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Sample records for airstrip fuel spill

  1. Responding effectively to fuel spills at airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Fuel spills are among the most frequent causes of emergency calls faced by airport firefighters. Most fuel spills are a result of human error and careless procedures. They always constitute an emergency and require fast, efficient action to prevent disaster. A fuel spill is an accidental release of fuel, in this case, from an aircraft fuel system, refueling vehicle or refueling system. A normal release of a few drops of fuel associated with a disconnection or other regular fueling operations should not be classified as a fuel spill. However, anytime fuel must be cleaned up and removed from an area, a fuel spill has occurred. Volatile fuels pose significant threats to people, equipment, facilities and cargo when they are released. Anyone near a spill, including ramp workers, fueling personnel and aircraft occupants, are in danger if the fuel ignites. Buildings and equipment in a spill area, such as terminals, hangars, aircraft, fuel trucks and service equipment also are at risk. An often neglected point is that aircraft cargo also is threatened by fuel spills

  2. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy's liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility is a research and demonstration facility available on a user-fee basis to private and public sector test and training sponsors concerned with safety aspects of hazardous chemicals. Though initially designed to accommodate large liquefied natural gas releases, the Spill Test Facility (STF) can also accommodate hazardous materials training and safety-related testing of most chemicals in commercial use. The STF is located at DOE's Nevada Test Site near Mercury, Nevada, USA. Utilization of the Spill Test Facility provides a unique opportunity for industry and other users to conduct hazardous materials testing and training. The Spill Test Facility is the only facility of its kind for either large- or small-scale testing of hazardous and toxic fluids including wind tunnel testing under controlled conditions. It is ideally suited for test sponsors to develop verified data on prevention, mitigation, clean-up, and environmental effects of toxic and hazardous gaseous liquids. The facility site also supports structured training for hazardous spills, mitigation, and clean-up. Since 1986, the Spill Test Facility has been utilized for releases to evaluate the patterns of dispersion, mitigation techniques, and combustion characteristics of select materials. Use of the facility can also aid users in developing emergency planning under US P.L 99-499, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and other regulations. The Spill Test Facility Program is managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy (FE) with the support and assistance of other divisions of US DOE and the US Government. DOE/FE serves as facilitator and business manager for the Spill Test Facility and site. This brief document is designed to acquaint a potential user of the Spill Test Facility with an outline of the procedures and policies associated with the use of the facility

  3. Fate of dispersed marine fuel oil in sediment under pre-spill application strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Hua

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the movement of dispersed oil in marine sediment under two dispersant application scenarios, applied prior to and after oil being spilled overboard, was examined. The pre-spill application scenario caused much less oil to be retained in the top sediment than post-spill scenario. The difference in oil retention in the top sediment between pre- and post-spill application scenario increased with increase in fuel oil temperature. For fuel oil above 40 o C, the difference in the effect of pre-spill application strategy under various water temperatures was negligible. When soap water was used as replacement for chemical dispersant, almost one-half as much oil was retained in the top sediment as that when using chemical dispersant. The adsorption of dispersed oil to the top sediment was almost proportionally decreased with doubling of soap dosage. (Author)

  4. Investigation of evaporation and biodegradation of fuel spills in Antarctica: II-extent of natural attenuation at Casey Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Ian; Ferguson, Susan H; Harvey, Paul McA; Riddle, Martin J

    2006-03-01

    In many temperate regions, fuel and oil spills are sometimes managed simply by allowing natural degradation to occur, while monitoring soils and groundwater to ensure that there is no off-site migration or on-site impact. To critically assess whether this approach is suitable for coastal Antarctic sites, we investigated the extent of evaporation and biodegradation at three old fuel spills at Casey Station. Where the contaminants migrated across frozen ground, probably beneath snow, approximately half the fuel evaporated in the first few months prior to infiltration at the beginning of summer. Once in the ground, however, evaporation rates were negligible. In contrast, minor spills from fuel drums buried in an abandoned waste disposal site did not evaporate to the same extent. Biodegradation within all three spill sites is generally very minor. We conclude that natural attenuation is not a suitable management strategy for fuel-contaminated soils in Antarctic coastal regions.

  5. Domestic fuel oil spill prevention committee : report to Ministers of Government Services and Lands and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The number of reported spills from domestic fuel oil systems increased dramatically in Newfoundland, which prompted the Minister of Government Services and Lands to arrange a meeting with representatives from consumers, the fuel service industry and the insurance industry to ensure proper measures were taken for the prevention of domestic fuel spills. A joint committee consisting of industry and government representatives was formed as a result of this meeting, to examine and investigate the situation and report to the Minister of Government Services and Lands. Advice on means to address the problems associated with domestic fuel oil spills was provided, as well as mechanisms to minimize such occurrences in the future. Also included in the review were small commercial storage tanks units of no more than 2500 litres, as small commercial establishments often have heating systems similar in size to residential units. Gradual leaks that go undetected for years often occur, as do the catastrophic rupture of the fuel storage tank itself. Rusting and exterior tubing are some of the causes of spills. The contamination of surrounding soil and/or groundwater can occur as a result of the spills, and fumes can enter residences through foundation walls of the sewer system. Condensation within the tank can lead to corrosion of the fuel tanks. A number of recommendations were made in the report, such as the establishment of regulations pertaining to the construction, installation, servicing and fueling of domestic and small commercial fuel systems, the proper enforcement of the regulations, a public education campaign, an emergency response capability, tax incentives to consumers for expenditures associated with the upgrading or replacement of inadequate systems, support funding, the establishment of an emergency respond fund, and environmental cleanup requirements. figs

  6. Hydrocarbon removal from bilgewater by a combination of air-stripping and photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazoir, D., E-mail: david.cazoir@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France); Fine, L.; Ferronato, C.; Chovelon, J.-M. [University Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69626, France, CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse et l' Environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69626 (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bilge water is an oily effluent that contaminates oceans and seas (MARPOL73/78). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrocarbon removal was studied by photocatalysis and air-stripping, together used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aqueous and gaseous phases were monitored by GC-MS during the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combined process showed a better efficiency and a synergistic effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Alkanes (N{sub C} > 15) appeared as being the most refractory compounds. - Abstract: In order to prevent hydrocarbon discharge at sea from the bilge of ships, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) enacted the MARPOL 73/78 convention in which effluents are now limited to those with maximum oil content of 15 ppmv. Thus, photocatalysis and air-stripping were combined for the hydrocarbon removal from a real oily bilgewater sample and an original monitoring of both aqueous and gaseous phases was performed by GC/MS to better understand the process. Our results show that the hydrocarbon oil index [HC] can be reduced to its maximum permissible value of 15 ppmv (MARPOL) in only 8.5 h when photocatalysis and air-stripping are used together in a synergistic way, as against 17 h when photocatalysis is used alone. However, this air-assisted photocatalytic process emits a large quantity of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and, within the first four hours, ca. 10% of the hydrocarbon removal in the aqueous phase is actually just transferred into the gaseous one. Finally, we highlight that the n-alkanes with a number of carbon atoms higher than 15 (N{sub C} > 15) are those which most decrease the rate of [HC] removal.

  7. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Diez, E. [Transportes Salas Simo S.L., Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  8. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Kantin, R.; Diez, E.

    2002-01-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  9. Spills Action Centre summary report of 1995 spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A summary of spills reported to the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy during 1995 was presented. The Ministry's Spill Action Centre is on call 24-hours per day to receive and respond to reports of spills and other urgent environmental incidents. Some 5,000 spills were documented in 1995. Oils and fuels accounted for 59 per cent of the spilled materials, chemicals and chemical solutions for 17 per cent, wastes and waste waters for 16 per cent, and gaseous materials for 5 per cent. Unknown materials accounted for 3 per cent. Most of the spills involved small volumes. Equipment failure and operator error were the major reasons for spills. All occurrences reported are stored on a computerized database. The information is used to develop new pollution abatement programs and spill prevention initiatives as trends are identified. 14 tabs., 14 figs

  10. Fuel spill identification by gas chromatography -- genetic algorithms/pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, B.K.; Moores, A.J.; Faruque, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gas chromatography and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of 256 gas chromatograms of neat jet fuels. 31 fuels that have undergone weathering in a subsurface environment were correctly identified by type using discriminants developed from the gas chromatograms of the neat jet fuels. Coalescing poorly resolved peaks, which occurred during preprocessing, diminished the resolution and hence information content of the GC profiles. Nevertheless a genetic algorithm was able to extract enough information from these profiles to correctly classify the chromatograms of weathered fuels. This suggests that cheaper and simpler GC instruments ca be used to type jet fuels

  11. A comparative assessment of the fate and effects of similar Orimulsion and heavy fuel oil spills in the Milford Haven Estuary, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, D.L.; Rines, H.M.; Christensen, F.T.; Isajil, T.; French, D.; Edwards, N.

    1996-01-01

    A Spill Impact Assessment Program (SIMAP) was used to simulate spills of 1,000 metric tons each of No. 6 fuel oil and Orimulsion into the Milford Haven Estuary. The experiments were conducted because many oil burning power generating stations worldwide have considered the use of Orimulsion (a mixture of 70% bitumen, 30% water and a surfactant) in place of the conventional heavy fuel oil No. 6. An assessment of the potential effects of an accidental spill of Orimulsion was therefore conducted. A comparison of that spill to one of conventional fuel oil was part of the evaluation. The experiments were run for three weeks, each under identical environmental conditions and impacts on the local habitats and biota were calculated. The model predicted that a spill of No. 6 fuel (which floats because of its low density relative to sea water) would result in the loss of about 14% of the total bird population. Fish kills would be very small. A spill of Orimulsion (which readily disperses into the water column because of the presence of a surfactant) would result in the loss of about 0.4% of the adult fish and 3.7% of young fish, while birds losses would be negligible. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  12. Spills Action Centre summary report of 1992 spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Environment Ontario's Spills Action Center (SAC) receives and initiates response to spills and other urgent environmental incidents on a 24 h per day basis. The center documented 14,588 occurrence reports in 1992. Two thirds of these involved a range of ministry notification requirements and environmental complaints, while one third involved spills. Information on spills reported in 1992 are summarized. The 5,014 spills reported to SAC in 1992 represent a 5% decrease from 1991. Fewer spills to air accounted for this decrease, while the number of spills to land and water remained unchanged. Oil and fuel spills accounted for 59% of spilled material. Chemical or chemical solutions accounted for ca 15%, wastes or wastewaters 18%, gaseous emissions 6% and unknown for the remainder. Around 20% of spills were less than 10 liters, 57% were less than 100 liters, and 86% were less than 1000 liters. About 28% of the spills had a confirmed environmental impact or adverse affect, two thirds involving soil contamination and around one fifth involving surface water contamination. Twenty-three spills resulted in human health and safety concerns. Around 45% of all spills were completely cleaned up, and an additional 22% were partially cleaned up. Industrial sectors with the largest proportion of reported spills were: transportation, 16%; petroleum, 13%; metallurgical, 6%; general manufacturing, 5%; and chemical, 5%. Public sector spills accounted for 18% of reported spills. Motor vehicles were the largest sources of spills accounting for over 28% of reported spills. 14 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Biodegradation of spilled diesel fuel in agricultural soil: Effect of humates, zeolite, and bioaugmentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuráň, P.; Trögl, J.; Nováková, J.; Pilařová, V.; Dáňová, P.; Pavlorková, J.; Kozler, J.; Novák, František; Popelka, J.

    -, č. 642427 (2014) ISSN 1537-744X Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/456 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodegradation * spilled diesel fuel * agricultural soil Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 1.219, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/642427

  14. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility: Overview of STF capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (STF) constructed at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site is a basic research tool for studying the dynamics of accidental releases of various hazardous liquids. This Facility is designed to (1) discharge, at a controlled rate, a measured volume of hazardous test liquid on a prepared surface of a dry lake bed (Frenchman Lake); (2) monitor and record process operating data, close-in and downwind meteorological data, and downwind gaseous concentration levels; and (3) provide a means to control and monitor these functions from a remote location. The STF will accommodate large and small-scale testing of hazardous test fluid release rates up to 28,000 gallons per minute. Spill volumes up to 52,800 gallons are achievable. Generic categories of fluids that can be tested are cryogenics, isothermals, aerosol-forming materials, and chemically reactive. The phenomena that can be studied include source definition, dispersion, and pool fire/vapor burning. Other capabilities available at the STF include large-scale wind tunnel testing, a small test cell for exposing personnel protective clothing, and an area for developing mitigation techniques

  15. Migracija dizel goriva izlivenog u slojeve zemljišta / Migration of diesel fuel spilled in subsurface layers of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Vuruna

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazane osnovne fizičko-hemijske karakteristike dizel goriva i zemljišta. Objašnjena je migracija izlivenog naftnog zagađivača kroz vertikalni profil zemljišta. U eksperimentalnom delu ispitivane su koncentracije dizel goriva i relativne koncentracije n-alkana u površinskim slojevima peska, u koje gorivo dospeva kao posledica akcidentnog izlivanja. Utvrđeno je da se koncentracije dizel goriva menjaju sa vremenom nakon izlivanja u svim ispitivanim slojevima. Takođe, utvrđeno je da se dizel gorivo, kao potencijalni zagađivač, u prvih šest nedelja, uglavnom, zadržava u površinskom sloju dubine 30 cm, a objašnjene su i mogućnosti sanacije zagađenog zemljišta. / The basic physical and chemical properties of both diesel fuel and soil have been given in this article and oil pollutants migration through vertical soil profile have been explained as well. In the experimental part of the paper both the concentrations of diesel fuel and relative concentrations of n-alkynes spilled in sandy soil by accident have been investigated. It has been proven that the concentrations of diesel fuel have changed in all layers of soil depending on the time after spill. Diesel fuel as possible pollutant has been retained 30 cm deep in sandy soil during six weeks after spill. Finally, cleanup techniques of polluted soil have been explained.

  16. Spread and burning behavior of continuous spill fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Spill fire experiments with continuous discharge on a fireproof glass sheet were conducted to improve the understanding of spill fire spread and burning. Ethanol was used as the fuel and the discharge rate was varied from 2.8. mL/s to 7.6. mL/s. Three ignition conditions were used...... in the experiments; no ignition, instantaneous ignition and delayed ignition. The spread rate, regression rate, penetrated thermal radiation and the temperature of the bottom glass were analyzed. The experiments clearly show the entire spread process for spill fires. Further, the regression rate of spill fires...... at the quasi-steady burning was lower than that of pool fires and the ratio of the spill fires' regression rate to the pool fires' regression rate was found to be approximately 0.89. With respect to the radiative penetration and the heat conduction between the fuel layer and the glass, a regression rate...

  17. A local oil spill revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teal, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    In October 1969 George Hampson and Howard Sanders (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution) described a 'Local Oil Spill' in Oceanus. The spill had occurred a month before when the barge Florida, loaded with no. 2 fuel oil, ran into some rocks in Buzzards Bay off West Falmouth, Massachusetts. In the summer of 1989, almost 20 years later, They visited the Wild Harbor marsh area that had suffered the greatest impact from the spill to see if any traces of the event in the marsh ecosystem could be found. During those 20 years, the site has been visited by graduate students in marine ecology, by reporters seeking information about current oil spills but also interested in seeing the effects of the Wild Harbor spill, and by visiting scientists curious about one of the world's best-studied oil spills. For more than a decade after the spill, an oil sheen appeared on the surface of the water when mud from the most heavily oiled parts of the marsh was disturbed. During the second decade, the marsh's appearance returned to normal

  18. Validation of an orimulsion spill fates model using observations from field test spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D. P.; Rines, H.; Masciangioli, P.

    1997-01-01

    The SIMAP Spill Impact Model system was developed to simulate fates and effects of spilled oil and other fuels in 3-D and time. Orimulsion is a Venezuelan product consisting of 70 per cent bitumen and 30 per cent water which has been shipped to many parts of the world for some time without an accidental spill into coastal or marine waters. In July 1966 two intentional spills of Orimulsion into Carribean waters were made and sampled in detail in order to verify the SIMAP model. Data on physical dispersion was collected at the same time. Data collected in the field was compared with model simulations. Results confirmed SIMAP's ability to predict the increasing dispersion and shearing of the bitumen plume as wind speed increases, as well as the actual field distribution of subsurface and surface bitumen. 17 refs., 7 tabs., 26 figs

  19. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W. D.; Twilley, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, J.R. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain); Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain). Inst. de Biotecnologia de Asturias; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F. [Univ. Polictenica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Laboratorio de Estratigrafia Biomolecular

    2006-07-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Effectiveness of bioremediation for the Prestige fuel spill : a summary of case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.R.; Gonzalez-Rojas, E.; Pelaez, A.I.; Sanchez, J; Garcia-Martinez, M.J.; Llamas, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described novel bioremediation strategies used to remediate coastal areas in Spain impacted by the Prestige fuel oil spill in 2002. The bioremediation techniques were applied after hot pressurized water washing was used to remove hydrocarbons adhering to shorelines and rocks. Bioremediation strategies included monitored natural attenuation as well as accelerating biodegradation by stimulating indigenous populations through the addition of exogenous microbial populations. The sites selected for bioremediation were rocky shorelines of heterogenous granitic sediments with grain sizes ranging from sands to huge boulders; limestone-sandstone pebbles and cobbles; and fuel-coated limestone cliffs. Total surface area covered by the fuel was determined through the use of image analysis calculations. A statistical measurement of the fuel layer thickness was calculated by averaging the weights of multiple-fuel sampling increments. Bioremediation products included the use of oleophilic fertilizers; a biodegradable surfactant; and a microbial seeding agent. Determinations of saturate, aromatic, resins, and asphaltene (SARA) were performed using maltenes extraction and liquid chromatography. Microbial plating and selective enrichment with fuel as the sole carbon source were used to monitor the evolution of microbial populations in a variety of experiments. It was concluded that the biostimulation technique enhanced the efficiency of the in situ oleophilic fertilizers. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  2. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  3. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Assessing fuel spill risks in polar waters: Temporal dynamics and behaviour of hydrocarbons from Antarctic diesel, marine gas oil and residual fuel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathryn E; King, Catherine K; Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-09-15

    As part of risk assessment of fuel oil spills in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, this study describes partitioning of hydrocarbons from three fuels (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, SAB; marine gas oil, MGO; and intermediate grade fuel oil, IFO 180) into seawater at 0 and 5°C and subsequent depletion over 7days. Initial total hydrocarbon content (THC) of water accommodated fraction (WAF) in seawater was highest for SAB. Rates of THC loss and proportions in equivalent carbon number fractions differed between fuels and over time. THC was most persistent in IFO 180 WAFs and most rapidly depleted in MGO WAF, with depletion for SAB WAF strongly affected by temperature. Concentration and composition remained proportionate in dilution series over time. This study significantly enhances our understanding of fuel behaviour in Antarctic and subantarctic waters, enabling improved predictions for estimates of sensitivities of marine organisms to toxic contaminants from fuels in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving F stat >F critical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Removal of organic pollutants from 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) industrial wastewater by micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shibin; Xia Shuichun; Zhu Changqing

    2007-01-01

    A feasible method for treatment of the wastewater from the two-staged neutralization in 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobenzidine (TCB) manufacturing processes, a refractory dye intermediate effluents, based on combined micro-electrochemical oxidation or iron-chipping filtration (ICF) and air-stripping reactor (ASR), was developed. On conditions of HRT 1 h, pH 3.0 in ICF and HRT 38 h, gas-liquid ratio 15, pH 6.0-8.65, temperature 26 deg. C in ASR, the overall COD, color, TCB and NH 4 + -N removal were 96.8%, 91%, 87.61% and 62%, respectively, during the treatment of TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol. The averaged 18.3%, 81.7% of the total degraded COD, 35.2%, 64.8% of TCB were carried out in ICF and ASR, respectively. NH 4 + -N removal was finished mainly in ASR. The experimental results indicated that the combined micro-electrochemical oxidation and air-stripping process performed good treatment of COD, color, TCB and NH 4 + -N removal in TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by ethanol or acetone, came up the discharge standard in China. But the TCB wastewater from the two-staged neutralization dissolved by methanol should be deeply treated before discharged

  7. Fuel Conservation by the Application of Spill Prevention and Failsafe Engineering (A Guideline Manual)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodier, J. Leslie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Siclari, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering; Garrity, Phyllis A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Water and Land Resources Department, Office of Marine and Environmental Engineering

    1980-10-30

    From a series of nationwide plant surveys dedicated to spill prevention, containment and countermeasure evaluation, coupled with spill response action activities, a need was determined for a spill prevention guideline manual. From Federally accumulated statistics for oil and hazardous substance spills, the authors culled information on spills of hydrocarbon products. In 1978, a total of 1456 oil spills were reported compared to 1451 in 1979. The 1978 spills were more severe, however, since 7,289,163 gallons of oil were accidentally discharged. In 1979, the gallons spilled was reduced to 3,663,473. These figures are derived from reported spills; it is highly possible that an equal amount was spilled and not reported. Spills effectively contained within a plant property that do not enter a navigational waterway need not be reported. Needless to say, there is a tremendous annual loss of oil products due to accidental spillage during transportation, cargo transfer, bulk storage and processing. As an aid to plant engineers and managers, Federal workers, fire marshalls and fire and casualty insurance inspectors, the document is offered as a spill prevention guide. The manual defines state-of-the-art spill prevention practices and automation techniques that can reduce spills caused by human error. Whenever practical, the cost of implementation is provided to aid equipment acquisition and installation budgeting. To emphasize the need for spill prevention activities, historic spills are briefly described after which remedial action is defined in an appropriate section of the manual. The section on plant security goes into considerable depth since to date no Federal agency or trade association has provided industry with guidelines on this important phase of plant operation. The intent of the document is to provide finger-tip reference material that can be used by interested parties in a nationwide effort to reduce loss of oil from preventable spills.

  8. Worldwide analysis of marine oil spill cleanup cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    The many factors that influence oil spill response costs were discussed with particular emphasis on how spill responses differ around the world because of differing cultural values, socio-economic factors and labor costs. This paper presented an analysis of marine oil spill cleanup costs based on the country, proximity to shoreline, spill size, oil type, degree of shoreline oiling and cleanup methodology. The objective was to determine how each factor impacts per-unit cleanup costs. Near-shore spills and in-port spills were found to be 4-5 times more expensive to clean than offshore spills. Responses to spills of heavy fuels also cost 10 times more than for lighter crudes and diesel. Spill responses for spills under 30 tonnes are 10 times more costly than on a per-unit basis, for spills of 300 tonnes. A newly developed modelling technique that can be used on different types of marine spills was described. It is based on updated cost data acquired from case studies of more than 300 spills in 40 countries. The model determines a per-unit cleanup cost estimation by taking into consideration oil type, location, spill size, cleanup methodology, and shoreline oiling. It was concluded that the actual spill costs are totally dependent on the actual circumstances of the spill. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Enhancing spill prevention and response preparedness through quality control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Pickering, T.H.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The year 1990 saw passage of federal and state oil spill legislation directing the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to require on shore bulk petroleum storage facilities to improve their oil spill response and prevention capabilities. The Florida Power ampersand Light Company (FPL), to address concerns arising out of several recent significant spills which had occurred worldwide, and to examine its current situation with regard compliance with the new laws, formed a quality improvement interdepartmental task team in July 1989. Its mission was to reduce the potential for oil spills during waterborne transportation between FPL's fuel oil terminals and its power plants and during transfer and storage of oil at these facilities. Another objective of the team was to enhance the company's spill response preparedness. Using quality control tools and reliability techniques, the team conducted a detailed analysis of seven coastal power plants and five fuel oil terminal facilities. This analysis began with the development of cause-and-effect diagrams designed to identify the root causes of spills so that corrective and preventive actions could be taken. These diagram are constructed by listing possible causes of oil spills under various major categories of possible system breakdown, such as man, method, equipment, and materials. Next, potential root causes are identified and then verified. The team identified the occurrence of surface water oil spill and reduced spill response capability as primary concerns and accordingly constructed cause-and-effect diagrams for both components. Lack of proper procedures, failure of control equipment, and inadequate facility design were identified as potential root causes leading to surface water oil spills. Lack of proper procedures, an inconsistent training program, and response equipment limitations were identified as potential root causes affecting oil spill response capabilities

  10. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F. [Iles Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  11. The INCOTUR model : estimation of losses in the tourism sector in Alcudia due to a hydrocarbon spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Santos, A.; Serr, F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented a computer model that calculates the economic losses incurred by a hydrocarbon spill on a coastal area. In particular, it focused on the Balearic Islands in the Bay of Alcudia where the economy depends mainly on tourism. A large number of oil tankers carrying crude oil and petroleum products pass through the Balearic Sea. Any pollution resulting from a fuel spill can have a significant economic impact on both the tourism sector and the Balearic society in general. This study focused on the simulation of 18 spills of Jet A1 fuel oil, unleaded gasoline and Bunker C fuel oil. Simulations of the study area were produced with OILMAP, MIKE21, GNOME and ADIOS models which estimated the trajectories of various spills and the amount of oil washed ashore. The change in physical and chemical properties of the spilled hydrocarbons was also determined. The simulation models considered the trajectory followed by spills according to the type and amount of spill, weather conditions prevailing during the spill and the period immediately following the spill. The INCOTUR model was then used to calculate the economic losses resulting from an oil spill by considering the number of tonnes of oil washed ashore; number of days needed to organize cleanup; the percentage of tourism that will be maintained despite the effects of the spill; number of hotel beds; percentage of hotel occupancy by month; cost of package holidays; petty cash expenses; and, cost of advertising campaign for the affected area. With this data, the model can determine the number of days needed to clean and restore the coastline; monthly rate of recovery in tourism levels; and, losses in tourism sector. According to the INCOTUR model, the total losses incurred by a spill of 40,000 tonnes of Bunker C fuel, was estimated at 472 million Euros. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs

  12. Differences in Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Adrià Mora

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during vehicle refueling have received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments to assess evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete. Changes in the concrete mass after small amounts of diesel and gasoline were spilled have been analyzed. Variation in humidity, among other parameters, clearly affects the measured mass since condensed water is constantly added to or released from the concrete. This mass experiences an about exponential decay in time. The difference in behavior between both fuel types is important as the percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. A statistical analysis suggests that the initial spill amount does not significantly affect the fraction of infiltrated fuel over time. This finding is in agreement with pore-scale simulations that we performed. A significant amount of fuel could be seeping into soil and groundwater underneath concrete pavement at gas stations or could be released to the atmosphere. Possible solutions for pavement and groundwater pollution are considered.

  13. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  14. NAPL migration and ecotoxicity of conventional and renewable fuels in accidental spill scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malk, Vuokko; Barreto Tejera, Eduardo; Simpanen, Suvi; Dahl, Mari; Mäkelä, Riikka; Häkkinen, Jani; Kiiski, Anna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Fuels derived from non-petroleum renewable resources have raised interest due to their potential in replacing petroleum-based fuels, but information on their fate and effects in the terrestrial and aquatic environments in accidental spill scenario is limited. In this study, migration of four fuels (conventional diesel, conventional gasoline, renewable diesel NExBTL, and ethanol-blended gasoline RE85 containing maximum 85% ethanol) as non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. Ecotoxicity data was produced for the same fuels. There was no significant difference in migration of conventional and renewable diesel, but gasoline migrated 1.5 times deeper and 7-9 times faster in sand than diesel. RE85 spread horizontally wider but not as deep (p gasoline. Conventional gasoline was the most toxic (lethal concentration [LC50] 20 mg/kg total hydrocarbon content [THC]) among the studied fuels in soil toxicity test with earthworm Eisenia fetida followed by ethanol-blended gasoline (LC50 1,643 mg/kg THC) and conventional diesel (LC50 2,432 mg/kg THC), although gasoline evaporated fast from soil. For comparison, the toxicity of the water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of the fuels was tested with water flea Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, also demonstrating groundwater toxicity. The WAF of conventional gasoline and RE85 showed almost similar toxicity to both the aquatic test species. EC50 values of 1:10 (by volume) WAF were 9.9 %WAF (gasoline) and 9.3 %WAF (RE85) to D. magna and 9.3 %WAF (gasoline) and 12.3 %WAF (RE85) to V. fischeri. Low solubility decreased toxicity potential of conventional diesel in aquatic environment, but direct physical effects of oil phase pose a threat to organisms in nature. Renewable diesel NExBTL did not show clear toxicity to any test species.

  15. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  16. Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites.

  17. Monitoring of Olympic National Park Beaches to determine fate and effects of spilled bunker C fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.A.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.; Fortman, T.J.; Citterman, R.J.; Fleischmann, M.L.

    1990-10-01

    On December 23, 1988, the barge Nestucca was accidentally struck by its tow, a Souse Brothers Towing Company tug, releasing approximately 230,000 gallons of Bunker C fuel oil and fouling beaches from Grays Harbor north to Vancouver Island. Affected beaches in Washington included a 40-mile-long strip that has been recently added to Olympic National Park. The purpose of the monitoring program documented in this report was to determine the fate of spilled Bunker C fuel oil on selected Washington coastal beaches. We sought to determine (1) how much oil remained in intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats following clean-up and weathering, (2) to what extent intertidal and/or shallow subtidal biotic assemblages have been contaminated, and (3) how rapidly the oil has left the ecosystem. 45 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Predicting the weathering of fuel and oil spills: A diffusion-limited evaporation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzakoulakis, Konstantinos; George, Simon C

    2018-01-01

    The majority of the evaporation models currently available in the literature for the prediction of oil spill weathering do not take into account diffusion-limited mass transport and the formation of a concentration gradient in the oil phase. The altered surface concentration of the spill caused by diffusion-limited transport leads to a slower evaporation rate compared to the predictions of diffusion-agnostic evaporation models. The model presented in this study incorporates a diffusive layer in the oil phase and predicts the diffusion-limited evaporation rate. The information required is the composition of the fluid from gas chromatography or alternatively the distillation data. If the density or a single viscosity measurement is available the accuracy of the predictions is higher. Environmental conditions such as water temperature, air pressure and wind velocity are taken into account. The model was tested with synthetic mixtures, petroleum fuels and crude oils with initial viscosities ranging from 2 to 13,000 cSt. The tested temperatures varied from 0 °C to 23.4 °C and wind velocities from 0.3 to 3.8 m/s. The average absolute deviation (AAD) of the diffusion-limited model ranged between 1.62% and 24.87%. In comparison, the AAD of a diffusion-agnostic model ranged between 2.34% and 136.62% against the same tested fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment and recommendations for the oil spill cleanup of Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    The potential impact of an oil spill consisting of a blend of diesel and a heavy residual fuel oil on water column resources, benthic resources, intertidal habitats and communities, birds, and socio-economic resources was assessed and recommendations for clean-up given. The oil spill occurred in the bay on January 18, 2000

  20. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  1. The effect of petroleum spills on permafrost at CFS Alert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, S.; Jarrett, P.

    1997-01-01

    Site investigations have been carried out at two decommissioned tank farm sites at Canadian Forces Station Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island. The purpose was to study the mechanism of spilt fuel movement in frozen ground and its effects on frozen soils. The investigations consisted of sampling to depths below the permafrost table to assess vertical fuel migration, hydrocarbon pollutant concentration and water content. Results showed vertical migration of spilled fuel into permafrost. The migration was attributed to gravity drainage through interconnected air voids in fill material or movement through fissures in the soil induced by thermal contraction. Unweathered contaminants were found below the liners on top of the permafrost, believed to have been caused by holes in the liner. The entrapment of the spilled fuel may have been responsible for the enhanced vertical migration of contaminants observed at these sites. It was concluded that permafrost should not be considered as an impermeable barrier to contaminants with freezing points below 0 degree C. 4 figs

  2. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hodgson, W.H.

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 μm, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0

  3. Allocation of multiple, widely spread oil spills associated with one polluter : GC-MS fingerprinting and diagnostic ratios of spilled oil and oiled seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, A.B.; Avnskjold, J.

    2005-01-01

    In January 2005, a Cypriot cargo ship leaked about 5 tons of heavy fuel bunker oil in Kerteminde Bay in the Great Belt, Denmark. The ship was stopped to inspect and collect oil samples from its 2 damaged tanks for forensic oil spill identification by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two weeks following the accident, a series of waterborne and stranded oil spills showed up in the Great Belt area, north and south of the vessel's route. Thousands of oiled seabirds on small islands and coastlines were affected. The Danish Coast Guard suspected that the vessel might be responsible for the observed spills. More than 50 oil samples were collected and sent for forensic analysis at the National Environmental Research Institute. Both waterborne and stranded spill samples showed an almost perfect match of diagnostic ratios and chromatograph with the potential responsible party (PRP) bunker. The spill samples therefore matched the reference oil and were allocated to the spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. One sample deviated significantly from the other samples and was not allocated to the ship's accidental spill. Oil samples collected from oiled seabirds showed larger variations between diagnostic ratios and the reference bunker oils. The variations can be attributed to weathering and biodegradation, but also to contamination by non-petrogenic material. It was concluded that the oiled seabirds represented non-match samples that cannot be allocated to the oil spill associated with the Cypriot cargo ship. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  5. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Source identification of underground fuel spills by solid-phase microextraction/high-resolution gas chromatography/genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, B K; Ritter, J; Moores, A J; Wilson, M; Faruque, A; Mayfield, H T

    2000-01-15

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary column gas chromatography, and pattern recognition methods were used to develop a potential method for typing jet fuels so a spill sample in the environment can be traced to its source. The test data consisted of gas chromatograms from 180 neat jet fuel samples representing common aviation turbine fuels found in the United States (JP-4, Jet-A, JP-7, JPTS, JP-5, JP-8). SPME sampling of the fuel's headspace afforded well-resolved reproducible profiles, which were standardized using special peak-matching software. The peak-matching procedure yielded 84 standardized retention time windows, though not all peaks were present in all gas chromatograms. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to identify features (in the standardized chromatograms of the neat jet fuels) suitable for pattern recognition analysis. The GA selected peaks, whose two largest principal components showed clustering of the chromatograms on the basis of fuel type. The principal component analysis routine in the fitness function of the GA acted as an information filter, significantly reducing the size of the search space, since it restricted the search to feature subsets whose variance is primarily about differences between the various fuel types in the training set. In addition, the GA focused on those classes and/or samples that were difficult to classify as it trained using a form of boosting. Samples that consistently classify correctly were not as heavily weighted as samples that were difficult to classify. Over time, the GA learned its optimal parameters in a manner similar to a perceptron. The pattern recognition GA integrated aspects of strong and weak learning to yield a "smart" one-pass procedure for feature selection.

  7. The Prestige oil spill response in the French coastal waters : setting up a second-line response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerambrun, L.; Lavenant, M.; Cariou, G.; Poisson, H.; Goasguen, H.; Peltier, M.

    2005-01-01

    A heavy fuel oil spill from the Prestige oil tanker in early 2003 threatened the coastline of France, particularly the sensitive sandy dunes of the Aquitaine coast. The spill posed a long-term threat to two affected tourist islands that host a rich marine life, including the Marennes-Oleron oysters and juvenile eel fisheries. An oil spill response system was established by the French Maritime Affairs Department. The two-tiered response system was constructed with dynamic and static components and was adapted for strong tidal currents and muddy waters where fuel patches from the spill might not be visible. Local fishermen with knowledge of the waters used their trawlers and eel-fishing boats that were equipped with oil recovery trawls. A local netting device was also tested. The second response line for shallow waters consisted of small boats with net bags. The storage, transfer and treatment of the oily waste were controlled and available oil waste treatment procedures were assessed at local, regional and national levels for each type of oil waste fuel. 2 refs

  8. Responding to the Sea Empress oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Law, R.J.; Kelly, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) is a government department which has responsibility in England and in Wales (acting on behalf of the Secretary of State for Wales) for controlling deposits in the sea, including approving the use of dispersants in oil spill response. MAFF also has responsibility in relation to the management of sustainable commercial fish and shellfish fisheries. Following the grounding of the tanker Sea Empress on 15 February 1996, over 72,000 tonnes of crude oil and bunker fuel was lost. This paper summarises the involvement of MAFF staff in the response phase, and in the subsequent assessment of the environmental impact of the oil spill and the associated clean up operations on commercial fisheries. After two and a half years of environmental monitoring and complementary research, it is concluded that the oil spill has had an insignificant impact on these fisheries beyond their closure during the incident response phase. Suggestions for further work are discussed. (author)

  9. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  10. Colonial pipeline Enoree River oil spill: A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, a pipeline ruptured near Fountain Inn, South Carolina, resulting in the release of approximately 13,000 barrels of No. 2 fuel oil to the inland surface water system. Final estimates provided by CPC for the amount of oil discharged from the pipeline rupture indicate that up to 13,100 barrels (over 555,000 gallons) of No. 2 fuel oil were released into the environment - of which approximately 12,600 barrels (530,000 gallons) were recovered. The recovery rate of greater than 95% of spilled product is considered to be well above average for a major discharge of oil in the inland zone. The primary factors influencing this rate of recovery were the ability to provide containment at the leak site within 12 hours of the release and to establish containment downstream of the spill in advance of the leading edge of the oil plume. A total of 23,320 barrels (almost a million gallons) of an oil/water mixture were collected within a five day period. Although the water systems in Clinton and Whitmire were affected by the spill, adequate backup systems provided alternate drinking water to these residents until the primary intakes could be opened. However, this spill caused significant environmental impacts. The South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department reports that 2,123 fish, representing 24 different species were killed along nine miles of Durbin Creek. From an overall standpoint, the response to this incident was sufficient to protect human health and minimize environmental damage. Contingency planning had prepared CPC for a spill of this magnitude and resources committed to the cleanup were adequate to accomplish the removal of the spilled product. The RRT concept proved to be of valuable assistance to the OSC from a resource perspective; and implementing the organizational components of the RRT provided the necessary mechanism for input and decision making for various parties affected by this incident

  11. Spill response trade-offs in a very large spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the physical limitaions on spill encounter rate and how these limitaions affect the are that can be covered in spill response. Since mechanical recovery devices may not be able to cover the affected area in a large spill, in situ burning must be considered as a response option. Further, effective recovered oil logistics is essential to successful response operations and keeping skimmers operating. A successful spill response effort in a very large oil spill often depends on: Prompt response, Skimmer encounter rate, Making a decision for in situ burning, Recovered oil logistics

  12. Oil spill risk assessment : relative impact indices by oil type and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French-McCay, D.; Beegle-Krause, C.J.; Rowe, J.; Rodriguez, W.; Schmidt Etkin, D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inform policies related to resource allocation for oil spill prevention, preparedness and response activities in Washington State. Oil spill reports and impact modelling studies were evaluated in order to determine major risk consequence factors including spill volume, location, timing, toxicity, persistence, and expected frequency of spills by sector. The Washington Compensation Schedule pre-assessment screening and oil spill compensation schedule regulations (WCS) designed to consider the sensitivity of oiled areas as well as the relative density and seasonal distributions of sensitive biota. Spill incidents were assigned per-gallon impact scores based on geographic location, oil type, and season. The WCS qualitative rating system was used to assess the potential impacts of spills in different geographic systems. Geographic zones were based on geography, circulation of currents, climate, and the WCS sub-regions in estuarine and marine areas on the Pacific coast of Washington State. Oil types included crude, heavy, and light oils; gasoline; jet fuel; and non-petroleum oils. A habitat index was calculated to represent existing stream conditions. It was concluded that the relative impact risk model is a reliable method for characterizing impacts based on spill volume, oil effects, and vulnerability rankings. 25 refs., 20 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Mathematical model simulation of a diesel spill in the Potomac River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, S.S.; Nicolette, J.P.; Markarian, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical modeling technique was used to simulate the transport and fate of approximately 400,000 gallons of spilled diesel fuel and its impact on the aquatic biota in the Potomac River and Sugarland Run. Sugarland Run is a tributary about 21 miles upstream from Washington, DC. The mass balance model predicted the dynamic (spatial and temporal) distribution of spilled oil. The distributions were presented in terms of surface oil slick and sheen, dissolved and undissolved total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the water surface, water column, river sediments, shoreline and atmosphere. The processes simulated included advective movement, dispersion, dissolution, evaporation, volatilization, sedimentation, shoreline deposition, biodegradation, and removal of oil from cleanup operations. The model predicted that the spill resulted in a water column dissolved TPH concentration range of 0.05 to 18.6 ppm in Sugarland Run. The spilled oil traveled 10 miles along Sugarland Run before it reached the Potomac River. At the Potomac River, the water column TPH concentration was predicted to have decreased to the range of 0.0 to 0.43 ppm. These levels were consistent with field samples. To assess biological injury, the model used 4, 8, 24, 48, and 96-hr LC values in computing the fish injury caused by the fuel oil. The model used the maximum running average of dissolved TPH and exposure time to predict levels of fish mortality in the range of 38 to 40% in Sugarland Run. This prediction was consistent with field fisheries surveys. The model also computed the amount of spilled oil that adsorbed and settled into the river sediments

  14. Progress toward the development of micro- and meso-scale methods for predicting the behavior of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO) spilled on water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostazeski, S.A.; Durell, G.S.; Uhler, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Bench-scale weathering studies were conducted on a number of low-API gravity oils (LAPIO), and flume tank studies were conducted on several LAPIO products. The objective was to develop a method which would predict the environmental behaviour of LAPIO fuel spilled on water. Unlike crude oils and petroleum products which float when spilled on water, LAPIO spills are unpredictable. LAPIO fuels, which are used for electric power generation, have densities greater or equal to 1.0 g/ml. When spilled at sea, they may float, be neutrally buoyant, or sink, depending on the conditions of the receiving water. Their behavior depends on the physical and chemical properties of the specific oil and also the temperature and composition of the water. In order to simulate the behavior of oil spilled at sea, a number of different LAPIO fuels were artificially weathered by evaporative distillation. Tests were conducted to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil residues, the buoyancy of the oils, their emulsifying properties and chemical dispersability. Results have shown that current laboratory methods for determining emulsion formation, stability, and kinetics are not adequate for these highly viscous fuels. Laboratory methods need refining and improving. 7 refs

  15. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  16. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Hernandez, David; Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Science (UEX), Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain); Garcia, Jesus-Pablo [Toxicology Area, National Centre of Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; Lopez-Beceiro, Ana [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science (USC), Estrada de Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p {<=} 0.01) and razorbill (22%, p {<=} 0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min{sup -} {sup 1} mg{sup -} {sup 1} protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6 {+-} 95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0 {+-} 60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6 {+-} 66.9). (author)

  17. Modeling fates and impacts for bio-economic analysis of hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.; Etkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The oil spill risks associated with four submerged rock pinnacles near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay are being evaluated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. Oil spill modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The scenarios are hypothetical vessel grounding on the pinnacles. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). The frequency distribution of oil fates and impacts was determined by first running each scenario in stochastic mode. The oil fates and biological effects of the spills were the focus of this paper. It was shown that diesel and crude oil spills would have greater impacts in the water column than heavy fuel or gasoline because gasoline is more volatile and less toxic and because heavy oil spills would be small in volume. It was determined that the major impacts and damage to birds would be low due to the high dilution potential of the bay. It was also noted that dispersants would be very effective in reducing impacts on wildlife and the shoreline. These results are being used to evaluate the cost-benefit analysis of removing the rocks versus the risk of an oil spill. The work demonstrates a statistically quantifiable method to estimate potential impacts that could be used in ecological risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis. 15 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  18. Characterization and identification of Detroit River mystery oil spill (2002)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Lambert, P.

