnal metabolic cycle; photosynthesis and carbon fixation occur during daylight hours and then at night, high rates of respiration create a suboxic intracellular environment that enables O2-sensitive processes to occur, including N2-fixation and H2-production. We developed a two-stage approach to monitor H2-production by Cyanothece 51142. In the first stage, we grew the bacteria aerobically in an alternating 12 hour light/dark cycle. A second ‘incubation’ stage was then carried out in which we took cells from the end of a 12 hour light growth period and incubated them in air-tight vials for a further 12 hours under continuous illumination. Analysis of the headspace in the vial revealed high specific rates of H2-production (>150 μmol of H2 per mg chlorophyll per hour) during this incubation period. Furthermore, the rate of H2-production could be enhanced by growing the cells in the presence of high levels of CO2 or glycerol. We also confirmed that H2-production was mediated by the nitrogenase system found in these Cyanothece cells. Interestingly, in the absence of molecular N2, nitrogenase systems channel all available electrons towards H2-production. Accordingly, when we incubated glycerol-supplemented Cyanothece 51142 cells in the absence of N2, the rate of H2-production increased up to 467 μmol of H2 per mg

  12. An Assessment of Envelope Measures in Mild Climate Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Energy end-uses and interior comfort conditions have been monitored in 11 Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) in a mild marine climate. Two broad categories of DER envelope were identified: first, bringing homes up to current code levels of insulation and airtightness, and second, enhanced retrofits that go beyond these code requirements. The efficacy of envelope measures in DERs was difficult to determine, due to the intermingled effects of enclosure improvements, HVAC system upgrades and changes in interior comfort conditions. While energy reductions in these project homes could not be assigned to specific improvements, the combined effects of changes in enclosure, HVAC system and comfort led to average heating energy reductions of 76percent (12,937 kWh) in the five DERs with pre-retrofit data, or 80percent (5.9 kWh/ft2) when normalized by floor area. Overall, net-site energy reductions averaged 58percent (15,966 kWh; n=5), and DERs with code-style envelopes achieved average net-site energy reductions of 65percent (18,923 kWh; n=4). In some homes, the heating energy reductions were actually larger than the whole house reductions that were achieved, which suggests that substantial additional energy uses were added to the home during the retrofit that offset some heating savings. Heating system operation and energy use was shown to vary inconsistently with outdoor conditions, suggesting that most DERs were not thermostatically controlled and that occupants were engaged in managing the indoor environmental conditions. Indoor temperatures maintained in these DERs were highly variable, and no project home consistently provided conditions within the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 heating season comfort zone. Thermal comfort and heating system operation had a large impact on performance and were found to depend upon the occupant activities, so DERs should be designed with the occupants needs and patterns of consumption in mind. Beyond-code building envelopes were not found to be

  13. Qualidade do café natural e despolpado após diferentes tipos de secagem e armazenamento Quality of natural and washed coffee after different types of drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Coradi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Para se comparar as alterações na qualidade do café natural e despolpado em condições de umidades relativas de 60 e 80% e temperatura controlada de 23 °C aos 90 e 180 dias de armazenamento, realizou-se este trabalho no Departamento de Engenharia e no Pólo de Tecnologia em Pós-Colheita do Café da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A colheita do café, variedade Topázio, foi seletiva, enquanto uma parte foi despolpada e a outra processada de forma natural; no entanto, uma parcela de cada tipo de café foi conduzida para a secagem em terreiro e a outra parcela para secagem com temperaturas de 40 e 60 °C; após a secagem, o café foi armazenado em ambiente hermético mantendo-se constantes as umidades relativas de 60 e 80%. Para avaliação da qualidade foram feitas análises sensoriais, teste de acidez graxa e avaliação quantitativa da cor. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho permitem concluir que: a acidez graxa aumenta ao longo do tempo de armazenamento nas condições de 60 e 80% de umidade relativa; a descoloração do café é mais intensa ao longo do tempo de armazenamento para as condições de 80% de umidade relativa; aos 180 dias de armazenamento, a análise sensorial do café é menos afetada pela interação secagem, processamento e armazenamento, nas condições de 60% de umidade relativa.For comparing the alterations in the quality of natural and washed coffee under 60 to 80% relative humidity conditions from and controlled temperature of 23 °C at 90 and 180 days of storage, this work was accomplished in the Engineering Department and Coffee Post-Harvest Technology Centre of the Federal University of Lavras. The harvest of coffee, variety Topazio was selective, while a part of the coffee was pulped and the rest processed in the dry method. However, a part of each type of coffee was ground dried and the rest dried at temperatures of 40 and 60 °C; after drying, the coffee was stored in an air-tight place with

  14. Building a 40% Energy Saving House in the Mixed-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Bonar, Jacob [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report describes a home that uses 40% less energy than the energy-efficient Building America standard - a giant step in the pursuit of affordable near-zero-energy housing through the evolution of five near-zero-energy research houses. This four-bedroom, two-bath, 1232-ft2 house has a Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index of 35 (a HERS rating of 0 is a zero-energy house, a conventional new house would have a HERS rating of 100), which qualifies it for federal energy efficiency and solar incentives. The house is leading to the planned construction of a similar home in Greensburg, Kansas, and 21 staff houses in the Walden Reserve, a 7000-unit "deep green" community in Cookville, Tennessee. Discussions are underway for construction of similar houses in Charleston, South Carolina, Seattle, Washington, Knoxville and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and upstate New York. This house should lead to a 40% and 50% Gate-3, Mixed-Humid-Climate Joule for the DOE Building America Program. The house is constructed with structurally-insulated-panel walls and roof, raised metal-seam roof with infrared reflective coating, airtight envelope (1.65 air changes per hour at 50 Pascal), supply mechanical ventilation, ducts inside the conditioned space, extensive moisture control package, foundation geothermal space heating and cooling system, ZEHcor wall, solar water heater, and a 2.2 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. The detailed specifications for the envelope and the equipment used in ZEH5 compared to all the houses in this series are shown in Tables 1 and 2. Based on a validated computer simulation of ZEH5 with typical occupancy patterns and energy services for four occupants, energy for this all-electric house is predicted to cost only $0.66/day ($0.86/day counting the hookup charges). By contrast, the benchmark house would require $3.56/day, including hookup charges (these costs are based on a 2006 residential rates of $0.07/kWh and solar buyback at $0.15/kWh). The solar

  15. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  16. 不同类型新车内醛酮类化合物的污染研究%Study on the Carbonyl Compounds Pollution in New Cars of Different Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹钱秀; 张卫东; 赵琦; 肖艳红

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays people show more attentions to their living environments and more and more families have owned their own private vehicles. So the air quality, especially the toxic carbonyl compounds, in these vehicles is becoming the major concern. The study selected 93 vehicles belonged to 8 types. Under static and airtight conditions, the concentrations of carbonyl compounds in these vehicles were analyzed. The results showed that all the tested vehicles suffered a certain degree of air pollution caused by carbonyl compounds. The total concentration of carbonyl compounds was 0. 09 ~0. 31mg/m3 and the average concentration was 0. 16mg/m3 . And formaldehyde was the main pollutant followed by acetone, n-butanal and acetaldehyde, and their concentrations were 0. 08、0. 04、0. 02、0. 0003mg/m3, respectively. Except luxury car all the tested vehicles suffered a certain degree of formaldehyde limit-exceeding, and the exceeded rale was 21% -50%. Furthermore, the study did cancer risk evaluation for formaldehyde, and the result showed that the risk had exceeded the safety limits and it might lead to cancer.%随着人们对环境质量要求的提高,轿车逐步普及,车内空气质量正成为人们关注的焦点,特别是车内毒性较大的醛酮类物质更是受到普遍关注.选取了8种类型共93辆新车,在静止并且密闭条件下,对其内部环境的醛酮类物质的浓度水平进行测定分析.结果表明,大部分新车内都存在不同程度的醛酮类物质污染,总醛酮质量浓度为0.09~0.31 mg/m3,平均质量浓度0.16mg/m3,其中甲醛为最高组分,其次为丙酮、正丁醛、乙醛,平均质量浓度分别为0.08、0.04、0.02、0.0003mg/m3.8类新车有7类都存在一定程度的甲醛超标,超标率为21%~50%,只有豪华车不超标.还对甲醛进行了癌症风险评价,结果表明风险值超过安全限值,存在癌症风险.