    2003-01-01

    The authors described the mysterious oil spill which occurred in the Detroit River in 2002. Advanced chemical fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were conducted on spill samples collected by Environment Canada, Ontario Region, to determine the chemical composition of the oil and find out where it came from. The objective was to gather information concerning the nature, type, and components of the spill samples. The authors checked if the samples were identical to determine if they originated from the same source. They used a tiered analytical approach which facilitates the detailed compositional analysis by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and GC-flame ionization detection (FID). A wide range of diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds for interpreting chemical data was determined and analyzed. The results proved that: (1) the spill samples were largely composed of lube oil mixed with a smaller portion of diesel fuel, (2) sample number 3 collected from N. Boblo Island was more weathered than samples 1 and 2, (3) the oil in three samples was the same and originated from the same source, as shown by fingerprinting results, (4) most PAH compounds were from the diesel portion in the spill samples, and the biomarker compounds were mostly from the lube oil, (5) the diesel in the samples had been weathered and degraded, and the lube oil in the spill samples was waste lube oil, and (6) input of pyrogenic PAHs to the spill samples was clearly proven. The spill likely came from a place where both combustion and motor lubrication processes occur. 46 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Investigation of the presence of toxic components of petroleum hydrocarbons in Guanabara Bay, Brazil following the 2000 PETROBRAS fuel oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Catia Maria [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escritorio de Licenciamento de Petroleo e Nuclear; Vleet, Edward S. Van

    2003-07-01

    On January 18, 2000, approximately 340,000 gallons of marine fuel 380 oil were released into Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as a consequence of a pipeline transfer accident at the Duque de Caxias Refinery (PETROBRAS). Two years after the spill, the present investigation (sponsored by Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance - College of Public Health - University of South Florida) was conducted to assess the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on samples of water, sediments and edible tissue of the fishes (Mullet - Mugilliza and Croaker - Micropogonias furnieri) collected using two types of device (nets and fish traps) from the spill area in July and August 2002. The fishes samples collected in both months were considered to range from being not contaminated to being moderately contaminated by PAHs. Among all the sediments, only one (Point 10, July 2002) showed a total PAH concentration representing highly contaminated conditions. Except for Point 10, all other sediments could be considered minimally to moderately contaminated. Dissolved PAH concentrations found in the water samples were considered to range from minimally to moderately contaminated. (author)

  20. Groundwater issues relating to an Alaskan methanol spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dec. 1989 methanol spill which resulted from sabotage to three railroad tank cars. Samples taken from nearby drinking-water wells and groundwater-monitoring wells were below the analytical detection limit. Monitoring well data demonstrated that groundwater flow was not toward local residential wells. Dilution by snow and subsequent freezing in the soil limited the downward spread of the methanol, an advantage not found in milder, more temperate conditions. Contaminated material was removed and processed to reclaim the methanol. Volatilization and biodegradation should remove any remaining methanol. Cleanup options were limited by the possible hazardous waste classification of the contaminated soil. The regulatory status of spilled methanol waste should be re-evaluated, especially if use of methanol as a motor fuel increases

  1. Radiation exposure assessment following the 1978 Church Rock uranium mill tailings spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttenber, A.J. Jr.; Kreiss, K.

    1981-01-01

    Early in the morning of July 16, 1979, there was a breach in the earthen retaining dam of a tailings pond at the United Nuclear Corporation's (UNC's) Church Rock uranium mill. The acidified liquid and tailings slurry spilled through the damaged portion of the retaining wall into an arroyo that is a tributary to the Rio Puerco river system. This paper summarizes postspill monitoring efforts and relates the assessment of this spill to the general question of evaluating the health effects of nuclear fuel-cycle wastes

  2. Physical, chemical and biological observations and modeling of oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotti, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2016-11-01

    According to a definition of GESAMP, United Nations advisory body on scientific aspects of marine protection, a marine pollution is: "direct or indirect introduction by man of substances or energy into the marine environment … which results in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities including fishing, impairment of water quality and reduction of marine attractions". The works presented in this Special Issue stem from the need to manage the problem of marine pollution. The categories of pollutants associated with the maritime traffic are mainly hydrocarbons and chemicals. Hydrocarbon is the oil in all its forms, including the crude oil, the fuel oil, the sludges, debris and other refined products (as defined by MARPOL 73/78 Annex I (MARPOL, 1978)). An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the open ocean or coastal waters. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products (such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil. Oil spills can have devastating effects on the marine environment and can jeopardize the functional integrity of the marine ecosystem (seabirds populations, fish communities, and marine mammals), as reported in Jackson et al. (1989), Piatt and Anderson (1996), Peterson et al. (2003). While being toxic to marine life, the hydrocarbons are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carries can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting

  3. Gas spill emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This video presentation was designed to explain the steps that should be taken in the event of a petroleum product spill on land, to keep damages and consequences to a minimum. The events that took place when an oil truck full of gasoline overturned and smashed into a house on a residential street were described to illustrate the principles involved. The following sequence of events and actions, based on general principles of bringing the situation under control during an emergency operation were depicted: (1) identification of spilled product, (2) assessment of the situation, (3) setting priorities and evacuating the endangered area, and (4) setting up a communication system. The fire fighters sprayed the area with foam because of the fire and explosion potential. Sand was used to contain the spill and to keep it out of the storm sewers. The spilled oil was recovered. Three other spill situations - a spill at a service station, a spill in a ditch, and a spill in a waterway - were also documented. It was emphasized that while it is not possible to establish a single set of rules and actions that would apply to all situations since no two accidents involving petroleum products are alike, the general principles are universal and can be applied in all situations. First priority to consider should always be human life, then property, then the environment

  4. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  5. In situ bioremediation of JP-5 jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisman, M.P.; Dorwin, E.; Barnes, D.; Nelson, B.

    1991-01-01

    Fuel leaks and spills of the jet fuel JP-5 at various Naval installations are required by law to be remediated. Use of microorganisms for fuel spill remediation is the focus of this paper, which examines biodegradation of JP-5 by means of CO 2 evolution in batch cultures. In particular, the aerobic biodegradation of fresh and weathered JP-5, along with a representative fuel mix of three pure compounds, is examined. Since microorganisms exist in aqueous environments, the solubility in water of fuels and fuel components is also examined. Other chemical properties of the complex mixture of hydrocarbons in JP-5 may affect bioavailability. This paper will also attempt to relate biodegradation to these properties, particularly water solubility and type of hydrocarbon

  6. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of oil to environmentally benign chemicals such as water and carbon dioxide by 'hydrocarbon-eating' bacteria is described. The emphasis is on a new process to selectively increase the population of 'oil eating' bacteria, a development that became the foundation for the second-generation bioremediation accelerator, Inipol EAP-22. Second-generation bioremediation products focus on providing nitrogen and phosphorus, chemicals that are not present in crude oil in readily available form, but are essential for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, phospholipids and the energy metabolism of the bacteria. Providing these chemicals in the proper amounts encourages the preferential growth of oil-degrading microbes already present in the local biomass, thus overcoming the major limiting factor for biodegradation. These second-generation bioremediation products also have strong oleophilic properties engineered into them, to assure that the nutrients essential for the bacteria are in contact with the oil. The first major test for second-generation bioremediation accelerators came with the clean-up of the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, a disaster that contaminated more than 120 kilometres of Alaskan beaches along the shores of Prince William Sound. The Inipol EAP-22 successfully held the nutrients in contact with the oil for the duration of the treatment period, despite constant exposure to the washing action of the surf and occasional heavy rainstorms. Today, the accelerator is routinely used in cleaning up all types of ordinary spills including diesel fuel spills along railway right-of-ways, truck yards and refinery sludge. Conditions under which the application of the accelerator is likely to be most successful are described

  7. Recent spill experiences: the North Cape spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.

    1996-01-01

    The events which surrounded the spill of some 825,000 gallons of heating oil into the sea off the Rhode Island coast in January 1996, were described. Birds and marine life (lobsters in particular) had been affected by the spill, with injured and dead animals appearing from first light. Wildlife handling procedures were established immediately. A significant amount of the spilled oil had entered into the water column and could not be seen or controlled, and was moving along the coast into coastal ponds. Considerable seafood contamination was inevitable. To avoid even greater problems, it was decided to close the south shore beaches to the public and 105 square miles of coastal area to fishing and shell fishing. 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. Recent spill experiences: the North Cape spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, M. [Rhode Island Univ., Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Ocean Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The events which surrounded the spill of some 825,000 gallons of heating oil into the sea off the Rhode Island coast in January 1996, were described. Birds and marine life (lobsters in particular) had been affected by the spill, with injured and dead animals appearing from first light. Wildlife handling procedures were established immediately. A significant amount of the spilled oil had entered into the water column and could not be seen or controlled, and was moving along the coast into coastal ponds. Considerable seafood contamination was inevitable. To avoid even greater problems, it was decided to close the south shore beaches to the public and 105 square miles of coastal area to fishing and shell fishing. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  10. Don't Cry over Spilled Water: Identifying Risks and Solutions for Produced Water Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Amanda Rose

    Resource requirements and future energy generation requires careful evaluation, particularly due to climate change and water scarcity. This thesis discusses one aspect of energy generation linked to water; oil-and-gas extraction and the large volumes of waste water produced, otherwise known as "produced water". This research focuses on surface spills of produced water, their ramifications, safeguards against groundwater contamination at spill sites and potential remediation strategies. Produced water contains a variety of contaminants that include the group of known toxins, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and high salt concentrations. A combination of factors such as large volumes of generated produced water, the need for storage and transportation across large distances and the toxic-and-mobile nature of produced water constituents creates risks for spills that can pollute groundwater. Spills occur regularly, particularly in Weld County, Colorado, where the demand for natural gas is high. To answer spill-related hypotheses, a multitude of methodology were employed: modeling, greenhouse experimentation, gas chromatography and summarization of spill reports and statistical analyses. Using publically available spill data, this research found that the frequency of oil-and-gas related spills and the average spilled volume has increased in Weld County from 2011-2015. Additionally, the number of spills that have resulted in groundwater contamination has increased in the area. By focusing on the oil-and-gas operators responsible for these spills, a linear relationship was found between the volumes of oil-and-gas produced compared to the volumes of produced-water generated. However, larger oil-and-gas producers did not show a linear relationship between oil-and-gas produced and produced-water generated, such that larger producers were more efficient and generated less water per unit of energy. So while scale-up efficiency seems to exist for produced

  11. Analysis of the particular spill characteristics observed by the Belgian aerial surveillance program during the Tricolor incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the Tricolor oil spill incident, the remote sensing equipment used to monitor the spill, the observed spill characteristics and the flight data assessment. The spill occurred on December 14, 2002 following a collision between the carrier Tricolor and the container vessel Kariba in French waters in the Zone of Joint Responsibility, close to the Belgian and English borders. The Tricolor sank and 3 more vessels collided with the wreck in the five weeks following the collision, spilling several 100 tons of mostly heavy fuel oil into the sea. The remote sensing equipment aboard Belgian surveillance aircraft noted that freshly spilled oil formed a network of widespread dark oil trails surrounded by light oil fractions. The spill volumes were estimated to be high because of the large extent of the polluted area. Nine months following the spill, the emulsified oil trails had a density close to that of seawater. It was assumed that a cold and thick emulsion had formed and became trapped inside the wreck. Upon release, the emulsion could submerse and resurface. The incident demonstrated that early stage oil sample analysis could help interpret slick behaviour by means of remote sensing. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  13. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  14. Tunnel nitrogen spill experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, A.I.; Alferov, V.N.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Energy Saver Safety Analysis Report (SAR) found the tunnel oxygen deficiency considerations emphasized helium spills. These reports concluded the helium quickly warms and because of its low denisty, rises to the apex of the tunnel. The oxygen content below the apex and in all but the immediate vicinity of the helium spill is essentially unchanged and guarantees an undisturbed source of oxygen especially important to fallen personnel. In contrast nitrogen spills warm slower than helium due to the ratio of the enthalpy changes per unit volume spilled spread more uniformly across the tunnel cross-section when warmed because of the much smaller density difference with air, and generally provides a greater hazard than helium spills as a result. In particular there was concern that personnel that might fall to the floor for oxygen deficiency or other reasons might find less, and not more, oxygen with dire consequences. The SAR concluded tunnel nitrogen spills were under-investigated and led to this work

  15. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S. [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Hansen, A.B. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Kienhuis, P. [RIZA, (Netherlands); Duus, R. [Norwegian Standard Association (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. New guidelines for oil spill identification of waterborne petroleum and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faksness, L.G.; Daling, P.S.; Hansen, A.B.; Kienhuis, P.; Duus, R.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in interpretive and analytical methods have opened the possibility to improve the existing Nordtest methodology for oil spill identification which was developed in 1991 under the Nordic Council of Ministers. In 2002, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) established 2 working groups to revise the Nordtest Methodology into the following 2 CEN guidelines: (1) oil spill identification which includes waterborne and petroleum products, and (2) oil spill identification which in addition to including waterborne petroleum and petroleum products, includes analytical methodology and interpretation of results. The revised methodology includes a protocol/decision chart that has 3 tiered levels of analyses and data treatment. The methodology relies on the characterization of diagnostic ratios. The CEN working group intends to use the guidelines as a basis for a national oil spill identification protocol in each European country and for further international use. The methodology can be applied to oil samples of petrogenic origin with boiling points above 200 degrees C, such as crude oils, diesel fuel oils, residual bunker oils, lubricants, and mixtures of oily bilge and sludge samples. It is not intended for automotive gasolines or other light petroleum products. The method has been implemented in most forensic laboratories in Europe and has successfully differentiated between oils from a spill and possible pollution sources. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  17. The management of radioactive materials spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The management and handling of a radioactive materials spill must be swift and effective to reduce or mitigate any adverse impacts on public health and safety. Spills within nuclear facilities generally pose less of a public health impact than spills in areas of public access. The essential elements of spill management include prior planning by agencies which may be required to respond to a spill. Any plan for the management of radioactive materials spills must be flexible enough to be applied in a variety of situations. The major elements of a radioactive materials spill plan, however, apply in every case. It is essential that communications be clear and effective, that the management of a spill be directed by a responsible party whose authority is recognized by everyone involved and that the actions, according to the principles discussed above, be taken to assure the safety of any injured personnel, containment and stabilization and clean up the spill and to verify through radiological surveys and sample analyses that the clean up is complete. Any spill of radioactive materials, minor or major, should be assessed so that similar spills or accidents can be prevented

  18. Actual directions in study of ecological consequences of a highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a review of the actual directions in study of ecological consequences of highly toxic 1,1-dimethylhydrazine-based rocket fuel spills. Recent results on study of processes of transformation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, identification of its main metabolites and development of analytical methods for their determination are generalized. Modern analytical methods of determination of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and its transformation products in environmental samples are characterized. It is shown that in recent years, through the use of most modern methods of physical chemical analysis and sample preparation, works in this direction made significant progress and contributed to the development of studies in adjacent areas. A character of distribution of transformation products in soils of fall places of first stages of rocket-carriers is described and the available methods for their remediation are characterized.

  19. Evaluation of bird impacts on historical oil spill cases using the SIMAP oil spill model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, D.; Rowe, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of an oil spill on bird and other wildlife species can be estimated using the Spill Impact Model Application Package (SIMAP). SIMAP estimates exposure and impact on bird species and their habitat based on physical fate and biological effects models under a broad range of environmental conditions. This paper presented the evaluations of 14 spill case studies which compared model predictions of biological impacts with field observations after a spill. Most of the observational data on the biological impacts of spills was for oiled birds and other wildlife. The impact of an oil spill on fish and invertebrates was examined in one case study. Error analysis was not performed on the field-base estimates of impact. Biological abundances and impacts are highly variable in time and space and very difficult to measure and quantify. Model-predicted and field-based estimates of oiled wildlife were compared. Uncertainty in the model-predicted number of oil wildlife was most related to mapping of biological distributions, behaviour of individuals, and local population density at the time of spill. The greatest uncertainty was the pre-spill abundance. The number of animals oils was found to be directly proportional to the pre-spill abundance assumed in the model inputs. Relative impact can be inferred from the percentage of population oiled. The total number oiled by a spill can be extrapolated using trajectories of oiled birds and counts of oiled animals collected in the field. 54 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim [Melbourne, FL

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  1. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  2. Modular-block complex on preparation and processing of oil slurry, spilled and raw petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The use of non-serial small petroleum equipment for development of remote and low output petroleum deposit, collection and processing of spilled petroleum is urgent issue. Joint-stock company Montazhengineering developed and mastered production of small modular-block complexes for preparation and processing of petroleum. The complex can include the following modules: preparation of raw petroleum for getting commodity petroleum; petroleum processing installation for getting gas, diesel fuel and black oil; installation for refining of nafta; installation for cleaning petroleum products from mercaptans; installation for getting basic oil; installation for getting bitumen and mastic; installation for processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Each of modules can work separately and in various combinations depending on input and necessary assortment of commodity petroleum. One of urgent ecological problem in Kazakhstan petroleum-processing regions is large number barns with spilled petroleum and oil slurry. Their processing will allow to solve the ecological and economical problems. Processing of spilled petroleum and oil slurry in developed installations it's possible to get commodity petroleum and petroleum products

  3. Radiative evaporation of oil spills on seas or rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the self-evident drawbacks of in situ oil burning as a means of removing spilled oil from water surfaces, a similar technique suggests itself: evaporation of the oil by absorbed heat. Of the various ways in which heat may be brought to the oil surface, intense radiation seems to be the most convenient technique. Oil spilled on water surfaces can be collected by a boom floating in the water, gathered in a catenary-like contour, and deep enough to absorb the beam of radiation near the apex of the catenary. It seems likely that the circulation of oil in the gathered oil layer would serve to assure the minimum of heat conduction (loss of heat) to the water below. The question is, does a radiator intense enough to evaporate oil at a fast enough rate exist? The answer seems to be that a system does indeed exist, developed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago, Illinois, and manufactured under GRI sponsorship by at least two companies. It was developed for such applications as paint drying. The radiator is heated to over 1400 K by natural gas combustion (with air); the hot surface is made of a ceramic. The efficiency of the overall process, from the standard heat of combustion to the radiation beam emitted, is about 40 percent. If one assumes a reasonable efficiency for the absorption of radiation and its conversion to heat and then its conversion to evaporated oil, one can compute the beam size, the radiator dimensions, the duration required for a boom-full of oil (only one) and the cost. It turns out that, for a 1,000 gal spill (more than the daily average), a duration of about 5 hours suffices for a single overhead radiator; the cost would be about $400 in fuel. A boat carrying the fuel tanks to feed the radiator, trailing the boom apex, is probably the best way to direct the radiation to the oil surface. Cleanup of a spill in this way is assured. One drawback is the smell of the atmosphere laden with the vapor

  4. Can a GIS toolbox assess the environmental risk of oil spills? Implementation for oil facilities in harbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Velarde, Víctor; Puente, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Oil spills are one of the most widespread problems in port areas (loading/unloading of bulk liquid, fuel supply). Specific environmental risk analysis procedures for diffuse oil sources that are based on the evolution of oil in the marine environment are needed. Diffuse sources such as oil spills usually present a lack of information, which makes the use of numerical models an arduous and occasionally impossible task. For that reason, a tool that can assess the risk of oil spills in near-shore areas by using Geographical Information System (GIS) is presented. The SPILL Tool provides immediate results by automating the process without miscalculation errors. The tool was developed using the Python and ArcGIS scripting library to build a non-ambiguous geoprocessing workflow. The SPILL Tool was implemented for oil facilities at Tarragona Harbor (NE Spain) and validated showing a satisfactory correspondence (around 0.60 RSR error index) with the results obtained using a 2D calibrated oil transport numerical model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental impacts of the Chennai oil spill accident - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Nambi, Indumathi M; Prabhakar Clement, T

    2018-06-01

    Chennai, a coastal city in India with a population of over 7 million people, was impacted by a major oil spill on January 28th 2017. The spill occurred when two cargo ships collided about two miles away from the Chennai shoreline. The accident released about 75 metric tons of heavy fuel oil into the Bay of Bengal. This case study provides field observations and laboratory characterization data for this oil spill accident. Our field observations show that the seawalls and groins, which were installed along the Chennai shoreline to manage coastal erosion problems, played a significant role in controlling the oil deposition patterns. A large amount of oil was trapped within the relatively stagnant zone near the seawall-groin intersection region. The initial cleanup efforts used manual methods to skim the trapped oil and these efforts indeed helped recover large amount of oil. Our laboratory data show that the Chennai oil spill residues have unique fingerprints of hopanes and steranes which can be used to track the spill. Our weathering experiments show that volatilization processes should have played a significant role in degrading the oil during initial hours. The characterization data show that the source oil contained about 503,000 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and 17,586 mg/kg of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The field samples collected 6 and 62 days after the spill contained about 71,000 and 28,000 mg/kg of TPH and 4854 and 4016 mg/kg of total PAHs, respectively. The field samples had a relatively large percentage of heavy PAHs, and most of these PAHs are highly toxic compounds that are difficult to weather and their long-term effects on coastal ecosystems are largely unknown. Therefore, more detailed studies are needed to monitor and track the long term environmental impacts of the Chennai oil spill residues on the Bay of Bengal coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  7. Research on weathering and biomarkers in heavy fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, Z.; Yu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The fate of oil spilled in the ocean depends on several physicochemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photo-oxidation. These weathering processes decrease the low molecules in spilled oils which reduces the harmful effects of spilled oil to the ocean and biota near the spill. In addition to changing the composition of the oil, some weathering processes are key to identifying the spilled oil. As such, the relationship between the weathering processes and the changes in oil composition must be well understood. This paper used gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to analyze changes of chemical components in heavy fuel oil by weathering in static seawater. The major alkanes of heavy fuel oil include C8 to C33, while the major aromatics include benzene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and dibenzothiophene. After 24 weeks of weathering in seawater, the alkanes from n-C8 to n-C15 evaporated in order of increasing carbon number. The susceptibility of n-alkanes was correlated with carbon numbers. The aromatics evaporated in order of increasing carbon and ring number as weathering time increased. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Effective operational oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    An operational Contingency Plan is one of the single most important aspects of effective oil spill response operations. It is a spill control game plan. A thorough contingency plan provides a set of guidelines that can be used to help direct all phases of spill response activities. More than simple a compilation of lists and rosters, the contingency plan reflects strategic and philosophical elements of spill response that help to ensure a viable response to any spill incident. Facilities and oil carrying vessels should have well maintained contingency plans with these features. This paper describes the requirement for effective oil spill response pans and the training required to exercise them

  9. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco's refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R ampersand D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ''unit cost'' portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible' to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills

  10. Flicking your Bic at twenty-five below (or: The Atigun Pass Diesel Spill Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Atri, B.; King, T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1992, a truck carrying 8,500 gal of diesel fuel through the Brooks Range in Alaska left the surface of a haulroad and flipped into an adjacent ditch, sustaining a tear in its tank and releasing ca 8,000 gal of fuel into the ditch. Most of the product then flowed through a culvert underneath the road and down a slope; the rest flowed in the ditch for ca 200 ft before being confined or absorbed by the snow in the ditch. Spill site assessment and remediation activities are described. For the ditch side of the road, the contaminated snow was bagged and 180-200 yd 3 of contaminated surface soils were removed. Adjacent soils were sampled, a temporary containment cell was installed, and an interceptor trench with an integrated in-situ oil/water separator was constructed. On the culvert outlet side of the road, where contamination extended down a ravine about 500 ft, the spilled oil was burned in-situ. Contaminated snow was also bagged, and the area was covered with reinforced sheeting to isolate it from any subsequent snowfall. An estimated 6,668 gal of fuel was either burned or recovered. 3 refs., 1 fig

  11. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  12. Identification of spilled oils by NIR spectroscopy technology based on KPCA and LSSVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ailing; Bi, Weihong

    2011-08-01

    Oil spills on the sea surface are seen relatively often with the development of the petroleum exploitation and transportation of the sea. Oil spills are great threat to the marine environment and the ecosystem, thus the oil pollution in the ocean becomes an urgent topic in the environmental protection. To develop the oil spill accident treatment program and track the source of the spilled oils, a novel qualitative identification method combined Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) was proposed. The proposed method adapt Fourier transform NIR spectrophotometer to collect the NIR spectral data of simulated gasoline, diesel fuel and kerosene oil spills samples and do some pretreatments to the original spectrum. We use the KPCA algorithm which is an extension of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using techniques of kernel methods to extract nonlinear features of the preprocessed spectrum. Support Vector Machines (SVM) is a powerful methodology for solving spectral classification tasks in chemometrics. LSSVM are reformulations to the standard SVMs which lead to solving a system of linear equations. So a LSSVM multiclass classification model was designed which using Error Correcting Output Code (ECOC) method borrowing the idea of error correcting codes used for correcting bit errors in transmission channels. The most common and reliable approach to parameter selection is to decide on parameter ranges, and to then do a grid search over the parameter space to find the optimal model parameters. To test the proposed method, 375 spilled oil samples of unknown type were selected to study. The optimal model has the best identification capabilities with the accuracy of 97.8%. Experimental results show that the proposed KPCA plus LSSVM qualitative analysis method of near infrared spectroscopy has good recognition result, which could work as a new method for rapid identification of spilled oils.

  13. Louisiana's oil spill program : new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Tedford, R.; Brolin, J.; Lorentz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office (LOSCO) was established to improve oil spill response, spill prevention and coordination. Louisiana is challenged with having the highest exposure of oil spills because a large portion of its economy is based on oil and gas exploration and production. LOSCO will find ways to minimize the risk of unauthorized oil spills and will address damage assessment and restoration efforts. The aging oil and gas infrastructure in Louisiana has also been recognized as a potential major source for oil spills. LOSCO locates potential spill locations and assesses the risks associated with the sites, some of which are 100 years old. LOSCO also initiated the following two programs: (1) the Abandoned Barge Program initiated in 1993 to remove abandoned barges that pose a high risk for oil discharge, and (2) the Abandoned Non-Hazardous Oil Waste (NOW) Pit and Facility Program initiated in 1992 to locate and remove structures, pits and wells that pose a risk for oil spills. About 25,000 facilities, pits, sumps and reservoirs have been inventoried and evaluated to determine if they pose a risk to human health or the environment. The Louisiana Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 allocates up to $2 million per year for the abatement of oil spills from abandoned facilities in Louisiana. The state legislature has also created the Applied and Educational Oil Spill Research and Development Program (OSRADP) to fund oil spill research. Since 1993, OSRADP has granted 68 awards in support of 42 projects, many of which focused on recovery and cleanup methods including in-situ burning, fate and effect of oil in Louisiana environments, bioremediation, phytoremediation, composting, chemical cleaners, dispersants, sorbents, and solidifiers. 3 refs., 1 tab

  14. The use of microbial gene abundance in the development of fuel remediation guidelines in polar soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elizabeth L; King, Catherine K; Powell, Shane M

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial fuel spills in Antarctica commonly occur on ice-free land around research stations as the result of human activities. Successful spill clean-ups require appropriate targets that confirm contaminated sites are no longer likely to pose environmental risk following remediation. These targets are based on knowledge of the impacts of contaminants on the soil ecosystem and on the response of native biota to contamination. Our work examined the response of soil microbial communities to fuel contamination by measuring the abundance of genes involved in critical soil processes, and assessed the use of this approach as an indicator of soil health in the presence of weathered and fresh fuels. Uncontaminated and contaminated soils were collected from the site of remediation treatment of an aged diesel spill at Casey Station, East Antarctica in December 2012. Uncontaminated soil was spiked with fresh Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) diesel to determine the response of the genes to fresh fuel. Partly remediated soil containing weathered SAB diesel was diluted with uncontaminated soil to simulate a range of concentrations of weathered fuel and used to determine the response of the genes to aged fuel. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure the abundance of rpoB, alkB, cat23, and nosZ in soils containing SAB diesel. Differences were observed between the abundance of genes in control soils versus soils containing weathered and fresh fuels. Typical dose-response curves were generated for genes in response to the presence of fresh fuel. In contrast, the response of these genes to the range of weathered fuel appeared to be due to dilution, rather than to the effect of the fuel on the microbial community. Changes in microbial genes in response to fresh contamination have potential as a sensitive measure of soil health and for assessments of the effect of fuel spills in polar soils. This will contribute to the development of remediation guidelines to assist in management

  15. Pleural spill malign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho Duran, Fidel; Zamarriego, Roman; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    The pleural spills are developed because of an alteration in the mechanisms that usually move between 5 and 10 liters of liquid through the space pleural every 24 hours and this is reabsorbed, only leaving 5 to 20 ml present. The causes more common of spill pleural they are: congestive heart failure, bacterial pneumonia, malign neoplasia and pulmonary clot. The causes more common of pleural spill malign in general are: cancer of the lung, cancer of the breast and lymphomas. In the man, cancer of the lung, lymphomas and gastrointestinal cancer. In the woman, cancer of the breast, gynecological cancer and lung cancer. The paper, includes their characteristics, treatments and medicines

  16. Natural Resource Damage Assessment in highly impacted systems: A case study of the Anacostia River oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, A.E.; Frithsen, J.B.; Burton, W.H.; Scott, L.C.; Siciliano, J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach and case study are presented to assessing natural resource damages due to additional perturbations in highly disturbed systems. The approach involves: (1) defining chemical characteristics unique to the additional perturbation, (2) identifying specific natural resources that may be sensitive to the additional perturbation and the most appropriate sampling period for each, and (3) using existing data to characterize previous conditions. This approach was used to assess the residual effects of a January 1992 spill of 3,400 gallons of number-sign 4 fuel oil in the Anacostia River, Washington, DC. Water quality is poor due to continuing inputs from urban runoff; one upstream tributary (Hickey Run) has a fifty year history of chronic oil spills and stormwater runoff of oil and grease. The challenge was to isolate possible spill impacts from those due to chronic pollutant inputs. GC/FID fingerprinting analyses were used to characterize spill material and hydrocarbons found in the spill area and two adjacent reference areas. Fish larvae (ichthyoplankton) and benthic invertebrates were identified as biological resources most likely to demonstrate residual effects. Results indicated that there were insignificant amounts of the hydrocarbons from the spill in the water, sediments, and biota of the river, and no residual impacts on biological resources could be identified

  17. Prestige oil spill information and assessment Galicia, Spain January 20-22, 2003 : Meeting summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In mid-November 2002, an oil spill occurred off the coast of northwest Spain when the tanker, Prestige, broke apart and sank. The vast majority of the heavy fuel oil it transported was released into the sea along 900 kilometres of Spanish coastline. More than 20,000 people were affected as bans on fish and shellfish harvesting were issued. A delegation from Newfoundland left for Galicia, Spain in December 2002, to learn from the experience in an effort to enhance spill prevention and response for the Newfoundland and Labrador coastline. A brief overview of the Galicia region of Spain was provided, followed by general information concerning the jurisdictional complexity of Galicia. A number of issues and topics were discussed, such as: marine traffic corridors, safe havens; communication with the public; oil recovery operations; compensation; spill prevention; ban on fishing and shellfish harvesting; and, fishing industry's role in response operations. Tours of the areas affected were organized for the delegation. Upon return to Newfoundland, the delegation shared their acquired information and initiated discussions with the federal government concerning intergovernmental issues on oil spill prevention and response

  18. Source identification of underground fuel spills in a petroleum refinery using fingerprinting techniques and chemo-metric analysis. A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanellopoulou, G.; Gidarakos, E.; Pasadakis, N.

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil and its refining products are the most frequent contaminants, found in the environment due to spills. The aim of this work was the identification of spill source(s) in the subsurface of a petroleum refinery. Free phase samples were analyzed with gas chromatography and the analytical results were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method. The chemical analysis of groundwater samples from the refinery subsurface was also employed to obtain a comprehensive picture of the spill distribution and origin. (authors)

  19. Integration of Web-GIS and oil spill simulation applications for environmental management of near-shore spill accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, S.; Miyata, D.; Varlamov, S.M.; Kim, S.-W.

    2001-01-01

    In the event of a near-shore oil spill, the use of a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) can greatly improve emergency response management and oil recovery operations by providing real-time information support. This paper presented a Web-GIS that is used in combination with an oil spill simulation model. The structure and content of the system was defined after the Nakhodka vessel spilled oil in the Sea of Japan in January 1997, leaving serious environmental damage to the coastal area of the Ishikawa prefecture. The Web-GIS provides a wide range of environmental and oil spill related information, presented in a geographical form. The system also consolidates spill and environmental damage related information from different sources and provides links to the specialized environmental and socio-economical information of other GIS databases. The oil spill modeling subsystem is part of an application for protection planning and oil recovery operations. With this system, oil-drift simulation begins at the onset of any oil spill and then remote sensing data are used to estimate the position and state of the spilled oil. The spill information is then assimilated into the spill model and the observed simulated results are uploaded to the Web page for public information. The applicability of the Web-GIS is extended by support for information gathering from the public and the responsible agencies. The relative simplicity of the system interface is an added advantage. 9 refs., 4 figs

  20. Wabamun : a major inland spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 2 largest spills in Canada this century have been in freshwater environments. This paper evaluated remedial actions taken after a spill which occurred on the shore of Lake Wabamun, Alberta. A freight train derailed in the residential area, spilling 750 m 3 of oil into the lake. The initial response was inadequate as the spilled material was not immediately identified as oil. Some containment booms were deployed. By mid-morning, the oil slick had spread 12 km, and was driven by the wind onto the beaches of cottages. The limited amount of response equipment during the early stages of the spill caused anxiety among residents, which was further compounded by a lack of governmental involvement. The experience of Wabamun showed that the methods of operation and skill sets of environmental response organizations that routinely respond to small spills cannot readily be applied to larger spills. Plans by the railway for the Wabamun area were generic and did not focus on any particular response scenario. Limitations in the Transportation of Dangerous Good were noted, as the 2 substances which spilled were not identified as requiring labels. Various data gaps were identified concerning spills involving high density viscous oil; the dynamics of near neutral density oil; the flowing of hot product; interaction of fine sediments; and the cutting of reed beds. It was concluded that new detection technologies and response technologies are required concerning the detection of oil in water, the collection and removal of oil, and tar formation. The development of a new emergency response agency was recommended, as well as the establishment of a new research and technical information institute and incident command structure (ICS). 22 refs., 3 figs

  1. Pigouvian penalty for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The imposition of ex ante taxes on expected spilled oil, in addition to ex post payments for damages under tort liability, would foster economic efficiency. This paper begins the analysis of the joint approach with the case in which Pigouvian taxes are used exclusively. A model is developed in which the volume of spilled oil causing environmental damage is reduced, first by spill prevention expenditures by shippers and then by clean-up expenditures by the government. The efficient Pigouvian tax on expected spilled oil equals marginal environmental damage which equals the net marginal cost of prevention which equals marginal clean-up cost. (Author)

  2. Ecological effects research related to oil spills and oil spill countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurand, D.

    1992-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC) was created specifically to provide an improved response option for large marine oil spills in U.S. waters. As part of that capability, MSRC is committed to an extensive research and development program designed to improve the state-of-the-art for oil spill response. Within the mission, the goals of the Environmental Health Program are to ensure that ecological and human health effects of both oil and oil cleanup counter measures are well understood and that this information is made widely available for appropriate consideration in planning and implementing oil spill response efforts. This an applied program, and is intended to directly support the MSRC response mission. It does not include studies directly related to damage assessment, which is outside of the mission of MSRC. This paper focuses on the issues MSRC sees as critical in the area of ecological effects research, and addresses four topics: Why do we need to do more? What is it we hope to accomplish? What needs to be done? What is being planned or implemented?

  3. Application of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignored. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  4. Applications of EM holographic methods to borehole vertical electric source data to map a fuel oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multifrequency, multisource holographic method used in the analysis of seismic data is to extended electromagnetic (EM) data within the audio frequency range. The method is applied to the secondary magnetic fields produced by a borehole, vertical electric source (VES). The holographic method is a numerical reconstruction procedure based on the double focusing principle for both the source array and the receiver array. The approach used here is to Fourier transform the constructed image from frequency space to time space and set time equal to zero. The image is formed when the in-phase part (real part) is a maximum or the out-of-phase (imaginary part) is a minimum; i.e., the EM wave is phase coherent at its origination. In the application here the secondary magnetic fields are treated as scattered fields. In the numerical reconstruction, the seismic analog of the wave vector is used; i.e., the imaginary part of the actual wave vector is ignore. The multifrequency, multisource holographic method is applied to calculated model data and to actual field data acquired to map a diesel fuel oil spill

  5. Tanker self-help spill recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J B; Wainwright, J G; Ehman, T K

    1991-12-01

    An investigation was conducted of the circumstances in which oil spills occur from tankers at sea by analyzing available historical oil spill data. A data base of marine oil spills greater than 134 tonnes occurring from 1974 and June 1990, included in an appendix, was among the information analyzed. The analysis showed that marine oil spills of 5,000 tonnes and greater account for 39.4% of the accidents yet 94.7% of the total spilled quantity; 84% of those spills occur in vessels of 20,000 deadweight tonnes and larger. Of spills over 5,000 tonnes, 78.5% occur outside of harbor or pier areas where spill response equipment may not be readily available. Over 50% of spills are caused by groundings or collisions where the vessel crew might be able to respond in mitigating and controlling the outflow of oil. The review suggested that tanker self-help systems warrant serious consideration. Potential self-help systems are described, ranging from additives such as bioremediation, dispersants, and solidifiers to equipment such as portable pumps, booms, and skimmers. Candidate systems were examined in terms of their safety, ease of operation, practicability, and effectiveness. Their possible performance was then assessed for the case of major marine oil spills that have occurred in Canadian waters. Four systems are identified as potential candidates for further evaluation and possible implementation: internal oil transfer, hydrostatic loading, external oil lightering, and contingency planning. A system design is evaluated and its benefits and possible implementation are outlined, based on integration of the preferred attributes of the above four options. Recommendations for implementation are also provided. 28 refs., 6 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  7. Spill containment devices and their installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderhaus, C.A.; Butterfield, E.J.; Kesterman, J.E.; Lamping, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    A spill containment device adapted for mounting on the upper end the riser pipe of an underground storage tank for liquid fuel, or other hazardous liquids, said device is described comprising a container adapted for rigid, sealed connection with a riser pipe, and having an upper access opening, and lid means for sealingly closing the upper access opening, said container being characterized in that it is compositely formed and comprises a base member having means for rigidly connecting it with the riser pipe, a shell like body member rigidly and sealingly joined to the base member, and an upper member rigidly and sealingly joined to the body member and defining the upper access opening of the container

  8. Removing Spilled Oil With Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01

    Technique proposed to reduce more quickly, contain, clean up, and remove petroleum products and such other pollutants as raw sewage and chemicals without damage to humans, animals, plants, or the environment. Unique and primary aspect of new technique is use of cryogenic fluid to solidify spill so it can be carried away in solid chunks. Liquid nitrogen (LN2), with boiling point at -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C), offers probably best tradeoff among extreme cold, cost, availability, and lack of impact on environment among various cryogenic fluids available. Other applications include extinguishing fires at such locations as oil derricks or platforms and at tank farms containing such petroleum products as gasoline, diesel fuel, and kerosene.

  9. The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.L.; Howlett, E.; Jayko, K.; Reed, M.; Spaulding, M.; Kolluru, V.

    1993-01-01

    The Worldwide Oil Spill Model (WOSM) is a standalone microcomputer-based state-of-the-art oil spill model system for use in oil spill response decision support, planning, research, training, and contingency planning. WOSM was developed under support provided by a consortium of oil companies and government agencies. WOSM represents the next generation of oil spill model beyond the OILMAP modelling system (Spaulding et al, 1992). WOSM is designed in a shell architecture in which the only parameters that change are those that describe the area in which the spill model is to be applied. A limited function geographic information system (GIS) is integrated within the model system, and the spill modelling shell has been extended to include interfaces to other GIS systems and digital data. WOSM contains all the databases, data manipulation and graphical display tools, and models to simulate any type of oil spill. The user has control over which weathering processes are to be modelled, and WOSM data input tools enable continual refinement of model predictions as more refined data is imported. Use of WOSM is described and illustrated, showing sample screens and applications. WOSM algorithms and file structure are also outlined. An example test case of a spill in the Juan de Fuca strait is included. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Use of three generations of oil spill models during the Gulf War oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerkirge, H.M.; Al-Rabeh, A.H.; Gunay, N.

    1992-01-01

    During the January-May 1991 Gulf War, an estimated 6 million bbl of oil was spilled into the Arabian Gulf, mostly around Mina Al-Ahmadi in southern Kuwait. Three models were used to analyze the fate and transport of the spills originating at Al-Ahmadi. The first generation model, GULFSLIK I, was developed in the late 1970s and predicts the movements of a spill by considering that the center of the slick advects with a velocity equal to 3% of the wind speed. This model is best for the initial forecasting of oil spill movement. The second generation GULFSLIK II Model predicts the trajectory of spills at 24 h intervals, requiring as input the average daily wind velocity. Surface currents are obtained for the model from a reliable 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Gulf coupled with an appropriate interpolation scheme. Comparisons between predicted spill trajectories and actual sightings show GULFSLIK II to be reasonably accurate. The third generation model, called OILPOL, consists of a set of algorithms describing the processes of advection, turbulent diffusion, surface spreading, vertical mechanical dispersion, emulsification, and evaporation. After 80 days, results show under 8% of the initial oil volume remains on the sea surface while 15% is suspended in the water column or sedimented on the sea bed. Comparisons of simulation results and actual sightings show excellent agreement. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  11. A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimate the effects of German renewable energy on the Dutch power market. • Using hourly plant-level data, we estimate effects on prices, dispatch and fuel efficiency. • The price elasticity of German wind on Dutch prices is −0.04. • The spill-over effects are restricted by constraints on cross-border capacity. • The dramatic performance of the Dutch plants is mainly related to relative fuel prices. - Abstract: In order to analyse international effects of national energy policies, we investigate the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende on the Dutch power market, which is closely connected to the German market. We estimate the impact of the German supply of wind and solar electricity on the Dutch day-ahead price of electricity and the utilisation of the conventional power plants. We take cross-border capacity constraints into account and use hourly plant-level data over 2006–2014. We find that the price elasticity of German wind on Dutch day-ahead prices is −0.03. However, this effect vanishes when the cross-border capacity is fully utilised. We find a modest negative impact on the utilisation of the Dutch power plants. As such, we conclude that the German Energiewende has had modest spill-over effects to the Dutch market. The recent dramatic performance of the Dutch gas-fired plants can be attributed to the changes in the relative prices of coal versus natural gas. We conclude that national energy policies in one country do not necessarily strongly affect neighbouring markets in case of constrained cross-border capacities.

  12. Practical aids for freshwater spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, A.E.; Walker, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The current research program at API is focused on the environmental and human health effects from oil spills in freshwater habitats. Components of the program include lessons learned from spill response, development of decision-making protocols for the use of chemicals during initial response operations, preparation of a manual for spill response and contingency planning, and a review of the literature on environmental and human health effects from inland spills. API has reviewed past inland spill responses to identify lessons learned. A survey questionnaire has been developed to collect information from freshwater spill responders on their successes and difficulties in response operations. The questionnaire is tailored to focus on the impact to the operations from the absence of technical/scientific data on environmental effects or operation effectiveness/efficiency as well as to identify situations in which the use of particular response or cleanup options is likely to be effective. The questionnaires will be available at the Conference. Published case studies also will be examined for lessons-learned information. The results will be used to identify and prioritize API research needs in freshwater spill response. General concerns about the effectiveness of the toxicity associated with chemicals in spill response has prevented their use in fresh water. API has begun a detailed survey and interview process with state and federal regulatory personnel to identify their concerns and decision criteria to evaluate the use of chemicals in initial spill response. Ten classes of chemicals were identified for consideration: dispersants, shoreline cleaners, shoreline protection agents, herding agents, solidifiers, demulsifiers, emulsion inhibitors, foaming agents, oxidizing agents, and burning agents

  13. Bohai and Yellow Sea Oil Spill Prediction System and Its Application to Huangdao ‘11.22’ Oil Spill Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Yan; Li, Cheng; Li, Wenshan; Wang, Guosong; Zhang, Song

    2017-08-01

    Marine oil spill has deep negative effect on both marine ecosystem and human activities. In recent years, due to China’s high-speed economic development, the demand for crude oil is increasing year by year in China, and leading to the high risk of marine oil spill. Therefore, it is necessary that promoting emergency response on marine oil spill in China and improving oil spill prediction techniques. In this study, based on oil spill model and GIS platform, we have developed the Bohai and Yellow sea oil spill prediction system. Combining with high-resolution meteorological and oceanographic forecast results, the system was applied to predict the drift and diffusion process of Huangdao ‘11.22’ oil spill incident. Although the prediction can’t be validated by some SAR images due to the lack of satellite observations, it still provided effective and referable oil spill behavior information to Maritime Safety Administration.

  14. Oil spill response: Countdown to readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, a task force representing America's oil industry set about studying the existing resources across the nation for responding to catastrophic oil spills. In June 1989 the task force reported that the capability did not exist in either government or industry to respond to a spill the magnitude of the one in Alaska. As a result of task force recommendations, 20 companies began the process that led to the creation of both the Marine Preservation Association (MPA) and the Marine Spill Response Corp. (MS-RC). The latter is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with 5 regional response centers around the US. Under the direction of the US Coast Guard, each of MSRC's five regions will provide a best-effort response to cleaning up spill of persistent (crude) oils that are beyond the capabilities of local spill response organizations. MSRC will work closely with both cooperatives and independent, commercial responders to maximize spill response effectiveness. The MPA and its member companies have committed more than $400 million for the acquisition of capital equipment for MSRC, an unprecedented record in American business history. MSRC is also involved in research programs concerning remote sensing, in-situ burning, dispersants, handling of recovered material, and shoreline countermeasures

  15. The Prestige oil spill: bacterial community dynamics during a field biostimulation assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, N; Solanas, A M [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Vinas, M [GIRO Technological Centre, Mollet del Valles (Spain); Bayona, J M; Albaiges, J [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2007-12-15

    A field bioremediation assay using the oleophilic fertilizer S200 was carried out 12 months after the Prestige heavy fuel-oil spill on a beach on the Cantabrian coast (north Spain). This assay showed that S200-enhanced oil degradation, particularly of high-molecular-weight n-alkanes and alkylated PAHs, suggesting an increase in the microbial bioavailability of these compounds. The bacterial community structure was determined by cultivation-independent analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bacterial community was mainly composed of {alpha}-Proteobacteria (Rhodobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae). Representatives of {gamma}-Proteobacteria (Chromatiales, Moraxellaceae, and Halomonadaceae), Bacteroidetes (Flavobacteriaceae), and Actinobacteria group (Nocardiaceae and Corynebacteriaceae) were also found. The addition of the fertilizer led to the appearance of the bacterium Mesonia algae in the early stages, with a narrow range of growth substrates, which has been associated with the common alga Achrosiphonia sonderi. The presence of Mesonia algae may be attributable to the response of the microbial community to the addition of N and P rather than indicating a role in the biodegradation process. The Rhodococcus group appeared in both assay plots, especially at the end of the experiment. It was also found at another site on the Galician coast that had been affected by the same spill. This genus has been associated with the degradation of n-alkanes up to C{sub 36}. Taking into account the high content of heavy alkanes in the Prestige fuel, these microorganisms could play a significant role in the degradation of such fuel. A similar bacterial community structure was observed at another site that showed a similar degree of fuel weathering. (orig.)

  16. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke Zeinstra; Sandra Heins; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  17. When oil spills emulsify

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.; Fingas, M.; Tennyson, E.

    1992-01-01

    Cleanup operations of oil spills must take into account the numerous detrimental effects attributable to the emulsification of spilled oil into a stable water-in-oil mousse. The incorporation of water greatly increases the volume of the polluted material. The viscous nature of mousse impedes the efficient operation of most mechanical recovery equipment and results in a cohesive slick that resists dispersion, both natural and artificial. The rate at which spilled oil emulsifies determines the effective window of opportunity for specific countermeasures. Much has been learned from previous studies on petroleum emulsification, but is still remain a poorly understood phenomenon. Although most crude oils can be emulsified, not all spills result in the formation of stable mousse. The formation of mousse results from a complex series of processes. Whether an oil will form mousse or not, and if so, at what rate, depends on an array of different factors including the properties of the oil and the prevailing environmental conditions. We need a greater understanding of the emulsification process to better predict the emulsification behavior of oil spills and utilize the most appropriate countermeasures available. In this paper, the authors report on work to elucidate the role that physicochemical factors play in determining an oil's tendency to emulsify. The authors studied the emulsification behavior of oils of known composition to examine the importance of oil chemistry in the emulsification process

  18. Oil spills - effects and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicks, B.M.; White, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of oil spills from offshore industry operates on the United Kingdom continental shelf is reported for the period 1979 to 1988. The properties of North Sea crude oils which determine their fate and effects when spilled onto the surface of the sea are summarized. Examples of oil impacts on specific North Sea habitats and communities are used to illustrate the effect of oil spills and the economic impact on human activities such as recreation, industry and fishing are considered. Since most oil spills will dissipate through natural processes if they remain at sea long enough, the most appropriate response to a spill from a platform in the middle of the sea is often aerial surveillance to monitor the movement and dissipation of the oil. However, if an active response is required, containment and collection of the oil or chemical dispersion are the two main options. In coastal waters, it will be necessary to focus protection efforts on selected sensitive areas of coastline. Once the oil is ashore there are still occasions when the best course of actions is to do nothing as clean-up operations may do more harm than good. If oil removal is feasible and necessary, the methods which are most effective are usually straightforward and require no sophisticated technology. Contingency planning is an essential preparation for all operations to deal with oil spills. (UK)

  19. Spatial data quality and coastal spill modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Brimicombe, A.J.; Ralphs, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Issues of spatial data quality are central to the whole oil spill modelling process. Both model and data quality performance issues should be considered as indispensable parts of a complete oil spill model specification and testing procedure. This paper presents initial results of research that will emphasise to modeler and manager alike the practical issues of spatial data quality for coastal oil spill modelling. It is centred around a case study of Jiao Zhou Bay in the People's Republic of China. The implications for coastal oil spill modelling are discussed and some strategies for managing the effects of spatial data quality in the outputs of oil spill modelling are explored. (author)

  20. Oil spill response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The plan outlined in this document specifies the actions that the Canadian Wildlife Service Atlantic Region is mandated to take in the event of an oil spill, or on discovering oiled migratory birds in terrestrial, fresh water, marine and inter-tidal habitats. In addition to describing the role and responsibilities of the Canadian Wildlife Service, the document also describes response plans of other agencies for dealing with all wildlife species affected by oil spills. Reporting paths, the lead agency concept, shared responsibilities with other Canadian Wildlife Service regional offices, provincial agencies, Heritage Canada, non-government wildlife response agencies, oil spill response organizations, and international organizations are outlined. An overview of the reporting and communications process is also provided

  1. Summary of spill events in Canada : 1984 - 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The trends in hazardous material spill events in Canada were summarized for the 12-year period 1984 to 1995. Findings were presented on the number and quantity of spills. The report includes data on the seven major sectors that incur spills. These include the chemical, government, metallurgy, mining, petroleum, pulp and paper and service industry sectors. The causes and reasons for these spills, and any environmental impacts, are described. Case histories of four significant environmental incidents were reviewed in detail. These include a warehouse fire at Canning, Nova Scotia in 1986, a tire fire at Hagersville, Ontario in 1990, a train derailment in Hervey Junction, Quebec in 1995, and the Nestucca oil spill in Gray's Harbour near Vancouver Island, British Columbia in 1988. Equipment failure and human error were pinpointed as the most common cause of spills, followed by corrosion, material failure and storm or flood. Fifty-eight per cent of all reported spills involve oil and petroleum products. Wastes and effluents account for 89 per cent of the total quantity of reported spills. These findings make the report particularly well suited for use as a tool in developing appropriate spill prevention strategies. 15 refs., 26 tabs., 42 figs

  2. The Other Major 2010 Oil Spill: Oil weathering after the Kalamazoo River Dilbit Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, B.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Hamilton, S. K.; Aeppli, C.; Valentine, D. L.; Fundaun, S. E.; Oliveira, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from the oil sands (tar sands) of western Canada is increasingly being transported to US markets. North America's largest inland oil spill and the first major oil sands spill in a freshwater environment occurred in 2010, when at least 843,000 gallons leaked from a pipeline into the Kalamazoo River of southwest Michigan. Cleanup of this oil was unusually difficult and protracted, lasting through 2014 and costing over a billion dollars, largely because a substantial fraction of the oil became submersed and deposited in slack water areas over 60 km of river channel, reservoirs, and floodplain backwaters. To investigate the fate of the spilled dilbit from the 2010 Kalamazoo River release, black rings, presumably oil residues, on the bark of dead trees were collected in 2015. These residues were deposited on the trees during high flood levels that have not been observed since the spill and represent an opportunity to constrain weathering processes excluding dissolution. This material contained a major non-GC amenable fraction of 90-95%, presumably oxygenated hydrocarbons. The GC amenable portion was consistent with laboratory weathered dilbit. We used a variety of analytical tools to characterize the dilbit residues, as well as to identify dilbit weathering processes that occurred since the spill.

  3. Management and legislative implications of recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehler, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents information on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's role in actions following oil spills. Topics include: NDAA's scientific support coordination during oil spill responses, NDAA's involvement in the Exxon Valdez spill; measures that may be taken for improved spill response; NOAA's environmental damage assessment and restoration planning activities

  4. Cost accounting and oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, J.B.; Dufour, B.; Peck, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    Financial costs of an oil spill were considered. The control measures taken by Maritime Bureau Inc., in the San Juan oil spill were used as an example of how chaotic influences were minimized, how stability to the management team, structured under the Incident Command System (ICS) model, was provided, and how as a result of these actions, effective cost control was established. The importance of precise knowledge of operating costs was stressed as a basis for taking policy measures and for the evaluation of the short-term success of an oil spill clean-up operation. Staff responsibilities and management needs were described. Performance evaluation, as an important part of crisis cost accounting, was highlighted. Incident costs and response effectiveness comparisons were given for 13 oil spill incidents, including the EXXON VALDEZ affair. 4 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipscombe, Ray

    2000-01-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  6. Spill operation system decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1992-01-01

    The MSRC Spill Operation System (SOS) is a tool for the support of decision-making at the time of a catastrophic oil spill. SOS provides MSRC decision-makers with access to information about the source of the spill, the spill environment, and the availability of spill response resources. This system is designed to meet the information needs of a Response Supervisor, an Environmental Advisor, Logistics/Maintenance Supervisor, Operations Supervisor, and the MSRC Regional General Manager. The SOS project Objectives are: (1) integrate currently available data, systems, and technologies; (2) develop an application that effectively supports mobilized operations and can be adapted to support normal operations; (3) ensure that the development of computer applications is driven by user needs and not by technology; and (4) coordinate with government and other industry organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Design Objectives for SOS are: (1) centralize management information storage while decentralizing decision making capabilities; (2) boost User confidence by providing a system that is easy to learn, easy to use, and is open-quotes Sailor Proofclose quotes; and (3) use visualization technology in providing spill related information. This approach includes the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for maps and geographically associated resource; and support MSRC's concept of operation which includes - a swift notification of response personnel; fast mobilization of response resources; and accurate tracking of resources during a spill. MSRC is organized into five responsibility regions

  7. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  8. The effects of spilled oil on coastal ecosystems: Lessons from the Exxon Valdez spill: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel N.; Rice, Stanley D.; Matkin, Craig O.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Maslo, Brooke; Lockwood, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Oil spilled from ships or other sources into the marine environment often occurs in close proximity to coastlines, and oil frequently accumulates in coastal habitats. As a consequence, a rich, albeit occasionally controversial, body of literature describes a broad range of effects of spilled oil across several habitats, communities, and species in coastal environments. This statement is not to imply that spilled oil has less of an effect in pelagic marine ecosystems, but rather that marine spills occurring offshore may be less likely to be detected, and associated effects are more difficult to monitor, evaluate, and quantify (Peterson et al., 2012). As a result, we have a much greater awareness of coastal pollution, which speaks to our need to improve our capacities in understanding the ecology of the open oceans. Conservation of coastal ecosystems and assessment of risks associated with oil spills can be facilitated through a better understanding of processes leading to direct and indirect responses of species and systems to oil exposure.It is also important to recognize that oil spilled from ships represents only ~9% of the nearly 700 000 barrels of petroleum that enter waters of North America annually from anthropogenic sources (NRC, 2003). The immediate effects of large spills can be defined as acute, due to the obvious and dramatic effects that are observed. In contrast, the remaining 625 000 barrels that are released each year can be thought of as chronic non-point pollution, resulting from oil entering the coastal ocean as runoff in a more consistent but much less conspicuous rate. In this chapter, we primarily address the effects of large oil spills that occur near coastlines and consider their potential for both acute and chronic effects on coastal communities. As described below, in some instances, the effects from chronic exposure may meet or exceed the more evident acute effects from large spills. Consequently, although quantifying chronic effects

  9. The Alaska North Slope spill analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Leslie; Robertson, Tim L.; DeCola, Elise; Rosen, Ira

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports Alaska North Slope crude oil spills, provides information to help operators identify risks and presents recommendations for future risk reduction and mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency and severity of future spills from piping infrastructure integrity loss. The North Slope spills analysis project was conducted during 2010 by compiling available spill data, and analyzing the cause of past spills in wells and associated piping, flowlines, process centers with their associated piping and above ground storage tanks, and crude oil transmission pipelines. An expert panel, established to provide independent review of this analysis and the presented data, identified seven recommendations on measures, programs, and practices to monitor and address common causes of failures while considering information provided from regulators and operators. These recommendations must be evaluated by the State of Alaska which will consider implementation options to move forward. Based on the study observations, future analyses may show changes to some of the observed trends.

  10. OILMAP: A global approach to spill modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Howlett, E.; Anderson, E.; Jayko, K.

    1992-01-01

    OILMAP is an oil spill model system suitable for use in both rapid response mode and long-range contingency planning. It was developed for a personal computer and employs full-color graphics to enter data, set up spill scenarios, and view model predictions. The major components of OILMAP include environmental data entry and viewing capabilities, the oil spill models, and model prediction display capabilities. Graphic routines are provided for entering wind data, currents, and any type of geographically referenced data. Several modes of the spill model are available. The surface trajectory mode is intended for quick spill response. The weathering model includes the spreading, evaporation, entrainment, emulsification, and shoreline interaction of oil. The stochastic and receptor models simulate a large number of trajectories from a single site for generating probability statistics. Each model and the algorithms they use are described. Several additional capabilities are planned for OILMAP, including simulation of tactical spill response and subsurface oil transport. 8 refs

  11. Synopsis of an oil spill modeling workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnigan, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance quality of various PC-based numerical spill models available on the market, were evaluated in a special spill modeling workshop. The models examined included OSSM/ADIOS, WOSM, OILMAP, SPILLSIM, and COZOIL. It was found that most oil spill trajectory models are based on the same basic trajectory and fates algorithms, but often provide different results. This anomaly was attributed to variations in how the algorithms are programmed and implemented. The lack of uniformity of predictions has contributed to a lack of faith in model results by local authorities, spill response operators and logistics groups. Some of the criticism levelled against the merits of the different spill models was considered unjustified by workshop participants. A list of 'best practices' for modeling/response strategies was compiled, and steps to be taken to minimize the variations in spill trajectory and weathering forecasts that would likely improve the usefulness of the models were identified. 15 refs., 4 figs

  12. The latest oil spills in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro Lopez, J.R.; Morales Correas, N.; Dominguez Laseca, F.

    1992-01-01

    The oil spills from the Agip Abruzzo and the Haven in April 1991 are described. The Agip Abruzzo collided with a ferry near Livorno, Italy and spilled 3,000 tonnes of Iranian crude oil. Another 12,000 tonnes burned and 140 people were killed in the incident. The spill had little effect on the sea environment as most of the spilled oil was removed. The Haven oil tanker exploded just after unloading crude oil at Arenzano, Italy, spilling 3,000 tonnes of oil along the Ligurian coast. A series of nine explosions occurred over the next few days and the ship finally sank in 60 m of water. Spill cleanup procedures used at sea and along the affected coast are reviewed. Crude oil residues drifting along the coast of the Balearic Islands were sampled and analyzed in May and July 1991 to determine whether they came from the Haven tanker. Experiments were also conducted to determine the evaporated fraction of heavy Iranian crude oil as a function of time when spilled on sea water or different sizes of beach sand. The analyzed samples were concluded not to have come from the Haven spill. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Spill reporting and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    The actions that companies in British Columbia are required to take to comply with spill reporting requirements and with the waste management legislation of the B.C. Waste Management Act were discussed. A company's ability to respond effectively to hazardous materials spills depends on three factors: (1) understanding the regulatory requirements, (2) having an emergency response capability, and (3) having a staff trained to exercise those responsibilities. The steps involved in complying with the legislation were outlined . The types and quantities of spilled material that must be reported were listed, and advice was given on how a company can effectively incorporate emergency planning into its Environmental Health and Safety Management System. Responsibilities of the the individual designated as the on-scene commander were also spelled out. 3 tabs

  14. Marine (Brander-Smith report) and non-marine spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Current activities related to Canada's Green Plan are reviewed in the area of research on, and response to, marine and non-marine spills. The Emergency Response section of Environment Canada's Conservation and Protection Service has had a 130% increase in funding and 50% increase in personnel resources. Two thirds of these resources are assigned to regional operations where spill incidents occur and the rest to research. The section's first priority is to improve its spill prevention program. A national standard for emergency planning for industry has been prepared and thousands of copies have been sold. A Canada-USA joint inland pollution contingency plan will be established and training programs on response to oil and hazardous chemical spills has been implemented. Resources applied to spill response have also increased 150%; a computerized communications network has been provided for spill response personnel, with the aim to develop a single national spill reporting system. In terms of policy initiatives, amendments are being made to the Canada Shipping Act that will require on-board pollution emergency plans for ships operating in Canadian waters. A liability and compensation regime for chemical spills is being considered, as well as reimposition of a levy on petroleum products that resulted in creation of a ship-source oil pollution fund. Radar-based traffic control systems for heavily congested marine areas, electronic charting, and increased inspection of ships are among the spill prevention initiatives in progress. Research is being conducted on mapping environmentally sensitive shorelines and in oil spill cleanup methods

  15. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  16. Oil spill models for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    The need for, and the nature of an oil spill model, were discussed. Modern oil spill models were shown to provide rapid and accurate input of information about a marine spill, as well as to provide powerful visualization methods for displaying output data. Marine oil spill models are designed to answer five questions: (1) where will the oil go in 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours, (2) how fast will it move, (3) how big will the slick get, (4) how much will end up on shore and where, and (5) how do the oil properties change. The models are able to provide timely and accurate results by using reasonably complete algorithms for the physics and chemistry governing oil slick evolution that take advantage of computer visualization methods for displaying output data. These models have been made possible through new technologies which have increased access to environmental data on winds, currents and satellite imaging of slicks. Spill modelling is also evolving by taking advantage of the Internet for both acquisition of input data and dissemination of results. 5 figs

  17. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  18. U.S. Coast Guard oil spill remote sensing : preliminary laser fluorosensor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fant, J.W.; Hansen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Maritime oil spill events are costly and damaging to the environment. Nearly 40 per cent of ship sourced spills occurring in the last 25 years have involved medium to heavy grade fuel oils. There is, therefore, an immediate need to detect and track subsurface oil spills, particularly as heavy and weathered oil can sink below the surface during a spill and often becomes problematic to detect, track and recover. The United States Coast Guard has limited capabilities to detect and track an oil spill, especially in poor weather. This paper discussed research and assessment efforts focused on laser fluorosensor technology. Testing of 3 independent laser fluorosensing systems was conducted to determine sensing depth capabilities and sensor shortcomings in ideal conditions. Studies included the detection and collection of laser induced fluorescence spectra at the surface as well as at various depths down to 5 metres in both daylight and night-time environments. The sensors were tested to assess their capabilities to meet the Coast Guard's oil sensor and operational requirements. Three sensors were tested by the Coast Guard at the Ohmsett National Oil Response Test Facility: the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3), a light detection and ranging system (lidar) to measure biological and physical oceanographic features developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); the Fluorescent Lidar Spectrometer (FLS) lidar, developed by Laser Diagnostic Instruments International Inc. of Canada; and the Ultraviolet Biological Trigger Lidar, developed by Science and Engineering Services, Inc. (SESI) to detect and discriminate bio-warfare agent aerosols for the United States Army. The 3 fluorometers exhibited the ability to detect oil both on and below the water's surface. There were differences in the peak locations in the spectrum for the same oils among the lasers tested. It was also noted that all the systems had the capability of detecting oil in a night

  19. Oil spill response issues in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lempriere, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Washington State statutes and regulations applicable to oil transport and oil spills were described. Specific provisions of the statutes and regulations and other relevant matters were also discussed. Among these were: (1) Washington State oil spill prevention plans, (2) Washington State oil spill contingency plans, (3) best achievable protection, (4) Intertanko's lawsuit against Washington State, (5) oil spill removal organizations, (6) certificates of financial responsibility in Washington State, (7) extent of potential liability under Washington Law, (8) disposal of cleanup materials, and (9) definition of 'qualified individuals' on marine vessels having the authority to implement removal actions

  20. Impact of Iron Baron oil spill on subtidal reef assemblages in Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgara, Graham J.; Barrett, Neville S.

    2000-01-01

    The biological impact of the grounding of the bulk carrier Iron Baron on Hebe Reef in northern Tasmania, with release of approximately 350 tonnes of Bunker C fuel oil, was assessed using quantitative underwater censuses at numerous reef sites before and after the spill. Physical abrasion of the ship's hull during ground caused the complete destruction of the subtidal reef community within a localised area of ∼170 m by ∼20 m on Hebe Reef. However, the release of fuel oil did not appear to have substantially affected populations of subtidal reef-associated organisms in the near vicinity. Analyses of changes over time outside the hull impact area of oiled sites before and after the spill, and comparisons with undisturbed reference sites, indicated no significant change in number of species on reefs or densities of the most abundant animal and plant species. Post-impact monitoring of the grounding zone in adjacent reference sites on Hebe Reef indicated that the fish assemblages associated with the hull scar recovered rapidly in terms of species composition and species richness within one year, whereas plant and invertebrate assemblages had not reached inferred pre-disturbance levels after two years. Wave disturbance appeared to be hindering re-establishment of large macroalgae over part of the abrasion zone where the reef substrata had been converted to unstable gravels. (Author)

  1. A remote oil spill detection system for early warning of spills at waterfront or land-based facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, M.J.; Stocky, W.D.; Westerlind, J.; Gram, H.R.; Jadamec, M.P.; Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Early detection of spills during loading/unloading of crude oil or products at terminals or plants is essential for quickly stopping the spill and minimizing its impact. Such detection is particularly difficult at night or in remote areas. In order to provide a reliable and inexpensive spill detection system for such an application, a joint development process was undertaken to redesign an oil spill detection buoy system which had been successfully tested in the 1970s. The sensor's operation is based on the stimulated fluorescence of oil and selective wavelength detection of this fluorescence. The prototype system consists of a flotation buoy for remote deployment of the sensor, rechargeable battery supply, a land-based computer base station, and radio signal transmitter. The oil spill detection buoy was modified in 1991 and tested in the laboratory. Field trials are under way and tests to date have confirmed the unit's ability to detect oil and to differentiate between various types of oil and/or products, particularly if the software is alerted to the type of product being transferred. 2 figs

  2. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y. [City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2002-07-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Study of the sediment contamination levels in a mangrove swamp polluted by a marine oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.W.Y.; Ke, L.; Wong, Y.S.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The pattern of oil retention in mangrove sediments was studied in an effort to determine the temporal changes of petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and composition several months after oil spills occur. Mangroves are inter-tidal wetlands in tropical and subtropical coastlines. Due to the anoxic and water logging characteristics of mangrove sediments, oil residues linger much longer in these wetlands compared to other coastal habitats. In November 2000, an accidental oil spill occurred in the Pearl River Estuary in which approximately 230,000 litres of crude oil was leaked from an oil tanker. The spilled oil migrated to the YiO, a typical mangrove swamp in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The degree of oil contamination in the sediments depended on the sediment texture and topography of the mangrove. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of the sediments in the most affected area near a freshwater creek flowing into the sea was 130 times higher than normal, one month after the accident. The mean TPH concentration was 2862 ug/g of dry sediment while the mean carbon preference index was 1.22 compared to the background value of 3.97. The temporal changes of the petroleum hydrocarbon level in 5 defined areas were examined for 7 months after the spill. The most polluted area next to the creek was determined to have very high TPH levels in the muddy sediments even 7 months after the spill. Oil residues infiltrated as deep as 20 cm into the sediments, making it more difficult to degrade than surface pollution and posing long-term adverse effects on trees in the area. It was determined that with growing industrialization and increasing demands for fuel and energy supply, mangroves in South China should be ranked as top priority for protection from oil spills. 19 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Spill-Detector-and-Shutoff Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Fulton, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    Overflow in liquid chromatography systems rapidly detected and stopped. Spill-detector-and-shutoff device incorporated into liquid-chromatography system. When liquid from output nozzle spills on liquid sensor, device automatically shuts off pump and releases solenoid to pinch off flow in tube. Device uses common type of alarm circuit reset manually before normal operation resumes.

  5. Oil Spill Related Heavy Metal: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Hafizan Juahir; Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Mohammad Azizi Amran; Che Noraini Che Hasnam; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Syahril Hirman Azmee; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill occurs every day worldwide and oil contamination is a significant contributor for the higher levels of heavy metals in the environment. This study is purposely to summarize the heavy metals which significant to major oil spill incidents around the world and effects of toxic metals to human health. The study performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning heavy metals contamination and oil spills. Overall, the heavy metals most frequently been detected in oil spill related study where Pb>Ni>V>Zn>Cd and caused many effects to human health especially cancer. In conclusion, the comparison of heavy metal level between the post - spill and baseline levels must be done, and implementation of continuous monitoring of heavy metal. In addition, the result based on the strategies must be transparent to public in order to maintaining human health. (author)

  6. Lecithins - promising oil spill cleaner?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A new, non-polluting method of cleaning up oil spills at sea as well as on land has been developed by researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Their technique is based on the use of lecithins, a byproduct of producing edible oils from plants. Lecithin molecules are hydrophyllic at one end and lipophilic at their tail ends. When they come into contact with water, they organize themselves into bilayers whose heads all face the water and whose tails are all directed towards each other. These bilayers form particles called liposomes that, when spread on water fouled by oil spills, change the properties of the oil thereby stopping the spreading and breaking it down into sticky droplets that continue to float on the surface and can be easily collected. The treatment is said to be effective in both fresh and salt water and is almost temperature and pH independent. Another beneficial effect is that the physical change generated by liposomes in the spilled oil improves the ability of oil-eating bacteria in the water to remove some of the spill by bioremediation

  7. Bacterial distribution and metabolic activity in subsurface sediments from a gasoline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauter, P.W.; Hanna, M.L.; Taylor, R.T.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1992-05-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in California, a records inspection in 1979 indicated an inventory of about 17,500 gal was missing from underground fuel tanks. A leak or leaks in the southernmost tank and/or pipe lines were suspected to be the source of the loss. All four tanks were taken out of service and filled with sand in 1980. The gasoline spill cleanup effort affords an opportunity to study the collective effect of fuel hydrocarbons (HCs) on the indigenous microbial population within the heterogeneous alluvial subsurface environment. This paper presents the early results of an ongoing study to (1) characterize naturally acclimated microbial populations capable of transforming HCs and (2) understand the effects of environmental factors on these biotransformations

  8. Oil spills: Is the perception worse than the reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Most people form their perceptions of oil spills from television pictures immediately after the spill occurs. But the real environmental impact of the spill will not be felt until later, long after the TV crews have left and public attention has focused elsewhere. And the good news, says Mielke, is that the long-term damages may be less than initially perceived. Nature operates a very effective cleaning service. The perceived impact of an oil spill may be only vaguely related to what ultimately happens to the oil or to the oils interaction with the affected area, Mielke says. This was the case with two large spills in the 1970s - the Arco Merchant spill off Massachusetts in 1976 and the Amoco Cadiz spill off Brittany, France, in 1978. And it may be the case with the Exxon Valdez spill in Prince William Sound in Alaska in the spring of 1989, he adds. Human efforts to clean up the spills are less effective than nature's own processes, he says, and, in some cases, can actually delay the natural ecological restoration. This raises the question of whether the cost to society of massive physical clean-up efforts is equal to the social and environmental benefit

  9. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.; Garrity, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  10. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanem, Erik; Endresen, Oyvind; Skjong, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  11. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Vieites, D.; Nieto-Roman, S.; Palanca, A.; Ferrer, X.; Vences, M.