  17. Fine and Ultrafine Particles from Combustion Sources - Investigations with in-situ techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagels, Joakim

    2005-04-01

    Fine airborne particles are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate methods for in-situ characterisation of fine and ultrafine particles and to determine their deposition in the human airways. The aim was also to increase knowledge about health and environmentally relevant properties of aerosols from biomass combustion and selected indoor sources. The methods include instrumental techniques such as Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI), Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and Tandem Differential Mobility Analysers (TDMA) based on volatility and hygroscopic growth. Filter samplers and impactors were used for collecting particles on substrates for subsequent chemical analysis. Emissions from local district heating plants (0.5-12 MW), based on moving grate combustion of woody fuels, were sampled with a dilution system and characterised. Particles from the indoor sources of cigarettes, incense and candles were examined in the laboratory by using an airtight 22 m{sup 3} stainless steel chamber. A set-up to determine respiratory deposition in humans was constructed. It was automatised and uses an electrical mobility spectrometer with an improved inversion algorithm to perform fast measurements of particles of different sizes in the inhaled and exhaled air. It was evaluated on human test-persons. The investigated biomass combustion sources emit high concentrations of fine and ultrafine particles. The chemical composition is dominated by KCl and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; Zn, Cd and Pb were also quantified. Elemental carbon was identified in particles larger than 150 nm during periods of incomplete combustion. The particle concentration depends on the fuel ash content and the combustion efficiency. The aerosol is essentially internally mixed with hygroscopic growth factors significantly higher than reported for diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke. The

  18. Effects of heme oxygenase-1 gene modulated mesenchymal stem cells on vasculogenesis in ischemic swine hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi-bo; ZHANG Xiao-li; TANG Yao-liang; MA Gen-shan; SHEN Cheng-xing; WEI Qin; ZHU Qi; YAO Yu-yu; LIU Nai-feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation may partially restore heart function in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of MSCs modified with heme xygenase-1 (HO-1) on post-infarct swine hearts to determine whether the induction of therapeutic angiogenesis is modified by the angiogenic cytokines released from the implanted cells.Methods In vitro, MSCs were divided into four groups: (1) non-transfected MSCs (MSCs group), (2) MSCs transfected with the pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-MSCs group), (3) MSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 (HO-1-MSCs group),and (4) MSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 and pretreatment with an HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)(HO-1-MSCs+SnPP group). Cells were cultured in an airtight incubation bottle for 24 hours, in which the oxygen concentration was maintained at <1%, followed by 12 hours of reoxygenation. After hypoxia/reoxygen treatment, ELISA was used to measure transforming growth factor (TGF-β) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in the supernatant. In vivo,28 Chinese mini-pigs were randomly allocated to the following treatment groups: (1) control group (saline), (2)Lacz-MSCs group, (3) HO-1-MSCs group, and (4) HO-1-MSCs + SnPP group. About 1×107 of autologous stem cells or an idertical volume of saline was injected intracoronary into porcine hearts 1 hour after MI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay and postmortem analysis were assessed four weeks after stem cell transplantation.Results Post hypoxia/reoxygenation in vitro, TGF-β in the supernatant was significantly increased in the HO-1-MSCs ((874.88±68.23) pg/ml) compared with Lacz-MSCs ((687.81±57.64) pg/ml, P <0.001). FGF-2 was also significantly increased in the HO-1-MSCs ((1106.48±107.06) pg/ml) compared with the Lacz-MSCs ((853.85±74.44) pg/ml, P <0.001 ).In vivo, at four weeks after transplantation, HO-1 gene transfer increased the capillary density in the peri

  19. Establishment of Aats Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Syndrome Model and Evaluation%过敏性鼻炎-哮喘综合征大鼠模型的建立与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史锁芳; 周奎龙

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rat model of allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome and evaluate its effect .Methods:Clean level 20 healthy male SD rats , were randomly divided into control group and model group , 14 days after the use of intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin, continuous nasal drip with ovalbumin 7 days, starting from 15th, the model group rats in the airtight vessel within (home-made 50 cm ×30 cm ×20 cm transparent plastic box ) with cover , give 2%OVA atomized inhalation solution , build model;In the con-trol group with normal saline instead .Results:The model group after antigen stimulate the mouth breathing , abdominal moved , irrita-bility, restlessness, shaking, hair, nose, sneezing, very oral and ear purple , water quantity increased obviously , listlessness, eat less, unresponsive, activity significantly reduced or prone motionless , the colour yellow curly, such as asthma acute attack.Total num-ber of white blood cells in BALF ( bronchoalveolar lavage ) and classification of eosinophil increased obviously .Nose and a small bron-chus and lung tissue pathology slice see accompanying around blood vessels more inflammatory cells , numerous eosinophils cells infil-trating .Conclusion:The model of allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome is established by the way in this study , which is comparable to the physiopathologic characteristics of human asthma ., the successful molding method has certain popularization value .%目的:建立一种大鼠过敏性鼻炎-哮喘综合征的模型并评价其效果。方法:清洁级健康雄性SD大鼠20只,随机分为对照组和模型组,运用卵白蛋白腹腔注射14天后,用卵白蛋白连续鼻部滴注7天,从第15日开始,将模型组大鼠置于密闭器皿内(自制的50 cm ×30 cm ×20 cm透明带盖塑料盒),给予2%OVA溶液进行雾化吸入,建立模型;对照组以生理盐水代替。结果:模型组经抗原激发后张口喘息,腹部翕动,易激惹,躁动

  20. ZnS-opal与反opal结构ZnS光子晶体的组装%Fabrication and characterization of ZnS-opal and inverse opal ZnS photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段涛; 彭同江; 唐永建

    2009-01-01

    以单分散SiO2微球为基元,在75%~80%湿度、30~45℃恒温密闭烘箱中垂直快速组装opal模板;以Zn(NO3)2(0.035mol/L)、TAA乙醇溶液(0.05mol/L)为前体,通过溶剂热法充填形成ZnS-opal复合光子晶体;ZnS-opal复合光子晶体在2%~5%的HF溶液中浸泡4~5 h后卸载模板,制得反opal结构ZnS基光子晶体;采用XRD、SEM、UV-Vis测试手段对反opal结构ZnS基光子晶体形貌、物相和光学性能进行了表征.结果表明:溶剂热法多次充填可使ZnS纳米晶在模板密堆积形成的空隙中均匀成核;经过酸处理的ZnS-opal中SiO2微球溶解、坍塌,形成蜂窝状三维有序介孔和反opal结构ZnS基光子晶体;相同粒径SiO2微球组装的opal模板、ZnS-opal以及反opal结构ZnS光子晶体均表现出光子带隙特性,但反opal结构ZnS光子晶体带隙位置相比前两者发生了蓝移.%Opal templates were rapidly assembled from monodisperse SiO2 microspheres as building blocks by vertical sedimentation in an airtight oven at 30-45 ℃ and in a certain humidity. With a precursor composed of 0.035mol/L Zn (NO3)2 and 0.05mol/L TAA ethanol solution, ZnS photortic crystals with opal structure were prepared by solvothermal synthesis method repeatly. ZnS photonic crystals with inverse opal structure were obtained by removing the opal template after immersing in 2%-5% HF acid for 4-5 h. The morphology, component and optical properties of the synthetic samples were tested and compared. Results of XRD, SEM, and UV-Vis indicated that ZnS nanocrystals can grow in and fill in the void of opal template, and SiO2 microspheres of templates are dissolved so as to form some three dimensional ordered porous structure and to form the inverse opal ZnS photonic crystals. Compared with opal templates, ZnS-opal and inverse opal ZnS photonic crystals assembled with SiO2 spheres in the same diameter show good optical properties and exhibited photonic band gap. The photonic band gap position of inverse

  1. Micro reactor for heterogeneous catalysis / application: hydrogen storage from methyl-cyclohexane; Microreacteur pour la catalyse heterogene / application au stockage d'hydrogene a partir du methylcyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumanie, M.; Pijolat, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Centre SPIN, Dept. MICC, LPMG-URA CNRS D2021, 42 - Saint-Etienne (France); Meille, V.; Bellefon, C. de [CNRS - CPE, Lab. de Genie des Procedes Catalytiques, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Pouteau, P.; Delattre, C. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Intrumentation, LETI, 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    The use of micro-technology and the miniaturization of various systems such as micro-fuel cell is a current field of activity. The aim of this work is to study and to realize an autonomous catalytic micro-reactor for hydrogen release from methyl-cyclohexane. For this reaction of dehydrogenation, the common catalyst is platinum supported on alumina. Consequently, the general objectives of this work are: (i)to develop a micro-reactor with its heaters, sensors..., (ii)to deposit catalysts in the micro-reactor, and (iii)to study the catalytic conversion of this system. The chip used has been developed by the CEA-LETI for biomedical application especially DNA chip. It is comprising several channels etched in silicon substrate with a classic deep reactive ion etching process. These channels of 100 {mu}m depth are structured with pillars to increase the surface and thus improve the overall reaction rate compare to a channel without pillar. The structured micro-reactor is molecularly bonded with a silicon cover to form an airtight devices. As the silicon is transparent to the infrared wavelength a CCD camera is used to observe the bonding quality. The chips are then connected with micro-tubes to test them. The first tested solution consists in a polyimide-glass capillary of 100 {mu}m OD and 40 {mu}m ID stuck inside the channel entrance and glued with a ceramic cement or glass. A second solution is currently under development with metallic capillaries. The reaction studied is extremely endothermic with a heat of reaction of 204 kJ/mol. Consequently it is necessary to include in this system some heaters to have an autonomous micro-reactor. Thick film resistances of platinum have been deposited by the screen printing and used as micro-heaters. The tests of micro-heaters are realized using the infrared thermographic camera. As the silicon is transparent to infrared wavelength, a sputtered platinum layer has been deposited on the opposite face of the resistances. This layer