    2004-01-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 tonnes) since 1960. Spills were

  12. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  13. Washington's marine oil spill compensation schedule - simplified resource damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geselbracht, L.; Logan, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Washington State Preassessment Screening and Oil Spill Compensation Schedule Rule (Chapter 173-183 Washington Administrative Code), which simplifies natural resource damage assessment for many oil spill cases, became effective in May 1992. The approach described in the rule incorporates a number of preconstructed rankings that rate environmental sensitivity and the propensity of spilled oil to cause environmental harm. The rule also provides guidance regarding how damages calculated under the schedule should be reduced to take into account actions taken by the responsible party that reduce environmental injury. To apply the compensation schedule to marine estuarine spills, the resource trustees need only collect a limited amount of information such as type of product spilled, number of gallons spilled, compensation schedule subregions the spill entered, season of greatest spill impact, percent coverage of habitats affected by the spill, and actions taken by the responsible party. The result of adding a simplified tool to the existing assortment of damage assessment approaches is that resource trustees will now be able to assess damages for most oil spill cases and shift more effort than was possible in the past to resource restoration

  14. Process of cleaning oil spills and the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisford, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    A process of cleaning spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like from bodies of water, garage floors, roadways and the like, comprising spraying unbonded shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles onto the spill, absorbing the spill into the shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles, and removing the soaked shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles and the spill absorbed therein. An absorbent composition for absorbing spills of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and like, comprising shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and means for absorbing the spill and for stiffening the co-position so that the composition fights against being compressed so that less of the absorbed spill escapes from the composition when it is being removed from the spill, said means including cork particles dispersed in with the fiberglass blowing wool particles. An absorbent sock for absorbing or containing a spill of toxic or hazardous materials such as oil, antifreeze, gasoline, and the like, comprising a hollow tube, said tube being permeable to the toxic or hazardous materials and being made of nylon or polypropylene, and unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool composition particles enclosed in the tube. Apparatus for controlling an oil slick on the surface of water, comprising a craft for traversing the slick, a supply of fiberglass blowing wool composition particles stored on the craft in position for being dispersed, shredding means on the craft for shredding the fiberglass blowing wool particles to form unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles, and dispensing means on the craft for dispensing the unbonded, shredded fiberglass blowing wool particles onto the slick

  15. A program approach for site safety at oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.; Glenn, S.P.; Ocken, J.J.; Ott, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    When OSHA developed the hazardous waste operations (Hazwoper) regulations (29 CFR 1910.120) members of the response community envisioned a separation of oil and open-quotes hazmatclose quotes response operations. Organizations that deal with oil spills have had difficulty applying Hazwoper regulations to oil spill operations. This hinders meaningful implementation of the standard for their personnel. We should approach oil spills with the same degree of caution that is applied to hazmat response. Training frequently does not address the safety of oil spill response operations. Site-specific safety and health plans often are neglected or omitted. Certain oils expose workers to carcinogens, as well as chronic and acute hazards. Significant physical hazards are most important. In responding to oil spills, the hazards must be addressed. It is the authors' contention that a need exists for safety program at oil spill sites. Gone are the days of labor pool hires cleaning up spills in jeans and sneakers. The key to meaningful programs for oil spills requires application of controls focused on relevant safety risks rather than minimal chemical exposure hazards. Working with concerned reviewers from other agencies and organizations, the authors have developed a general safety and health program for oil spill response. It is intended to serve as the basis for organizations to customize their own written safety and health program (required by OSHA). It also provides a separate generic site safety plan for emergency phase oil spill operations (check-list) and long term post-emergency phase operations

  16. Oysters as biomonitors of the apex barge oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.L.; Jackson, T.J.; McDonald, T.J.; Wilkinson, D.L.; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The collision of the Greek tanker ship Shinoussa resulted in a spill of an estimated 692,000 gallons of catalytic feed stock oil into Galveston Bay on July 28, 1990. Oysters were collected from Galveston Bay Todds Dump (GBTD) 235 days previous to the spill and 6, 37, 132, and 495 days after the spill. Oysters were also collected from Galveston Bay Redfish Island (GBRI), a site known to be impacted by the spill, 37 and 110 days after the spill. The concentration of the 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) measured for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's national status and trends program (NS ampersand T) site showed a sharp increase from about 100 ng/g to over 600 ng/g one week after the spill compared to concentrations 235 days previous to the spill. The concentration of the 24 NS ampersand T PAH in oysters from GBRI ranges from 400 to over 1000 ng/g. Soon after the spill the concentration of the 24 NS ampersand T PAH at Todds Dump decreased to levels not statistically different from prespill samples. However, analyses of alkylated and sulfur containing aromatic compounds indicate the oysters were still contaminated with Apex barge oil at least 37 and 110 days after the spill at GBTD and GBRI, respectively. Data from NS ampersand T sampling at GBTD more than a year after the spill (495 days) indicates the presence of alkylated aromatic hydrocarbons that may be from Apex barge oil still in the area. It appears that a sink of Apex barge oil (i.e., in sediments) may periodically be released by storms or other events into the ecosystem near GBTD. Therefore, bioavailable Apex barge oil is still present and may adversely affect oysters 495 days after the spill

  17. Integrated electrochemical treatment systems for facilitating the bioremediation of oil spill contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Wang, Liang; Faustorilla, Vilma; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi; Chen, Zuliang

    2017-05-01

    Bioremediation plays an important role in oil spill management and bio-electrochemical treatment systems are supposed to represent a new technology for both effective remediation and energy recovery. Diesel removal rate increased by four times in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) since the electrode served as an electron acceptor, and high power density (29.05 W m -3 ) at current density 72.38 A m -3 was achieved using diesel (v/v 1%) as the sole substrate. As revealed by Scanning electron microscope images, carbon fibres in the anode electrode were covered with biofilm and the bacterial colloids which build the link between carbon fibres and enhance electron transmission. Trace metabolites produced during the anaerobic biodegradation were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These metabolites may act as emulsifying agents that benefit oil dispersion and play a vital role in bioremediation of oil spills in field applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Policy lessons from Exxon Valdez spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, D.D.; Brown, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The wreck of the Exxon Valdez in Prince william sound in Alaska leaves in its aftermath grave policy questions about how much risk the public should be asked to bear and how much industry should be required to do to prevent oil spills and to clean them up when they occur. But because of industry's inadequate response to the Exxon Valdez spill, this catastrophe will provide few solid answers say the authors. The results of the accident were clearly catastrophic: 1,200 miles of polluted shorelines, 260,000 to 580,000 dead birds, decreased biological productivity, and disruption of life and business in scores of seashore communities. As with any accident, prevention and preparedness are the twin concepts that underlie most post-accident policy analyses. Actions since the accident by both Congress and the state of Alaska to prevent such spills in the future are useful, kelso and Brown note. The lack of effective technology to clean up large oil spills was dramatically demonstrated in this incident, they add, making a national research and development undertaking essential. Public involvement in establishing standards for spill prevention, response preparedness, and cleanup is vital, Kelso and Brown emphasize, because in the final analysis, it is the public that is hurt if the prevention and response systems break down

  19. Spill sparks reform, leaves lasting scar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notthoff, A.

    1991-01-01

    Blackened shorelines, oil-soaked birds, and dying sea otters - images that riveted the Exxon Valdez oil spill on the public consciousness - also generated an outcry for action, Notthoff observes. No other spill caught the attention of the American public and prompted public-policy reform at the national, state, and local level like the Exxon Valdez, she says. Within two years of the accident, Congress had dusted off and passed oil-spill legislation that had been deadlocked for 10 years, and seven states had passed new oil-spill laws. The poor record of cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill is due to the limits of technology, the physical conditions at the time of the accident, and a chronic inability to mobilize people and equipment under the chaotic circumstances that surround a major emergency, Notthoff says. In addition, there also was a failure to enforce existing response plans. Prevention is the best cure, and some of the new laws address this issue, she notes. They also tighten up requirements for response planning and encourage research into improved clean-up technology. What they fail to do Notthoff emphasizes, is seek to reduce tanker traffic by encouraging improved energy efficiency, conservation, and alternative energy technologies

  20. Environmental surveillance: An integral part of the spill contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.; Bozzo, W.

    1993-01-01

    Typically, the initial response to spills is directed at containing, controlling, and stopping the flow of spilled materials. The primary goal of such a response is to limit the spread and further impact of spilled material, and to initiate timely cleanup and recovery of affected areas. Surveillance of actual spill impacts has often followed an after the fact approach, using only immediately available resources. Surveillance may occur quickly after a spill, but in most incidents its occurs as a follow-up action after initial response and containment have been achieved. Insufficient planning may produce spill surveillance that inadequately assesses impacts, fails to incorporate baseline data, and does not clearly identify a cleanup recovery and endpoint. The management and operations contractor for the US Dept. of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) conducts environmental surveillance activities in response to spill incidents when they occur at these facilities. These surveillance activities, when conducted as part of the response, are useful instruments in the initial assessment of spill incidents, management of spill response, containment, and cleanup activities, and for monitoring and documenting postspill impacts and recovery. An Environmental Surveillance Plan (ESP) incorporated in the SPR Spill Contingency Plan provides for initiation of environmental surveillance as part of the spill response. The ESP outlines, through alogic tree, conditions for activating the plan, key indicator parameters for evaluation, detailed methods for establishing surveillance stations, lists of key personnel, locations of equipment necessary to perform surveillance, and conditions for termination of environmental surveillance

  1. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, S. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Environmental Emergencies Div

    2000-07-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, S.

    2000-01-01

    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs

  3. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution after the tasman spirit oil spill of coastal/deep sea sediment along the clifton beach karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Ansari, F.A.; Siddiqi, H.A.; Zeeshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    An oil tanker,Tasman Spirit, carrying 67000 to nsc rude oil, got damaged near the Clifton Beach of Karachi, Pakistan and approx. 31,000 ton oil spilled into the sea. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in deep sea and surface sediment collected at 12 stations along the Clifton beach of Karachi, following the oil spill. Sampling was performed during 2003-2006, starting just after the accident of the oil tanker. Concentrations of PAHs (sigma 16 parent components) and aliphatics were in the range of 0.09-560 macro g/kg dw and 0.12-685 macro g/kg dw, respectively, since the date of accident and after bio remedial measures. The highest concentrations were found within the radius of 50 km around the site, the area most heavily impacted by the spill, whereas at the stations, away from the ship, the concentrations were in the lower range without alkylated compounds Addition of increasing amounts of ship fuel oil (taken from a Pakistani ship) to a representatives sediment samples showed that measurable concentration of the Tasman Spirit oil was > 1 g/kg of sediment The toxicity of selected samples of surface sediment from the coastal area near oil spill showed higher PAH concentrations the average number of dead fauna was 90-95% within 3 days of oil spill which gradually decreased with the time. (author)

  4. Assessing the recovery of coastal wetlands from oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hester, M.W.; Hill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of oil spills on coastal environments and the ability of these systems to exhibit long-term recovery has received increased attention in recent years. Although oil spills can have significant short-term impacts on coastal marshes, the long-term effects and eventual recovery are not well documented. Estuarine marshes have sometimes been reported to exhibit slow recovery after oil spills, whereas in other instances they appear to have great resiliency, with complete recovery after one or two years. To document and understand this phenomenon better, we have investigated the long-term recovery of a south Louisiana estuarine marsh exposed to an accidental spill of crude oil. Although a pipeline rupture releasing Louisiana crude oil caused the near complete mortality of a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens and S. alterniflora, this marsh completely recovered four years after the spill with no differences in plant species cover between oiled and reference marshes. Remotely sensed imagery of the study site confirmed the relatively rapid recovery demonstrated by the ground truth data. Louisiana's coastal marshes are naturally experiencing rapid rates of deterioration. Land loss rates, determined from aerial imagery, at the spill site and adjacent reference areas before and after the spill demonstrated that the long-term loss rates were not affected by the spill event

  5. Oil Spill Public Information Center: Its role in the flow of information on the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holba, C.; McGee, M.; Thompson, P.

    1993-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the supertanker Exxon Valdez struck a sub- merged rock pinnacle at Bligh Reef, puncturing eight of its storage tanks. Within hours, 11 million gallons of crude oil were dumped into the waters of Prince William Sound. The cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities undertaken for this environmentally complex area presented multifaceted challenges to public and private organizations and various professional disciplines. One of these challenges was obtaining and disseminating prespill, spill, and postspill information for both the private and public sector. The Oil Spill Public Information Center (OSPIC) was created for this purpose by the US Department of Justice on behalf of the federal trustees. Its management has since been assumed by the restoration team, an arm of the state-federal Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. On October 8, 1991, a settlement agreement was approved in United States District Court, which required Exxon to pay $1 billion in criminal restitution and civil damages to the United States and the state of Alaska. The settlement terms specify that the Trustee Council shall establish procedures providing for meaningful public participation in the injury assessment and restoration process. Consistent with that mandate, the OSPIC is responsible for providing a repository for all material related to the Exxon Valdez oil spill, The OSPIC is a specialized library open to the public. Its function is to collect, organize, and make accessible materials generated by state and federal agencies and the private sector as a result of the cleanup, damage assessment, and restoration activities of the spill. The OSPIC staff is also identifying and collecting baseline studies in the Prince William Sound and Gulf of Alaska areas, as well as materials on cold water marine spills. The OSPIC serves a variety of patrons, including industry, the oil spill response community, state and federal agencies, scientists, etc

  6. Information to help reduce environmental impacts from freshwater oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, D.E.; Steen, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) has been working since 1990 to provide information to help the response community minimize the impact of spills to pared jointly with the US inland freshwater. Projects have included a manual, pre National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to give guidance on the cleanup techniques that will minimize environmental impacts on spills in freshwater habitats. Nearing completion are a literature review and annotated bibliography of the environmental and human health effects of oil spilled in freshwater habitats. The use of chemical treating agents for freshwater spill applications is being studied with input from other industry and government groups. A project has begun, with funding from API, the Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research and Development Program, NOAA, the Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), and the US Department of Energy, to evaluate in situ burning of oil spilled in marshes

  7. Oil spill modeling input to the offshore environmental cost model (OECM) for US-BOEMRE's spill risk and costs evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French McCay, Deborah; Reich, Danielle; Rowe, Jill; Schroeder, Melanie; Graham, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the consequences of oil spills using a planning model known as the Offshore Environmental Cost Model (OECM). This study aims at creating various predictive models for possible oil spill scenarios in marine waters. A crucial part of this investigation was the SIMAP model. It analyzes the distance and the direction covered by the spill under certain test conditions, generating a regression equation that simulates the impact of the spill. Tests were run in two different regions; the Mid-Atlantic region and the Chukchi Sea. Results showed that the higher wind speeds and higher water temperature of the Mid-Atlantic region had greater impact on wildlife and the water column respectively. However, short-line impact was higher in the Chukchi area due to the multi-directional wind. It was also shown that, because of their higher diffusivity in water, lighter crude oils had more impact than heavier oils. It was suggested that this model could ultimately be applied to other oil spill scenarios happening under similar conditions.

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayer, J.E.; Clark, A.T.; Loysen, P.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Mishima, J.; Owczarski, P.C.; Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH

  9. European Atlantic: the hottest oil spill hotspot worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, David R.; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Palanca, Antonio; Ferrer, Xavier; Vences, Miguel

    2004-11-01

    Oil spills caused by maritime transport of petroleum products are still an important source of ocean pollution, especially in main production areas and along major transport routes. We here provide a historical and geographic analysis of the major oil spills (>700 t) since 1960. Spills were recorded from several key marine ecosystems and marine biodiversity hotspots. The past four decades have been characterized by an overall decrease in the number of accidents and tonnes of oil spilled in the sea, but this trend was less distinct in the European Atlantic area. Recent black tides from the Erika and Prestige vessels provided new evidence for the high risk of accidents with serious ecological impact in this area, which according to our analysis is historically the most important oil spill hotspot worldwide. The English Channel and waters around Galicia in Spain were the areas with most accidents. Maritime transport in European Atlantic waters has been predicted to continue increasing. Together with our own results this suggests that, in addition to measures for increased traffic safety, deployment of emergency capacities in the spill hotspot areas may be crucial for a sustainable conservation of sea resources and ecosystems.

  10. Satellite observations of oil spills in Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y L; Tang, Z Y; Li, X F

    2014-01-01

    Several oil spills occurred at two oil platforms in Bohai Sea, China on June 4 and 17, 2011. The oil spills were subsequently imaged by different types of satellite sensors including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NOAA MODIS. In order to detect the oil spills more accurately, images of the former three sensors were used in this study. Oil spills were detected using the semi-supervised Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) in SAR images and gradient edge detection algorithm in HJ-1-B and MODIS images. The results show that, on June 11, the area of oil slicks is 31 km 2 and they are observed in the vicinity and to the north of the oilfield in SAR image. The coverage of the oil spill expands dramatically to 244 km 2 due to the newly released oil after June 11 in SAR image of June 14. The results on June 19 show that under a cloud-free condition, CCD and MODIS images capture the oil spills clearly while TCNNA cannot separate them from the background surface, which implies that the optical images play an important role in oil detection besides SAR images

  11. An oil spill-food chain interaction model for coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew Hoong Gin, K.; Huda, Md. K.; Tkalich, P.

    2001-01-01

    An oil spill-food chain interaction model, composed of a multiphase oil spill model (MOSM) and a food chain model, has been developed to assess the probable impacts of oil spills on several key marine organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, small fish, large fish and benthic invertebrates). The MOSM predicts oil slick thickness on the water surface; dissolved, emulsified and particulate oil concentrations in the water column; and dissolved and particulate oil concentrations in bed sediments. This model is used to predict the fate of oil spills and transport with respect to specific organic compounds, while the food chain model addresses the uptake of toxicant by marine organisms. The oil spill-food chain interaction model can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil spills in marine ecosystems. The model is applied to the recent Evoikos-Orapin Global oil spill that occurred in the Singapore Strait. (author)

  12. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  13. Australia's tyranny of distance in oil spill response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscombe, Ray [Australian Maritime Safety Authority, Environment Protection Group, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    2000-08-01

    In view of the quantity of oil spilled, smaller spills generally receive less attention than headline grabbing incidents such as the 'Amoco Cadiz', 'Exxon Valdez', 'Braer' and 'Sea Empress'. The latter incidents involve the loss of significant quantities of oil, the establishment of relatively complex spill response management structures and the involvement of significant numbers of personnel and equipment. As such, large spills from tankers have the potential to create problem areas, for example in establishing and maintaining effective communications, logistics and resource management systems. In general terms spill response personnel are well aware that large spills come complete with significant operational and administrative problems, however what may not be so well recognised is that smaller spills also have the potential to present response personnel with their own unique problems. One of the major problems to be overcome when responding to spills in Australia is the 'tyranny of distance'. In quite a few responses, Australian oil spill response managers have had to move personnel and equipment thousands of kilometres to provide an effective outcome. This paper outlines a range of problems that have been encountered by Australian personnel over the years. These include health and safety, communications, logistics and equipment issues. For the purpose of this paper a 'smaller' spill has been defined as one involving a discharge of less than 1000 tonnes of oil. (Author)

  14. Examination of Urinary Beta-Naphthol as a Biomarker Indicative of Jet Fuel Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    government or personal vehicle and what type of fuel . Flight line time Exposure to spills ( fuel ) Exposure to skin ( fuel ) Inhalation exposure (type...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0085 EXAMINATION OF URINARY β-NAPHTHOL AS A BIOMARKER INDICATIVE OF JET FUEL EXPOSURES Jeanette S. Frey Henry M... Fuel Exposures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER NA 5c. PROGRA7757M ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jeanette Frey1; Trevor J. Bihl2;Asao

  15. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  16. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  17. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    development and operationalization of new spill response remote sensing tools must precede the next major oil spill. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved...Environment 124 (2012) 185–209 sensing oil spill impacts, and 5) a final discussion. Each section presents background, available remote sensing tools , and...cialized DaVinci command-line software (Clark et al., 2003) then mapped oil slick volume (Clark et al., 2010) in each AVIRIS pixel by identifying the

  18. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Laboratory tests, experimental oil spills, models, and reality: The Braer oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, M.; Daling, P.S.; Brandvik, P.J.; Singsaas, I.

    1993-01-01

    The IKU Petroleum Research organization in Norway has accumulated data on the weathering behavior of spilled oils and petroleum products, mainly pertaining to North Sea crudes. Recent weathering research at IKU has been carried out in an elliptical mesoscale flume and in field tests consisting of experimental releases of crude oil. Results of these tests provided information on oil spill dispersion, evaporation, and emulsification. When the tanker Braer grounded in the Shetland Islands in January 1993 in extreme environmental conditions, the imminent release of a load of 84,000 tonnes of North Sea oil confronted response personnel with a variety of issues including the use of dispersants as a response action. Relevant information on the expected behavior of the crude was obtained within a day of the grounding as a result of close relations between IKU and Warren Spring Laboratory. The question is raised whether such information, which could have been spread between several organizations around the world, will be rapidly accessible in the event of another major spill. It is proposed to establish an electronically accessible database on the behavior and fate of specific oils and petroleum products to address this problem. 9 refs., 4 figs

  1. Technology for the oil spills clean-up which provides preliminary accumulation of sorbents into the area of emergence and localization oil spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.Soroka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The implementation of measures for the prevention and spill of dangerous goods is an important aspect of sustainable development of railway transport. oil spills accident are the most dangerous. They are accompanied by significant pollution of all environmental objects. Studying and development of oil localization and clean-up technologies of such accidents is an important problem of environmental protection to modern conditions of railway transport development. The purpose: to improve the effectiveness of traditional methods of oil spill elimination and the development of new clean-up technologies adapted to the real conditions of the railway transport of Ukraine. Methods: To achieve the research purposes was used analysis of material flows, typical for places emergence and localization of the oil spill on the railways. Results: Analysis of standard technological scheme for the oil spills eliminations has shown that the most difficult task of effective clean-up surfaces is the timely delivery of oil sorbents and special equipment to the area spill containment. The general effectiveness of the elimination activities specifies the time from the beginning contact of dangerous goods with environmental objects to the absorption it into the structure of sorbent . Us was developed the technological scheme of oil spill elimination. This scheme provide a permanent and fast access to the sorbents into the oil spill localization area. It was proposed to device that allows you to transport the sorbent into sorption booms directly on the tank for transportation of petroleum products. Conclusions: Preventative accumulation of sorbents to the oil spill elimination into the localization area provides the organizational and operational simplicity of all stages of clean-up technology. Technical and economic assessment shows that the proposed technology is effective, technologically feasible and economically competitive.

  2. The Effect of Oil Spills on Marine Microbes: The Importance of Where, When, and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M. L.; Ederington-Hagy, M.; Richardson, R. L.; Snyder, R.; Jeffrey, W. H.

    2016-02-01

    While much recent attention has been paid to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico and biodegradation by microbial communities, it is important to remember that numerous factors may determine the types of environmental effects that may result from oil spills. Not all oil spills (e.g., crude, refined, weathered, fuels, use of dispersants) are created equal, and it is likely that the characteristics of different environments will affect ecosystem response to oil. Temperature, salinity, and solar radiation are three potentially important factors related to location and seasonality. The effects of some of these environmental factors on the formation of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) developed from Deepwater Horizon oils and the subsequent effects on microbial growth is being investigated. WAFs were generated under varying solar but controlled temperature conditions, various temperatures and salinities, as well as from burned and weathered oil. After all WAFs were collected, each was added to a coastal seawater sample and their effects on bacterial production or phytoplankton photosynthesis determined. Results from both assays demonstrated that WAFs produced in the dark had minimal effects on growth while inhibition was proportional to the amount of solar exposure. Burning oil prior to formation of WAFs increased inhibition of production independent of subsequent solar treatment. Preliminary data suggests that temperature plays a minimal role. The results imply that the ecological effects caused by oil spills are very light dependent and thus could vary by season, location, and may occur to significant depths in the ocean.

  3. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.V.; Tyler, A.; Wiltshire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  4. PROTOZOA IN SUBSURFACE SEDIMENTS FROM SITE CONTAMI- NATED WITH AVIATION GASOLINE OR JET FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbers of protozoa in the subsurface of aviation gasoline and jet fuel spill areas at a Coast Guard base at Traverse City, Mich., were determined. Boreholes were drilled in an uncontaminated location, in contaminated but untreated parts of the fuel plumes, and in the aviation ga...

  5. OSIS: A Windows 3 Oil Spill Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.; Walker, M.; Wiltshire, M.; Tyler, A.

    1993-01-01

    An oil spill modelling and analysis system called the Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) has recently been developed. OSIS uses a model of oceanographic processes to predict three-dimensional spreading and transport of an oil slick under the influence of wind, waves, tide, turbulence, and shear diffusion. Oil weathering and fate processes of emulsification, evaporation, and dispersion are also simulated. The physical models have been tested against data obtained from sea trials and spill incidents. OSIS uses an object-oriented programming technique and presents model output as maps, graphs, and tables in multiple windows and can link to other Windows packages to create a suite of spill information management tools. 15 refs., 12 figs

  6. Unconventional Oil and Gas Spills: Risks, Mitigation Priorities, and State Reporting Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Lauren A; Konschnik, Katherine E; Wiseman, Hannah; Fargione, Joseph; Maloney, Kelly O; Kiesecker, Joseph; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James E

    2017-03-07

    Rapid growth in unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has produced jobs, revenue, and energy, but also concerns over spills and environmental risks. We assessed spill data from 2005 to 2014 at 31 481 UOG wells in Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. We found 2-16% of wells reported a spill each year. Median spill volumes ranged from 0.5 m 3 in Pennsylvania to 4.9 m 3 in New Mexico; the largest spills exceeded 100 m 3 . Seventy-five to 94% of spills occurred within the first three years of well life when wells were drilled, completed, and had their largest production volumes. Across all four states, 50% of spills were related to storage and moving fluids via flowlines. Reporting rates varied by state, affecting spill rates and requiring extensive time and effort getting data into a usable format. Enhanced and standardized regulatory requirements for reporting spills could improve the accuracy and speed of analyses to identify and prevent spill risks and mitigate potential environmental damage. Transparency for data sharing and analysis will be increasingly important as UOG development expands. We designed an interactive spills data visualization tool ( http://snappartnership.net/groups/hydraulic-fracturing/webapp/spills.html ) to illustrate the value of having standardized, public data.

  7. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a and b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval

  8. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  9. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  10. Responding to oil spills in the open ocean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives in responding to any oil spill is to control the source of the spill, then, contain, collect, and recover the spilled product. Accomplishing those objectives is an immense challenge. It becomes much more difficult when attempted in the open ocean environment due to the more complex logistical and communications problems one encounters when operating miles from the nearest land. Often times, too, the response must be coordinated with either a salvage operation, a fire-fighting operation, a well control operation or a combination of any of these. There have been volumes of papers comparing the relative merits of mechanical recovery, in-situ burning, dispersant application, and bioremediation in responding to open ocean spills. Although each approach deserves special consideration in different circumstances, this presentation focuses on mechanical methods; the specialized equipment and operational tactics that are best utilized in responding to a major spill in the open ocean. This paper is divided into two sections. The first section, Equipment Used in Open Ocean Spills, addresses in general terms, the special equipment required in an offshore response operation. The second section, entitled Operational Tactics Used In Open Ocean Spills offers an overview of the tactics employed to achieve the general objectives of containment, collection, recovery, and temporary storage

  11. Damage cost of the Dan River coal ash spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis Lemly, A.

    2015-01-01

    The recent coal ash spill on the Dan River in North Carolina, USA has caused several negative effects on the environment and the public. In this analysis, I report a monetized value for these effects after the first 6 months following the spill. The combined cost of ecological damage, recreational impacts, effects on human health and consumptive use, and esthetic value losses totals $295,485,000. Because the environmental impact and associated economic costs of riverine coal ash spills can be long-term, on the order of years or even decades, this 6-month assessment should be viewed as a short-term preview. The total cumulative damage cost from the Dan River coal ash spill could go much higher. - Highlights: • Six-month post-spill damage cost exceeded $295,000,000. • Components of cost include ecological, recreational, human health, property, and aesthetic values. • Attempts by the electric utility to “clean” the river left over 95% of coal ash behind. • Long-term impacts will likely drive the total damage cost much higher. - Damage costs of the Dan River coal ash spill are extensive and growing. The 6-month cost of that spill is valued at $295,485,000, and the long-term total cost is likely to rise substantially

  12. Risk analysis in oil spill response planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoplekov, A.N.; Alexandrov, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tiered response is a basic approach to emergency plans, including oil spill response (OSR). This paper delineates a huge set of accidental scenarios within a certain tier of response generated by a computer during risk assessment. Parameters such as the amount of oil spilled, duration of discharge and types of losses should be provided in OSR scenarios. Examples of applications include offshore installations, sub sea or onshore pipelines, and localized onshore facilities. The paper demonstrates how to use risk analysis results for delineating all likely spills into groups that need a specific tier response. The best world practices and Russian regulatory approaches were outlined and compared. Corresponding algorithms were developed and their application in pipelines was presented. The algorithm combines expert's skills and spill trajectory modeling with the net environmental benefit analysis principle into the incident specific emergency response planning. 9 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  14. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frances J; King, Catherine K; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Harrison, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution; however, little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed, and dispersant-only water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180, BP) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS (Dasic International). Despite much lower total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, physically dispersed fuels contained higher proportions of low-to-intermediate weight carbon compounds and were generally at least an order of magnitude more toxic than chemically dispersed fuels. Based on concentrations that caused 50% abnormality (EC50) values, the embryonic unhatched blastula life stage was the least affected by fuels and dispersants, whereas the larval 4-armed pluteus stage was the most sensitive. The present study is the first to investigate the possible implications of the use of fuel dispersants for fuel spill response in Antarctica. The results indicate that the use of a fuel dispersant did not increase the hydrocarbon toxicity of IFO 180 to the early life stages of Antarctic sea urchins, relative to physical dispersal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1563-1571. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Bioremediation Potential of Terrestrial Fuel Spills

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hong-Gyu; Wang, Xiaoping; Bartha, Richard

    1990-01-01

    A bioremediation treatment that consisted of liming, fertilization, and tilling was evaluated on the laboratory scale for its effectiveness in cleaning up a sand, a loam, and a clay loam contaminated at 50 to 135 mg g of soil−1 by gasoline, jet fuel, heating oil, diesel oil, or bunker C. Experimental variables included incubation temperatures of 17, 27, and 37°C; no treatment; bioremediation treatment; and poisoned evaporation controls. Hydrocarbon residues were determined by quantitative gas...

  16. Spill response : an exercise in teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    An offshore oil spill response exercise was conducted at Hibernia to demonstrate to the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board the emergency response capabilities that are in place in the event of large offshore spills. The Canadian Coast Guard, Eastern Canada Response Corporation Ltd., Hibernia, Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Jeanne d'Arc Basin Operators Group and the Terra Nova Project team participated in the exercise. The exercise was a success in that it demonstrated that the emergency response teams have the capability of containing and recovering large and small offshore oil spills. The two systems that were tested during the exercise were the large wide-swath boom system and a smaller side-sweep system. Two supply vessels worked in tandem. 11 figs

  17. Oil spill preparedness in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorigne, E.M.; Wong, K.V.

    1993-01-01

    Over 15% of the world's consumption of crude oil and refined products is shipped through the Mediterranean Sea each year. The sea is one of the most polluted areas in the world and has areas of high risk for oil spills, notably those places where there is a very narrow passage between coasts or islands. The region also needs to modernize its ports by developing more deballasting facilities, since a large percentage of spill accidents happens during terminal operations. Release of oily wastes from ships is also significant. The World Bank Global Environment Facility trust fund is working on a project to help the southwest Mediterranean countries modernize reception facilities for ballast water, bilge water, and oily waste water. The Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center (REMPEC) in Malta acts as the coordinating center for regional contingency planning for oil spill response. The cost of the port facilities modernization program and oil spill contingency plan implementation for the Mediterranean is estimated at US$444 million. An allocation of costs is suggested which will help those countries needing more financial aid to implement the proposed programs. In the long run, the cost of these programs will be much lower than that of a massive oil spill cleanup. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea

  19. Managing an oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, W.F.; Gorell, F.R.

    1994-01-01

    In the oil spill response business everything starts with a plan. When planning is set at only middle and top management levels before being chiseled into corporate marble, the result is all too often a plan for failure. For any chance at success, the plan must make sense to, and solve the problems of, the people at the ''business'' end of the business. In the case of Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), that means highly trained responders are put at sea or along coastlines to remove oil from the water, or to deflect oil away from environmentally sensitive areas. They are fortunate in MSRC, and especially in the Gulf Coast Region, to have on their staff, some of the most knowledgeable and experienced oil spill responders in the world. The company relies on them to help build their plans, and to poke holes wherever their plans are inconsistent with getting the job done right

  20. Results from oil spill response research - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent large oil spills from tankers have reaffirmed the need for continuing technology assessment and research to improve oil spill response capabilities. This paper discusses Minerals Management Service concerns, as reinforced by the acceleration of its research program in 1990. It briefly assesses current state-of-the-art technology for major aspects of spill response, including remote sensing, open-ocean containment and recovery, in-situ burning, use of chemical treating agents, beachline cleanup, and oil behavior. Specific research projects have begun to yield information that will improve detection and at-sea equipment performance; current projects include the development of an airborne laser-fluorosensor to determine whether apparent slicks contain oil. Additional projects involve the development of improved strategies for responding to oil in broken-ice conditions, for gaining an improved understanding of the fate and behavior of spilled oil as it affects response strategies, and for defining the capabilities of available dispersants and development of improved formulations. Recently, progress has been made on the development of safe and environmentally acceptable strategies to burn spilled oil in situ. The Ohmsett facility has been reopened and will be used to test prospective improvements in chemical treating agents and to develop standard procedures for testing and evaluating response equipment. Results of research published since the last Oil Spill Conference are discussed

  1. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  2. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km 2 , follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  3. Solve your spill response problems with a cooperative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An important role of a cooperative is to provide its member companies with the latest equipment and updated spill response know-how. Most companies have a primary focus other than spill response, so it is neither easy nor economical for individual companies to obtain or maintain a comprehensive spill response capability. Co-ops offer companies improved capability at lower overall cost. The co-op group can collectively share the cost of larger and more up-to-date equipment than companies can afford individually. Most spill equipment and materials either have a can more effectively provide the means to achieve state-of-the-art technology and keep its equipment and materials ready for use at any time. This paper reviews the benefits and drawbacks of cooperative in the oil and gas industry

  4. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  5. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  6. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  7. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  8. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  9. Proceedings of the nineteenth arctic and marine oil spill program (AMOP) technical seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The technical seminar on arctic and marine oil spills introduced issues concerning oil spills at sea, in particular the critical first few hours of an oil spill. State-of-the-art technologies which assist the response team in tracking and predicting the behavior of oil spills, were described. The physical and chemical properties of spilled oil were studied, as well as those of oil spill treating agents, including testing their biological effects. New methods to contain and recover spilled oil were reviewed. Volume 2 presented results from field experiments in which in-situ burning was performed, and demonstrated modelling techniques for the detection, prediction and tracking of oil spills. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  11. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.

    2017-12-01

    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  12. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  13. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  14. Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As oil transportation worldwide continues to increase, many communities are at risk of oil spill disasters and must anticipate and prepare for them. Factors that influence oil spill consequences are myriad and range from the biophysical to the social. We provide a summary literature review and overview framework to help communities systematically consider the factors and linkages that would influence consequences of a potential oil spill. The focus is on spills from oil tanker accidents. Drawing primarily on empirical studies of previous oil spill disasters, we focused on several main domains of interest: the oil spill itself, disaster management, the physical marine environment, marine biology, human health, economy, and policy. Key variables that influence the severity of consequences are identified, and significant interactions between variables are delineated. The framework can be used to clarify the complexity of oil spill impacts, identify lessons that may be transferable from other oil spill disasters, develop scenarios for planning, and inform risk analysis and policy debates in localities that are seeking to understand and reduce their vulnerability to potential spill disasters. As a case study, the framework is used to consider potential oil spills and consequences in Vancouver, Canada. Major increases in oil tanker traffic are anticipated in this region, creating urgent new demands for risk information, disaster management planning, and policy responses. The case study identifies particular conditions that distinguish the Vancouver context from other historic events; in particular, proximity to a densely populated urban area, the type of oil being transported, financial compensation schemes, and local economic structure. Drawing lessons from other oil spill disasters is important but should be undertaken with recognition of these key differences. Some types of impacts that have been relatively inconsequential in previous events may be

  15. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m 3 . Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  16. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, K.A.; Lystad, E.; Nesse, S.; Selvik, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Oil spill monitoring and forecasting on the Prestige-Nassau accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, P.; Blanco, J.; Cabanas, J.M.; Maneiro, J.; Pazos, Y.; Morono, A. [Unidade de Observacion Proxima CPAM, Vilaxoan, Pontevedra (Spain); Balseiro, C.F.; Carracedo, P.; Gomez, B.; Penabad, E.; Perez-Munuzuri, V. [MeteoGalicia CMA, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Braunschweig, F.; Fernandes, R.; Leitao, P.C.; Neves, R. [MARETEC IST, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    The Prestige-Nassau tanker ship spilled about 10,000 tons of oil off the coast of Spain on November 13, 2002 during a severe storm. On November 19, the ship split in half and sank 133 nautical miles from the Galician coast to a depth of 3,500 metres, spilling another 20,000 tons of oil. The Galician government set up an Office of Nearshore Surveillance and recruited people from the Galician Regional Meteorological Service and the Spanish Institute of Oceanography to monitor the slick and forecast its trajectory. The main spill arrived at Galicia on November 30, damaging most of the coast. A variety of models that combined surface wind drift and ocean currents were used to forecast the movement of the spill. These included the Mothy from MeteoFrance, and DERIVA from the Portuguese Hydrographic Institute. Two models were also developed by MeteoGalicia and MAETEC. The path followed by the oil spill was classified in three parts. The first spill of 10,000 tons took place from November 13 until the ship split in two. The second spill of around 20,000 tons of oil occurred when the ship sank on November 19. The last spill includes oil that continued to leak from the sunken tanker at a rate of 125 tons per day. The trajectory predictions were found to be in good agreement with aerial observations. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Studies on marine oil spills and their ecological damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie

    2009-09-01

    The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.

  19. Guide to oil spill exercise planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC Convention) foresees a future in which all at risk states have national oil spill preparedness and response plans. The Convention also encourages the idea that national plans be developed in cooperation with oil and shipping industries. The ultimate test of any contingency plan is measured by performance in a real emergency. It is vital, therefore, that any programme for developing a national contingency plan must include an ongoing programme to test the plan through realistic exercises. An exercise programme must progressively prepare the Oil Spill Energy Response Team to perform effectively in realistic representations of the risks that the contingency plan has been designed to meet. This report has been designed to guide all those in government or industry who are faced with the responsibility of developing and managing oil spill response exercises at all levels. It carries with it the authority that derives from peer review by many centres of oil spill response excellence around the world. It is well-illustrated with brief case histories of exercises that have been carried out by many IPIECA member companies. Each of those companies has indicated its preparedness to share more information by providing contact name and address details within this report. (author)

  20. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  1. 1993 International oil spill conference: Prevention, preparedness, response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1993 International Oil Spill Conference which took place March 29 - April 1 in Tampa, Florida. It was jointly sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute, the US Coast Guard, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Topics discussed included all aspects of spill prevention and preparedness, including planning, training, and research and development. Response issues, including fate and effects of spilled oil, cleanup, bioremediation, and in situ burning were also discussed. Legal and economic issues were also analyzed in the form of case studies

  2. Some recommendations for testing oil spill computer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Martinez, R.

    1998-01-01

    According to a recent state-of-the-art review of modelling transport and fate of spills, more than 50 oil spill models have been developed in the last 30 years. Even though some of these models are used for spill response actions during accidents, environmental impact assessment, contingency planning and response training, there are no standard methodologies to evaluate their quality. This article presents some ideas that may contribute to design a set of standard benchmarks that would allow users and developers to assess models on a rational basis. (author)

  3. Oil spill response engineering and planning. Technical completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, M.R.; Celikkol, B.; Goodwin, C.E.; Carrier, R.; McDonald, S.P.

    1991-12-01

    Tanker and barge traffic associated with the five petroleum product terminals along the NH side of the Piscataqua River represents a constant oil spill threat to the contiguous Great Bay System, NH, an estuarine reserve. Several serious accidents have in fact taken place in the 1970's and two small spills in 1990. A major factor is that the Piscataqua channel is subject to high velocity tidal currents. Should a spill occur, problems arise in knowing where the slick will move and how to control it using booms. In the project, these problems were addressed by developing procedures for using diversion booms in high speed current environments and in revising and implementing a previously developed Oil Spill Trajectory Model

  4. U.S. oil spill law to cause growing tanker problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on tanker owners which face a growing dilemma on the issue of oil spill liability. The U.S. Oil Pollution Act, passed last year in the wake of the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, was intended to reduce risk of and damage from such accidents. However, in addition to phasing in double hulls on most tankers operating in U.S. waters, the law substantially increases shipowner's liability for spills. And the federal law does not preempt state liability laws, which in most cases amount to unlimited liability for spill cleanup. Rather than face potentially unlimited liability in the event of a spill, tanker owners worldwide are exercising a number of options to shield themselves. Some of those options could increase the potential for oil spills, industry officials warn. The act also threatens to shatter the international alliance among shippers. A report by Drewry Shipping Consultants Ltd., London, says the law could have a devastating effect on operating practices. Tanker owners and operators have voiced the most opposition to the new spill law and the shackles it places on them. Now the industry that insures tankers has spoken up about is increased liability, and it too may launch a boycott

  5. Perspective: Ecological recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory studies were designed to characterize the initial effects and subsequent rate of ecosystem recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. These studies were organized within an ecological risk assessment framework wherein measurements of residual spill hydrocarbons from specific environmental compartments were correlated with observed biological effects for resident species and communities. This allowed an assessment of the likelihood of spill-related effects vs. effects of natural ecosystem variability. Measurement of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were made from throughout the spill-affected area for water column, intertidal shoreline sediments and deep subtidal sediments. Data document the expected high levels of PAH in 1989 with rapid PAH decreases in following years from all compartments reflecting natural assimilation and dissipation via chemical, physical and biological processes. Parallel investigations of risks to biological resources representing major trophic levels were conducted to quantify recovery rates of spill impacted habitats and resident species. Results are summarized documenting respective recovery rates for key trophic levels including intertidal flora and fauna, benthic invertebrates and infauna, herring and salmon, shorebirds and colonial seabirds and sea otters. Quantitative data developed for these species support the conclusion that the effects of oil spills are largely short-term acute events, and the Prince William Sound recovery was well advanced by 1991

  6. Effect of non-aqueous phase liquid on biodegradation of PAHs in spilled oil on tidal flat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, T.; Miyagishi, A.; Mukai, T.; Takimoto, K.; Okada, M.

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spilled oil stranded on tidal flats were studied using model reactors to clarify the effects of NAPL on the biodegradation of PAHs in stranded oil on tidal flat with special emphasis on the relationship between dissolution rates of PAHs into water and viscosity of NAPL. Biodegradation of PAHs in NAPL was limited by the dissolution rates of PAHs into water. Biodegradation rate of chrysene was smaller than that for acenaphthene and phenanthrene due to the smaller dissolution rates. Dissolution rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil due to high viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, biodegradation rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil. Biodegradation rates of PAHs in NAPL with slow decrease rate like fuel oil C were slower than those in NAPL with rapid decrease like crude oil. The smaller decrease rate of fuel oil C than crude oil was due to higher viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, not only the dissolution rate of PAHs but also the decrease rates of NAPL were important factors for the biodegradation of PAHs. (author)

  7. Oil spills into freshwater environments-literature review of fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Owens, E.; Craig, A.; Steen, A.; Fritz, D.

    1993-01-01

    A literature search (1984--1992) was performed to summarize the environmental and human health effects of inlands spills. Over 100 major spills that affected freshwater environments were reported through the Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) in 1991--1992 alone. Spills from pipelines outnumber all other sources combined. The oil types involved are about equally distributed between non-persistent oils and crude. Small rivers, streams, and creeks are the habitats into which most freshwater spills occur. Cleanup of stranded oil, rather than protection or recovery of floating oil, is the norm in most situations because stranding on river and lake banks often occurs before response is possible. The prediction of spill movement commonly is simpler for freshwater spills because freshwater bodies are relatively small and commonly have strong uni-directional flow; however, fast flow in rivers and streams and turnover in cooling lakes serve to distribute oil throughout the water column. Impacts to the environment, through food web structures or groundwater, may persist for months following a spill but seldom persist for years, unlike marine coastal impacts. Chronic impacts of oil spills into freshwater are rarely documented and these impacts are difficult to separate from effects of other hydrocarbons in the environment

  8. Maximum tech, minimum time. Response and cleanup of the Fidalgo Bay oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintler, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    A booster pump failure on a pipeline at Texaco's Anacortes refinery spilled more than 17,000 gallons of oil into Fidalgo Bay. A description is given of the spill control measures taken under Texaco's Spill Prevention and Control Countermeasures and facility contingency plans. The spill was addressed quickly, and containment booms were used to cordon off the spill. Vacuum trucks, rope mop machines and disk skimmers were used to collect the thickest concentrations of oil, and the oil and water collected was separated at the refinery's wastewater treatment centre. Nonwoven polypropylene sorbent pads, sweeps, booms and oil snares were used to clean up thinner concentrations of oil. Essential steps for a smooth spill response include the following: a comprehensive spill prevention and control countermeasures plan, training and regular drills and testing; immediate notification of appropriate regulatory agencies and company emergency response personnel; and the use of professional oil spill management contractors to assist in spill cleanup. 2 figs

  9. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Rice Porridge Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes skin burns from spills of hot rice and milk products. The traditional Norwegian rice porridge serves as an example. By testing spills on objects emulating an arm, it was concluded that spills were seldom thinner than 3 mm, and stayed in place due to the viscosity of the porridge for more than one minute. The Pennes bioheat equation was solved numerically for such spills, including heat conduction to the skin and convective heat losses from the porridge surface. Temperatures were analyzed in the porridge and skin layers, and the resulting skin injury was calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as porridge layer thickness, porridge temperature, removal of the porridge and thermal effects of post scald tempered (15 °C water cooling were analyzed. The spilled porridge resulted in a prolonged heat supply to the skin, and the skin injury developed significantly with time. The porridge temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter. A 70 °C porridge temperature could develop superficial partial-thickness burns. Porridge temperatures at processing temperatures nearly instantly developed severe burns. It was demonstrated that prompt removal of the hot porridge significantly reduced the injury development. The general advice is to avoid serving porridge and similar products at temperatures above 65 °C and, if spilled on the skin, to remove it quickly. After such scald incidents, it is advised to cool the injured area by tempered water for a prolonged period to stimulate healing.

  10. Modeling Skin Injury from Hot Spills on Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgrim Log

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes scald burns from hot beverages, such as coffee and tea, spilled on the lap, i.e., an incident that may occur in daily life. The Pennes bioheat equation is solved numerically for small spills wetting the clothing, i.e., the fabric prevents the spilled liquid from draining away. Temperatures are analyzed in the wetted fabric and the skin layers and the resulting skin injury is calculated based on the basal layer temperature. Parameters influencing burn severity, such as clothing thickness, liquid temperature, removal of fabric and thermal effects of post scald water cooling are analyzed. The fabric cools the water some but represents a threat since the entrapped water results in a prolonged heat supply. The liquid temperature turned out to be the most important injury parameter, where liquid temperature of about 80–85 °C seems to be a limit for developing superficial partial-thickness burns in the present minimum case, i.e., where the liquid just wets the fabric. Spilling water in excess of just wetting the fabric, more severe burns will develop at lower liquid temperatures due to the prolonged heat supply. Higher liquid temperatures will nearly instantly develop more severe burns. It is demonstrated that removal of the clothing within the first seconds after the spill may significantly reduce the scalding severity. The general advice is therefore to avoid excessive heating of beverages and, if the beverage is spilled, to quickly remove the wetted clothing. Prolonged tempered water cooling is advised to improve the healing processes.

  11. The use of mesocosms in marine oil spill - ecological research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of mesocosms which are partly enclosed, bounded, outdoor experimental systems for simulating marine oil spill environments for use in examining the ecological impact of the spill response. System requirements for mesocosms in marine oil spill ecological research and development are discussed, and the question of scaling, and mesocosm tank features useful in coastal/nearshore ecological marine oil spill research are considered. Details are given of the MERL mesocosm facility at the University of Rhode Island, and the Coastal Oil-Spill Simulation System (COSS) multiple tank mesocosm facility in Texas, and recommendations for the design and use of marine mesocosms in oil spill ecological impact studies are presented. (UK)

  12. Impact of oil spill on intertidal organisms in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out after a major oil spill hit the coasts of Bahrain in 1988. A total of fifteen stations around the Island of Bahrain were monitored for a period of six months in order to measure the impact of the spill on marine organisms and in particular those living in the intertidal zone. Large quantities of heavy hydrocarbons accumulated on the shores and caused death or serious damage to many organisms, including birds and fishes. The spill first hit the northwest shores. The oil spill was also reported to be the main factor in damaging the traditional fishing traps in the coastal waters, which caused serious effects on the fish catch for seven months

  13. Ottawa river nuclear spill contingency model development. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the calibration and application of a series of spill model programs. The programs simulate the receiving water concentrations in rivers, resulting from discharges/spill which can vary in time as well as being intermittent. The programs incorporate computer graphic outputs of the spill distribution at given times after the beginning of the spill, and at given downstream distances as a function of time. The manual outlines the procedure to calibrate the models based on site specific data. Detailed technical discussions on various components of the models are also included. The programs have been set up in an interactive (inquiry-response) mode. The series of programs are written on Fortran 77 and run on all IBM PC and compatible computers

  14. The oil spill modelling in the Sea of Japan: application to the tanker 'Nakhodka' 1997 incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, S.M.; Yoon, J.-H.; Hirose, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    In January 1997 the Russian tanker 'NAKHODKA' spilled into the Sea of Japan about 5000 tons of heavy fuel oil type C. Most of it reached the coast of Japan and damaged the environment. This incident forced the development of the operational system for the prediction of oil spills in the Sea of Japan. As a part of this system the model for oil spill modelling is presented. The modelled climatological sea currents were used in these simulators, generated by the three-dimensional primitive ocean circulation model with 10-minute horizontal resolution and 19 vertical levels. The model was forced by climatological atmospheric winds and heat fluxes. The wind currents in the upper sea layer were estimated by the wind data of ECMWF with 6 hours time and 0.5625-degree spatial resolution. The vertical structure of the total currents was interpolated using both wind driven currents and the climatological model currents data at the model levels. The oil spill was modelled with the particle tracking techniques. The model included the advection by currents, random diffusion, the buoyancy effect and the parameterisation of oil evaporation, biodegradation and beaching. For the deep sea the parameterisation of diffusion depends from the stratification, taken from the ocean circulation model output. The results demonstrated the defined relation with the observed propagation of the oil along the coast of Japan and highlighted the most important directions for the model development. The main is the realisation of the model for the real-time simulations and forecasts of the ocean currents with the fine resolution in the upper layer of the Sea of Japan. (author)

  15. Remote sensing for oil spill detection and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of remote sensing for marine oil spill detection and response. The surveillance and monitoring of discharges, and the main elements of effective surveillance are discussed. Tactical emergency response and the requirements for selecting a suitable remote sensing approach, airborne remote sensing systems, and the integration of satellite and airborne imaging are examined. Specifications of satellite surveillance systems potentially usable for oil spill detection, and specifications of airborne remote sensing systems suitable for oil spill detection, monitoring and supplemental actions are tabulated, and a schema of integrated satellite-airborne remote sensing (ISARS) is presented. (UK)

  16. The management of acute risks. Oil spill contingency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, D.C.; Cormack, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that the risks of environmental damage can be best minimized by preventing oil spills from occurring at all. Since absolute prevention is unrealistic, however, early detection is essential and aerial surveillance techniques are of great value in this connection. If spills do occur, proper contingency planning and clean-up techniques can minimize impacts, but will rarely avoid them completely if the spilled oil reaches the coastline. It is evident that a main priority should be to prevent spilled oil reaching the coastline. The way in which oil spill response strategy is implemented is discussed in detail. It is based on four key elements: the allocation of responsibilities; contingency planning; training and exercises; regular audit of plans and response mechanisms. A case study of the oil spill strategy employed at the Sullom Voe oil terminal in Shetland is used as an illustration. (UK)

  17. Attractiveness-Based Airline Network Models with Embedded Spill and Recapture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Di Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In airline revenue management, the modeling of the spill and recapture effects is essential for an accurate estimation of the passenger flow and the revenue in a flight network. However, as most current approaches toward spill and recapture involve either non-linearity or a tremendous amount of additional variables, it is computationally intractable to apply those techniques to the classical network design and capacity planning models.Design/methodology: We present a new framework that incorporates the spill and recapture effects, where the spill from an itinerary is recaptured by other itineraries based on their attractiveness. The presented framework distributes the accepted demand of an itinerary according to the currently available itineraries, without adding extra variables for the recaptured spill. Due to its compactness, we integrate the framework with the classical capacity planning and network design models.Findings: Our preliminary computational study shows an increase of 1.07% in profitability anda better utilization of the network capacity, on a medium-size North American airline provided by Sabre Airline Solutions.Originality/value: Our investigation leads to a holistic model that tackles the network design and capacity planning simultaneously with an accurate modeling of the spill and re- capture effects.Furthermore, the presented framework for spill and recapture is versatile and can be easily applied to other disciplines such as the hospitality industry and product line design (PLD problems.

  18. New problems and opportunities of oil spill monitoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barenboim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency oil and oil products spills represent a great danger to the environment, including ecosystems, and to the population. New problems of such dangerous spills and methods of early detection are discussed in this paper. It is proposed to conduct assessment of biological hazards of such spills on the basis of data on the distribution of individual oil hydrocarbons within the column of the water body and computer predictions of their toxicity. Oil radioactivity, which is associated with uranium and thorium, is seen as the important aspect of the oil spill danger, especially in watercourses. The need for an automated monitoring system for the early detection of oil spills in water bodies is analysed. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first remote sensing subsystem is based on powerful fluorescent lidars; experimental results on lidar registration of oil pollution of water are reported. The second subsystem uses a network of automatic monitoring stations with contact detectors. The third subsystem is the combined sensor system based on remote and contact technologies.

  19. Potentially beneficial spill-related effects of chemicals routinely added to crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Maharaj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Trajectory of an oil spill off Goa, eastern Arabian Sea: Field observations and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vethamony, P. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India)]. E-mail: mony@nio.org; Sudheesh, K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Babu, M.T. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Jayakumar, S. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Manimurali, R. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Saran, A.K. [National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004 (India); Sharma, L.H. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Rajan, B. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India); Srivastava, M. [Indian Coast Guard, District HQ-11, MPT Old Admin Building, Mormugao Harbour, Goa 403 803 (India)

    2007-07-15

    An oil spill occurred off Goa, west coast of India, on 23 March 2005 due to collision of two vessels. In general, fair weather with weak winds prevails along the west coast of India during March. In that case, the spill would have moved slowly and reached the coast. However, in 2005 when this event occurred, relatively stronger winds prevailed, and these winds forced the spill to move away from the coast. The spill trajectory was dominated by winds rather than currents. The MIKE21 Spill Analysis model was used to simulate the spill trajectory. The observed spill trajectory and the slick area were in agreement with the model simulations. The present study illustrates the importance of having pre-validated trajectories of spill scenarios for selecting eco-sensitive regions for preparedness and planning suitable response strategies whenever spill episodes occur. - This is the first time model results have been compared with real oil spill observations along an Indian Coast.

  1. Intrinsic bioremediation of an Arctic spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.

    2002-01-01

    An environmental site assessment was conducted in summer 2001 at Repulse Bay, Nunavut where a recent diesel spill flowed from groundwater into a small creek leading to Hudson Bay. The spill produced a microbial mat several mm in thickness and which colonized the creek for about 50 m from the point where the groundwater entered the creek. Further down the gradient, the mat increased in thickness and changed in colour from yellowish brown to green. Sedimentary iron deposition was occurring along the banks of the creek where the mat was found and a free phase diesel product was found a few mm below the sediment-water interface. The microbial mats were found to have gradients of oxygen which peaked at surface and decreased with depth. Hydrogen sulphide concentrations were formed by sulphate reduction. In comparison, an older weathered diesel spill did not appear to have much effect on the stream's geochemistry and did not form a microbial mat. It is noted that the mat may have formed in the new spill because its' volatile component may have had a toxic effect on bacterial predators in the stream. It was concluded that intrinsic bioremediation takes place through dissimilatory sulphate and iron reduction and aerobic degradation. This may be cause for about 13 per cent ppm of hydrocarbon degradation known as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). 12 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  2. Oil spill sorbents: Testing protocol and certification listing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.; Gausemel, I.

    1993-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Engineering Division is spearheading a program in conjunction with the Canadian General Standards Board that would see the development of a certification and listing program in addition to a national standard for the testing of sorbent materials. Funding for this program is provided by Environment Canada (EC), Canadian Coast Guard (CCG), Marine Spill Response Corporation (MSRC), US Coast Guard (USCG), and US Minerals Management Service (MMS). The test methods are based upon those defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials and previous test methods developed by Environment Canada for our series of reports entitled Selection Criteria and Laboratory Evaluation of Oil Spill Sorbents. This series, which was started in 1975, encompasses a number of commercially available oil spill sorbents tested with different petroleum products and hydrocarbon solvents. The testing program will categorize the sorbents according to their operating characteristics. The main categories are oil spills on water, oil spills on land, and industrial use. The characteristics to be evaluated with the new test protocols include initial and maximum sorption capacities, water pickup, buoyancy, reuse potential, retention profile, disintegration (material integrity), and ease of application and retrieval. In the near future are plans to incorporate changes to the test that would involve increasing the list of test liquids to encompass spills in an industrial setting, in addition to testing sorbent booms and addressing the disposal problem

  3. European pipelines spill near record amounts in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    European pipelines in 1993 spilled as much crude oil and petroleum products as in any year since 1971, when statistics first began to be reported. Final cost of cleanup will exceed $10 million, by far the most ever spent by western European oil pipelines operating on land. This cost figure is only preliminary: costs for three spills totaling nearly 2,600 cu m (approximately 16,380 bbl; 43.6% of total spilled) had not been reported through November 1994. Ten incidents of oil spills from pipelines occurred in 1993, compared with seven for 1992 and an average of 12.7/year since 1971. Total length of oil industry cross-country pipelines operating in Western Europe at the end of 1993 was 21,600 km, up from nearly 19,000 km in 1989. In all, 601 million cu m (3.8 billion bbl) of crude oil and refined products moved through the pipeline system. The paper briefly describes several of the accidents

  4. BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In response to the BP oil spill, EPA monitored sediment near the spill. While emergency response data collection has ended, results continue to be available on this...

  5. Assessment of treated vs untreated oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of studies conducted to determine the practicability and feasibility of using dispersants to mitigate the impact of an oil spill on the environment are described. The method of approach is holistic in that it combines the physical, chemical, microbial and macro-fauna response to a spill treated with dispersants and compares this with spills that are left untreated. The program integrates mathematical, laboratory, meso-scale (three 20 foot high by three feet in diameter tanks, in-situ experiments and analyses to determine if the use of dispersants is an effective oil spill control agent. In summary, it appears viable to use dispersants as determined on a case by case basis. The case for using dispersants has to be based on whether or not their use will mitigate the environmental impact of the spill. In the case of an open ocean spill that is being driven into a rich inter-tidal community, the use of dispersants could greatly reduce the environmental impact. Even in the highly productive George's Bank area at the height of the cod spawning season, the impact of the use of dispersants is well within the limits of natural variability when the threshold toxicity level is assumed to be as low as 100 ppB, a level which is often found in the open ocean. Thus, it appears that dispersants can and should be used when it is evident that their use will mitigate the impacts of the spill. Their use in areas where there is poor circulation and therefore little possibility of rapid dilution is more questionable and should be a subject of future studies.

  6. Abnormal development of Dentalium due to the Amoco Cadiz oil spill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.SJ.; Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    A comparison was made between the development of Dentalium eggs, spawned by animals, collected before and after the Amoco Cadiz oil spill. Development of eggs from animals collected before the oil spill was significantly better than development of eggs from animals collected after the oil spill. It

  7. Almost remediation of saltwater spills at E and P sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carty, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    At exploration and production (E and P) sites crude spills restricted to topsoil are often self-remediating, but salt spills rarely are. Most soils naturally biodegrade crude. Without appropriate human intervention, brine spills can result in decades of barren land and seriously degrade surface water and aquifers. Servicing the E and P industry are remediation practitioners with a limited array of often expensive remediation concepts and materials which they hope will work, and sometimes do. Unfortunately, many remediation practitioners are unfamiliar with, or disregard, the natural physical, chemical, and biotic complexity of the soil and aquatic media. All too often this results in exacerbating injury to an already damaged ecosystem. Likewise, important cultural factors such as public relations, environmental regulations, property rights, and water rights are also overlooked until after implementation of an ill-advised or illegal remediation design has been initiated. A major issue is determining what constitutes ''successful'' remediation of a brine spill. Environmental managers have long sought one or two universally applicable fast and cheap amendment/treatment protocols for all their diverse multi-state salt affected spill scenarios. This presentation describes aspects of common spill-affected ecosystems which must be considered to achieve ''successful'' remediation

  8. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W. [ARKTOS International S.A., Tavannes (Switzerland)], email: bruce.seligman@arktoscraft.com; Hall, T.A. [Hall Marine Design Ltd., Vancouver B.C. (Canada)], email: thallhmd@telus.net

    2010-07-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  9. ARKTOS amphibious oil spill response craft for mixed ice/water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, Bruce H.J.W.; Hall, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The oil spill which occurred recently in the Gulf of Mexico highlighted the lack of efficient oil spill clean-up equipment for an offshore environment. With the increase in industrial operations in the Arctic Seas it is of high importance to develop an efficient oil spill response as the absence of reliable oil spill contingency plans will not be tolerated in such environmentally sensitive areas. The aim of this paper is to present the use of the ARKTOS amphibious craft for cleaning up an oil spill in the Arctic. This craft is usually used for logistical services and evacuation purposes; its use for clean-up purposes has been under study since 2000. This study showed that the ARKTOS craft could be an efficient means for oil spill clean-up in the Arctic because of its proven ice capable amphibious platforms and its hydraulic power; however oil collection trials should be performed to validate it.

  10. Oyster polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon fingerprinting applied to the Apex barge oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, T.L.; Jackson, T.J.; McDonald, T.J.; Sericano, J.L.; Brooks, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    An estimated 692,000 gallons of catalytic feed stock oil was spilled into Galveston Bay on July 28, 1990, when a tanker collided with three Apex barges in the Houston Ship Channel. Oysters were collected and analyzed from Galveston Bay Todd's Dump (GBRD) before the spill and after the spill. Oysters were also collected from Galveston Bay Redfish Island (GBRI), a site known to be impacted by the spill, 37 and 110 days after the spill. The spilled oil was also analyzed. The concentration of 18 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) measured as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Status ampersand Trends (NS ampersand T) showed a sharp increase from 100 ng/g to over 600 ng/g. Concentrations of these 18 PAHs were also found at GBRI. Fingerprinting techniques applied to data from oyster analyses demonstrated the presence of bioavailable Apex Barge oil 37, 110, and 132 days after the spill at GHTD and GBRI. Fingerprinting becomes less diagnostic with time due to possible environmental weathering of the oil. The fingerprint from GBTD 495 and 851 days after the spill will be presented and discussed

  11. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  12. Mercury Spill Responses - Five States, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Ryan J; Hirsch, Anne E; Bush, Christina R; Schmitz, Stuart; Wenzel, Jeff

    2017-03-17

    Despite measures to educate the public about the dangers of elemental mercury, spills continue to occur in homes, schools, health care facilities, and other settings, endangering the public's health and requiring costly cleanup. Mercury is most efficiently absorbed by the lungs, and exposure to high levels of mercury vapor after a release can cause cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, and visual disturbances (1). Children and fetuses are most susceptible to the adverse effects of mercury vapor exposure. Because their organ systems are still developing, children have increased respiratory rates, and they are closer to the ground where mercury vapors are most highly concentrated (2). To summarize key features of recent mercury spills and lessons learned, five state health departments involved in the cleanup (Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, and Wisconsin) compiled data from various sources on nonthermometer mercury spills from 2012 to 2015. The most common sites of contamination were residences, schools and school buses, health care facilities, and commercial and industrial facilities. Children aged mercury exposure. To protect the public's health after a mercury spill, it is important that local, state, and federal agencies communicate and coordinate effectively to ensure a quick response, and to minimize the spread of contamination. To reduce the number of mercury spills that occur in the United States, public health officials should increase awareness about exchange programs for mercury-containing items and educate school and health care workers about sources of mercury and how to dispose of them properly.

  13. Oil spill trajectory analysis for the Calcasieu Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meselhe, E.A.; Barker, C.H.; Hodges, M.

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (H3D) was used to determine how oil spills might travel and spread within the Calcasieu River Estuary which has heavy oil traffic. The Calcasieu River is located in the southwest corner of the State of Louisiana and houses valuable wetlands that provide both commercial and recreational fishing and wildlife value to the area. These wetlands also filter water and protect Louisiana's coast areas from hurricane storm surges. An oil spill would damage areas of marshes that would have devastating effects on the entire ecological system within the estuary. A Trajectory Analysis Planner (TAP) H3D computer model is under development by the Hazardous Materials Response Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). TAP is a statistical planning tool that randomly samples historical hydrodynamic, hydrology and climatological data, to build up a database with biological and cleanup resource information. TAP can be used to predict which sites within the estuarine system will be most susceptible to oil spills of varying magnitudes, materials and locations. TAP can also estimate the time available for mitigation and remedial actions before the spill can impact the site. Hydrodynamics in the Calcasieu estuary is a combination of processes such as saltwater intrusion and response to water level fluctuations at an open boundary, as well as lake dynamics. H3D provides the three components of velocity, plus scalar quantities such as water levels, temperature and salinity distribution on a Cartesian three-dimensional grid. TAP was tested for spills of kerosene, non-weathering oil, crude oil, and gasoline and was able to perform reliable spill trajectory analysis. 12 refs., 9 figs

  14. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [University of California (United States); Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg [US Geology Survey (United States); Jones, Cathleen [California Institute of Technology (United States); Svejkovsky, Jan [Ocean Imaging Corporation (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  15. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: state of the art and application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Clark, Roger; Swayze, Gregg; Jones, Cathleen; Svejkovsky, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study stresses the value of using satellite technology in quantifying oil seepage impact, and how it can be applied to the case of Horizon oil spill. The purpose of the study is to clarify the remote sensing process as it applies to oil spills, and how testing resources should be properly allocated so as to come up with the optimal response strategy. Many parameters were involved in this research, of which the most important were the environmental factors, the active and passive remote sensing measures, satellite imagery and imaging spectroscopy, and oil thickness measurements using thermal infrared and laser-induced fluorescence. These parameters were later used to quantify the spills in the impacted regions. Results showed that remote sensing would always be accompanied by certain errors, however, in the case of the Horizon spill, the infrared approach proved to be a convenient and a reliable approach for impact analysis process. The study also put emphasis on the importance of oil spatial patterns in validating the reliability of a test procedure.

  16. Method of cleaning oil slicks and chemical spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of cleaning a floating chemical spill on a body of water. It comprises: providing a quantity of popular bark-based pelleted or granular product, flotation means and a flexible net having openings generally smaller than the smallest whole pellet dimension of the pelleted product, spreading the net over a chemical spill on the body of water, connecting the floatation means to the net thereby supporting the net adjacent the surface of the body of water, placing the poplar bark-based product on the net, absorbing the floating chemical spill into the product, and removing the chemical soaked product from the body of water

  17. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  18. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  19. ADIOS-automated data inquiry for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, W.J.; Overstreet, R.; Jones, R.; Watabayashi, G.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent computer database called ADIOS has been developed which stores properties of several hundred oils and oil products and which is combined with a model for oil weathering. Environmental data are input by the user through a menu-driven graphic interface. The format of the output is designed to provide immediate information for oil spill cleanup decisions. Typical output information includes changes in key physical parameters (density, viscosity, water content of emulsions) over time and an oil loss budget at any specific time. The model includes algorithms for spill spreading, evaporation, entrainment, droplet size distributions, rate of mousse formation, and changes in density and viscosity. ADIOS will eventually be part of a larger spill model which includes oil transport. ADIOS calculations are presented as either pie charts or graphs. 21 refs., 2 figs

  20. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and risk management applied to an active industrial site affected by fuel spill in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pablo, J.; Marti, V.; Rovira, M.; Vinolas, C.; Navarro, O.

    2005-01-01

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) applied to sites were groundwater have been affected by a fuel spill from an Industrial Underground Storage Tank (UST) is economically viable and a reliable methodology to achieve remediation goals. MNA process consists in the control of naturally occurring physical, chemical , and biological processes and is based in the knowledge of the processes that take place and reduce the charge of compounds derived from fuel in the site of study. Because the risk for Human Health and Ecosystem define the concept of contaminant, during MNA special attention has to be taken on concentration diminution of that are or could become contaminants and in this way is possible to perform Risk-Based Land Management (RBLM) by measuring both, the primary lines of evidence (shrinking or stable plume of contaminants) and secondary lines of evidence (given by geochemical indicators in the plume). Once, evidences have been gathered, is possible to calculate the rate of attenuation of contaminants and evaluate if admissible risk is reached an in a reasonable time framework, in order to propose MNA as a unique remediation or combined with other procedures to apply to an affected site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the application of MNA to an active industrial site in order to develop a RBLM able to assess that the risk for Human Health and ecosystem are acceptable. The added attractive of this methodology is the non-intrusiveness that allows not to stop the industrial activity. The site considered in our study is in an active company located about 15 Km to NW from Barcelona, Spain.The company has a buried UST containing heavy fuel oil for energetic use. During 2002 a general soil impact study revealed that subsoil and groundwater close to the UST were affected by hydrocarbon losses from the tank and in January 2003 the fuel of the tank was emptied by pumping. The free phase of fuel floating on groundwater remained on the aquifer. As a

  1. The energy spilling reactions of bacteria and other organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James B

    2007-01-01

    For many years it was assumed that living organisms always utilized ATP in a highly efficient manner, but simple growth studies with bacteria indicated that the efficiency of biomass production was often at least 3-fold lower than the amount that would be predicted from standard biosynthetic pathways. The utilization of energy for maintenance could only explain a small portion of this discrepancy particularly when the growth rate was high. These ideas and thermodynamic arguments indicated that cells might have another avenue of energy utilization. This phenomenon has also been called 'uncoupling', 'spillage' and 'overflow metabolism', but 'energy spilling' is probably the most descriptive term. It appears that many bacteria spill energy, and the few that do not can be killed (large and often rapid decrease in viability), if the growth medium is nitrogen-limited and the energy source is in 'excess'. The lactic acid bacterium, Streptococcus bovis, is an ideal bacterium for the study of energy spilling. Because it only uses substrate level phosphorylation to generate ATP, ATP generation can be calculated with a high degree of certainty. It does not store glucose as glycogen, and its cell membrane can be easily accessed. Comparative analysis of heat production, membrane voltage, ATP production and Ohm's law indicated that the energy spilling reaction of S. bovis is mediated by a futile cycle of protons through the cell membrane. Less is known about Escherichia coli, but in this bacterium energy spilling could be mediated by a futile cycle of potassium or ammonium ions. Energy spilling is not restricted to prokaryotes and appears to occur in yeasts and in higher organisms. In man, energy spilling may be related to cancer, ageing, ischemia and cardiac failure. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Methodology for environmental assessments of oil and hazardous substance spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. P.; Scott, G. I.; Getter, C. D.; Hayes, M. O.; Gundlach, E. R.

    1980-03-01

    Scientific assessment of the complex environmental consequences of large spills of oil or other hazardous substances has stimulated development of improved strategies for rapid and valid collection and processing of ecological data. The combination of coastal processes and geological measurements developed by Hayes & Gundlach (1978), together with selected field biological and chemical observations/measurements, provide an ecosystem impact assessment approach which is termed “integrated zonal method of ecological impact assessment.” Ecological assessment of oil and hazardous material spills has been divided into three distinct phases: (1) first-order response studies — conducted at the time of the initial spill event, which gather data to document acute impacts and assist decision-makers in prioritization of cleanup efforts and protection of ecologically sensitive habitats, (2) second-order response studies — conducted two months to one year post-spill, which document any delayed mortality and attempt to identify potential sublethal impacts in sensitive species, and (3) third-order response studies — conducted one to three years post-spill, to document chronic impacts (both lethal and sublethal) to specific indicator species. Data collected during first-order response studies are gathered in a quantitative manner so that the initial assessment may become a baseline for later, more detailed, post-spill scientific efforts. First- and second-order response studies of the “Peck Slip” oil spill in Puerto Rico illustrate the usefulness of this method. The need for contingency planning before a spill has been discussed along with the use of the Vulnerability Index, a method in which coastal environments are classified on a scale of 1 10, based upon their potential susceptibility to oiling. A study of the lower Cook Inlet section of the Alaskan coast illustrates the practical application of this method.

  3. Lessons learned from two very different large radioactive spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Hard lessons in radioactive spill response, including decontamination and confinement methods, priority setting, survey techniques, and release limit determination were learned (by trial and error) from two spills which occurred recently at the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The responsibilities of radiological control personnel, decontamination workers, and facility management were often redefined as decontamination progressed. While each spill involved ∼1 Ci, their essential characteristics and isotopic distributions were quite different requiring innovative and pragmatic solutions. The first spill was liquid waste with water soluble fission products mixed in an organic solution of actinides. Rain, snowmelt, fog, and darkness foiled initial confinement efforts and contributed to the spread of contamination over several hundred square meters of concrete, asphalt, and floor covering. Contaminated runoff escaped into the environment until effective preventative measures were developed and put in place. The second spill happened when 224 Cm and 241 Am were accidentally siphoned from an in-cell product holding tank onto the floor of the Limited Access Area at the REDC. Several decontamination techniques were tried before an effective one was developed

  4. Oil mixing behavior after an oil spill: identification conflicts of different fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shijie; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Xueshuang; Li, Zhongping

    2018-04-01

    Clearing up whether spilled oil is mixed or not can strengthen the accuracy of oil spill identification. In the present study, the biomarkers in spilled oil samples were detected. The weathering modes of different types of diagnostic ratio and carbon isotope values of individual n-alkanes were also analyzed. The results showed that the diagnostic ratios of steroids, terpenes and aromatics, and weathering characteristics of carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of individual n-alkanes supported the idea that Dalian oil spill emerged from a single oil source. Furthermore, commonly used diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes indicated that the Dalian oil spill had undergone the oil mixing process. The different identifying outcomes indicate that some kinds of n-alkane-rich substance (such as oil dispersants) were mixed in the Dalian spilled oil and interfered with the routine diagnosis ratios of n-alkanes.

  5. Oil spill response planning under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound on March 24, 1989 illustrated the need for more resources, better planning, and better command and control to efficiently and effectively respond to, contain and cleanup catastrophic oil spills. In response to public concern and industry initiatives to resolve existing oil spill response problems. Congress enacted the comprehensive Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA-90) on August 18, 1990. OPA-90 mandates comprehensive changes in vessel and facility response planning, envisioning a comprehensive and integrated oil spill response planning scheme, with revisions to reflect OPA-90's new requirements. Area Committees comprised of federal, state and local officials and others will prepare Area Contingency Plans for Coast Guard approval, which set forth the framework for responding to open-quotes worst case dischargesclose quotes. Owners and operators of tank vessels and onshore and offshore facilities must submit individual response plans for federal approval by February 18, 1993, identifying and ensuring availability of private personnel and equipment necessary to remove to the maximum extent practicable a open-quotes worst case discharge.close quotes The Coast Guard is considering rules to implement these requirements. Major challenges exist to meet the statutory requirements, including response times, skimming efficiencies, adverse weather and others that affect emergency response capability. This paper focuses on: (1) oil spill response problems identified and lessons learned from the Prince William Sound spill; (2) OPA-90's complex and technical oil spill response planning requirements and their effect on response planning for marine operations; (3) the federal regulatory program to implement OPA-90, defining spill response capability for a open-quotes worst case discharge,close quotes considering existing response resources and the new capabilities by the industry-supported Marine Spill Response Corporation

  6. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M.

    2002-01-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future sustainable shipping

  7. Oil spill contingency planning in the Ivory coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, K.; Jensen, S.K.; Ostergaerd, J.; Nogbou, P.

    1993-01-01

    The administrative center in charge of handling oil spill pollution situations on the Ivory Coast, West Africa, is named Centre Ivoirien Antipollution (CIAPOL). Its organizational structure has been reshuffled recently. CIAPOL now has three divisions: a laboratory division, a division for cleaning up oil and chemical pollution at sea, and an administrative division. The risk for oil pollution is known: within the past ten years five spills have been reported. All of these have been connected to operations relating to the refinery in Abidjan. More than 2,000 ships call at the port of Abidjan every year. Minor oil slicks are found almost permanently in the harbor and the lagoons around the harbor. Lumps of tar are rather common on the beaches all along the country's coast. This paper focuses on the background investigation in sensitive areas and risk analysis that led to a revision of the oil spill contingency plan, Plan Pollumar, and the recent purchase of oil spill cleanup equipment. The creation of a regional oil pollution response center at CIAPOL for all of the countries in West Africa, is proposed

  8. A Review of Oil Spill Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E

    2017-12-30

    The technical aspects of oil spill remote sensing are examined and the practical uses and drawbacks of each technology are given with a focus on unfolding technology. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, but limited to certain observational conditions and simple applications. Infrared cameras offer some potential as oil spill sensors but have several limitations. Both techniques, although limited in capability, are widely used because of their increasing economy. The laser fluorosensor uniquely detects oil on substrates that include shoreline, water, soil, plants, ice, and snow. New commercial units have come out in the last few years. Radar detects calm areas on water and thus oil on water, because oil will reduce capillary waves on a water surface given moderate winds. Radar provides a unique option for wide area surveillance, all day or night and rainy/cloudy weather. Satellite-carried radars with their frequent overpass and high spatial resolution make these day-night and all-weather sensors essential for delineating both large spills and monitoring ship and platform oil discharges. Most strategic oil spill mapping is now being carried out using radar. Slick thickness measurements have been sought for many years. The operative technique at this time is the passive microwave. New techniques for calibration and verification have made these instruments more reliable.

  9. Perception or reality: oil spill risk on salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    There is a tendency in the American scientific community to assume the worst when it comes to the effects of oil spills on the environment. Over the several years of research following the Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 1989 in Prince William Sound, Alaska, scientists of the United States National Marine Fisheries Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game have reported long-term and continuing negative impacts of the spill on pink salmon. In spite of the substantial evidence to the contrary, neither reassessment of results nor analysis of alternative explanations have been considered by either agency. The motivations behind such unyielding positions are examined and explanations suggested for the singular point of view. (author)

  10. Spill management strategy for the Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, H.L.; Chapman, R.S.; Johnson, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is a unique cooperative effort between state and Federal agencies to restore the health and productivity of America's largest estuary. To assist in addressing specific management issues, a comprehensive three-dimensional, time-varying hydrodynamic and water quality model has ben developed. The Bay modeling strategy will serve as an excellent framework for including submodules to predict the movement, dispersion, and weathering of accidental spills, such as for petroleum products or other chemicals. This paper presents sample results from the Bay application to illustrate the success of the model system in simulating Bay processes. Also, a review of model requirements for successful spill modeling in Chesapeake Bay is presented. Recommendations are given for implementing appropriate spill modules with the Bay model framework and establishing a strategy for model use in addressing management issues

  11. Experimental study of the spill and vaporization of a volatile liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, Douglas; Jackson, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Pool and vapor cloud characteristics of an acetone spill issuing from the downstream wall of a flow obstruction oriented perpendicular to a uniform flow were investigated experimentally. Data indicate that the spill event was largely governed by the temperature of the surface in relation to the boiling point of the spilled liquid. The free stream velocity (ranging from 0.75 to 3.0 m/s) also impacted the spreading of the spill. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to measure acetone vapor concentrations during the transient pool spreading and vaporization in a window 60 cm long by 50 cm high and located downstream of the 16 cm high obstruction. The recirculation region induced by the flow obstruction caused upstream transport of the acetone vapor along the spill surface, after which it was convected vertically along the obstruction wall before being entrained into the flow and convected downstream. The recirculating flow caused regions of vapor within the flammability limits to be localized near the flow obstruction. These regions moved into and out of the measurement plane by large three-dimensional flow structures. The flammable region of the evolved vapor cloud was observed to grow well past the downstream edge of the measurement domain. With decreasing wind speeds, both the mass of acetone vapor within the flammability limits and the total spill event time increased significantly. The data presented herein provides a basis for validating future spill models of hazardous chemical releases, where complex turbulent flow modeling must be coupled with spill spreading and vaporization dynamics

  12. New techniques on oil spill modelling applied in the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodiatis, George; Kokinou, Eleni; Alves, Tiago; Lardner, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Small or large oil spills resulting from accidents on oil and gas platforms or due to the maritime traffic comprise a major environmental threat for all marine and coastal systems, and they are responsible for huge economic losses concerning the human infrastructures and the tourism. This work aims at presenting the integration of oil-spill model, bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, geomorphological and geological data to assess the impact of oil spills in maritime regions such as bays, as well as in the open sea, carried out in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea within the frame of NEREIDs, MEDESS-4MS and RAOP-Med EU projects. The MEDSLIK oil spill predictions are successfully combined with bathymetric analyses, the shoreline susceptibility and hazard mapping to predict the oil slick trajectories and the extend of the coastal areas affected. Based on MEDSLIK results, oil spill spreading and dispersion scenarios are produced both for non-mitigated and mitigated oil spills. MEDSLIK model considers three response combating methods of floating oil spills: a) mechanical recovery using skimmers or similar mechanisms; b) destruction by fire, c) use of dispersants or other bio-chemical means and deployment of booms. Shoreline susceptibility map can be compiled for the study areas based on the Environmental Susceptibility Index. The ESI classification considers a range of values between 1 and 9, with level 1 (ESI 1) representing areas of low susceptibility, impermeable to oil spilt during accidents, such as linear shorelines with rocky cliffs. In contrast, ESI 9 shores are highly vulnerable, and often coincide with natural reserves and special protected areas. Additionally, hazard maps of the maritime and coastal areas, possibly exposed to the danger on an oil spill, evaluate and categorize the hazard in levels from low to very high. This is important because a) Prior to an oil spill accident, hazard and shoreline susceptibility maps are made available to design

  13. 1991 Virginia oil spill reporting - national and state data base comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stalcup, D.; O'Connor, L.; Kallen, E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give an overview of federal and Virginia state statutes governing the reporting of oil spills through the analysis of oil spill data from a national source (the emergency response notification system, ERNS) and oil spill data from the state level (the Virginia Water Control Board, VWCB). Using data from calendar year 1991, an analysis of the 499 oil spill notifications made to ERNS and the 1,155 oil spill reports made to the VWCB was conducted. The requirements for reporting releases of oil are governed by both underground storage tank (UST) and water pollution control regulations. An analysis was carried out to determine if statutory reporting requirements are being met on the state and federal level. Although these requirements are promulgated on both levels, there is an apparent lack of knowledge in the regulated community

  14. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... acceptance criterion for the pollution of the environment. This NPWI acceptance criterion is applied to the oil spill example....... be defined in a similar way as the so-called Life Quality Index defined by Nathwani et al [Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Padey MD. Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo; Waterloo (Ontario, Canada):1997], and can be used to quantify the risk...