  2. Luz ultravioleta germicida y control de microorganismos ambientales en hospitales Germicidal ultraviolet light and environmental control of microorganisms in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Paulo Sánchez C

    2012-06-01

    conditions of the Intensive Care Unit at the Calderón Guardia Hospital. Methods: The Intensive Care Unit at the Calderon Guardia Hospital has fourteen single rooms; of which two adjacent rooms were selected for the study. In every room a protected germicidal UV lamp was hung, two feet from the air inlet of the air conditioner in the top of the room, and a third room was used as control. Duplicate samples were used as culture medium for bacteria using Petri dishes (blood agar and fungi (potato dextrose agar “PDA” before turning on the UV lamps and 5 hours after being turned on. Result: Environmental concentrations of total aerobic flora were found to be not acceptable for an Intensive Care Unit in rooms 1 and 3. The use of ultraviolet germicidal lamp was totally effective for fungi but not on bacteria, but it significantly improved air quality of the rooms, reaching clean environmental values. Discussion: The best way to keep vulnerable patient areas as free as possible from microorganisms is to assure the proper functioning of air conditioning systems, having an automatic and air-tight door-closing system, limiting the number of entering personnel, establishing and maintaining cleaning and hand-washing protocols, and using germicidal and protected ultraviolet lights, making sure that air flow is through these lamps, in order to achieve a maximum impact.

  3. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  4. Pore Structure of Shales from High Pressure Mercury Injection and Nitrogen Adsorption Method%高压压汞法和氮气吸附法分析页岩孔隙结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨峰; 宁正福; 孔德涛; 刘慧卿

    2013-01-01

    页岩储层的孔隙结构对页岩含气性评价和勘探开发具有重要意义,但目前国内对于页岩孔隙结构的研究相对较少.为此,采用高压压汞实验和低温氮气吸附实验对页岩的孔隙结构进行了研究,计算了页岩的孔隙结构参数,并结合微观孔隙结构图片分析了页岩孔隙结构对气体吸附和渗流的意义.研究表明,页岩孔隙以微孔和过渡孔为主,微孔和过渡孔提供了大部分孔体积.有机质中的微孔是页岩比表面积的主要贡献者,构成了页岩气体的主要吸附空间.页岩的孔隙类型复杂,孔隙形态多样,存在一端封闭的不透气性孔、开放性的透气性孔和墨水瓶孔等多种孔隙,且孔隙之间的连通性较差.较高的微孔和过渡孔保证了页岩储层具有很高的吸附聚气能力,但中孔和大孔发育较差,不利于气体渗流和页岩气藏的开发.%The pore structure of shales plays an important role in the evaluation of hydrocarbon content,gas exploration and development.However,there is little study on the pore structure of shales at home.Highpressure mercury injection and nitrogen adsorption experiments are employed to study the pore structure of shales and the pore structure parameters are also obtained.The effect of pore structure on gas adsorption and movement is analyzed.The results show that micropores and transitional pores are the main pore in shales,which provide the vast majority of pore volume.Micropore in the organic matter is the primary contributor to specific surface area and functions as the main adsorption space.The pore types are complicated and the pore morphology is diverse.There are airtight pores with a close end,air pores,and ink-bottle pores in shales and the pore connectivity is poor.The high content of micropore and transitional pore is beneficial for gas adsorption in shales,but the mesopore and macropore are backward,which goes against for shale gas seepage and production.

  5. 稠油井井口采出液密闭取样器流场数值计算%Numerical Calculation of Flow Field in Heavy Oil Well Head Produced Fluid Closed Sampler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春生; 董国庆; 徐玉建; 田明磊; 仪记敏; 孟珊

    2015-01-01

    在我国超稠油开采过程中出现了高浓度的硫化氢气体,给现场的取样工作带来极大的困扰。目前,国内研究生产的取样器大多为开放式,这些取样器存在着残留物质清洗困难、原料利用不充足、破坏环境严重、以及使用过程中发生危险的几率大等等弊端,而国外生产的取样器价格昂贵,不能满足实际条件下的经济因素。因此在国内生产的设备弊端多、国外设备价格高的条件下设计一款新型的密闭环保取样器是非常有必要的。通过对现场实际情况的调研,基于活塞式取样器的原理,通过对目前取样器装置的结构与工作原理的分析,运用 SolidWorks 对取样器进行建模与装配,得到取样器的三维模型。使用软件建立取样器的简化模型,通过应用 FLUENT 中动网格部分的 UDF 编写成功的实现了液体吸入取样器内部。运用 FLUENT 数字模拟软件,通过对流体非定常流的数值模拟,控制不同的抽吸速度分别得到气体的体积分布,并计算最终的含气率与含水率,再对模拟结果进行分析,获得抽吸速度对于气体含量的影响。%High concentration of hydrogen sulfide gas appears in the development process of super heavy oil, which sets back the sampling work. The current domestic sampler is open type. This kind of sampler has many disadvantages, such as material waste, hard residual cleaning and big environment pollution risk and so on. As the price of foreign samplers are very high, it is of great important significant to design a new airtight environmental sampler. Base on the actual situation of research and the principle of piston sampler, after studying the structure and the working principle of current piston sample, three-dimensional model of the sampler was obtained by using Solid Works modeling and assembling. Simplified sampler model can be built with software by applying the UDF in FLUENT moving

  6. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  7. Analysis of Air Flow Field in Air Conditioning System and Compartments of High-Speed Trains%高速列车空调系统及车内流场分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 李人宪; 陈琳; 李树典

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the rationality of the air-conditioning system design of high-speed trains, an entire geometry model for compartment and air-conditioning system of high-speed trains was built considering the characteristics of negative pressure at fresh-air inlet, complicated air-conditioning pipes and good airtightness. The airflow field in the entire geometry was simulated by solving the governing differential functions of computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) using the finite volume method. The distributions of velocity field, temperature field, humidity field, and CO2 concentration in the chamber were obtained, and the thermal comfort was evaluated by flow field indexes and comfort indexes. The results show that when a train is running at 350 km/h in summer, the temperature distribution is uniform in compartments; the average value of CO2 concentration is 0.07% to meet the demand for comfort (less than 0. 15% ); because of the high wind velocity, effective temperature difference at aisle is -4. 5 °C , which is 2. 8 °C below the standard value of the thermal comfort index; and an appropriate air supply and recycle mode is crucial to obtain uniform flow field and good thermal comfort.%为检验高速列车空调系统设计的合理性,针对高速列车新风入口负压大、空调管路系统复杂、密封性好的特点,建立了车厢内部与空调系统的整体模型.用有限体积法求解计算流体力学的控制微分方程,对整体流场进行数值模拟,得到了风速、温度、湿度和CO2体积浓度在客室内的分布,并用流场指标和热舒适性指标对客室内的热舒适性进行了评价.结果表明:夏季列车以350 km/h的速度行驶时,车厢内温度场分布比较均匀,CO2体积浓度平均值为0.07%,满足不大于0.15%的舒适性要求;过道处风速高,导致有效温度差最大为-4.5℃,低于舒适指标标准值2.8℃;送、回风方式是保证流场参数均匀分布及热舒适性的关键.

  8. The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    airtight chamber. Stable isotope mass balance calculation is used to estimate the recovery of litter-derived carbon from three pools (earthworm tissue, SOM, remaining litter), the loss of litter-derived carbon through soil respiration, and the contribution of different carbon sources to soil CO2 efflux in different earthworm treatments. Our results show that earthworm species recognized as 'soil feeders' have 13C and 15N values that are 1.2‰ and 3.8‰ higher than those of 'litter feeders', and 15N also differ significantly amount different soil feeders, suggesting different food resource usage even within the same functional group. There are strong species effects on both leaf litter disappearance rate and CO2 efflux rate, both being high when Amynthas earthworms are present. Our results suggest that changing earthworm species composition leads to changing resource use, which alters the fate of organic carbon in the forest floor and soil and could potentially affect long-term SOM dynamics in temperate forests.

  9. 氨系水溶性CdTe量子点的生长规律研究%GROWTH RHYTHM OF WATER-SOLUBLE CDTE QDS IN ITS OPTIMIZED SYNTHESIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 陈盛

    2015-01-01

    A simplified synthesis process of CdTe QDs was studied in this paper. First, the Te compound was synthesized in an airtight container with the protection of an excess of NaHB4 and the lack of N2. Then it was used to synthesize CdTe QDs in aqueous phase, with the MPA as a stabilizer. Based on this, the shape and appearance of CdTe QDs were characterized through TEM and the absorption, fluorescence and IR spectra were investigated. Through the experiment, the quantum dot emitting characteristics were studied from the reactions of the same concentration of 17 mmol CdTe in different conditions. The results showed that CdTe QDs could be obtained by controlling different reaction time in alkaline condition, they could emit light in the range of green light to red light and its fluorescence wavelength was adjustable. The peak width at half-height of fluorescence spectra was about 37 nm to 60 nm and the peak shape was symmetrical. Quantum dot being stored for half a year, its QY still was 16.45%, meaning a high luminous efficiency. Through the experiment, the growing model of OA and OR were set up, and the regular pattern of the growth of CdTe QDs was explored and analyzed.%在密闭容器的水相中以过量的NaBH4保护合成的碲源与以巯基丙酸为稳定剂的镉溶液合成CdTe量子点,无需氮气保护,简化了合成工艺。合成的样品用透射电子显微镜(TEM)对其形貌进行表征。用吸收光谱、荧光光谱、红外光谱研究其光谱特征。考察了17 mmol前驱浓度下的CdTe在不同条件获得的量子点的发光特征。试验结果表明:在碱介中控制不同的反应时间可获得发射绿光到红光区间的荧光波长可调的 CdTe 量子点,荧光光谱半峰宽约37~60 nm、峰形对称。量子点储藏半年后外量子效率仍达16.45%,发光效率高。通过实验建立量子点的OA和OR生长模型,探讨和分析了CdTe量子点的生长规律。

  10. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Electrospin Hybrid Process for Protective Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitchuli Gangadharan, Narendiran

    2011-12-01

    Chemical and biological (C-B) warfare agents like sarin, sulfur mustard, anthrax are usually dispersed into atmosphere in the form of micro aerosols. They are considered to be dangerous weapon of mass destruction next to nuclear weapons. The airtight protective clothing materials currently available are able to stop the diffusion of threat agents but not good enough to detoxify them, which endangers the wearers. Extensive research efforts are being made to prepare advanced protective clothing materials that not only prevent the diffusion of C-B agents, but also detoxify them into harmless products thus ensuring the safety and comfort of the wearer. Electrospun nanofiber mats are considered to have effective filtration characteristics to stop the diffusion of submicron level particulates without sacrificing air permeability characteristics and could be used in protective application as barrier material. In addition, functional nanofibers could be potentially developed to detoxify the C-B warfare threats into harmless products. In this research, electrospun nanofibers were deposited on fabric surface to improve barrier efficiency without sacrificing comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Multi-functional nanofibers were fabricated through an electrospinning-electrospraying hybrid process and their ability to detoxify simulants of C-B agents was evaluated. Nanofibers were also deposited onto plasma-pretreated woven fabric substrate through a newly developed plasma-electrospinning hybrid process, to improve the adhesive properties of nanofibers on the fabric surface. The nanofiber adhesion and durability properties were evaluated by peel test, flex and abrasion resistance tests. In this research work, following tasks have been carried out: i) Controlled deposition of nanofiber mat onto woven fabric substrate Electrospun Nylon 6 fiber mats were deposited onto woven 50/50 Nylon/Cotton fabric with the motive of making them into protective material against submicron

  11. 蒸汽介质热处理对毛白杨木材颜色的影响%Effect of Steam Heat Treatment on Color of Chinese White Poplar Wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建雄; 黄荣凤; 曹永建; 伍艳梅; 周永东; 赵有科; 吴玉章

    2012-01-01

    Steam heat treatment can darken wood color remarkably. There is a highly relativity among the color change degree, heat treatment time and temperatures. The specimens of Chinese White Poplar (Populus tomentosa) was steam heat- treated in an airtight equipment with an atmosphere within comprising less than 2 percent oxygen content at temperatures from 170 to 230 ℃ for time from 1 to 5 hours, respectively. Saturated steam was used as a heating medium and a shielding gas. The results showed that the chroma difference (AC* ) was decreased gradually while the color difference (△E * ) and hue difference ( △H* ) were increased with the increase of temperature and the extension of treatment time. This indicated that the color of steam heat-treated wood became darker and darker compared with original color. Compared with treatment time, treatment temperature played a more important role to change the color of heat-treated wood during the process of heat treatment according to the results of ANOVA and multiple comparison analysis. Additionally, the regression models among the color difference, treatment temperatures and times were established. The results suggested that the better color of wood could be obtained after steam heat treatment compared with original color as well as the dimensional stability would be improved. Therefore, the value of the timber could be increased and the application fields could be extended after the steam heat treatment.%以毛白杨木材为研究对象,采用蒸汽介质热处理方法在氧气含量低于2%的密闭容器中以温度170~230℃、时间1~5h的处理条件对其进行热处理.结果表明:随着处理温度的升高和处理时间的延长,色饱和度差△C*逐渐减小、色差△E*和色相差△H*逐渐增大,说明热处理后木材的颜色由原色逐步过渡到深褐色.方差分析和多重比较结果表明:热处理温度比热处理时间对毛白杨木材颜色变化的影响更为重要.此外,进

  12. 2种慢性间歇性缺氧小鼠模型模拟气阴两虚证临床指征的比较研究%Comparison of Clinical Indications Simulating Deficiency of Both Qi and Yin Syndrome Induced by Two Types of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文萍; 柴程芝; 寇俊萍; 余伯阳

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较钠石灰和低压氧仪2种不同缺氧方式诱导的慢性间歇性缺氧小鼠模型的整体行为变化,为进一步构建气阴两虚证动物模型奠定基础.方法:分别采用氧分压从21%逐渐降至6%,平均下降速度为0.5%/min ~ 1%/min的钠石灰缺氧法和氧分压在短时间内骤降后维持在7% ~8%的低压氧仪缺氧法,考察2种缺氧模式对小鼠体重,摄食量,自发活动以及心率、T波等气阴两虚临床相关指标变化的影响.结果:钠石灰和低压氧仪2种不同的缺氧方式均能够导致小鼠体重下降;摄食量减少;行走格数减少,直立次数增加等自发活动改变;心率加快,T波持续抬高等心电图变化,二者对各项指标的影响呈基本一致的趋势,其结果具有显著相关性.结论:钠石灰和低压氧仪2种缺氧方式诱导的慢性间歇性缺氧小鼠模型均能够模拟形体消瘦,食欲不振,体倦乏力,烦躁,心悸,脉细数等气阴两虚证的主要临床特征.%Objective: To establish foundation for constructing a suitable animal model of deficiency of both Qi and Yin syndrome (DQYS) induced by two types of chronic intermittent hypoxia (soda lime and low-pressureoxygen controller) by comparison the whole behavior in mice. Method: The two modes of oxygen scarcity,including oxygen pressure declining continuously from 21% to 7%-8% with the average speed of 0. 5%/min-l% per minute in airtight wide-mouthed bottle and oxygen pressure falling abruptly within short period and then keeping in the level of 7% -8% ,were adopted respectively to observe the time-course changes in body weight, food intake, locomotive activity and electrocardiogram respectively. The experiments were designed for mimicing clinical features of DQYS. Result; The mice exposed to two different modes of chronic intermittent hypoxia for certain duration showed body weight loss, food intake decline, locomotive activity change of ambulation decrease and rearing increase

  13. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in Fuel-Oil Heated Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levins, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    installation labor and materials, and $627 for overhead and management), and the benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.48. A general trend toward higher-than-average fuel-oil savings was observed in houses with high pre-weatherization fuel-oil consumption. Program savings could likely be increased by targeting higher energy consumers for weatherization, although equity issues would have to be considered. Weatherization measures associated with higher-than-average savings were use of a blower door for air-sealing, attic and wall insulation, and replacement space-heating systems. Space-heating system tune-ups were not particularly effective at improving the steady-state efficiency of systems, although other benefits such as improved seasonal efficiency, and system safety and reliability may have resulted. The Program should investigate methods of improving the selection and/or application of space-heating system tune-ups and actively promote improved tune-up procedures that have been developed as a primary technology transfer activity. Houses were more air-tight following weatherization, but still leakier than what is achievable. Additional technology transfer effort is recommended to increase the use of blower doors considering that only half the weatherized houses used a blower door during air sealing. A guidebook developed by a committee of experts and covering a full range of blower-door topics might be a useful technology transfer and training document. Weatherization appeared to make occupants feel better about their house and house environment.