  15. The Threats from Oil Spills: Now, Then, and in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerneloev, Arne (Vienna (Austria)), e-mail: arne.jernelov@chello.at

    2010-07-15

    The recent oil spill from the blown-out well by the name of Macondo, drilled by the ill-fated rig Deepwater Horizon, has many features in common with another blowout in the Mexican Gulf that happened three decades ago. Then the oil gushed out from the Ixtoc I well drilled by the Sedco 135-F semi-submersible rig. In the years between these catastrophes, the source and nature of oil spills have undergone large changes. Huge spills from tankers that ran aground or collided used to be what caught the headlines and caused large ecological damage. The number and size of such accidental spills have decreased significantly. Instead, spills from ageing, ill-maintained or sabotaged pipelines have increased, and places like Arctic Russia, the Niger Delta, and the northwestern Amazon have become sites of reoccurring oil pollution. As for blowouts, there is no clear trend with regard to the number of incidences or amounts of spilled oil, but deepwater blowouts are much harder to cap and thus tend to go on longer and result in the release of larger quantities of oil. Also, oil exploration and extraction is moving into ever deeper water and into stormier and icier seas, increasing potential risks. The risk for reoccurring spills like the two huge Mexican Gulf ones is eminent and must be reduced

  16. The Exxon-Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, K.G.; Stringer, W.J.; Grove, J.E.; Ahlnas, K.; Royer, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that satellite images were used to investigate the Exxon Valdez oil spill after the tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef, Alaska 24 March 1989. Since that time, over 11 million gallons of crude oil have circulated through the western Prince William Sound region of Alaska, oiling many of its beaches. A good deal of this oil subsequently entered the Gulf of Alaska with some transported beyond Kodiak Island, 500 km to the southwest. Satellite imagery of the spill was recorded by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Landsat Thematic Mapper, the SPOT Panchromatic Scanner and the SPOT Multispectral Scanner. Images from all four of these sources have been analyzed to help ascertain the extent of the spill and monitor its trajectory along the Alaskan coast. Digital image processing techniques have been utilized to emphasize spectral responses related to oil on the water surface and on teaches. Turbidity and sea surface temperature data have been enhanced to provide information on the circulation and distribution of surface water bodies. In addition to the satellite imagery, airborne visual observations with aerial photography, Side-Looking Airborne Radar, and other airborne sensors as well as shipboard sightings and samples were acquired

  17. Spreading, retention and clean-up of oil spills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, M P

    1976-05-01

    This study reviews and assesses the technology of oil spill spreading, retention and cleanup and proposes research needs in these areas. Sources of oil spills are analyzed and the difficulty of gathering meaningful statistics is discussed. Barrier technology is reviewed and problem areas analyzed. Natural and forced biodegradation and natural and chemical dispersion of oil spills are considered. Research recommendations are categorized under the following two headings (1) Preventive techniques and (2) Containment, Cleanup and Dispersion.

  18. Combustion: an oil spill mitigation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The technical feasibility of using combustion as an oil spill mitigation tool was studied. Part I of the two-part report is a practical guide oriented toward the needs of potential users, while Part II is the research or resource document from which the practical guidance was drawn. The study included theoretical evaluations of combustion of petroleum pool fires under the effects of weathering and an oil classification system related to combustion potential. The theoretical analysis of combustion is balanced by practical experience of oil burning and case history information. Decision elements are provided which can be used as a guide for technical evaluations of a particular oil spill situation. The rationale for assessing technical feasibility is given in the context of other alternatives available for response to an oil spill. A series of research and technology development concepts are included for future research. The ethics of using oil burning are discussed as issues, concerns, and tradeoffs. A detailed annotated bibliography is appended along with a capsule review of a decade of oil burning studies and other support information.

  19. The breakup of oil spills in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, E.; Zahariev, K.; Li, M.; Garrett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Existing theories of oil slick disintegration under stormy conditions were examined. A novel empirical model suitable for use in oil spill models was developed in an effort to demonstrate the many difficulties encountered in modeling the emulsification process. Chief among the difficulties is the prediction of the onset and extent of oil spill emulsification. The empirical model was described in some detail using surface active constituents and energy available from wind and waves as the controlling parameters. The resulting chart, if used in the marine environment, can predict localized emulsification and a more realistic behaviour of oil spills. 43 refs., 6 figs

  20. Computational model for the assessment of oil spill damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seip, K L; Heiberg, A B; Brekke, K A

    1985-06-01

    A description is given of the method and the required data of a model for calculating oil spill damages. Eleven damage attributes are defined: shorelength contaminated, shore restitution time, birds dead, restitution time for three groups of birds, open sea damages-two types, damages to recreation, economy and fisheries. The model has been applied in several cases of oil pollution assessments: in an examination of alternative models for the organization of oil spill combat in Norway, in the assessment of the damages coused by a blowout at Tromsoeflaket and in assessing a possible increase in oil spill preparedness for Svalbard. 56 references.

  1. Recovery of seabirds following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, over 35,000 dead birds were retrieved and overall mortality was estimated in the hundreds of thousands. These observations led to concerns about persistent impacts on seabirds, especially murres (Uria spp.). Surveys of attendance by murres at breeding colonies in the spill path in 1991, however, indicated no overall differences from prespill attendance levels. Investigations of habitat occupancy conducted shortly after the spill in 1989 showed that, of the 47 bird species examined, the majority were using areas of oil-affected habitats by late 1991, although a few species did not show clear signs of recovery at the end of the study. These species were primarily wintering and resident forms. Because habitat use by other ecologically similar species was not affected by the spill or they recovered rapidly, prospects for recovery of the species that continued to show evidence of oiling impacts on habitat use in late 1991 would seem to be good. Collectively, these studies indicate that concerns about long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds may not be justified, and that recovery in the use of habitats by many bird species and in colony attendance by murres appeared to be well advanced by late 1991

  2. State-of-the-art risk-based approach to spill contingency planning and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt Etkin, Dagmar; Reilly, Timothy; French McCay, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes incorporating a comprehensive examination of spill risk into risk management and contingency planning, and applying state-of-the-art modeling tools to evaluate various alternatives for appropriate spill response measures and optimize protective responses. The approach allows spill contingency planners and decision-makers to determine the types of spill scenarios that may occur in a particular location or from a particular source and calculate the probability distribution of the various scenarios. The spill probability information is useful in assessing and putting into perspective the various costs options for spill control systems that will be recommended ultimately. Using advanced modeling tools helps in estimating the potential environmental and socioeconomic consequences of each spill scenario based on location-specific factors over a range of stochastic possibilities, simulating spill scenarios and determining optimal responses and protection strategies. The benefits and costs of various response alternatives and variations in response time can be calculated and modeling tools for training and risk allocation/transfer purposes used.

  3. The potential for spills and leaks of contaminated liquids from shale gas developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, S A; Worrall, F; Davies, R J; Gluyas, J G

    2018-06-01

    Rapid growth of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas within the USA and the possibility of shale developments within Europe has created public concern about the risks of spills and leaks associated with the industry. Reports from the Texas Railroad Commission (1999 to 2015) and the Colorado Oil and Gas Commission (2009 to 2015) were used to examine spill rates from oil and gas well pads. Pollution incident records for England and road transport incident data for the UK were examined as an analogue for potential offsite spills associated with transport for a developing shale industry. The Texas and Colorado spill data shows that the spill rate on the well pads has increased over the recorded time period. The most common spill cause was equipment failure. Within Colorado 33% of the spills recorded were found during well pad remediation and random site inspections. Based on data from the Texas Railroad Commission, a UK shale industry developing well pads with 10 lateral wells would likely experience a spill for every 16 well pads developed. The same well pad development scenario is estimated to require at least 2856 tanker movements over two years per well pad. Considering this tanker movement estimate with incident and spill frequency data from UK milk tankers, a UK shale industry would likely experience an incident on the road for every 12 well pads developed and a road spill for every 19 well pads developed. Consequently, should a UK shale industry be developed it is important that appropriate mitigation strategies are in place to minimise the risk of spills associated with well pad activities and fluid transportation movements. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  5. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Mutual aid in oil spill response: The Alaskan north slope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, B.; Ingram, N.

    1993-01-01

    The Alaskan Arctic Region provides one of the world's most remote and challenging environments in which to mount an oil spill response. To facilitate the timeliness and appropriateness of the response, Alaska Clean Seas (ACS) and the operators of the North Slope oil fields have implemented a mutual aid concept for spill response. The concept is based upon each operator on the North Slope maintaining its own inventory of personnel [a spill response team (SRT)] and equipment that is available on short notice to respond to a spill. If the spill exceeds the responsible operator's resources, additional resources can be obtained from other operators and/or ACS through mutual aid. Individuals from diverse organizations are brought together in a mutual aid event. To allow different organizations to function effectively in a multi-organizational environment, a common management structure was required. The structure chosen for the North Slope was the incident command system (ICS). A key concern when discussing mutual aid is the provision of indemnification from liability for responders. For the North Slope, ACS and its member companies are indemnified when responding to a spill through provisions in the ACS charter and the ACS response action contract

  7. Novel apparatus permitting the recovery of polluting products such as hydrocarbons and fuel oil spilled onto the surface of the water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-26

    This apparatus for the recovery of oil spills consists of a chassis equipped at both ends with drums rotating and carrying a closed loop of a conveyor belt made of a sponge-like or foam-like absorbing substance which resists the effect of hydrocarbons, oils, oxidants and alkaline materials, while its water absorption power is practically zero. This material is glued or cast on a fabric core or on a large mesh material. A cleaning drum associated with the belt compresses the belt and causes the polluting material to be squeezed into a vat. The chassis is mounted on a ship with shallow draft or on an amphibious vehicle. This apparatus is applicable to all cases where a polluting product spilled onto the surface of the water must be eliminated.

  8. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area. Results The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65). Conclusions This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children. PMID:24179682

  9. Optimizing oil spill cleanup efforts: A tactical approach and evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubesic, Tony H; Wei, Ran; Nelson, Jake

    2017-12-15

    Although anthropogenic oil spills vary in size, duration and severity, their broad impacts on complex social, economic and ecological systems can be significant. Questions pertaining to the operational challenges associated with the tactical allocation of human resources, cleanup equipment and supplies to areas impacted by a large spill are particularly salient when developing mitigation strategies for extreme oiling events. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of advanced oil spill modeling techniques in combination with a developed mathematical model to spatially optimize the allocation of response crews and equipment for cleaning up an offshore oil spill. The results suggest that the detailed simulations and optimization model are a good first step in allowing both communities and emergency responders to proactively plan for extreme oiling events and develop response strategies that minimize the impacts of spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of BTEX groundwater concentrations from surface spills associated with hydraulic fracturing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Sherilyn A; Avens, Heather J; Banducci, Amber M; Sahmel, Jennifer; Panko, Julie M; Tvermoes, Brooke E

    2013-04-01

    Concerns have arisen among the public regarding the potentialfor drinking-water contamination from the migration of methane gas and hazardous chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. However, little attention has been paid to the potentialfor groundwater contamination resulting from surface spills from storage and production facilities at active well sites. We performed a search for publically available data regarding groundwater contamination from spills at ULS. drilling sites. The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database was selected for further analysis because it was the most detailed. The majority ofspills were in Weld County, Colorado, which has the highest density of wells that used hydraulic fracturing for completion, many producing both methane gas and crude oil. We analyzed publically available data reported by operators to the COGCC regarding surface spills that impacted groundwater From July 2010 to July 2011, we noted 77 reported surface spills impacting the groundwater in Weld County, which resulted in surface spills associated with less than 0.5% of the active wells. The reported data included groundwater samples that were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, andxylene (BTEX) components of crude oil. For groundwater samples taken both within the spill excavation area and on the first reported date of sampling, the BTEX measurements exceeded National Drinking Water maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) in 90, 30, 12, and 8% of the samples, respectively. However, actions taken to remediate the spills were effective at reducing BJTEX levels, with at least 84% of the spills reportedly achieving remediation as of May 2012. Our analysis demonstrates that surface spills are an important route of potential groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing activities and should be a focus of programs to protect groundwater While benzene can occur naturally in groundwater sources, spills and migration

  11. Oil spill problems and sustainable response strategies through new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Kuyukina, Maria S; Krivoruchko, Anastasiya V; Elkin, Andrey A; Makarov, Sergey O; Cunningham, Colin J; Peshkur, Tatyana A; Atlas, Ronald M; Philp, James C

    2015-07-01

    Crude oil and petroleum products are widespread water and soil pollutants resulting from marine and terrestrial spillages. International statistics of oil spill sizes for all incidents indicate that the majority of oil spills are small (less than 7 tonnes). The major accidents that happen in the oil industry contribute only a small fraction of the total oil which enters the environment. However, the nature of accidental releases is that they highly pollute small areas and have the potential to devastate the biota locally. There are several routes by which oil can get back to humans from accidental spills, e.g. through accumulation in fish and shellfish, through consumption of contaminated groundwater. Although advances have been made in the prevention of accidents, this does not apply in all countries, and by the random nature of oil spill events, total prevention is not feasible. Therefore, considerable world-wide effort has gone into strategies for minimising accidental spills and the design of new remedial technologies. This paper summarizes new knowledge as well as research and technology gaps essential for developing appropriate decision-making tools in actual spill scenarios. Since oil exploration is being driven into deeper waters and more remote, fragile environments, the risk of future accidents becomes much higher. The innovative safety and accident prevention approaches summarized in this paper are currently important for a range of stakeholders, including the oil industry, the scientific community and the public. Ultimately an integrated approach to prevention and remediation that accelerates an early warning protocol in the event of a spill would get the most appropriate technology selected and implemented as early as possible - the first few hours after a spill are crucial to the outcome of the remedial effort. A particular focus is made on bioremediation as environmentally harmless, cost-effective and relatively inexpensive technology. Greater

  12. Oil well spill trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigington, J.R. Sr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process involving an oil well and rig having a casing, a platform on the rig extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in pulling the tubing from the casing; disconnecting joints of tubing thereby; and spilling liquids from the casing, catching spilled liquids from the casing in a basin below the platform, draining the basin substantially simultaneously; connecting the drain hole to a tank, and reducing the pressure in the tank to less than atmospheric pressure. This paper also describes an oil well and rig having a casing; the rig having a platform extending around the casing. This patent describes improvement in a basin surrounding the casing and connected thereto, the basin below the platform, a drain connection in the lower part of the basin, a conduit connected to the drain, and means for applying a suction to the conduit

  13. Hurricane Andrew causes major oil spill at Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point Power Plant, Homestead, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Butts, R.L.; Lindsay, J.R.; McCully, B.S.; Pickering, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew slammed into South Florida with wind gusts in excess of 160 mph. At 4:00 a.m. that day, the eye of this category four storm passed over Florida Power ampersand Light Company's Turkey Point power plant, south of Miami. Although the plant's two nuclear units escaped any significant damage, the storm caused extensive destruction to buildings and transmission facilities, and damaged two 400 foot tall emission stacks associated with the site's two fossil fuel generating units. In addition, a 90,000 to 110,000 gallon spill of No. 6 fuel oil resulted when a piece of wind-blown debris punctured the steel of the unit One 12,000 barrel fuel oil metering tank approximately 30 feet up from the tank bottom. Despite the presence of a secondary containment structure around the tank, the intense wind blew oil throughout the plant site. The damage to the metering tank apparently occurred during the first half hour of the hurricane. As the tank's oil level fell due to the puncture, transfer pumps from the bulk oil storage tanks received a low level alarm which automatically began transferring oil to the damaged metering tank. To prevent the further discharge of oil, plant personnel entered the power block and secured the pumps during the passage of the hurricane eye. Immediately following the storm, facility personnel deployed booms across the barge canal and the Units 1 and 2 intake canal to contain the oil which had entered the water. The response strategy and implementation is described in detail. The remediation costs were approximately $14/gallon spilled, including 54,000 gallons recovered for electricity generation

  14. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated

  16. [Scientific basis of environmental health contingency planning for a coastal oil spill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Min; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Kim, Jong Ho; Kim, Jong Hun; Ko, Kumsook; Ha, Mina

    2009-03-01

    This study presents a scientific basis for the establishment of an environmental health contingency plan for dealing with accidental coastal oil spills and suggests some strategies for use in an environmental health emergency. We reviewed the existing literature, and analyzed the various fundamental factors involved in response strategies for oil spill. Our analysis included data derived from Hebei Spirit oil spill and used air dispersion modeling. Spill amounts of more than 1,000 kl can affect the health of residents along the coast, especially those who belong to vulnerable groups. Almost 30% of South Korean population lives in the vicinity of the coast. The area that is at the highest risk for a spill and that has the greatest number of people at risk is the stretch of coastline from Busan to Tongyeong. The most prevalent types of oil spilt in Korean waters have been crude oil and bunker-C oil, both of which have relatively high specific gravity and contain volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and metals. In the case of a spill of more than 1,000 kl, it may be necessary to evacuate vulnerable and sensitive groups. The government should establish environmental health planning that considers the spill amount, the types of oil, and the distance between the spot of the accident and the coast, and should assemble a response team that includes environmental health specialists to prepare for the future oil spill.

  17. AMOP (Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program) studies reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-05

    A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.

  18. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, John M.; Howarth, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed seven particularly well known and/or studied oil spills that have occurred since the National Academy of Sciences 1975 report, “Petroleum in the Marine Environment” or that occurred prior to that report but about which significant new information has since been acquired. The spills studied were from the barge Florida, and tankers Arrow, Argo Merchant, Amoco Cadiz, and Tsesis and blowouts from the Bravo and Ixtoc I platforms. These “best” studies yield only limited insight into effects because they lack controls and have a high degree of natural variability. The Tsesis, Florida, and Amoco Cadiz cases are exceptional since they occurred in areas of ongoing research programs and had nearby areas suitable for controls. Oil spills have produced measurable effects on ecosystems that have not been readily predictable from laboratory studies on isolated organisms. However, ecosystemlevel interactions are poorly understood even without the complications resulting from effects of pollution. These generalizations emerge: oil regularly reaches sediments after a spill; oil in anoxic sediments is persistent; oil regularly contaminates Zooplankton and benthic invertebrates; fish are also contaminated, but to a lesser extent; oil contamination decreases the abundance and diversity of benthic communities.

  19. Uncertainty in predictions of oil spill trajectories in a coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, P.; Guedes Soares, C.

    2006-12-01

    A method is introduced to determine the uncertainties in the predictions of oil spill trajectories using a classic oil spill model. The method considers the output of the oil spill model as a function of random variables, which are the input parameters, and calculates the standard deviation of the output results which provides a measure of the uncertainty of the model as a result of the uncertainties of the input parameters. In addition to a single trajectory that is calculated by the oil spill model using the mean values of the parameters, a band of trajectories can be defined when various simulations are done taking into account the uncertainties of the input parameters. This band of trajectories defines envelopes of the trajectories that are likely to be followed by the spill given the uncertainties of the input. The method was applied to an oil spill that occurred in 1989 near Sines in the southwestern coast of Portugal. This model represented well the distinction between a wind driven part that remained offshore, and a tide driven part that went ashore. For both parts, the method defined two trajectory envelopes, one calculated exclusively with the wind fields, and the other using wind and tidal currents. In both cases reasonable approximation to the observed results was obtained. The envelope of likely trajectories that is obtained with the uncertainty modelling proved to give a better interpretation of the trajectories that were simulated by the oil spill model.

  20. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  1. Timelines and mechanisms of wildlife population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Matkin, Craig O.; Cushing, Daniel; Kaler, Robert; Bodkin, James L.; Monson, Daniel; Esslinger, George G.; Kloecker, Kimberly A.

    2018-01-01

    Research and monitoring activities over the 28 years since the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska have led to an improved understanding of how wildlife populations were damaged, as well as the mechanisms and timelines of recovery. A key finding was that for some species, such as harlequin ducks and sea otters, chronic oil spill effects persisted for at least two decades and were a larger influence on population dynamics over the long term than acute effects of the spill. These data also offer insights into population variation resulting from factors other than the oil spill. For example, while many seabirds experienced direct and indirect effects of the spill, population trajectories of some piscivorous birds, including pigeon guillemots and marbled murrelets, were linked to long-term environmental changes independent of spill effects. Another species, killer whales, suffered population declines due to acute spill effects that have not been resolved despite lack of chronic direct effects, representing a novel pathway of long-term injury. The observed variation in mechanisms and timelines of recovery is linked to species specific life history and natural history traits, and thus may be useful for predicting population recovery for other species following other spills.

  2. Timelines and mechanisms of wildlife population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Matkin, Craig; Cushing, Daniel; Kaler, Robert; Bodkin, James; Monson, Daniel; Esslinger, George; Kloecker, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Research and monitoring activities over the 28 years since the T/V Exxon Valdez ran aground and spilled oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska have led to an improved understanding of how wildlife populations were damaged, as well as the mechanisms and timelines of recovery. A key finding was that for some species, such as harlequin ducks and sea otters, chronic oil spill effects persisted for at least two decades and were a larger influence on population dynamics over the long term than acute effects of the spill. These data also offer insights into population variation resulting from factors other than the oil spill. For example, while many seabirds experienced direct and indirect effects of the spill, population trajectories of some piscivorous birds, including pigeon guillemots and marbled murrelets, were linked to long-term environmental changes independent of spill effects. Another species, killer whales, suffered population declines due to acute spill effects that have not been resolved despite lack of chronic direct effects, representing a novel pathway of long-term injury. The observed variation in mechanisms and timelines of recovery is linked to species specific life history and natural history traits, and thus may be useful for predicting population recovery for other species following other spills.

  3. Macrozoobenthic recolonization of the littoral and the soft bottom after an oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lax, H.J.; Vainio, T.

    1988-01-01

    Two years after the Eira oil spill the oil concentration in the water had returned to its background level (0.5 ug/l) in the open sea areas. On the polluted shores (depth 0.1- 0.5 m) higher concentrations (2.3 ug/l) occurred occasionaly. No clear effects related to the oil spill were noticed on the dominating soft bottom species (Macoma baltica, Pontoporeia affinis). Among the other soft bottom species the crustacean Corophium volutator showed its lowest density immediately after the spill, becoming more and more abundant during the following two years. The effect of the oil spill on the littoral fauna could still be noticed two years after the spill. The crustacean Gammarus duebeni avoided its natural habitat (uppermost littoral zone). Lymnaea palustris showed and increased mortality immediately after the oil spill but recolonized the polluted shores a normal distribution

  4. The Federal Oil Spill Team for Emergency Response Remote Sensing (FOSTERRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.; Leifer, I.; Lindsay, F. E.; Murray, J. J.; Ramirez, E. M.; Salemi, A.; Streett, D.

    2014-12-01

    Oil spills can cause enormous ecological and economic devastation, necessitating application of the best science and technology available, for which remote sensing plays a critical role in detection and monitoring of oil spills. The FOSTERRS interagency working group seeks to ensure that during an oil spill, remote sensing assets (satellite/aircraft) and analysis techniques are quickly, effectively and seamlessly available to oil spills responders. FOSTERRS enables cooperation between agencies with core environmental remote sensing assets and capabilities and academic and industry experts to act as an oil spill remote sensing information clearinghouse. The US government and its collaborators have a broad variety of aircraft and satellite sensors, imagery interrogation techniques and other technology that can provide indispensable remote sensing information to agencies, emergency responders and the public during an oil spill. Specifically, FOSTERRS will work to ensure that (1) suitable aircraft and satellite imagery and radar observations are quickly made available in a manner that can be integrated into oil spill detection and mitigation efforts, (2) existing imagery interrogation techniques are in the hands of those who will provide the 24 x 7 operational support and (3) efforts are made to develop new technology where the existing techniques do not provide oil spills responders with important information they need. The FOSTERRS mission goal places it in an ideal place for identification of critical technological needs, and identifying bottlenecks in technology acceptance. The core FOSTERRS team incorporates representation for operations and science for agencies with relevant instrumental and platform assets (NASA, NOAA, USGS, NRL). FOSTERRS membership will open to a wide range of end-user agencies and planned observer status from industry and academic experts, and eventually international partners. Through these collaborations, FOSTERRS facilitates interagency

  5. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future

  6. Oil spill cleanup in severe weather and open ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Most serious oil spills occur in open water under severe weather conditions. At first the oil stays on the surface, where it is spread by winds and water currents. The action of the waves then mixes the oil into the water column. With time the light elements of crude oil evaporate. The remaining residue is of very low commercial value, but of significant environmental impact. The oil spill can move either out to sea or inshore, where it ends up on the beaches. Normal procedures are to let outbound oil disperse by evaporation and mixing into the water column, and to let the inbound oil collect on the beaches, where the cleanup operations are concentrated. The reason for this is that there is no capability to clean the surface of the water in wave conditions-present-day oil skimmers are ineffective in waves approaching 4 ft in height. It would be simpler, more effective and environmentally more beneficial to skim the oil right at the spill location. This paper describes a method to do this. In the case of an oil spill in open water and high wave conditions, it is proposed to reduce the height of the ocean waves by the use of floating breakwaters to provide a relatively calm area. In such protected areas existing oil skimmers can be used to recover valuable oil and clean up the spill long before it hits the beaches. A floating breakwater developed at the University of Rhode Island by the author can be of great benefit in oil spill cleanup for open ocean conditions. This breakwater is constructed from scrap automobile tires. It is built in units of 20 tires each, which are easily transportable and can be connected together at the spill site to form any desired configuration

  7. Methodology of intervention during a mystery spill: The example of the Baie-des-Sables case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, V.

    1993-01-01

    A mystery spill, or an oil spill of unknown origin, is one whose source cannot be identified at the time the environmental impact of the spill is noted. Unlike a known incident during which preventive action may be taken, mystery spills are often assessed based on the damages they have caused. In Canada, the coast guard regularly reports many spills with unidentified sources, and the most frequently reported sign of a spill is the presence of an oily film on the water surface. The smell of oil is also an important indication of a recent spill. The spill at Baie-des-Sables, Quebec, is presented as an illustrative example of a mystery spill. The size of the spill was estimated at 25 tons of bunker oil. The first indication of the spill was a number of contaminated ducks from the Rimouski region, reported by hunters to the appropriate government agency. Two days later, an oil slick was reported in the channel between Baie-Comeau and Rimouski; this provided sufficient information to trigger an alert. The next day an aerial inspection of the slick was carried out and a dispersion model was made. Contamination of seagulls and the south shore of the St. Lawrence River were noted. Over the next week response measures were organized and more inspections of shorelines were undertaken. Of the shoreline studied, 50 km were contaminated and 14 km were restored. Lack of precise early observations of the slick precluded identification of the vessel responsible for the spill. Recommendations are made for improving assessment of mystery spills and ensuring faster response times. 1 fig

  8. The U.S. Minerals Management Service - oil spill response research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, J.V.

    1998-01-01

    The Minerals Management Service (MMS), is the principal U.S. Government agency funding offshore oil spill response research. The MMS, a bureau of the Department of the lnterior, maintains a comprehensive Oil Spill Response Research program in support of oil spill prevention and response. Through funding provided by MMS, scientists and engineers from the public and private sectors worldwide are working to address outstanding gaps in information and technology concerning the cleanup of oil spills. A large portion of the program is executed through cooperation with major research centers to leverage funds and maximize sharing of research results. This paper outlines the program, its goals, results from recently funded projects and future research directions. (author)

  9. Sensitivity mapping for oil spill response. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Making and updating sensitivity maps are key activities in the oil spill contingency planning process. These maps convey essential information to spill responders by showing where the different coastal resources are, and by indicating environmentally sensitive areas. The making of a map involves assembling information on resources and deciding on what guidelines for spill response should be included, through consultation with relevant organizations. This can be done regardless of whether or not the benefits of computerized Geographic Information Systems and databases are available. Uses of sensitivity maps range from planning practical site-specific shore protection and clean-up to strategic planning for large remote areas. This report provides information and guidelines on different map types, categories of information to be included, and symbols, with reference to the different users and their requirements. (UK)

  10. The case for using vessel-based systems to apply oil-spill dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.

    1998-01-01

    Most emergency plans for dealing with marine oil spills include the use of chemical dispersants. This paper presents a comparison between the capabilities of aircraft-based dispersant application systems and vessel-based systems. The comparison was presented in terms of the logistics of treating offshore spills. Vessel-based systems have certain advantages in terms of their availability and cost. They have better spray control and accuracy and can dose thick slicks in one pass. However, this advantage is lost if the dispersant payload on the vessel is relatively small and the spill is located very far from the base of operations. Under certain conditions, vessel-based dispersant application systems can treat spills as quickly as aircraft-based systems. Most marine spills tend to occur in restricted waters near ports where dispersant stockpiles could be stored for ready use by vessels in the area. Development of a modern vessel-based, fire-monitor system for applying chemical dispersant onto marine oil spills was one of the recommendations emerging from the study. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  11. A case study of consensus modelling for tracking oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Brian; Brushett, Ben; Lemckert, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Metocean forecast datasets are essential for the timely response to marine incidents and pollutant spill mitigation at sea. To effectively model the likely drift pattern and the area of impact for a marine spill, both wind and ocean current forecast datasets are required. There are two ocean current forecast models and two wind forecast models currently used operationally in the Australia and Asia Pacific region. The availability of several different forecast models provides a unique opportunity to compare the outcome of a particular modelling exercise with the outcome of another using a different model and determining whether there is consensus in the results. Two recent modelling exercises, the oil spill resulting from the damaged Pacific Adventurer (in Queensland) and the oil spill from the Montara well blowout (in Western Australia) are presented as case studies to examine consensus modelling.

  12. North Slope mobile technology and its application to spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabile, N.J.; Helinski, R.

    1992-01-01

    At ARCO Alaska's Prudhoe Bay operation, improved preparedness for oil spill response has been achieved by applying mobile technology according to an innovative concept. To ensure safe and efficient deployment of resources during a spill response, a rapid deployment equipment delivery system was developed. This multi-functional, modularized system was based on a previously developed chemical delivery system consisting of a primary transport truck equipped with a Dempsey Dumpster Dinosaur skid. This same modularized concept was used for spill response with the substitution of function-specific spill response vans in place of chemical transport tanks. Within this concept, skid-mounted mission-specific vans are rapidly deployed to multiple sites in a fire brigade type of response. Skid-mounted units include land and water containment, recovery, boom deployment, command center, generator skid, restroom facility, and skimmer units. 4 figs

  13. Effects of Stress Related to the Gulf Oil Spill on Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D; Osofsky, Howard J; Weems, Carl F; Hansel, Tonya C; King, Lucy S

    2016-01-01

    To examine the interactive effects of stress related to the Gulf oil spill on mental health of children and adolescents on the Gulf Coast who were also affected by previous hurricanes. A prospective design, with n = 1,577 youth (aged 3-18 years), evaluated pre-oil spill and again post-oil spill for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, previous hurricane exposure, and amount of oil spill stress. Stressors related to the spill were common and were associated with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, there was an interactive effect such that those with high preexisting PTSD symptoms, high previous hurricane exposure, and high oil spill stress had the most elevated post-oil spill PTSD symptoms. This study provides initial evidence linking stress related to the Gulf oil spill to youth mental health symptoms. The effects of the oil spill on youth mental health were most evident among those with cumulative risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Regulation? Evidence on Oil Spill Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedrzej G. Frynas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major oil spills normally occur from oil pipelines and oil tankers that are under operational control of companies, namely, oil companies and tanker owners. There are two generic responses for changing the behavior of companies with regard to oil spill prevention: mandatory government regulation or voluntary initiatives often pursued under the banner of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Here we investigate to what extent voluntary CSR initiatives can be effective in oil spill prevention. A global perspective on voluntary mechanisms is taken by looking at the progress of 20 oil and gas firms from around the world toward oil spill prevention, using the companies' 2010 sustainability reports for self-reported oil spill information. The analysis includes ten oil companies from OECD countries (including Exxon and Shell, among others and 10 oil companies from non-OECD countries (including Brazil's Petrobras and Indian Oil, among others. The study finds that oil spill prevention has generally improved over recent decades. Government regulation played a significant part in these improvements whereas it is less clear to what extent CSR played a significant part in these improvements. Some of CSR's key limitations are highlighted. It is not suggested that CSR should be abandoned; however, new hybrid forms of regulation that combine voluntary and mandatory elements are advocated.

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of traces of ether-type icing inhibitors in free-floating fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.S. [Dept. of Environmental Education, Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea); Abuse Drug Research Center, Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea); Ahn, H.S. [Dept. of Environmental Science, Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea)

    2004-08-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) assay method has been developed for simultaneous determination of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethly ether (DEGME) in spilled aviation fuels. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) were used as internal standard and surrogate, respectively. Sample preparation consisted of back-extraction with 7 mL dichloromethane after extraction of 50 mL of fuel with 2 mL of water. The extract was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in 100 {mu}L methanol, and analyzed by GC-MS with selected-ion monitoring (SIM). The peaks had good chromatographic properties on a semi-polar column. EGME and DEGME were extracted from fuel with high recovery of 75 and 85%, with small variations, respectively. Method detection limits were 1.3 and 1.0 ng mL{sup -1} for EGME and DEGME, respectively, in spilled fuel. DEGME was detected at concentrations of 22.6 and 19.7 ng mL{sup -1} in two samples from among five free-floating samples collected in a tunnel of a subway station located in the vicinity of an army base in Korea. The method might be useful for differentiation between the fuel-types kerosene and JP-8, which might originate from a storage tank. (orig.)

  17. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  18. Identification of oil spill's sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.

    1992-10-01

    Identifying the source of a marine oil spill is complicated because of the rapid modifications (weathering) undergone by oil as soon as it reaches the sea. Deciding if differences occurring between an oil sample collected after the spill and the original oil can be attributed to weathering involves not only adoption of sophisticated analytical methods but also correct sampling techniques and strict adherence to a chain-of-custody procedure. The method described in this paper, largely based on those adopted by some northern European countries, establishes the identity or non-identity of two samples by exploiting differences rather than similarities between them. It increases the efficiency of the method because it is sufficient to establish that there exists only one difference for deciding that two samples are different

  19. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...... contamination. Field data and calculations of mass in the pore air indicate a large loss within a short period of time. Laboratory experiments and isotopic analysis proves that biodegradation is occurring. The results indicate that for most compounds degradation is significant reducing the concentrations...

  20. Public health risks associated with oil and chemical spills in cold freshwater environments: a simulation exercise involving a phenol and diesel spill in the St. Lawrence River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaivre, D.; Jarry, V.; Guerrier, P.; Paul, M.; Colliou, M.

    1997-01-01

    The St. Lawrence River is the source of drinking water for some 45 per cent of the population in the Province of Quebec, hence contamination of the river by oil or chemical spills is a matter of great public health importance. Project SHORES was developed by the Quebec Environmental Health Committee through the St. Lawrence 'Vision 2000' Action Plan. As part of this project, a simulation exercise involving phenol and diesel fuel was carried out. The exercise included development of a computerized dispersion model which was then used to evaluate the migration of phenol in critical areas of the St. Lawrence River. Main public health risks to nearby populations, with emphasis on drinking water contamination, were assessed based on the simulation results. 18 refs., 2 tabs. 1 fig

  1. A Dynamic Remote Sensing Data-Driven Approach for Oil Spill Simulation in the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jining Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that oil spill remote sensing could only generate the oil slick information at a specific time and that traditional oil spill simulation models were not designed to deal with dynamic conditions, a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS was introduced. The DDDAS entails both the ability to incorporate additional data into an executing application and, in reverse, the ability of applications to dynamically steer the measurement process. Based on the DDDAS, combing a remote sensor system that detects oil spills with a numerical simulation, an integrated data processing, analysis, forecasting and emergency response system was established. Once an oil spill accident occurs, the DDDAS-based oil spill model receives information about the oil slick extracted from the dynamic remote sensor data in the simulation. Through comparison, information fusion and feedback updates, continuous and more precise oil spill simulation results can be obtained. Then, the simulation results can provide help for disaster control and clean-up. The Penglai, Xingang and Suizhong oil spill results showed our simulation model could increase the prediction accuracy and reduce the error caused by empirical parameters in existing simulation systems. Therefore, the DDDAS-based detection and simulation system can effectively improve oil spill simulation and diffusion forecasting, as well as provide decision-making information and technical support for emergency responses to oil spills.

  2. Risk Analysis of a Fuel Storage Terminal Using HAZOP and FTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and complexity of industrial chemical plants, together with the nature of the products handled, means that an analysis and control of the risks involved is required. This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis in chemical and allied industries that is based on a combination of HAZard and OPerability analysis (HAZOP and a quantitative analysis of the most relevant risks through the development of fault trees, fault tree analysis (FTA. Results from FTA allow prioritizing the preventive and corrective measures to minimize the probability of failure. An analysis of a case study is performed; it consists in the terminal for unloading chemical and petroleum products, and the fuel storage facilities of two companies, in the port of Valencia (Spain. HAZOP analysis shows that loading and unloading areas are the most sensitive areas of the plant and where the most significant danger is a fuel spill. FTA analysis indicates that the most likely event is a fuel spill in tank truck loading area. A sensitivity analysis from the FTA results show the importance of the human factor in all sequences of the possible accidents, so it should be mandatory to improve the training of the staff of the plants.

  3. Risk Analysis of a Fuel Storage Terminal Using HAZOP and FTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Bargues, José Luis; González-Cruz, Mª Carmen; González-Gaya, Cristina; Baixauli-Pérez, Mª Piedad

    2017-06-30

    The size and complexity of industrial chemical plants, together with the nature of the products handled, means that an analysis and control of the risks involved is required. This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis in chemical and allied industries that is based on a combination of HAZard and OPerability analysis (HAZOP) and a quantitative analysis of the most relevant risks through the development of fault trees, fault tree analysis (FTA). Results from FTA allow prioritizing the preventive and corrective measures to minimize the probability of failure. An analysis of a case study is performed; it consists in the terminal for unloading chemical and petroleum products, and the fuel storage facilities of two companies, in the port of Valencia (Spain). HAZOP analysis shows that loading and unloading areas are the most sensitive areas of the plant and where the most significant danger is a fuel spill. FTA analysis indicates that the most likely event is a fuel spill in tank truck loading area. A sensitivity analysis from the FTA results show the importance of the human factor in all sequences of the possible accidents, so it should be mandatory to improve the training of the staff of the plants.