  14. Optimization Design of Charge for Inside-loaded Composited Perforation%内置式复合射孔装药量优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晶鑫; 成建龙; 刘荫忠; 徐波

    2011-01-01

    内置式复合射孔器火药燃烧受井下环境影响较小,压力上升速度快,可产生多条裂缝.火药燃烧时间内产生的最高压力必须高于地层破裂压力1.2倍以上才对地层产生有效作用,峰值压力越高,产生的裂缝越长,对地层效果越好,但它不能超过套管极限抗压强度,否则将损坏套管.通过岩石破裂压力和套管安全性评价分析,借鉴内弹道密闭容器火药燃烧和压裂弹在井筒内燃烧p-t状态方程,结合复合射孔器结构特点、火药燃烧特性和流体压力的阶段特性,建立了火药燃烧计算模型.综合运用以上理论,开发了装药量优化设计软件.设计验证结果显示,预测结果和实际结果误差率小于1%.该方法能够反映实际情况,可作为内置式复合射孔施工设计的理论指导.%Propellant combustion in inside-loaded composited perforation gun is less affected by downhole conditions, the pressure increases rapidly, and several fractures are produced in formation. During propellant combustion, the peak pressure must be 1.2 times more than rock fracture pressure. The peak pressure is higher, the fractures are longer, and the effectiveness is better. The pressure isn't permitted to exceed the ultimate compressive strength of casing, otherwise it will damage well casing. Analyzed are rock fracture pressure and casing safety evaluation, based on which established is the propellant combustion calculation model combined with the p—t function equation of internal ballistic airtight container propellant combustion and fracturing charge combustion in wellbore as well as structure feature of composited perforator, characteristics of propellant combustion and stage characteristics of fluid pressure. Developed is an optimization design software of propellant charge by utilizing the above theory. The design verification results show that the error rate between prediction and actual results is less than 1 %. This method can reflect

  15. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  16. A widely adaptable habitat construction system utilizing space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Harry B.

    1993-01-01

    This study suggests that the cost of providing accommodations for various manned activities in space may be reduced by the extensive use of resources that are commonly found throughout the solar system. Several concepts are proposed for converting these resources into simple products with many uses. Concrete is already being considered as a possible moonbase material. Manufacturing equipment should be as small and simple as possible, which leads to the idea of molding it into miniature modules that can be produced and assembled in large numbers to create any conceivable shape. Automated equipment could build up complex structures by laying down layer after layer in a process resembling stereolithography. These tiny concrete blocks handle compression loads and provide a barrier to harmful radiation. They are joined by a web of tension members that could be made of wire or fiber-reinforced plastic. The finished structure becomes air-tight with the addition of a flexible liner. Wire can be made from the iron modules found in lunar soil. In addition to its structural role, a relatively simple apparatus can bend and weld it into countless products like chairs and shelving that would otherwise need to be supplied from Earth. Wire woven into a loose blanket could be an effective micrometeoroid shield, tiny wire compression beams could be assembled into larger beams which in turn form larger beams to create very large space-frame structures. A technology developed with lunar materials could be applied to the moons of Mars or the asteroids. To illustrate its usefulness several designs for free-flying habitats are presented. They begin with a minimal self-contained living unit called the Cubicle. It may be multiplied into clusters called Condos. These are shown in a rotating tether configuration that provides a substitute for gravity. The miniature block proposal is compared with an alternate design based on larger triangular components and a tetrahedral geometry. The

  17. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to

  18. Preliminary study of a radiological survey in an abandoned uranium mining area in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Rabesiranana; M, Rasolonirina; F, Solonjara A.; Andriambololona., Raoelina; L, Mabit

    2010-05-01

    The region of Vinaninkarena located in central Madagascar (47°02'40"E, 19°57'17"S), is known to be a high natural radioactive area. Uranium ore was extracted in this region during the 1950s and the early 1960s. In the mid-1960s, mining activities were stopped and the site abandoned. In the meantime, the region, which used to be without any inhabitants, has recently been occupied by new settlers with presumed increase in exposure of the local population to natural ionizing radiation. In order to assess radiological risk, a survey to assess the soil natural radioactivity background was conducted during the year 2004. This study was implemented in the frame of the FADES Project SP99v1b_21 entitled: Assessment of the environmental pollution by multidisciplinary approach, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Cooperation Project MAG 7002 entitled: Effects of air and water pollution on human health. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to determine the geographical coordinates of the top soil samples (0-15cm) collected. The sampling was performed using a multi integrated scale approach to estimate the spatial variability of the parameters under investigation (U, Th and K) using geo-statistical approach. A total of 205 soil samples was collected in the study site (16 km2). After humidity correction, the samples were sealed in 100 cm3 cylindrical air-tight plastic containers and stored for more than 6 months to reach a secular equilibrium between parents and short-lived progeny (226Ra and progeny, 238U and 234Th). Measurements were performed using a high-resolution HPGe Gamma-detector with a 30% relative efficiency and an energy resolution of 1.8 keV at 1332.5 keV, allowing the determination of the uranium and thorium series and 40K. In case of secular equilibrium, a non-gamma-emitting radionuclide activity was deduced from its gamma emitting progeny. This was the case for 238U (from 234Th), 226Ra (from 214Pb and 214Bi) and 232Th (from 228Ac, 212Pb or

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Density Aerogel Flyer Target for Extending Loading Time of Laser-Driven Shock Wave%用于冲击波延时的密度梯度气凝胶飞片靶的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洋; 张志华; 李宇农; 周斌; 杜艾; 朱秀榕; 陈珂; 吴培弟; 吴广明; 沈军; 倪星元

    2012-01-01

    The method about fabrication and characterization of graded density aerogel flyer target for extending loading time in laser-driven equation of state (EOS) experiment was introduced. The preparation of the target involved the synthesis of organic resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel. RF hydrosol was prepared via sol-gel process with resorcinol-iormaldehyde-water system and catalyzed by sodium carbonate. Also, an airtight micro-mold was used in layer-by-layer gelation process. After gelation, the RF wet gel was demoulded in ethanol condition and substituted with ethanol one time per day for three days to remove the residual solution. The treated RF wet gel was converted to RF aerogel via vacuum drying after the residual solution was completely removed. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),X-ray phase contrast imaging instrument and surface area and porosity analyzer were used to characterize the composition, morphology, density, interlayer coupling and microstructure of the flyer target. A four-layer target with total thickness of about 120 μand density of about 400-1 200 mg/cm3 was obtained and characterized in the experiment.%本文介绍了一种用于激光状态方程实验冲击波延时的密度梯度气凝胶飞片靶的制备及表征方法.以间苯二酚和甲醛为原料,去离子水为溶剂,碳酸钠为催化剂,在溶胶凝胶工艺的基础上采用逐层凝胶和微模具成型工艺,经过脱模、乙醇替换和真空干燥,制备了4层密度梯度渐变间苯二酚-甲醛(RF)有机气凝胶飞片靶,并使用傅里叶红外光谱仪、扫描电子显微镜、X射线相衬成像仪和比表面积及孔隙分析仪对飞片靶的成分、形貌、密度、层间界面耦合情况及微观结构进行表征.实现了总体厚度约120 μm、单层厚度一致、各层均匀性良好且密度变化范围约400~1200 mg/cm3的4层密度梯度RF气凝胶飞片靶的制备和表征.