  4. Spill response exercises and lessons learned : a response organization's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.; Green, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the past five years, Burrard Clean Operations (BCO) has demonstrated its' oil spill response capabilities through different types of exercises. Such exercises are necessary for certification of Response Organizations in Canada. The exercises can be performed through actual response to spills or through simulated situations. Both can provide an opportunity to practice different levels of response to a range of conditions in various settings. They also provide the opportunity to focus on specific themes that can be part of a response and to identify areas for improvement in response actions. They also make it possible to interface with government agencies, industry and others that participate in spill responses. The exercise program for BCO is aimed at maintaining certification and to assist the Canadian Coast Guard. The exercises broaden the lessons learned and set a course for future enhancement to spill readiness should a real incident occur. The goals of the exercise program are to provide real time drills that show the operational capability of a representative sample of BCO equipment, management and trained spill responders. The response functions of the BCO exercise program are: notification, response organization activation, contractor activation, situation analysis, strategy development for marine oil spill response, site safety, equipment deployment, containment, recovery, shoreline assessment, cleanup, communications, decontamination, logistics, and financial management. The BCO experience has led to the basic conclusions that there is a need to vary the exercise design and format and that there is a need to implement follow-up actions provided during exercise evaluations. 7 refs., 3 tabs

  5. The Eurobulker oil spill: mid-term changes of some ecosystem indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenetos, A.; Hatzianestis, J.; Lantzouni, M.; Simboura, M.; Sklivagou, E.; Arvanitakis, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sinking of the tanker Eurobulker in Southern Evoikos gulf (Aegean Sea, Greece) in September 2000 resulted in a spill of 700 tons of crude oil. The environmental impact of the spill was studied by the National Centre for Marine Research. The hydrocarbon concentrations in water, sediment and coastal benthic organisms were measured and the response of the benthic communities to the disturbance caused by the oil spill was studied along the direction to the coast and over three sampling seasons. The most severe and direct effects were evidenced on the muddy benthic communities of the accident site and the stations in the close vicinity sampled shortly after the spill. The effects included reduction of the species richness and community diversity, but the communities reached full recovery 8 months later. The impact of the spill was more indirect and delayed in the coastal stations, where as the hydrocarbon measurements indicated, the pollutants were transported later and induced their effects on the benthic communities 6 months after the accident. (author)

  6. Final report of the accident phenomenology and consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation. Spills Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.; Shinn, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hesse, D [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (United States); Kaninich, D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Lazaro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mubayi, V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Spills Working Group was one of six working groups established under the Accident Phenomenology and Consequence (APAC) methodology evaluation program. The objectives of APAC were to assess methodologies available in the accident phenomenology and consequence analysis area and to evaluate their adequacy for use in preparing DOE facility safety basis documentation, such as Basis for Interim Operation (BIO), Justification for Continued Operation (JCO), Hazard Analysis Documents, and Safety Analysis Reports (SARs). Additional objectives of APAC were to identify development needs and to define standard practices to be followed in the analyses supporting facility safety basis documentation. The Spills Working Group focused on methodologies for estimating four types of spill source terms: liquid chemical spills and evaporation, pressurized liquid/gas releases, solid spills and resuspension/sublimation, and resuspension of particulate matter from liquid spills.

  7. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota

  8. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  9. Application of ecological risk assessment principles to evaluation of oil spill impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, E.L.; Neff, J.M.; Pearson, W.H.; Stubblefield, W.A.; Maki, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Ecological risk assessments are often used prospectively to predict the consequences of human activities on the environment. Laboratory and field studies were conducted to evaluate the ecological impacts to commercial fishery resources resulting from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Using the ecorisk paradigm, each of the studies correlated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in different environmental compartments with observed biological effects in local populations of herring and pink salmon. Hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column of the Sound were elevated for a short time after the spill, but 99.7% of the samples remained below the Alaska water quality standard and returned to background levels within a few months. PAH concentrations in sediments and eggs correlated with a very low degree of injury to early life stages of herring and salmon. Overall, effects of the spill on populations of herring and pink salmon were minimal and post-spill harvests of the year classes at greater risk of spill injury in the two years following the spill were at or near record levels. The program underscores the utility and strength of the risk assessment paradigm to identify contaminant related injury while considering effects attributable to natural ecosystem variability

  10. Oil spill recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, J.; Cooper, W.; Nee, V.; Nigim, H.

    1992-01-01

    Current deficiencies in oil spill cleanup processes have resulted in research and development of new cleanup technologies at the University of Notre Dame. Emphasis on reducing, reusing and recycling equipment and waste at a cleanup site has prompted advances in oil recovery technology as well as improvement in sorbent materials. (author)

  11. Advertising as Insurance or Commitment? Evidence from the BP Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Lint Barrage; Eric Chyn; Justine Hastings

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how advertising impacts the consumer response to news about unobserved product quality. Specifically, we estimate how British Petroleum’s (BP) 2000-2008 “Beyond Petroleum” advertising campaign affected the impact of the 2010 BP oil spill. We find that BP station margins declined by 4.2 cents per gallon, and volumes declined by 3.6 percent after the spill. However, pre-spill advertising significantly dampened the price response in the short-run, and reduced the fraction of ...

  12. Large Oil Spill Classification Using SAR Images Based on Spatial Histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, I.; Havivi, S.; Maman, S.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    Among the different types of marine pollution, oil spill is a major threat to the sea ecosystems. Remote sensing is used in oil spill response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an active microwave sensor that operates under all weather conditions and provides information about the surface roughness and covers large areas at a high spatial resolution. SAR is widely used to identify and track pollutants in the sea, which may be due to a secondary effect of a large natural disaster or by a man-made one . The detection of oil spill in SAR imagery relies on the decrease of the backscattering from the sea surface, due to the increased viscosity, resulting in a dark formation that contrasts with the brightness of the surrounding area. Most of the use of SAR images for oil spill detection is done by visual interpretation. Trained interpreters scan the image, and mark areas of low backscatter and where shape is a-symmetrical. It is very difficult to apply this method for a wide area. In contrast to visual interpretation, automatic detection algorithms were suggested and are mainly based on scanning dark formations, extracting features, and applying big data analysis. We propose a new algorithm that applies a nonlinear spatial filter that detects dark formations and is not susceptible to noises, such as internal or speckle. The advantages of this algorithm are both in run time and the results retrieved. The algorithm was tested in genesimulations as well as on COSMO-SkyMed images, detecting the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (occurred on 20/4/2010). The simulation results show that even in a noisy environment, oil spill is detected. Applying the algorithm to the Deep Horizon oil spill, the algorithm classified the oil spill better than focusing on dark formation algorithm. Furthermore, the results were validated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data.

  13. LARGE OIL SPILL CLASSIFICATION USING SAR IMAGES BASED ON SPATIAL HISTOGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Schvartzman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the different types of marine pollution, oil spill is a major threat to the sea ecosystems. Remote sensing is used in oil spill response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is an active microwave sensor that operates under all weather conditions and provides information about the surface roughness and covers large areas at a high spatial resolution. SAR is widely used to identify and track pollutants in the sea, which may be due to a secondary effect of a large natural disaster or by a man-made one . The detection of oil spill in SAR imagery relies on the decrease of the backscattering from the sea surface, due to the increased viscosity, resulting in a dark formation that contrasts with the brightness of the surrounding area. Most of the use of SAR images for oil spill detection is done by visual interpretation. Trained interpreters scan the image, and mark areas of low backscatter and where shape is a-symmetrical. It is very difficult to apply this method for a wide area. In contrast to visual interpretation, automatic detection algorithms were suggested and are mainly based on scanning dark formations, extracting features, and applying big data analysis. We propose a new algorithm that applies a nonlinear spatial filter that detects dark formations and is not susceptible to noises, such as internal or speckle. The advantages of this algorithm are both in run time and the results retrieved. The algorithm was tested in genesimulations as well as on COSMO-SkyMed images, detecting the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (occurred on 20/4/2010. The simulation results show that even in a noisy environment, oil spill is detected. Applying the algorithm to the Deep Horizon oil spill, the algorithm classified the oil spill better than focusing on dark formation algorithm. Furthermore, the results were validated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA data.

  14. The on scene command and control system (OSC2) : an integrated incident command system (ICS) forms-database management system and oil spill trajectory and fates model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.; Galagan, C.; Howlett, E.

    1998-01-01

    The On Scene Command and Control (OSC 2 ) system is an oil spill modeling tool which was developed to combine Incident Command System (ICS) forms, an underlying database, an integrated geographical information system (GIS) and an oil spill trajectory and fate model. The first use of the prototype OSC 2 system was at a PREP drill conducted at the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office, San Diego, in April 1998. The goal of the drill was to simulate a real-time response over a 36-hour period using the Unified Command System. The simulated spill was the result of a collision between two vessels inside San Diego Bay that caused the release of 2,000 barrels of fuel oil. The hardware component of the system which was tested included three notebook computers, two laser printers, and a poster printer. The field test was a success but it was not a rigorous test of the system's capabilities. The map display was useful in quickly setting up the ICS divisions and groups and in deploying resources. 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  15. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  16. Assessment of proposals related to oil spill risk for the south coast of Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted in 2006 to quantify the present and future risks of oil pollution in Canadian waters off the south coast of Newfoundland due to marine traffic transiting this area. The study methodology included as assessment of the key components of risk, such as the probability of an oil spill occurring and the consequences of the spill should it occur. Key elements that were identified were stakeholder consultation; oil spill frequency; environmental impact assessment; risk results; area specific factors; and future trends. One of the key findings was that the most probable area for a spill was in inner Placentia Bay. Local and regional interests in the area resulted in 25 proposals for spill prevention, response and research. This paper provided a background discussion for each proposal and where relevant, a description of the status quo, and a rationale for implementing, or not implementing the proposal. Proposals for spill prevention consisted of strategies for vessel traffic; vessel instrumentation; use of double hulls; aerial surveillance program; control enforcement; additional radar monitoring; pilotage for long harbours; and escort and rescue tugs. Proposals for spill response consisted of designating places of refuge; location of response equipment; additional response capability; response time standards; designating waste handling sites; bird rescue and rehabilitation; testing of equipment cascading; training of fishermen for first response; and first responder equipment. Oil spill research proposals consisted of research on ecosystem effects; research on response priorities; representative oil spill scenarios; and emergency management plans. General category proposals were also submitted, and dealt primarily with independent oversight committees; consultations with pilots; and occurrence of mystery spills and bilge dumps. 1 tab.

  17. Dam spills and fishes; Eclusees et poissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.).

  18. Oil spill prevention and response: How to comply with OPA and OSPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, L.

    1995-01-01

    When there is a man-made catastrophic event that adversely affects environment or the health and safety of the public, the government steps in to make and enforce laws to help prevent the reoccurrence of such events. This is the case with the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) which was signed into law by President Bush in August of 1990. According to the EPA, the federal government received 42,000 notifications of oil discharges during the years of 1988 through 1990. In 1989, 38 spills exceeded 100,000 gallons including the infamous Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound. The Federal government has not been alone in its interest with oil spill prevention and response. Many states have also enacted laws with the intent of protecting the environment from damage due to oil spills. The state of Texas enacted the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Act (OSPRA) of 1991 which compliments and expands on OPA. The most significant requirement of both of these laws is that of the Facility Response Plan (FRP). Both Federal and State agencies encourage the development of one plan for spill response and prevention. The use of one plan makes sense because this eliminates the opportunity for discrepancies land simplifies response during an actual spill. The purpose of this paper is to aid the petroleum industry in determining whether it is required to have a FRP, and if it is, how to develop a plan that will comply with both OPA and OSPRA

  19. Natural resource injury at oil spills: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    1993 is a critical time to review the actions taken at past spills and to formulate a new approach to natural resource injury at oil spills. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 has replaced the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act, and new regulations to govern natural resource damage assessments are due to be published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this year. The new law and regulations provide impetus for new directions. The new approach advocates cooperative damage assessments utilizing the new NOAA procedures. Litigation must be regarded as a last resort because it does not foster the goals of either the trustees or the oil industry. There are significant advantages to both trustees and industry from this approach

  20. A comprehensive review of oil spill combustion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walavalkar, A.Y.; Kulkarni, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The complex process of in-situ burning of oil or a water-in-oil emulsion floating on top of a water-base, such as the ocean, was discussed. The process was examined before, during and after actual combustion. In general, the success of oil spill combustion is measured in terms of the fraction of the spilled oil or emulsion that is burned away. However, the air and aquatic pollution caused by the combustion should also be considered. The physical conditions such as wind velocity, waves and the presence or absence of a containment device, such as a fire boom, could determine the continuation of the combustion process. An overview of the oil spill combustion techniques was provided. There still remains a need for fundamental studies, especially in mathematical modeling, to understand the basic mechanisms and predict the applicability of the in-situ combustion. 74 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  1. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  2. Hydrogen utilization efficiency in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metkemeyer, R; Achard, P; Rouveyre, L; Picot, D [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre D' energrtique, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work carried out within the framework of the FEVER project (Fuel cell Electric Vehicle for Efficiency and Range), an European project coordinated by Renault, joining Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ansaldo, De Nora, Air Liquide and Volvo. For the FEVER project, where an electrical air compressor is used for oxidant supply, there is no need for hydrogen spill over, meaning that the hydrogen stoichiometry has to be as close to one as possible. To determine the optimum hydrogen utilization efficiency for a 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) fed with pure hydrogen, a 4 kW prototype fuel cell was tested with and without a hydrogen recirculator at the test facility of Ecole des Mines de Paris. Nitrogen cross over from the cathodic compartment to the anodic compartment limits the hydrogen utilization of the fuel cell without recirculator to 97.4 % whereas 100% is feasible when a recirculator is used. 5 refs.

  3. Oil Biodegradation and Bioremediation: A Tale of the Two Worst Spills in U.S. History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The devastating environmental impacts of the Exxon Valdez spill in 1989 and its media notoriety made it a frequent comparison to the BP Deepwater Horizon spill in the popular press in 2010, even though the nature of the two spills and the environments impacted were vastly different. Fortunately, unlike higher organisms that are adversely impacted by oil spills, microorganisms are able to consume petroleum hydrocarbons. These oil degrading indigenous microorganisms played a significant role in reducing the overall environmental impact of both the Exxon Valdez and BP Deepwater Horizon oil spills. PMID:21699212

  4. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12's compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant's background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures

  5. Regulation of spent nuclear fuel shipment: A state perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R.J.; Sinderbrand, C.; Woodbury, D.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) sought to regulate rail shipments of spent nuclear fuel through the state, because federal regulations did not adequately protect the environmentally sensitive corridor along the route of the shipments. A state interagency working group identified five serious deficiencies in overall federal regulatory scheme: 1) failure to consider the safety or environmental risks associated with selected routes; 2) abscence of route-specific emergency response planning; 3) failure of the NRC to regulate the carrier of spent nuclear fuel or consider its safety record; 4) abscence of requirements for determination of need for, or the propriety of, specific shipments of spent nuclear fuel; and 5) the lack of any opportunity for meaningful public participation with respect to the decision to transport spent nuclear fuel. Pursuant to Wisconsin's hazardous substance statutes, the WDNR issues an order requiring the utility to file a spill prevention and mitigation plan or cease shipping through Wisconsin. A state trial court judge upheld the utility's challenge to Wisconsin's spill plan requirements, based on federal preemption of state authority. The state is now proposing federal legislation which would require: 1) NRC determination of need prior to approval of offsite shipment of spent fuel by the licensees; 2) NRC assessment of the potential environmental impacts of shipments along the proposed route, and comparative evaluation of alternative modes and routes; and 3) NRC approval of a route-specific emergency response and mitigation plan, including local training and periodic exercises. Additionally, the proposed legislation would authorize States and Indian Tribes to establish regulatory programs providing for permits, inspection, contingency plans for monitoring, containments, cleanup and decontamination, surveillance, enforcement and reasonable fees. 15 refs

  6. Time series observations of marsh recovery and pavement persistence at three Metula spill sites after 30.5 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Sergy, G.A. [Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker Metula ran aground in the Strait of Magellan, Chile and spilled about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel. No attempt was made to recover or treat the stranded oil and the coast was left to recover by natural attenuation. Field visits to the coastal sites affected by the spill were conducted 30 years after the incident. The survey in 2005 repeated observations and measurements made in 1998 in the heavily affected Punta Espora area that documented salt marsh recovery at 2 sites, and changes in asphalt pavement at a third site. The 1998 survey also indicated that tilling was responsible for a significant increase in the number of plants that recolonized the area. A comparison of the plant counts between 1998 and 2005 showed that the number of plants in tilled plots was reduced because of fewer larger plants. A comparison of oil distribution in the west marsh from 1998 to 2005 showed that recolonization was evident. A large 550 m-long asphalt pavement on a mixed sediment beach showed very little changes in pavement area in the aftermath of the spill. However, the upper edge of the pavement showed signs of erosion by backwash action of waves during high-tide. The presence of surface oil cover continues to dominate the physical character of the upper intertidal and supratidal zones. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Time series observations of marsh recovery and pavement persistence at three Metula spill sites after 30.5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Sergy, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1974, the oil tanker Metula ran aground in the Strait of Magellan, Chile and spilled about 50,000 tons of light Arabian crude and 2,000 tons of Bunker C fuel. No attempt was made to recover or treat the stranded oil and the coast was left to recover by natural attenuation. Field visits to the coastal sites affected by the spill were conducted 30 years after the incident. The survey in 2005 repeated observations and measurements made in 1998 in the heavily affected Punta Espora area that documented salt marsh recovery at 2 sites, and changes in asphalt pavement at a third site. The 1998 survey also indicated that tilling was responsible for a significant increase in the number of plants that recolonized the area. A comparison of the plant counts between 1998 and 2005 showed that the number of plants in tilled plots was reduced because of fewer larger plants. A comparison of oil distribution in the west marsh from 1998 to 2005 showed that recolonization was evident. A large 550 m-long asphalt pavement on a mixed sediment beach showed very little changes in pavement area in the aftermath of the spill. However, the upper edge of the pavement showed signs of erosion by backwash action of waves during high-tide. The presence of surface oil cover continues to dominate the physical character of the upper intertidal and supratidal zones. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Investigation of cleaning reagents for calcium chromate spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillard, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning of calcium chromate spills can be a problem due to the insolubility of the material and the corrosiveness of several possible cleaning agents on the stainless steel equipment. Because of OSHA Standards for Cr(VI) exposure, it is necessary to remove spills as efficiently as possible in order to prevent the contaminant from becoming airborne. This study involved the comparison of several possible cleaning agents by studying the solubility of calcium chromate in each reagent. Two general types of reagents for dissolution of calcium chromate were investigated; those which act by conversion of the insoluble calcium chromate to a more soluble salt and to H 2 CrO 4 , and those which appear to act as complexing agents and thereby dissolve the calcium chromate. The most efficient of the reagents investigated was hydrochloric acid. However, even dilute solutions of halide acids destroy passivity of stainless steel causing pitting and stress-corrosion. Acetic acid and nitric acid were somewhat less efficient than hydrochloric acid in dissolving calcium chromate. However, both reagents are noncorrosive with stainless steel, nitric acid tending to favor passivity of the materials. Therefore, it is recommended that dilute solutions of either of these two acids be used for removal of calcium chromate spills in conjunction with mechanical methods that might be necessary, depending on the magnitude of the spill

  9. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  10. Impact induced splash and spill in a quasi-confided granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogale, S. B.

    2005-03-01

    Dissipation of the energy of impact in a granular medium and its effects has been a subject of considerable scientific for quite some time. In this work we have explored and analyzed the splash and spill effects caused by the impact of a ball dropped from a height into a granular medium in a open container. Three different granular media, namely rice, mustard seeds, and cream of wheat were used. The amount of spilled-over granular matter was measured as a function of the ball-drop height. Digital pictures of the splash process were also recorded. The quantity of spilled granular matter varies linearly with the impact energy. However additional step like structures are also noted. Specifically, a distinct and large jump is seen in the spilled quantity at a specific impact energy in the case of mustard seeds, which also exhibit obvious charging effects and repulsion. Although the parameters such as mass per grain and packing density for the case of mustard seeds are intermediate between those for rice and cream of wheat, the spill quantity for comparable impact energy is considerably higher. These data will be presented and discussed.

  11. California Conservation Corps trains youth to safely clean up oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, P.

    1993-01-01

    Initiated in response to environmentally destructive crude oil spills, the California Conservation Corps (CCC) is trained to respond anywhere in California, and beyond. Corpsmembers are provided 32 hours of training to exceed both State and Federal Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) requirements for worker safety. The CCC responded to the Huntington Beach spill in 1990 and impressed both the private sector and government agencies with the high quality of work performed, the organization and discipline of the responders and the safe manner in which they approached the sensitive environmental cleanup. The program was begun with a $75,000 grant from BP America (British Petroleum), the owner of the oil in the American Trader incident. Following the passage of comprehensive oil spill legislation in California, the California Department of Fish and Game Office of Oil Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) contracted with the CCC to provide 200 trained oil spill workers for beach cleanup. Subsequently, the Corps has responded along the California coast to a pipeline break at Avila Beach in San Luis Obispo County and cleaned up tar balls in the Monterey area

  12. Reduced Spill at Hydropower Dams: Opportunities for More Generation and Increased Fish Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, Charles C [ORNL; Mann, Roger [RMecon, Davis, California; Sale, Michael J [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    This report indicates that reduction of managed spill at hydropower dams can speed implementation of technologies for fish protection and achieve economic goals. Spill of water over spillways is managed in the Columbia River basin to assist downstream-migrating juvenile salmon, and is generally believed to be the most similar to natural migration, benign and effective passage route; other routes include turbines, intake screens with bypasses, and surface bypasses. However, this belief may be misguided, because spill is becoming recognized as less than natural, with deep intakes below normal migration depths, and likely causing physical damages from severe shear on spillways, high turbulence in tail waters, and collisions with baffle blocks that lead to disorientation and predation. Some spillways induce mortalities comparable to turbines. Spill is expensive in lost generation, and controversial. Fish-passage research is leading to more fish-friendly turbines, screens and bypasses that are more effective and less damaging, and surface bypasses that offer passage of more fish per unit water volume than does spill (leaving more water for generation). Analyses by independent economists demonstrated that goals of increased fish survival over the long term and net gain to the economy can be obtained by selectively reducing spill and diverting some of the income from added power generation to research, development, and installation of fish-passage technologies. Such a plan would selectively reduce spill when and where least damaging to fish, increase electricity generation using the water not spilled and use innovative financing to direct monetary gains to improving fish passage.

  13. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  14. Report of the BC [British Columbia] Citizens Advisory Committee on Oil Spill Prevention and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The British Columbia Citizens Advisory Committee on Oil Spill Prevention and Response was established in 1991 to advise the provincial government of public concerns over oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response. The Committee also monitors provincial and joint provincial/western USA initiatives in the area. The Committee notes that the volume of oil tanker traffic through navigationally risky passages along the British Columbia coast is large and that prevention is the most useful method in dealing with oil spills. Committee concerns are summarized in the areas of government committment, design and construction of oil tankers and barges, oil spill issues related to ports, the Low Point Terminal proposal, waste oil collection and disposal, spill response capability, the Strait of Georgia Oil Spill Response Information System, the use of volunteer auxiliaries and the Youth Corps in oil spill response, wildlife rescue and rehabilitation, coordination of response activities, and the future of the Committee. Recommendations to the government are made with respect to the aforementioned areas of concern

  15. The Great Lakes Spill Co-op and how it works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1994-01-01

    A major program was launched by spill control professionals and industry in 1990 when it created the Great Lakes Spill Cooperative (GLSCOOP). The major objective of this cooperative is to provide a network to facilitate quick response in crises situations in the Great Lakes region. Specifically, the Great Lakes Spill Cooperative will: (1) coordinate environmental response activities in connection with emergency conditions as a result of spills of petroleum and hazardous substances in the Great Lakes; (2) apply state-of-the-art management, training and equipment technology during emergency environmental response operations, consistent with local, state and federal regulations; and (3) promote cooperation with its members, governmental agencies as well as allied trade and professional associations, consistent with the existing laws, in mobilizing equipment and expertise in controlling or mitigating pollution incidents in the Great Lakes. In this presentation the author discusses how the cooperative was formed, how it will operate, the members of the group and their individual roles as well as the organization's partnership with government--local, state and federal. He also discusses his involvement in the formation of the Mamne Response Alliance (MRA). This co-op was utilized recently by one of its members to provide 100 personnel who were Haz-Woper trained for the recent Tampa Bay Spill in August of last year

  16. Development of the oil spill response cost-effectiveness analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; Welch, J.

    2005-01-01

    Decision-making during oil spill response operations or contingency planning requires balancing the need to remove as much oil as possible from the environment with the desire to minimize the impact of response operations on the environment they are intended to protect. This paper discussed the creation of a computer tool developed to help in planning and decision-making during response operations. The Oil Spill Response Cost-Effectiveness Analytical Tool (OSRCEAT) was developed to compare the costs of response with the benefits of response in both hypothetical and actual oil spills. The computer-based analytical tool can assist responders and contingency planners in decision-making processes as well as act as a basis of discussion in the evaluation of response options. Using inputs on spill parameters, location and response options, OSRCEAT can calculate response cost, costs of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the oil spill and response impacts. Oil damages without any response are contrasted to oil damages with response, with expected improvements. Response damages are subtracted from the difference in damages with and without response in order to derive a more accurate response benefit. An OSRCEAT user can test various response options to compare potential benefits in order to maximize response benefit. OSRCEAT is best used to compare and contrast the relative benefits and costs of various response options. 50 refs., 19 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Numerical modeling of oil spills in continental and estuarine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeury, C.

    2012-10-01

    The application of the European Water Framework Directive on water quality for human consumption and industrial activities creates a need for water quality assessment and monitoring systems. The MIGR'HYCAR research project (http://www.migrhycar.com) was initiated to provide decisional tools for risks connected to oil spills in continental waters (rivers, lakes and estuaries), which represent more than 50% of accidental spills in France. Within the framework of this project, a new numerical oil spill model has been developed, as part of the TELEMAC hydro-informatics system (http://www.opentelemac.org), by combining Lagrangian and Eulerian methods. The Lagrangian model describes the transport of an oil spill near the free surface. The oil spill model enables to simulate the main processes driving oil plumes: advection, diffusion, oil beaching, oil re-floating, evaporation, dissolution, spreading and volatilization. Though generally considered as a minor process, dissolution is important from the point of view of toxicity. To model dissolved oil in water, an Eulerian advection-diffusion model is used. The fraction of dissolved oil is represented by a passive tracer. This approach is able to follow dissolved hydrocarbons in the water column. Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise the numerous kinetics of the processes listed above. In addition, meso-scale dynamic experiments in artificial channels and test cases derived from the literature are used to validate the numerical model. (author)

  18. Two oil spills: interrelatedness of socioeconomic structure and impact on seafood marketing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, I

    1978-01-01

    Little research has been done, to date, on the socioeconomic effects of oil spills. The socioeconomic investigations which were carried out in connection with the ''Saint Peter'' oil spill off the Colombian/Ecuadorian coast, and the ''Urquiola'' oil spill at La Coruna harbor in north-western Spain have provided an opportunity to document different effects on the seafood marketing systems in the two communities. The differences of the impact of the oil spills permitted an insight into the interrelatedness of socioeconomic factors both with respect to the effects produced and the degree of success of the corrective measures where such were implemented.

  19. Virtual Issue #1: Oil Spill Research in the Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology has been a venue for publishing oil spill research for over forty years. Rehwoldt et al. (1974) published the first oil spill focused paper in the Bulletin, reporting on the aquatic toxicity of two spill mitigating agents...

  20. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  1. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  2. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  3. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrity, S.D.; Levings, S.C.; Burns, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    In April 1986, more than 75 000 barrels (1.5 x 10 7 l) of medium-weight crude oil spilled into Bahia las Minas on the central Caribbean coast of Panama. Changes in the physical structure of the mangrove fringe after oiling were documented over time. These included defoliation, limb loss and eventual collapse of dead trees. By 5 years after the spill, the length of shore fringed by mangroves was reduced at oiled sites relative to unoiled sites. Surviving trees at oiled sites had fewer and shorter submerged prop roots and a higher proportion of dead roots than trees at unoiled sites. These changes reduced the surface area of submerged prop roots by 33% on oiled open coast, 38% in channels and 74% in streams. (author)

  4. Evaluation of biodiesel as bioremediation agent for the treatment of the shore affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Alvarez, P.; Vila, J.; Garrido, J.M.; Grifoll, M.; Feijoo, G.; Lema, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of different bioremediation products (nutrients, microorganisms and biodiesel) was tested using tiles located in both the supra-littoral and intertidal zones of a beach that was affected by the heavy oil spill of the Prestige. Neither nutrients nor microorganisms meant an improvement with respect to the natural processes. The addition of biodiesel improved the appearance of the treated tiles and apparently accelerated the degradation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the residual fuel oil. Nevertheless, PAHs degradation was similar and very high in all the treatments (80-85% after 60 days). On the other hand, the evolution with time of the amount of vanadium was similar to that of 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, so it was concluded that vanadium could also be used to estimate the extent of oil degradation in the field. These results also suggested that the residual fuel oil mineralization was very low throughout 1 year in all the treatments. Moreover, the increase of the oxygen content of the residual oil from around 1% till 4-8% indicated that the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons took place, and that the hydrocarbon oxidation products accumulated in the polar fractions. In general, the results pointed out that bioremediation techniques were not suitable for the recovery of shores affected by heavy oil spills

  5. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  7. Bombay high oil spill and its environmental impact

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Verlecar, X.N.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    , the research vessel, to take onboard 4 scientists and proceed immediately to the spill area. The ship sailed from Bombay on 20 May evening and reached the site on 21 May morning. d) After reaching the spill area, contact was established with the Coast Guard... Development (DOD) telephonically contacted the Director, National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) requesting him to send out a team of scientists on board ORV Sagar Kanya, one of their research vessel, at the earliest. The main aim was to proceed to the area...

  8. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  9. Experimental plans for LMFBR cavity liner sodium spill test LT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Newell, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is an important material of construction in LMFBR cavities and cells. Steel liners are often installed on the concrete surfaces to provide a gastight seal for minimizing air inleakage to inerted cell atmospheres and to protect the concrete from direct contact with sodium in the event of a sodium spill. In making safety assessment analyses, it is of interest to determine the adequacy of the liners to maintain their leaktightness during postulated accidents involving large sodium spills. However, data for basing analytical assessments of cell liners are very meager and an experimental program is underway at HEDL to provide some of the needed information. The HEDL cell liner evaluation program consists of both bench-scale feature tests and large-scale sodium spill demonstration tests. The plans for the first large-scale sodium spill test (LT-1) are the subject of this paper

  10. Overall system design for the Spill Modelling Artificial Reasoning Technology system (SMART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.

    1992-07-01

    A project was initiated to develop an intelligent computer system to assist spill emergency personnel and spill specialists in predicting and analyzing spills as well as their environmental impacts. The system, called SMART, is described, including system objectives, functionality, operational modes, system components and the functionality of each, and data communications between components. SMART is intended to provide the following five general functions: a user-friendly interface, comprehensive inference capability, analytical capability including the ability to predict concentrations and distances of a spill occurrence, knowledge management, convenient input, and multi-form output. The types of knowledge managed in SMART include the heuristic rules needed in the reasoning of spill prediction and impacts on the environment, as well as factual knowledge contained in existing external databases accessed through a database loader. More specifically, the heuristic knowledge comprises such topics as substance behavior, environmental interactions of substances, and the container or transportation vessel. The external databases include a chemical database on fundamental substance characteristics, an environmental database, and a spatial database managed in a geographic information system. 9 refs., 82 figs

  11. Accidental pollution in the ocean: besides crude oil, chemicals and other spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accidental pollution of the seas is usually illustrated by the shipwreck of tankers carrying crude oil. We must look beyond this image since such accidents spill substances other than petrochemicals. We need but mention the Levoli Sun's accident near the Cotentin peninsula, France, one year after the Erika went down. And what about spills of agricultural and food products? An accidental spill as apparently harmless as wheat might have serious effects on not just the environment but also human health. In all cases, two major series of questions crop up: 1) Is it necessary to intervene? If so, are we able to? And if we can, how to fight against spills? 2) What are the short- and long-term effects on the environment and on all human activities related to the sea (fishing, fish-farming, salt production, tourism, salt-water cures, etc.)? These two questions have a common denominator: the need to know how spilled products react. This knowledge conditions both the operational response for fighting against pollution and the assessment of the impact on the maritime environment. (author)

  12. New Spill Control for the Slow Extraction in the Multi-Cycling SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, Verena; Effinger, Ewald

    2016-01-01

    The flux of particles slow extracted with the 1/3 integer resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN was previously controlled with a servo-spill feedback system which acted on the horizontal tune such as to keep the spill rate as constant as possible during the whole extraction time. The current in two servo-quadrupoles was modulated as a function of the difference between the measured and the desired spill rate. With servo quadrupoles at a single location in the SPS ring and the SPS in multi-cycling mode, the trajectory of the slow extracted beam was seen to change from cycle to cycle depending on the current applied by the servo feedback. Hence this system was replaced by a feed-forward tune correction using the main SPS quadrupoles. In this way the spill control can now be guaranteed without changing the trajectory of the extracted beam. This paper presents the algorithm and implementation in the control system and summarizes the advantages of the new approach. The obtained spill characteristics ...

  13. Monitoring and pollution control: A stochastic process approach to model oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viladrich-Grau, M.

    1991-01-01

    The first chapter analyzes the behavior of a firm in an environment with pollution externalities and technological progress. It is assumed that firms may not purposely violate the pollution control regulations but nonetheless, generate some pollution due to negligence. The model allows firms two possible actions: either increase the level of treated waste or pay an expected penalty if illegal pollution is detected. The results of the first chapter show that in a world with pollution externalities, technological progress does not guarantee increases in the welfare level. The second chapter models the occurrence of an oil spill as a stochastic event. The stochastic model developed allows one to see how each step of the spilling process is affected by each policy measure and to compare the relative efficiency of different measures in reducing spills. The third chapter estimates the parameters that govern oil spill frequency and size distribution. The author models how these parameters depend on two pollution prevention measures: monitoring of transfer operations and assessment of penalties. He shows that these measures reduce the frequency of oil spills

  14. Cyber Physical Intelligence for Oil Spills (CPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences estimate 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into global waters every year. The effects of these spills include dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water. Deepwater horizon cost approximately $50 billion and severely challenged response capabilities. In such large spills optimizing a coordinated response is a particular challenge. This challenge can be met in a revolutionary new way by using an objectively optimized Cyber Physical Decision Making System (CPS) for rapid response products and a framework for objectively optimized decision-making in an uncertain environment. The CPS utilizes machine learning for the processing of the massive real-time streams of Big Data from comprehensive hyperspectral remote sensing acquired by a team of low-cost robotic aerial vehicles, providing a real-time aerial view and stream of hyperspectral imagery from the near UV to the thermal infrared, and a characterization of oil thickness, oil type and oil weathering. The objective decision making paradigm is modeled on the human brain and provides the optimal course trajectory for response vessels to achieve the most expeditious cleanup of oil spills using the available resources. In addition, oil spill cleanups often involve surface oil burns that can lead to air quality issues. The aerial vehicles comprehensively characterize air quality in real-time, streaming location, temperature, pressure, humidity, the abundance of 6 criterion pollutants (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, and H2S) and the full size distribution of airborne particulates. This CPS can be readily applied to other systems in agriculture, water conversation, monitoring of stream quality, air quality, diagnosing risk of wild fires, etc..

  15. Oil spill detection and remote sensing : an overview with focus on recent events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolbaugh, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Several offshore oil spills occurred during the period from November to December 2007 in various parts of the world, each highlighting the need of quickly detect oil spills in marine settings. Several factors must be considered in order to determine the best technical approach for successful detection and oil spill monitoring. These include the reason for detection or monitoring; the location of the spill; the scale of spatial coverage; availability of detection equipment and time to deploy; high specificity for petroleum oil; weather conditions at and above the spill site; and cost of the detection approach. This paper outlined some of the key attributes of several remote sensing options that are available today or being considered. The approaches used to enhance visualization or detection of spills include traditional electromagnetic spectrum-based approaches such as ultra violet (UV), visible, infra-red (IR), radar, and fluorescence-based systems. Analytical approaches such as chemical analysis for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or monitoring of electrical conductivity of the water surface may also provide a warning that hydrocarbons have been released. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  16. Technology needs for the later phases of an oil spill. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    2007-01-01

    The phases of an oil spill response can be classified as initial response, project phase, end phase and the monitoring phase. The initial on-water phase of the response or shoreline cleanup includes the development of contingency planning, stockpiling of equipment and research into response equipment for removing oil on water. Lack of planning for a response can lead to an initial response that has less than satisfactory results. An initial assessment of the oil spill response begins at the moment the spill occurs and continues for days, depending on the quality of the initial response. This phase includes the use of booms, skimmers, dispersants and in-situ burning. It was emphasized that oil spill research should focus on gathering scientific information needed to make decisions during the project phase and beyond. Typically, this will involve the study of long-term impacts and should be undertaken in a research environment in order to apply new data to any spill scenario. This paper highlighted knowledge needs to support decisions in the cleanup phase. The Exxon Valdez incident provided information on the long-term impacts of a variety of cleanup techniques. This paper also addressed damage assessment and restoration issues along with the decision to terminate a response. Once a response has been terminated, long-term monitoring of the ecosystem begins in order to identify the spill impact. 9 refs., 6 figs

  17. Monitoring of pipeline oil spill fire events using Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbuyi, M. G.; Eckardt, F. D.; Martinez, P.

    2016-12-01

    Nigeria, the largest producer of crude oil in Africa occupies sixth position in the world. Despite such huge oil revenue potentials, its pipeline network system is consistently susceptible to leaks causing oil spills. We investigate ground based spill events which are caused by operational error, equipment failure and most importantly by deliberate attacks along the major pipeline transport system. Sometimes, these spills are accompanied with fire explosion caused by accidental discharge, natural or illegal refineries in the creeds, etc. MODIS satellites fires data corresponding to the times and spill events (i.e. ground based data) of the Area of Interest (AOI) show significant correlation. The open source Quantum Geographical Information System (QGIS) was used to validate the dataset and the spatiotemporal analyses of the oil spill fires were expressed. We demonstrate that through QGIS and Google Earth (using the time sliders), we can identify and monitor oil spills when they are attended with fire events along the pipeline transport system accordingly. This is shown through the spatiotemporal images of the fires. Evidence of such fire cases resulting from bunt vegetation as different from industrial and domestic fire is also presented. Detecting oil spill fires in the study location may not require an enormous terabyte of image processing: we can however rely on a near-real-time (NRT) MODIS data that is readily available twice daily to detect oil spill fire as early warning signal for those hotspots areas where cases of oil seepage is significant in Nigeria.