  20. 二元包装过氧乙酸的相关性能试验观察%OBSERVATION OF RELATED PERFORMANCE OF PERACETIC ACID IN BINARY PACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 杨宁; 胡顺铁

    2011-01-01

    [目的]二元包装过氧乙酸是由A液(冰醋酸、硫酸)与B液(过氧化氢)按一定比例混合后反应生成过氧乙酸,观察其储存稳定性、杀菌效果和安全性等相关性能.[方法]采用理化分析方法、悬液定量杀菌试验和动物毒性试验进行了检测.[结果]该产品过氧乙酸含量为170.8 g/L,于54℃恒温放置14 d,其含量下降率为4.6%.以50 mg/L过氧乙酸溶液对悬液内大肠杆菌作用3 min,对金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌作用5 min,杀灭对数值均﹥5.00,以含200 mg/L过氧乙酸水溶液对悬液内的白色念珠菌作用5 min,杀灭对数值﹥4.00,以含750 mg/L过氧乙酸水溶液对悬液内的枯草杆菌黑色变种芽孢作用10 min,杀灭对数值﹥5.00.该消毒剂原液对小鼠急性经口毒性LD50值为1 360.5 mg/kg.BW,最高应用浓度5倍溶液的LD50值大于5 000 mg/kg.BW.[结论]本二元包装过氧乙酸消毒剂的稳定性好,对细菌繁殖体、真菌和细菌芽孢的杀菌效果好,动物试验原液属低毒物质、最高应用浓度5倍溶液属实际无毒.%[Objective]To know the bactericidal efficacy, storing stability and toxicity of peracetic acid in binary packing, which was produced by mixing solution A (glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid) and solution B ( hydroden peroxide).[Methods]Suspension quantitative germicidal test, physicochemical analysis method and acute LD50 were used to carry out laboratory observation.[Results]After solution A and solution B of the peracetic acid in binary packing filled separately in air-tight plastic bottles were stored at 54℃ for 14 days, the peracetic acid content produced decreased by 4.6% as compared with before storing.The killing logarithm values of Escherichia coli in suspension exposed to the water solution containing 50mg/ Lperacetic acid for 3 min and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus exposed for 5 min were > 5.00.The killing logarithm value of Candida albicans in suspension exposed

  1. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    to launch in 2002 part (c) of the journal, devoted mainly, but not exclusively, to conference articles. Martin also introduced the publication of Feature Articles, topical issues, and the instrument of the Editor's Choice to highlight articles deemed to be especially interesting. He appointed Regional Editors (6 at this point) which represent the journal in important geographic regions. He also brought the journal online, a must these days. The upheavals that followed the collapse of most of the communist world, the rapid development of science in many emerging nations and the enhanced competitiveness, even in the developed countries, have not ebbed out. Some of them are particular damaging to the reputation of science in a world increasingly skeptical of its values. I am thinking of scientific misconduct and outright fraud, in the form of plagiarism and data fabrication. physica status solidi was also afflicted by this plague: after all, it happened in the best of families. Two of the most notorious offenders of the past decade, J. H. Schön and Y. Park, also visited physica status solidi. In two courageous editorials Martin Stutzmann and Stefan Hildebrandt (Managing Editor of the journal) rapidly exposed these cases of misconduct together with other cases in which there was also good reason to suspect misconduct. Some of the articles involved were rapidly retracted by the authors, others were not. It is reassuring to say that none of them had any impact worth mentioning (1-3 citations, mostly by the authors themselves or in the editorials just mentioned). Only few journal editors dared to convey to the readers a warning that some work of those authors may be faulty even if no air-tight proof was available. However, Martin and Stefan did. We wish that Martin will remain at the helm at least another decade, before he switches to research on the liquid state as practiced in Southern France.

  2. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and

  3. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena (BandTech Oy (Finland)); Carlsson, Torbjoern; Muurinen, Arto (VTT (Finland)); Svensson, Daniel (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikatzu (JAEA (Japan)); Wersin, Paul; Rosch, Dominic (Gruner Ltd (Switzerland))

    2010-05-15

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated steel cylinder. Since steel is unstable in wet bentonite, it will corrode and the corrosion products will interact with the surrounding bentonite in ways that are not fully understood. Such interaction may seriously impair the bentonite's functioning as a buffer material, e.g. by lowering its CEC or decreasing its swelling capacity. This report presents results from two iron-bentonite experiments carried out under quite different conditions at VTT (Finland) and JAEA (Japan). Both studies focused on long-term iron-bentonite interactions under anaerobic conditions. The study at VTT comprised eight years long experiments focused on diffusive based interactions between solid cast-iron and compacted MX-80 bentonite (dry density 1.5-1.6 g/cm3) in contact with an aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution. The study at JAEA comprised ten years long batch experiments, each involving a mixture of metallic iron powder (25 g), an industrially refined Na bentonite, Kunipia F, which contains more than 99% montmorillonite (25 g), and an aqueous solution (250 mL). Samples were sent to B+Tech in airtight steel vessels filled with N{sub 2} and subsequently analyzed at various laboratories in Finland and Sweden. The JAEA samples differed with regard to the initial solution chemistry, which was either distilled water, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.6 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3}, or 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The analyses of the MX-80 bentonite samples were carried out on samples containing a cast iron cylinder and also on corresponding background samples with no cast iron. In addition, the external solution and gas phase in contact with the bentonite were analyzed. Briefly, the gas contained H{sub 2}, most possibly caused by corrosion of the cast iron, and CO{sub 2}, mainly as a result of carbonate dissolution. The eight years old external solution exhibited, inter alia

  4. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. [B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Carlsson, T.; Muurinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Svensson, D. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB), Stockholm (Sweden); Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikatzu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) (Japan); Wersin, P.; Rosch, D. [Gruner Ltd, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated steel cylinder. Since steel is unstable in wet bentonite, it will corrode and the corrosion products will interact with the surrounding bentonite in ways that are not fully understood. Such interaction may seriously impair the bentonite's functioning as a buffer material, e.g. by lowering its CEC or decreasing its swelling capacity. This report presents results from two ironbentonite experiments carried out under quite different conditions at VTT (Finland) and JAEA (Japan). Both studies focused on long-term iron-bentonite interactions under anaerobic conditions. The study at VTT comprised eight years long experiments focused on diffusive based interactions between solid cast-iron and compacted MX-80 bentonite (dry density 1.5- 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}) in contact with an aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution. The study at JAEA comprised ten years long batch experiments, each involving a mixture of metallic iron powder (25 g), an industrially refined Na bentonite, Kunipia F, which contains more than 99% montmorillonite (25 g), and an aqueous solution (250 mL). Samples were sent to B and Tech in airtight steel vessels filled with N{sub 2} and subsequently analyzed at various laboratories in Finland and Sweden. The JAEA samples differed with regard to the initial solution chemistry, which was either distilled water, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.6 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3}, or 0.05 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The analyses of the MX-80 bentonite samples were carried out on samples containing a cast iron cylinder and also on corresponding background samples with no cast iron. In addition, the external solution and gas phase in contact with the bentonite were analyzed. Briefly, the gas contained H{sub 2}, most possibly caused by corrosion of the cast iron, and CO{sub 2}, mainly as a result of carbonate dissolution. The eight years old external solution exhibited

  5. Effects of Formaldehyde and Weak Light Stress on Growth and Nutrition of Hedera spp.%甲醛及弱光胁迫对常春藤生长和营养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永福; 彭声静; 任禛; 牛燕芬; 董翠莲; 王定康

    2016-01-01

    以中华常春藤和洋常春藤盆栽苗为参试材料,通过在密闭玻璃容器中设置甲醛、弱光、甲醛+弱光和对照4个处理,测定相关的形态及营养指标,探究甲醛和弱光处理对常春藤植株生长情况及营养物质积累状况的影响,揭示2种常春藤对甲醛和弱光胁迫的适应性和调节机制。结果表明:甲醛或弱光胁迫使2种常春藤的叶长、叶宽、茎长、茎粗、根长、生物量减小,叶形指数增大;甲醛胁迫使根冠比增大,弱光、双重胁迫使根冠比减小。甲醛胁迫下2种常春藤的根、茎、叶中可溶性糖含量下降,淀粉含量上升;2种常春藤根中总碳和脯氨酸含量及碳氮比上升,蛋白质和磷含量下降,叶中总碳、蛋白质和总氮含量均下降,中华常春藤根中和2种常春藤叶中的碳氮比显著上升。弱光、双重胁迫下,2种常春藤茎、叶中可溶性糖含量降低,淀粉含量上升,根中淀粉含量降低,中华常春藤叶中蛋白质和总氮含量下降,碳氮比上升,根中脯氨酸含量上升;双重胁迫下2种常春藤根、茎中脯氨酸含量均显著上升。中华常春藤的各项指标在弱光下表现较为稳定,而洋常春藤各项指标在甲醛胁迫下表现较为稳定,甲醛胁迫下洋常春藤的生长状况良好。%In this paper,took the potted seedlings of Hedera nepalensis and H.helix as the experimental materi-als,set four treatments of formaldehyde,weak light,formaldehyde+weak light and control in airtight glass contain-ers,and measured some morphological and nutritive index,to investigate the effects of formaldehyde and weak light stress on the growth and nutrition of two species of Hedera spp.,and then reveal the adaptability and regulatory mechanisms.The results showed that under formaldehyde or weak light stress,leaf length,leaf width,stem length, stem diameter,root length and biomass of the two species of Hedera spp

  6. Risk factors of urinary tract infections in tumor patients with catheter indwelling%肿瘤患者留置尿管泌尿系感染的相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊英

    2013-01-01

    ,7,or 14 days after the catheter indwelling were 5.00%,7.50%,37.50%,and 50.00%,respectively.CONCLUSION Indwelling catheter is the most important factor resulting in the nosocomial urinary tract infections in the tumor patients.Mastering catheterization indications to avoid intubation is the best way to effectively reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections.During the indwelling intubation,strict implementation of aseptic reduce catheter indwelling time,while ensuring airtight environment within the drainage,can effectively reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections in the tumor patients.

  7. NASA'S Chandra Finds Superfluid in Neutron Star's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. Neutron stars contain the densest known matter that is directly observable. One teaspoon of neutron star material weighs six billion tons. The pressure in the star's core is so high that most of the charged particles, electrons and protons, merge resulting in a star composed mostly of uncharged particles called neutrons. Two independent research teams studied the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, or Cas A for short, the remains of a massive star 11,000 light years away that would have appeared to explode about 330 years ago as observed from Earth. Chandra data found a rapid decline in the temperature of the ultra-dense neutron star that remained after the supernova, showing that it had cooled by about four percent over a 10-year period. "This drop in temperature, although it sounds small, was really dramatic and surprising to see," said Dany Page of the National Autonomous University in Mexico, leader of a team with a paper published in the February 25, 2011 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. "This means that something unusual is happening within this neutron star." Superfluids containing charged particles are also superconductors, meaning they act as perfect electrical conductors and never lose energy. The new results strongly suggest that the remaining protons in the star's core are in a superfluid state and, because they carry a charge, also form a superconductor. "The rapid cooling in Cas A's neutron star, seen with Chandra, is the first direct evidence that the cores of these neutron stars are, in fact, made of superfluid and

  8. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating

  9. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated steel cylinder. Since steel is unstable in wet bentonite, it will corrode and the corrosion products will interact with the surrounding bentonite in ways that are not fully understood. Such interaction may seriously impair the bentonite's functioning as a buffer material, e.g. by lowering its CEC or decreasing its swelling capacity. This report presents results from two iron-bentonite experiments carried out under quite different conditions at VTT (Finland) and JAEA (Japan). Both studies focused on long-term iron-bentonite interactions under anaerobic conditions. The study at VTT comprised eight years long experiments focused on diffusive based interactions between solid cast-iron and compacted MX-80 bentonite (dry density 1.5-1.6 g/cm3) in contact with an aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution. The study at JAEA comprised ten years long batch experiments, each involving a mixture of metallic iron powder (25 g), an industrially refined Na bentonite, Kunipia F, which contains more than 99% montmorillonite (25 g), and an aqueous solution (250 mL). Samples were sent to B+Tech in airtight steel vessels filled with N2 and subsequently analyzed at various laboratories in Finland and Sweden. The JAEA samples differed with regard to the initial solution chemistry, which was either distilled water, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.6 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaHCO3, or 0.05 M Na2SO4. The analyses of the MX-80 bentonite samples were carried out on samples containing a cast iron cylinder and also on corresponding background samples with no cast iron. In addition, the external solution and gas phase in contact with the bentonite were analyzed. Briefly, the gas contained H2, most possibly caused by corrosion of the cast iron, and CO2, mainly as a result of carbonate dissolution. The eight years old external solution exhibited, inter alia, reducing conditions, a pH of around eight

  10. Long-term alteration of bentonite in the presence of metallic iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the KBS-3H concept, each copper canister containing spent nuclear fuel will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer and a perforated steel cylinder. Since steel is unstable in wet bentonite, it will corrode and the corrosion products will interact with the surrounding bentonite in ways that are not fully understood. Such interaction may seriously impair the bentonite's functioning as a buffer material, e.g. by lowering its CEC or decreasing its swelling capacity. This report presents results from two ironbentonite experiments carried out under quite different conditions at VTT (Finland) and JAEA (Japan). Both studies focused on long-term iron-bentonite interactions under anaerobic conditions. The study at VTT comprised eight years long experiments focused on diffusive based interactions between solid cast-iron and compacted MX-80 bentonite (dry density 1.5- 1.6 g/cm3) in contact with an aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution. The study at JAEA comprised ten years long batch experiments, each involving a mixture of metallic iron powder (25 g), an industrially refined Na bentonite, Kunipia F, which contains more than 99% montmorillonite (25 g), and an aqueous solution (250 mL). Samples were sent to B and Tech in airtight steel vessels filled with N2 and subsequently analyzed at various laboratories in Finland and Sweden. The JAEA samples differed with regard to the initial solution chemistry, which was either distilled water, 0.3 M NaCl, 0.6 M NaCl, 0.1 M NaHCO3, or 0.05 M Na2SO4. The analyses of the MX-80 bentonite samples were carried out on samples containing a cast iron cylinder and also on corresponding background samples with no cast iron. In addition, the external solution and gas phase in contact with the bentonite were analyzed. Briefly, the gas contained H2, most possibly caused by corrosion of the cast iron, and CO2, mainly as a result of carbonate dissolution. The eight years old external solution exhibited, inter alia, reducing conditions, a pH of around

  11. Monitoring Technology and Methods of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric Particulate Matter, China%中国大气颗粒物中重金属监测技术与方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霖琳; 薛荔栋; 滕恩江; 吕怡兵; 王业耀

    2015-01-01

    related methods were discussed and analyzed. Atmospheric particulate matter sampling mainly includes air sample and unorganized emissions sample. The pretreatment includes full digestion and acid leaching. And acid or alkali treatment could be used to decompose by hot plate, muffle furnace, high pressure airtight jar or microwave digestion. Many analysis methods could be selected such as spectrophotometer, X fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). According to the different monitoring requirements and equipment level, different standard test methods should be used. Through the whole process of heavy metal particulate monitoring, the stationing, reagent blank, membrane filter/cartridge blank control, the sampling pretreatment and laboratory analysis and so on, every factor that might affect the accuracy of analysis should be considered. Monitoring method should be established with the whole procedures of quality assurance and control measures. Complete monitoring technology system of the heavy metals in atmospheric particles could provide a scientific basis and technical support for the decision of atmospheric environmental monitoring and management. And it would also provide the analysis methods for the source apportionment of atmospheric particulate matter technique and relevant works.

  12. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  13. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Im, Piljae [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    (FHX) has been coined to refer exclusively to ground heat exchangers installed in the overcut around the basement walls. The primary technical challenge undertaken by this project was the development and validation of energy performance models and design tools for FHX. In terms of performance modeling and design, ground heat exchangers in other construction excavations (e.g., utility trenches) are no different from conventional HGHX, and models and design tools for HGHX already exist. This project successfully developed and validated energy performance models and design tools so that FHX or hybrid FHX/HGHX systems can be engineered with confidence, enabling this technology to be applied in residential and light commercial buildings. The validated energy performance model also addresses and solves another problem, the longstanding inadequacy in the way ground-building thermal interaction is represented in building energy models, whether or not there is a ground heat exchanger nearby. Two side-by-side, three-level, unoccupied research houses with walkout basements, identical 3,700 ft{sup 2} floor plans, and hybrid FHX/HGHX systems were constructed to provide validation data sets for the energy performance model and design tool. The envelopes of both houses are very energy efficient and airtight, and the HERS ratings of the homes are 44 and 45 respectively. Both houses are mechanically ventilated with energy recovery ventilators, with space conditioning provided by water-to-air heat pumps with 2 ton nominal capacities. Separate water-to-water heat pumps with 1.5 ton nominal capacities were used for water heating. In these unoccupied research houses, human impact on energy use (hot water draw, etc.) is simulated to match the national average. At House 1 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 300 linear feet of excavation, and 60% of that was construction excavation (needed to construct the home). At House 2 the hybrid FHX/HGHX system was installed in 360 feet of

  14. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    To achieve sustainable, healthy closed ecological systems requires solutions to challenges of closing the water cycle - recycling wastewater/irrigation water/soil medium leachate and evaporated water and supplying water of required quality as needed for different needs within the facility. Engineering Biosphere 2, the first multi-biome closed ecological system within a total airtight footprint of 12,700 m 2 with a combined volume of 200,000 m 3 with a total water capacity of some 6 × 10 6 L of water was especially challenging because it included human inhabitants, their agricultural and technical systems, as well as five analogue ecosystems ranging from rainforest to desert, freshwater ecologies to saltwater systems like mangrove and mini-ocean coral reef ecosystems. By contrast, the Laboratory Biosphere - a small (40 m 3 volume) soil-based plant growth facility with a footprint of 15 m 2 - is a very simplified system, but with similar challenges re salinity management and provision of water quality suitable for plant growth. In Biosphere 2, water needs included supplying potable water for people and domestic animals, irrigation water for a wide variety of food crops, and recycling and recovering soil nutrients from wastewater. In the wilderness biomes, providing adequately low salinity freshwater terrestrial ecosystems and maintaining appropriate salinity and pH in aquatic/marine ecosystems were challenges. The largest reservoirs in Biosphere 2 were the ocean/marsh with some 4 × 10 6 L, soil with 1 to 2 × 10 6 l, primary storage tank with 0 to 8 × 10 5 L and storage tanks for condensate and soil leachate collection and mixing tanks with a capacity of 1.6 × 10 5 L to supply irrigation for farm and wilderness ecosystems. Other reservoirs were far smaller - humidity in the atmosphere (2 × 10 3 L), streams in the rainforest and savannah, and seasonal pools in the desert were orders of magnitude smaller (8 × 10 4 L). Key technologies included condensation from

  15. Effect of hypoxia on the proliferation and expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in keratinocytes obtained from oral lichen planus lesions%缺氧对口腔扁平苔藓角质形成细胞增殖及缺氧诱导因子1α、血管内皮生长因子、基质金属蛋白酶9表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王夏夏; 唐国瑶; 孙红英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hypoxia on the proliferation and expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α),vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9(MMP-9) in keratinocytes obtained from oral lichen planus(OLP) lesions.Methods Hypoxia environment was induced by a airtight incubator.Five groups were included,normoxia control group,hypoxia control group(12,24,36,48 h).The effect of different treatment time of hypoxia on cellular proliferation was determined with cell counting kit-8(CCK-8).The mRNA and protein expressions of HIF-lα,VEGF and MMP-9 were analyzed respectively by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green Ⅰ and Western blotting.Results The growth activity of keratinocytes obtained from OLP lesions in the hypoxia groups(0.340±0.002,0.415±0.006,0.546±0.006) was reduced than that in control (0.431±0.001,0.620±0.004,1.022±0.005)(P<0.01).The mRNA levels of VEGF(2.087±0.291,3.189±0.573,5.402±0.563) and MMP-9(2.936±0.500,4.083±0.300,6.374±0.858) were elevated by hypoxia(P<0.05).The protein levels of HIF-lα(0.414±0.093,0.751 ±0.056,0.875±0.040),VEGF(0.393 ±0.046,0.557±0.078,0.767±0.045) and MMP-9(0.250±0.053,0.384±0.038,0.611±0.092) were all remarkably elevated by hypoxia (P<O.05).However,hypoxia had no effect on HIF-1α mRNA expression.The mRNA expression of HIF-1α after hypoxia exposure for 36 h(1.412±0.094) and 48 h(1.417±0.446) was higher than that of control group,however,there was no significant difference.A positive correlation was noted between HIF-1α and VEGF in protein level(r=0.905,P=O.O00),and the same correlation found between HIF-1α and MMP-9(r=0.881,P=0.000).Conclusions Hypoxia conditions may inhibit the proliferation of keratinocytes obtained from OLP lesions.Hypoxia conditions can promote the protein expressions of HIF-1α and both the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF and MMP-9 in keratinocytes obtained from OLP lesions exposed to hypoxia

  16. Study of the follow-up management strategies after installation of improved stoves to prevent coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Guizhou province%贵州省改良炉灶控制燃煤污染型地方性氟中毒后期管理对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯友; 李达圣; 梁音; 胡小强; 张锐智

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the follow-up management strategies after improving stoves for controlling coal-burning type endemic fluorosis in Guizhou and to provide a scientific basis for exploring the follow-up management measures.Methods In 2006 - 2009,three counties of Puding,Bijie and Liuzhi with improved stoves in 2005 and implemented follow-up management measures for subsequent three years were chosen,3 towns were chosen randomly in each chosen county,2 villages were selected randomly in each chosen town,10 households were investigated randomly in each chosen village,and 20 students were investigated of the knowledge of fluorosis control.The investigation included also the usage of the stoves,dehydration methods of grain and related conditions.Results ①The head of the family and student awareness of fluorosis control were 82.6%(743/900)and 91.7% (1650/1800),respectively,and 35.0% ( 385/1100 ) and 61.0% (6605/10 835 ),respectively,before the test,and the difference was statistically significant( x2 =33.04,1189.12,all P < 0.01 ).②The rates of chimney out of the house were 88.5%(69/78) and 100.0%(102/102),respectively,compared with those before the trial[74.4%(2125/2856) and 2.1%(104/4984),respectively],the difference was statistically significant(x2 =720.56,4295.38,all P < 0.01).The iron stove and the table stove's airtight utilization rates were 85.9%(67/78) and 100.0%(102/102),respectively.③The corn and the hot pepper's correct drying rates were 100.0%(180/180).Compared with those[27.2%(49/180) and 32.2%(58/180),respectively]before the trial,the difference was statistically significant(x2 =26.68,37.38,all P < 0.01 ).The corn and the hot pepper's washing rates before eating were 95.0%(57/60) and 98.3%(177/180),respectively.Compared with those[85.0%(153/180) and 77.8%(140/180)]before the trial,the difference was statistically significant(x2 =135.00,490.82,all P < 0.01 ).Conclusions The target population's awareness and

  17. Suitable 1-MCP treatment maintaining postharvest quality during storage at room temperature%适宜1-MCP处理保持采后菠萝常温贮藏品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鲁斌; 贾志伟; 谷会

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple belongs to the genusAnanas in the familyBromeliaceae, which is one of important tropical fruits in China and has the unique flavor people love. Pineapple industry has become an important industry in the development of agricultural economy in the tropical and subtropical regions, and about 60% of them are consumed in the form of fresh fruit in the producing area. However, ripe pineapples are not able to be kept for a long time, and easily suffer softening and blackheart. 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is a commonly used inhibitor of ethylene receptor, which is specifically and irreversibly bound to ethylene receptors to delay fruit ripening and senescence. Previous research results showed that 1-MCP postponed the softening of climacteric fruits, kept the quality of fruits in storage and extended the shelf life of fruits. Some research reported that 1-MCP inhibited the softening of non-climacteric fruits. Pineapple is a typical non-climacteric fruit and the effect of 1-MCP on pineapple fruit is rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 1-MCP treatment on postharvest physiology and quality of pineapple, and provide a theoretical basis for the storage of fresh pineapple. The tested variety was ‘Bali’ pineapple. Harvested mature fruits were transported to the laboratory immediately, and then the fruits with the same size and being healthy were selected, washed and dried in natural air ventilation for test. Tested pineapple fruits were put into airtight boxes with different 1-MCP concentrations for 12 h at room temperature (25℃), then the fruits were placed in an incubator with about 85% humidity. Fruits treated by air were used as the control. Physiological indices related to fruit quality were evaluated, such as fruit firmness, malondialdehyde (MDA), total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acid (TA), vitamin C (VC) content and ethylene production. Activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were

  18. 经皮穴位电刺激后鼠耐力训练中体能的变化%Changes in physical fitness of mice and rats in endurance training after transcutaneous electrical stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼; 李章华; 何金森

    2005-01-01

    . Exhausted swimming time was recorded with stopwatch from the beginning of experiment to the exhaustion. The identifying criteria of exhausted swimming time: when the small white mouse was exhausted, the time was recorded since its head was unable to expose on the water surface till it was sunk to the bottom. The training lasted 7days. After the last experiment, the mouse was placed in a 50 mL airtight glass bottle with 10 g lime sodium and the time of breathing stop was recorded with second (asphyxia time). Effect on desk fatigue time and body mass in rats: in TAES group and training control, the rats exercised on the animal running desk at 15-27 m/min, 30 min/time, for 14 days continuously. The exercise stopped once on the 7th day and the 13th day respectively. The transcutaneous electric stimulus was same as the above. Identifying criteria of fatigue: the rat could not followed prearranged speed after the stimulation and retarded on the posterior half section on the desk, and it was stimulated with electricity over 3 times. Body mass of rat was measured with common scale before and after experiment.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Exhausted swimming time and hypoxia endurance time of mice before and after experiment, desk fatigue time and change in body mass in rats.RESULTS: All of the animals accomplished the experiment smoothly and and hypoxia endurance time: the exhausted time in TAES group on the 1st and 7th days was prolonged significantly compared with blank control group [(38.78±4.33), (30.08±3.12) minutes; P < 0.01]; [(41.35±3.45), (30.11 ±3.23)minutes, P < 0.01]. The exhausted time in TAES group on the 7th day was longer remarkably than that on the 1st day (P < 0.05). The hypoxia endurance time in TAES group was longer significantly than blank control fatigue time and body mass in rats: the difference of fatigue time before and after experiment was not big in blank control group (P > 0.05) and the difference was remarkable before and after experiment in