  18. Analysis of the servo-spill control for slow beam extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes an analysis of servo-spill control system for the slow beam extraction from the KEK PS. Transfer function of extraction process is derived from measurement of the closed-loop characteristic using measured frequency response of each equipment. Result indicates the restriction of the present servo-spill control and give a guide line for the improvement. (author)

  19. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Integration of Remote-Sensing Detection Techniques into the Operational Decision-Making of Marine Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garron, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely-sensed data collected from satellites, airplanes and unmanned aerial systems can be used in marine oil spills to identify the overall footprint, estimate fate and transport, and to identify resources at risk. Mandates for the use of best available technology exists for addressing marine oil spills under the jurisdiction of the USCG (33 CFR 155.1050), though clear pathways to familiarization of these technologies during a marine oil spill, or more importantly, between marine oil spills, does not. Similarly, remote-sensing scientists continue to experiment with highly tuned oil detection, fate and transport techniques that can benefit decision-making during a marine oil spill response, but the process of translating these prototypical tools to operational information remains undefined, leading most researchers to describe the "potential" of these new tools in an operational setting rather than their actual use, and decision-makers relying on traditional field observational methods. Arctic marine oil spills are no different in their mandates and the remote-sensing research undertaken, but are unique via the dark, cold, remote, infrastructure-free environment in which they can occur. These conditions increase the reliance of decision-makers in an Arctic oil spill on remotely-sensed data and tools for their manipulation. In the absence of another large-scale oil spill in the US, and limited literature on the subject, this study was undertaken to understand how remotely-sensed data and tools are being used in the Incident Command System of a marine oil spill now, with an emphasis on Arctic implementation. Interviews, oil spill scenario/drill observations and marine oil spill after action reports were collected and analyzed to determine the current state of remote-sensing data use for decision-making during a marine oil spill, and to define a set of recommendations for the process of integrating new remote-sensing tools and information in future oil spill

  1. Oil spill encounter rate: A means of estimating advancing skimmer performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A high rate of oil spill recovery can only be achieved if the spilled oil can be collected fast enough for the skimming and pumping systems to operate at their rated capacity. For advancing skimmers, recovery capacity depends on the rate at which the skimming system encounters the oil slick. For these systems, encounter rate depends on skimming speed, sweep width, and the amount of oil available, in this case measured in terms of slick thickness. The computation of the spill encounter rate is described, and a chart is provided that permits the user to determine encounter rate for candidate skimming systems by inspection. Furthermore, a contingency planning worksheet for advancing skimmers is provided that allows the user to evaluate a particular response system. The resulting data can be used to determine the oil slick area that can be covered in a period of time, the volume of oil that can be expected to be recovered in that time based on oil spill planning scenarios, the pumping capacity required for skimming and transfer systems, and the storage requirements for recovered oil. Finally, suggestions are presented on how computations of oil spill encounter rate can be used to make important decisions in procuring advancing skimmers for specific applications. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Multi-objective entropy evolutionary algorithm for marine oil spill detection using cosmo-skymed satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    M. Marghany

    2015-01-01

    Oil spill pollution has a substantial role in damaging the marine ecosystem. Oil spill that floats on top of water, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. In fact, oil spill is reducing the sunlight penetrates the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. Moreover, marine mammals for instance, disclosed to oil spills their insulating capacities are reduced, and so making them more v...

  3. At spille en krimi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    væsentlige forskel at vi her ikke længere er læsere eller seere, men aktive medspillere i selve opklaringsarbejdet som ledere af eller deltagere i et efterforskningshold. Denne artikel ser nærmere på den interaktive krimi som performativ fortælling, dvs. en fortælling som bliver til i kraft af at den spilles...

  4. Impact of Deepwater Horizon Spill on food supply to deep-sea benthos communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Swarzenski, Pamela; Mienis, Furu; Duineveld, Gerald; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems encompass unique and often fragile communities that are sensitive to a variety of anthropogenic and natural impacts. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, sampling efforts documented the acute impact of the spill on some deep-sea coral colonies. To investigate the impact of the DWH spill on quality and quantity of biomass delivered to the deep-sea, a suite of geochemical tracers (e.g., stable and radio-isotopes, lipid biomarkers, and compound specific isotopes) was measured from monthly sediment trap samples deployed near a high-density deep-coral site in the Viosca Knoll area of the north-central Gulf of Mexico prior to (Oct-2008 to Sept-2009) and after the spill (Oct-10 to Sept-11). Marine (e.g., autochthonous) sources of organic matter dominated the sediment traps in both years, however after the spill, there was a pronounced reduction in marinesourced OM, including a reduction in marine-sourced sterols and n-alkanes and a concomitant decrease in sediment trap organic carbon and pigment flux. Results from this study indicate a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea in 2010-2011, at least 6-18 months after the spill started. Whereas satellite observations indicate an initial increase in phytoplankton biomass, results from this sediment trap study define a reduction in primary production and carbon export to the deep-sea community. In addition, a dilution from a low-14C carbon source (e.g., petrocarbon) was detected in the sediment trap samples after the spill, in conjunction with a change in the petrogenic composition. The data presented here fills a critical gap in our knowledge of biogeochemical processes and sub-acute impacts to the deep-sea that ensued after the 2010 DWH spill.

  5. Potential impacts of offshore oil spills on polar bears in the Chukchi Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan R; Perham, Craig; French-McCay, Deborah P; Balouskus, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice decline is anticipated to increase human access to the Arctic Ocean allowing for offshore oil and gas development in once inaccessible areas. Given the potential negative consequences of an oil spill on marine wildlife populations in the Arctic, it is important to understand the magnitude of impact a large spill could have on wildlife to inform response planning efforts. In this study we simulated oil spills that released 25,000 barrels of oil for 30 days in autumn originating from two sites in the Chukchi Sea (one in Russia and one in the U.S.) and tracked the distribution of oil for 76 days. We then determined the potential impact such a spill might have on polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their habitat by overlapping spills with maps of polar bear habitat and movement trajectories. Only a small proportion (1-10%) of high-value polar bear sea ice habitat was directly affected by oil sufficient to impact bears. However, 27-38% of polar bears in the region were potentially exposed to oil. Oil consistently had the highest probability of reaching Wrangel and Herald islands, important areas of denning and summer terrestrial habitat. Oil did not reach polar bears until approximately 3 weeks after the spills. Our study found the potential for significant impacts to polar bears under a worst case discharge scenario, but suggests that there is a window of time where effective containment efforts could minimize exposure to bears. Our study provides a framework for wildlife managers and planners to assess the level of response that would be required to treat exposed wildlife and where spill response equipment might be best stationed. While the size of spill we simulated has a low probability of occurring, it provides an upper limit for planners to consider when crafting response plans. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Burden of disease attributable to the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Kyusik; Noh, Su Ryeon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of disease (BOD) of the residents living in contaminated coastal area with oil spill and also analysed the BOD attributable to the oil spill by disease, age, sex and subregion. Design Health impact assessment by measuring years lived with disability (YLD) due to an oil spill. Setting A whole population of a community affected by an anthropogenic environmental disaster and secondary health outcome data. Participants Based on the health outcome survey including 10 171 individuals (male 4354; female 5817), BOD of 66 473 populations (male 33 441; female 33 032) was measured. Interventions None. Observational study on the effect of a specific environmental health hazard. Primary and secondary outcome measures Using disability adjusted life year (DALY) method, BOD including physical and mental diseases was measured. For the BOD measurement, excess incidences of illnesses related to oil spill were estimated from the comparison of prevalence of the health outcomes between contaminated areas and reference area without contamination. Results YLD attributable to the oil spill were estimated to be 14 724 DALYs (male 7425 DALYs; female 7299 DALYs) for the year 2008. The YLD of mental diseases including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression for men were higher than that for women. The YLD for women was higher in asthma and allergies (rhinitis, dermatitis, conjunctivitis) than that for men. The effects of asthma and allergies were the greatest for people in their 40s, with the burden of mental illness being the greatest for those in their 20s. Proximity to the spill site was associated with increased BOD. Conclusions An oil spill near a coastline can cause substantial adverse health effects. As the health effects of hazardous pollutants from oil spills are long-lasting, close follow-up studies are required to identify chronic health effects. PMID:24056482

  7. Oil spill response, prevention and impact: lesson from Tasman spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, I.A.; Doggar, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly half of the world oil is transported is transported by sea. Due to high shipping density coastal water is at high risk. Oil spills in the coastal areas endanger public health, devastate natural resources, and disrupt local economy. The Pakistani coast was hit by the worst ever ecological disaster on 27th July 03, when The Greek vessel 'Tasman Spirit', carrying 67,000 tonnes of crude oil grounded at Karachi port. High concentration of oil vapours along the affected shoreline caused discomfort. The contamination and losses could further be limited by taking appropriate actions. There is a need bring in significant improvements in oil spill prevention and response planning. This paper described the risks associated with oils spill and contingency planning to meet this situation. (author)

  8. 75 FR 29397 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling By the authority vested in... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling (the ``Commission''). Sec. 2. Membership. (a) The... impact of, oil spills associated with offshore drilling, taking into consideration the environmental...

  9. Operational Oceanograhy System for Oil Spill Risk Management at Santander Bay (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanedo Bárcena, S.; Nuñez, P.; Perez-Diaz, B.; Abascal, A.; Cardenas, M.; Medina, R.

    2016-02-01

    Estuaries and bays are sheltered areas that usually host a wide range of industry and interests (e.g. aquaculture, fishing, recreation, habitat protection). Oil spill risk assessment in these environments is fundamental given the reduced response time associated to this very local scale. This work presents a system comprising two modules: (1) an Operational Oceanography System (OOS) based on nesting high resolution models which provides short-term (within 48 hours) oil spill trajectory forecasting and (2) an oil spill risk assessment system (OSRAS) that estimates risk as the combination of hazard and vulnerability. Hazard is defined as the probability of the coast to be polluted by an oil spill and is calculated on the basis of a library of pre-run cases. The OOS is made up by: (1) Daily boundary conditions (sea level, ocean currents, salinity and temperature) and meteorological forcing are obtained from the European network MYOCEAN and from the Spanish met office, AEMET, respectively; (2) COAWST modelling system is the engine of the OOS (at this stage of the project only ROMS is on); (3) an oil spill transport and fate model, TESEO (4) a web service that manages the operational system and allows the user to run hypothetical as well as real oil spill trajectories using the daily forecast of wind and high resolution ocean variables carried out by COAWST. Regarding the OSRAS system, the main contributions of this work are: (1) the use of extensive meteorological and oceanographic database provided by state-of-the-art ocean and atmospheric models, (2) the use of clustering techniques to establish representative met-ocean scenarios (i.e. combination of sea state, meteorological conditions, tide and river flow), (3) dynamic downscaling of the met-ocean scenarios with COAWST modelling system and (4) management of hundreds of runs performed with the state-of-the-art oil spill transport model TESEO.

  10. Two oil spills: interrelation between the socioeconomic structure and impact on seafood marketing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, I

    1979-01-01

    Little research has been done, to date, on the socioeconomic effects of oil spills. The socioeconomic investigations which were carried out in connection with the Saint Peter oil spill off the Colombian/Ecuadorian coast, and the Urquiola oil spill at La Coruna harbor in north-western Spain have provided an opportunity to document different effects on the seafood marketing systems in the two communities. The differences of the impact of the oil spills permitted an insight into the interrelation between socioeconomic factors both with respect to the effects produced and the degree of success of the corrective measures where such were implemented.

  11. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  12. Alyeska/SERVS technological innovations for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of technological innovations in spill response by Alyeska Pipeline Service Company/SERVS (ship escort response vessel system), was presented. The company has developed a number of spill response techniques which have needed new strategies and modified equipment for fulfillment of the Prince William Sound Tanker Oil Discharge Prevention and Contingency Plan. One of the strategies was the training of personnel to be ready to deploy massive quantities of equipment on short notice to potential spill sites over an 11,000 square mile water body with more than 3,200 miles of wilderness shoreline. Specific response equipment and decision-making tools have been developed in direct support of large scale programs. Along with oil slick tracking buoys and mini barges, SERVS has developed high capacity skimmers with recovery capacities approaching 2,000 to 3,000 barrels of liquid per hour and strategy boom-towing vessels which divert oil into a long U shaped containment boom. SERVS fishing vessel program, hatchery protection and remote response center equipment program, and wildlife treatment facilities were also described. 10 refs., 13 figs

  13. Strategic management of oil spills: some lessons from the Exxon Valdez disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geistauts, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1989 the tanker Exxon Valdez grounded on a well-known reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound, resulting in an oil spill of nearly 11 million gallons (260,000 barrels). Much of the oil washed ashore, coating over 1,200 miles of shoreline, and damaged marine mammals, birds, and other life forms. Response to the spill revealed lack of preparedness, disagreement as to appropriate response tactics and technologies, and a confused decision-making structure. This article provides details of the Alaskan setting of the disaster. The historical conflict between economic development and environmental preservation that characterizes the region is emphasised. An outline is given of the apparent causes of this particular oil spill and then a number of strategic propositions concerning oil spills in general and their remediation are presented. In conclusion, it is argued briefly that, in general, effective and efficient maritime oil spill prevention and remediation require technological, logistic and decision-making mechanisms to be in place at all times on a global scale. This suggests that there should be an overall structural framework, composed of key sub-structures providing the necessary mechanisms. (U.K.)

  14. Oil spill research program, U. S. Minerals Management Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBelle, R. P.; Mullin, J. V.; White, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    The oil spill prevention and response research program of the U.S. Minerals Management Service was described including its goals and objectives, some recently funded projects, and future research directions. As it is now the trend in most research organizations, a large part of the program is carried out in cooperation with other major research centers to leverage funds and to maximize study results. For example, joint research with Environment Canada focuses on the physical and chemical properties of dispersants, remote sensing and mapping oil slicks and shoreline cleanup strategies. Similarly, cooperative projects are underway with the National Institute of Standards and Technology in assessing the capabilities of in-situ burning as an oil spill response tool. Research capabilities of OHMSETT - The National Oil Spill Response Test Facility were also reviewed. A series of tables listed titles of research projects completed during 1995-1996. 5 tabs.,

  15. Low-cost wave characterization modules for oil spill response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Skinner

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills can be remediated by mechanical skimmers in calm waters, but performance degrades with increased wave height. We have developed and demonstrated a system that quantifies local wave characteristics with an uncertainty of four inches of heave. Our system is intended for the measurement of wave characteristics during oil spill recovery. It conveys this information to coordinators and responders in real time via WiFi and remote reporting through a satellite network. This information will allow for enhanced situational awareness during an oil spill response, assisting stakeholders and optimizing mechanical skimming operations. Our wave characterization module (WCM uses accelerometer outputs from a very small inertial measurement unit (IMU to generate wave statistics and calculate wave characteristics. It is configured such that a WCM can either be attached to a skimmer float or incorporated into a microbuoy. Wave height and period are transmitted via WiFi and/or a satellite-enabled mesh-grid network to a cloud-hosted geographic information system (GIS. Here, we discuss the bare-bones sensors-plus-algorithm approach we developed by using spring-mass systems to approximate the wave height and period regime of interest. We then describe open water tests carried out using that development system both mounted to a weir skimmer mockup and packaged in a microbuoy. Finally, we present controlled tests in the wave tank at Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Test Facility in New Jersey, with the WCMs communicating the wave characteristics via WiFi to tankside laptops and via satellite to the cloud-based GIS. Snapshot determinations of wave height calculated using the scalar magnitude of the three-axis accelerometer in the IMU were within four inches of the benchmark wave measurement system at Ohmsett. Keywords: Oil spill, Wave characterization module, Inertial measurement unit, Microbuoy

  16. Quantitative risk assessment of continuous liquid spill fires based on spread and burning behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Huang, Hong; Li, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Spill fires usually occur during the storage and transportation of hazardous materials, posing a threat to the people and environment in their immediate proximity. In this paper, a classical Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) method is used to assess the risk of spill fires. In this method......, the maximum spread area and the steady burning area are introduced as parameters to clearly assess the range of influence of the spill fire. In the calculations, a modified spread model that takes into consideration the burning rate variation is established to calculate the maximum spread area. Furthermore......, large-scale experiments of spill fires on water and a glass sheet were conducted to verify the accuracy and application of the model. The results show that the procedure we developed can be used to quantitatively calculate the risk associated with a continuous spill fire....

  17. Mechanical cleaning of oil spills in seawater using circular conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S.; Abou Kassem, J.; Zekri, A. [United Arab Emirates Univ., Al Ain City (United Arab Emirates). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Treatment of the crude oil pollution in seawater has attracted global attention during the last two decades. This study was undertaken using circular conduits as a mechanical means to clean oil spills in seawater under different conditions of temperature, oil gravity, shaking frequency, conduit diameter, and initial thickness of oil layer. An experimental model was designed and built to achieve the study. It consists of shaking water bath (to represent sea waves) fitted with temperature controller and glass tubes of different inside diameters of 0.3 cm, 0.5 cm, and 0.7 cm. Three crude oils of different oil gravity of 35{sup o}API, 38{sup o}API, and 47{sup o}API were investigated under different shaking frequencies of 20, 40, and 60 stroke/minute with different tube diameters. The results proved that application of mechanical cleaning of oil spills using circular conduits is a practical technique. The cleaning of black oil spills is more efficient than one of volatile oil. Furthermore, the results indicated that the increase of shaking frequency and/or water temperature provide(s) faster cleaning of oil spills while temperature increase recovers the maximum oil. (Author)

  18. Quebec region's shoreline segmentation in the St. Lawrence River : response tool for oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforest, S.; Martin, V.

    2004-01-01

    Environment Canada, the Canadian Coast Guard, and the Eastern Canada Response Corporation are developing and refining pre-spill databases containing information about physical shoreline characteristics. Automated links between these pre-spill shoreline characteristic databases and computerized shoreline assessment tools have also been created using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology. The pre-spill databases can be used for planning shoreline cleanup operations. A training exercise, designed to evaluate a spill management system integrating the Quebec region pre-spill shoreline database and the ShoreAssess R shoreline assessment system was performed by Eastern Canada Response Corporation during an aerial survey where shoreline was segmented into digitized information. The cartography of segmentation covers the fluvial part of the St. Lawrence River. The oil spill-oriented database includes geomorphologic information from the supratidal to the lower intertidal zones. It also includes some statistical information and other requirements for cleanup operations. The computerized shoreline assessment tools made it possible to evaluate the length and type of shoreline that would potentially be impacted by oil. The tools also made it possible to assess the shoreline treatment methods most likely to be used, and evaluate the probable duration of the cleanup operation. The training exercise demonstrated that the integration of the databases is a valuable tool during the early phases of an oil spill response. 9 refs., 3 figs

  19. Contact Us | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment Trustee Agencies: Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office Louisiana Department of Environmental additional information regarding the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment in Louisiana Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment; Leonard Jordan, Acting Under Secretary for

  20. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  1. Tourism and its hypersensitivity to oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles

    2015-02-15

    The sinking of the Don Pedro merchant ship in 2007 near the island of Ibiza is a good example of the extreme sensitivity of the tourism sector to oil spills. Despite the limited scale of the spill (only some 20 tonnes), its minimal ecological impact, and the rapid deployment of personnel and equipment to contain it, the accident nonetheless caused significant economic damage to the island's tourism sector. This particular case demonstrates the importance of the beach as a factor of production in the holiday tourism sector, and the capacity of even small amounts of oil to render it unusable and cause heavy losses to holiday firms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Survey to assess Persian Gulf spill effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that an international group is poised for an extensive survey of the Persian Gulf, including an assessment of the long term effects of last year's oil spill, a legacy of the Persian Gulf war. Saudi Arabia plans a $450 million cleanup program on beaches fouled by the massive spill. Plans for the survey were disclosed by the United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco). It is to be carried out under the auspices of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (Ropme), Unesco's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Ropme member countries are Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates

  3. Risk assessment of the upstream petroleum industry's oil spill response equipment capability in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wotherspoon, P.; Brown, L.; Sawyer, M.

    1993-01-01

    A key component in the development of an effective onshore oil spill response capability is the type, condition, and geographical placement of oil spill equipment. When spill response equipment is first being purchased for a particular operating area, a brief analysis should be conducted to ensure that the equipment would provide an adequate response capability for that area. This response capability may change over time with variations in oil field production capabilities, pipelines and markets, company ownerships, manpower availability, and other logistical changes. Equipment may also become inoperable or redundant. These problems may be effectively addressed if one operator or spill cooperative actively reviews their spill response capabilities on a regular (annual) basis. However, when multiple operators and cooperatives exist over an extensive geographical area, the responsibility for regularly review of the capabilities of spill equipment may become lost in the organizational structure and in other responsibilities. In addition, the responsibility to conduct a multiarea review of the surrounding area may never be identified

  4. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural networks for oil spill detection using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avezzano, Ruggero G.; Velotto, Domenico; Soccorsi, Matteo; Del Frate, Fabio; Lehner, Susanne

    2011-11-01

    The increased amount of available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images involves a growing workload on the operators at analysis centers. In addition, even if the operators go through extensive training to learn manual oil spill detection, they can provide different and subjective responses. Hence, the upgrade and improvements of algorithms for automatic detection that can help in screening the images and prioritizing the alarms are of great benefit. In this paper we present the potentialities of TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data and Neural Network algorithms for oil spills detection. The radar on board satellite TS-X provides X-band images with a resolution of up to 1m. Such resolution can be very effective in the monitoring of coastal areas to prevent sea oil pollution. The network input is a vector containing the values of a set of features characterizing an oil spill candidate. The network output gives the probability for the candidate to be a real oil spill. Candidates with a probability less than 50% are classified as look-alikes. The overall classification performances have been evaluated on a data set of 50 TS-X images containing more than 150 examples of certified oil spills and well-known look-alikes (e.g. low wind areas, wind shadows, biogenic films). The preliminary classification results are satisfactory with an overall detection accuracy above 80%.

  6. Algorithm and interface modifications of the NOAA oil spill behavior model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, W.; Wesley, D.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Jones, R.; Kachook, G.; Lankford, J.

    2000-01-01

    The oil spill weathering program called ADIOS (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills) which is widely used by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been completely upgraded to include modified algorithms for evaporation, spreading, dispersion and emulsification. This paper was divided into three parts to outlined the changes in the existing algorithms implemented in the new version and to discuss the new algorithms for additional weathering processes and cleanup activities. The paper also described the new interface, which is the result of the NOAA/HAZMAT research in software usability and uncertainty. In the new model, evaporation uses a pseudo-component approach and dispersion includes the effects of sedimentation. Droplet size distribution and water content were considered as factors for new estimates for wave breaking and emulsification. Numerical techniques that allow non-uniformity in slick thickness have been used to determine spreading. The inhalation hazard resulting from benzene evaporation from oil spill surfaces can be calculated using new sub models which can also record the effects of cleanup. The submodels also provide options regarding the initial spill release. Users of the ADIOS 2 can enter ranges of selected input parameters that are likely to be uncertain during a spill. The ADIOS 2 program is also equipped with a library of more than a thousand oils and refined products. 34 refs., 1 fig

  7. State-Transition-Aware Spilling Heuristic for MLC STT-RAM-Based Registers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel Cell Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (MLC STT-RAM is a promising nonvolatile memory technology to build registers for its natural immunity to electromagnetic radiation in rad-hard space environment. Unlike traditional SRAM-based registers, MLC STT-RAM exhibits unbalanced write state transitions due to the fact that the magnetization directions of hard and soft domains cannot be flipped independently. This feature leads to nonuniform costs of write states in terms of latency and energy. However, current SRAM-targeting register allocations do not have a clear understanding of the impact of the different write state-transition costs. As a result, those approaches heuristically select variables to be spilled without considering the spilling priority imposed by MLC STT-RAM. Aiming to address this limitation, this paper proposes a state-transition-aware spilling cost minimization (SSCM policy, to save power when MLC STT-RAM is employed in register design. Specifically, the spilling cost model is first constructed according to the linear combination of different state-transition frequencies. Directed by the proposed cost model, the compiler picks up spilling candidates to achieve lower power and higher performance. Experimental results show that the proposed SSCM technique can save energy by 19.4% and improve the lifetime by 23.2% of MLC STT-RAM-based register design.

  8. Evolution of paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbon and 3,4 benzopyrene content in mussels from a coastal zone polluted by a fuel spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bories, G; Tulliez, J; Peltier, J C; Fleckinger, R

    1969-05-03

    After an oil spill, a coastal zone was polluted and wild mussels were contaminated by paraffinic and naphtenic hydrocarbons and 3,4-benzopyrene. The evolution of this contamination was followed. Normal levels were re-established after a month and a half. Normal paraffins were metabolized faster than other hydrocarbons.

  9. Oil spill R ampersand D efforts in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorell, D.; Jansson, B.

    1992-01-01

    Let me at first mention some significant facts of the Baltic Sea and of Sweden. It has an average depth of only 60 to 70 meters.The waters are low in temperature as well as low in oxygen and salt content (salinity). The air-temperature is in the winter often lower than minus 20 degrees C. The entrance to the Baltic is very narrow and shallow, which means that it takes thirty years before the water in the Baltic is completely renewed. This makes the Baltic Sea to the world's largest brackish water area where the organisms are very vulnerable and sensitive to all kinds of pollution. Oil spills pose a special threat. Every year, approximately 45 million tons of oil of all types crude, bunker, diesel - to name some - are transported through Swedish waters. The shipping of oil in other parts of the Baltic Sea exceeds this figure; a shipping not subject to our legislation but from time to time, with its spills polluting our environment. Sweden has an extremely long coastline to protect: 14,000 kilometers (nearly 9,000 miles) along the mainland plus the shores of more than 100,000 islands. Some oil spills have contaminated more than 12,000 islands which have large bird and seal populations and are public recreation areas for 1 million people and pleasure boats. Sweden started a comprehensive oil spill R ampersand D programme in 1982. This programme, introduced in this document, is now ended and strategies for the twenty-first century are now being drawn up

  10. An internet-based information management system for oil spill response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.W.; Douligeris, C.; Tebeau, P. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the contents and capabilities of OSIMS - the Oil Spill Information Management System. OSIMS is an integrated information management tool providing a graphical interface to an object-oriented database of geographical and other spill-related data. OSIMS combines the utility of a Geographic Information System with the intelligence of a Decision Support System, and provides global access through the World-Wide Web.

  11. Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA

    2001-01-01

    Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)

  12. Task Force on oil spill preparedness: Offshore implementation progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devenis, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    Industry members of the Canadian Petroleum Association (CPA) and the Independent Petroleum Association of Canada (IPAC) undertook a review of oil spill preparedness and response capabilities in 1989. The resulting report summarized the current state of readiness, focusing on oil spills resulting from exploration and production activities in Canada. The report recommended expenditures in research and development, equipment acquisition, and training to prevent and control offshore and onshore oil spills more effectively. The release of an implementation plan for the Task Force on Oil Spill Preparedness (TFOSP) in 1990 provided the impetus for a 5-year plan to improve this state of preparedness. The plan outlined the mechanisms for implementing the 45 recommendations developed by TFOSP. It also recommended how to incorporate them into the daily business activities of the CPA member companies. It identified the appropriate groups within industry to carry out the implementation of each recommendation. It also indicated the government interfaces, the implementation schedule, and cost estimates for putting each recommendation into place. It also recommended a vigorous monitoring program to follow and report on the status of implementation. Based on the TFOSP implementation plan recommendations, work plans were developed, specific work projects identified, and a budget approved for 1991 programs. The first year of implementation of recommendations is now complete and work plans have been developed for continuation in 1992. 2 refs

  13. Respons of archaeal communities in beach sediments to spilled oil and bioremediation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, W.F.M.; Couo de Brito, I.R.; Swannell, R.P.J.; Head, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    While the contribution of Bacteria to bioremediation of oil-contaminated shorelines is well established, the response of Archaea to spilled oil and bioremediation treatments is unknown. The relationship between archaeal community structure and oil spill bioremediation was examined in laboratory

  14. The Newfoundland oil spill burn experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    A major offshore oil-spill combustion experiment is being planned for waters off Newfoundland. The experiment is designed to answer outstanding questions on the acceptability of in-situ oil spill burning. In the experiment, variables will be controlled to allow quantitative measurement of the scientific and operational parameters that will enhance understanding of in-situ combustion as an operational oil-spill response technique. The proposed full-scale tests follow six years of testing in laboratory tanks. Analyses have shown that the high temperatures reached during efficient in-situ combustion result in relatively complete destruction of the oil. Tests have shown that the most important factor in this regard is that the oil must be thickened sufficiently before effective burning will occur. Such thickening is potentially possible in the offshore, under suitable wind and sea conditions, using fireproof containment booms. The experiment will involve measurement of emissions to the air, levels of oil in water, and operational parameters of in-situ burning. Time and location of the experiment are chosen to minimize ecological damage and for operational reasons. When suitable conditions are present in early August 1993, two 45-m 3 batches of crude oil will be released into a containment boom and ignited. The burn residue will be recovered mechanically, and a secondary containment and recovery system will be towed behind the fireproof boom to pick up any fugitive oil or residue. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Petro-Canada fined $290,000 for spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, W.

    2006-01-01

    Petro-Canada has recently received the largest fine of its kind in Atlantic Canada history for polluting seas around the Terra Nova oilfield. The $290,000 fine was handed down a month after a separate incident during which a flash fire on a tanker killed a crew member. The spill occurred on Petro-Canada's Terra Nova vessel, and was the result of a malfunctioning separator, which caused 165,000 litres of petroleum to leak into the ocean. Concerns had been voiced about the separator months prior to the spill. At the time of the leak, periodic alarms in the control room were attributed to weather, production flow rates and vessel motion, as routine water tests 2 hours earlier had shown that everything was normal. Terra Nova is located 350 km east of St. John's, Newfoundland in an environmentally sensitive area. After the spill, the firm immediately shut down operations and commenced an environmental clean-up and monitoring procedure costing more than $3 million. The separator has been repaired. Petro-Canada and the Crown prosecutor have proposed that $120,000 of the fine should be donated to the federal Environmental Damages Fund, with an additional $100,000 to be set up as an environmental sciences scholarship. 1 fig

  16. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  17. Burden of disease attributable to the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Kyusik; Noh, Su Ryeon; Choi, Young-Hyun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of disease (BOD) of the residents living in contaminated coastal area with oil spill and also analysed the BOD attributable to the oil spill by disease, age, sex and subregion. Design Health impact assessment by measuring years lived with disability (YLD) due to an oil spill. Setting A whole population of a community affected by an anthropogenic environmental disaster and secondary health outcome data. Participants Based on the health outcome survey in...

  18. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  19. Longer-Term Mental and Behavioral Health Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Cross Hansel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental health issues are a significant concern after technological disasters such as the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill; however, there is limited knowledge about the long-term effects of oil spills. The study was part of a larger research effort to improve understanding of the mental and behavioral health effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill. Data were collected immediately following the spill and the same individuals were resampled again after the second anniversary (n = 314. The results show that mental health symptoms of depression, serious mental illness and posttraumatic stress have not statistically decreased, and anxiety symptoms were statistically equivalent to immediate symptoms. Results also showed that the greatest effect on anxiety is related to the extent of disruption to participants’ lives, work, family, and social engagement. This study supports lessons learned following the Exxon Valdez spill suggesting that mental health effects are long term and recovery is slow. Elevated symptoms indicate the continued need for mental health services, especially for individuals with high levels of disruption resulting in increased anxiety. Findings also suggest that the longer-term recovery trajectories following the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill do not fall within traditional disaster recovery timelines.

  20. Unconventional oil and gas spills: Materials, volumes, and risks to surface waters in four states of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Patterson, Lauren A; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Entrekin, Sally A; Fargione, Joseph E; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Konschnik, Kate E; Ryan, Joseph N; Trainor, Anne M; Saiers, James E; Wiseman, Hannah J

    2017-03-01

    Extraction of oil and gas from unconventional sources, such as shale, has dramatically increased over the past ten years, raising the potential for spills or releases of chemicals, waste materials, and oil and gas. We analyzed spill data associated with unconventional wells from Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania from 2005 to 2014, where we defined unconventional wells as horizontally drilled into an unconventional formation. We identified materials spilled by state and for each material we summarized frequency, volumes and spill rates. We evaluated the environmental risk of spills by calculating distance to the nearest stream and compared these distances to existing setback regulations. Finally, we summarized relative importance to drinking water in watersheds where spills occurred. Across all four states, we identified 21,300 unconventional wells and 6622 reported spills. The number of horizontal well bores increased sharply beginning in the late 2000s; spill rates also increased for all states except PA where the rate initially increased, reached a maximum in 2009 and then decreased. Wastewater, crude oil, drilling waste, and hydraulic fracturing fluid were the materials most often spilled; spilled volumes of these materials largely ranged from 100 to 10,000L. Across all states, the average distance of spills to a stream was highest in New Mexico (1379m), followed by Colorado (747m), North Dakota (598m) and then Pennsylvania (268m), and 7.0, 13.3, and 20.4% of spills occurred within existing surface water setback regulations of 30.5, 61.0, and 91.4m, respectively. Pennsylvania spills occurred in watersheds with a higher relative importance to drinking water than the other three states. Results from this study can inform risk assessments by providing improved input parameters on volume and rates of materials spilled, and guide regulations and the management policy of spills. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Oil spill contamination probability in the southeastern Levantine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ron; Biton, Eli; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit; Levin, Noam

    2015-02-15

    Recent gas discoveries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea led to multiple operations with substantial economic interest, and with them there is a risk of oil spills and their potential environmental impacts. To examine the potential spatial distribution of this threat, we created seasonal maps of the probability of oil spill pollution reaching an area in the Israeli coastal and exclusive economic zones, given knowledge of its initial sources. We performed simulations of virtual oil spills using realistic atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The resulting maps show dominance of the alongshore northerly current, which causes the high probability areas to be stretched parallel to the coast, increasing contamination probability downstream of source points. The seasonal westerly wind forcing determines how wide the high probability areas are, and may also restrict these to a small coastal region near source points. Seasonal variability in probability distribution, oil state, and pollution time is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone

  3. Oil Spills and Dispersants Can Cause the Initiation of Potentially Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms ("Red Tides")

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Cosgrove, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J.

    2018-01-01

    After oil spills and dispersant applications the formation of red tides or harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been observed, which can cause additional negative impacts in areas affected by oil spills. However, the link between oil spills and HABs is still unknown. Here, we present experimental...... evidence that demonstrates a connection between oil spills and HABs. We determined the effects of oil, dispersant-treated oil, and dispersant alone on the structure of natural plankton assemblages in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In coastal waters, large tintinnids and oligotrich ciliates, major grazers...

  4. NOAA-MMS joint Langmuir circulation and oil spill trajectory models workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simecek-Beatty, D.; Lehr, W.

    2000-01-01

    An NOAA/HAZMAT workshop was held in October 1999 which provided an opportunity for 14 spill response officials to discuss the scientific theory of Langmuir Circulation (LC) and to determine ways that it affects oil spreading, dispersion and transport. The workshop helped identify potential modifications to existing oil spill trajectory models. LC is a result of the interaction between wind-driven surface currents and waves. This interaction causes vortices in the surface mixed layer of the water body. The vortices are aligned in the general direction of the wind. The surface water between the vortices either diverges or converges. For cleanup purposes and remote sensing it is necessary to incorporate LC into most oil and spill trajectory and behavior models. It was determined it should be possible to build simple models to predict the intensity of LC since current knowledge suggests that LC is forced by wind and waves. A prediction equation would be of tremendous use to oil spill response personnel. 39 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. In situ burning via towed boom of oil spilled at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, G.; Fendell, F.; Mitchell, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, operational guidance for the efficient use of combustion in the cleanup of a surface oil film, formed as a result of a spill at sea, is sought by approximate analysis. In remediation by burning, the spilled oil itself provides the energy for its cleanup. Attention is focused on situations holding relatively far from the source of the spill and/or relatively long after the spill: the oil is taken to have so dispersed that the thickness of the film is on the order of a few millimeters. Under such conditions, the oil film is unlikely to burn without the use of multiple towed booms, each boom spreading its already-ignited, localized fire to continuously collected, previously unignited portions of the oil film. A simple, quasisteady, two-dimensional analysis suggests efficient values for the tow speed and the tow--line length as functions of such parameters as the oil density, oil-film thickness, oil burn/evaporation rate, etc. The analysis leads to specific suggestions for apparently unreported laboratory experiments that may be informative prior to at-sea operation

  6. A new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethness, E.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new concept for improved oil spill containment in open waters is presented. The proposed system is a combination oil boom and wave barrier. Waveguard International has taken its extensive experience as a designer of floating breakwaters and applied this knowledge into the design of a readily transportable, readily deployable floating oil boom with integrated wave attenuation capabilities as well. The new concept is based on the attenuation of the two major natural causes of oil spill dispersion; first, horizontal dispersion caused by wind shear effects; and second, vertical entrainment into the water column caused by the mixing action of wave motion. The physical encirclement of an oil spill with a floating boom to contain horizontal dispersion is not a new concept. Existing systems, however, work best in calm water and rapidly loose efficiency as waves increase. The proposed system can not only physically surround the spill area, but is as much as 90% effective in stopping the transmission of wave energy. The oil boom thus minimizes vertical mixing of the contained oil slick

  7. Oil spill emergency response: Fulfilling regulatory requirements on the Grand Banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Offshore well licensing under Canadian regulations requires the operator to conduct a practice exercise of oil spill countermeasures and emergency response procedures at least yearly, once the drilling program starts. The relevant parts of the Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Drilling Regulations are summarized and the objectives and benefits of the practice exercises are reviewed. In addition to ensuring regulatory compliance, the exercises also provide the opportunity to test operational procedures, to provide in-house training, and improve response efficiency by regular repetition of the exercise. Exercises in communications during a spill incident in the offshore and in deployment of offshore spill response equipment conducted by Petro-Canada in Newfoundland are described. Problems identified during the exercises are noted

  8. Three-dimensional Virtual Simulation of Oil Spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing Area Based on Emergency Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhe; Huang, Liwen

    the river of Yangtze River in Chongqing area is continuous curved. Hydrology and channel situation is complex, and the transportation is busy. With the increasing of shipments of hazardous chemicals year by year, oil spill accident risk is rising. So establishment of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and its application in decision-making has become an urgent task. This paper detailed the process of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and established a system of three-dimensional virtual Simulation of oil spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing area by establishing an oil spill model of the Chongqing area based on oil particles model, and the system has been used in emergency decision to provide assistance for the oil spill response.

  9. Respiratory Effects of the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill on Children in Taean, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suk-Chul; Kim, Kyung-Mook; Lee, Kun-Song; Roh, Sangchul; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kwak, Sahng-June; Lee, Ik-Jin; Choi, Young-Hyun; Noh, Su Ryeon; Hur, Jong-Il; Jee, Young-Koo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast. Methods Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, an...

  10. Question of uncertainty : Transitioning from hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty is highlighted in the case of the oil spill. Hurricane is considered a known factor that people are used to and know how to handle. This uncertainty is primarily attributed to the magnitude of the spill. As the largest spill in the U.S., the long-term effects of the spill are difficult to assess. Uncertainty, however, has more to do with the novelty of the disaster and the accompanying regulatory change than the specific characteristics of this spill such as the size and longevity of the spill. The unfamiliarity with the Oil Pollution Act results in a lack of knowledge and uncertainty about local and state responses to the spill. The unpreparedness and unfamiliarity of this spill accompanied by different regulations underlie people's sense of uncertainty. This paper examines coastal Louisiana's shift from frequent hurricanes to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, particularly focusing on the effects of changed regulations from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act. It documents how the federal, state, and local governments adjust, and discusses the shifting emphasis to the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. One assumption is that people's established ways of behavior are commonly shaped by their previous experience of disasters, but this can paradoxically hinder their timely adaptation to new or different, high- impact environmental change. This leads to testing the hypothesis whether greater vulnerabilities result from adaptations to previous and well-known disasters. Results: The structural differences in regulations dictate the way governments and communities respond and adapt to the oil spill. The new set of regulations during the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill unlike the ones during hurricanes served as barriers to adaptation. Governments at federal, state, and local levels had difficulties adjusting to new rules and changed authorities, and they, in turn, generated uncertainty and

  11. AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF OIL SLICK AREA FROM MULTIPLE SAR ACQUISITIONS FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osmanoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band, Envisat ASAR (C-band and Alos-PALSAR (L-band sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  12. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LEGACY OF THE IXTOC-I OIL SPILL IN CAMPECHE SOUND, SOUTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Gulf of Mexico constitutes an important subsystem within a Large Marine Ecosystem. Due to its high biodiversity, living resources and energy resources, this region is strategic in the national plans for social and economic development of Mexico. The discovery of fossil fuel reserves in the seabed of Campeche Sound in the 1970s promoted the rapid expansion of the national oil industry in offshore waters. Unfortunately, the accidental blowout of the most productive well (Ixtoc-I in June of 1979, caused the first–world massive oil spill in a tropical marine environment. More than 3.4 million of barrels of crude oil were liberated in an ecosystem formerly renowned for its pristine conditions. In the aftermath of this dreadful accident, an immediate concern emerged not only for the oil acute effects but also for the long-term environmental consequences derived from the residual hydrocarbon compounds accumulated in coastal environments of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The attempts to assess the magnitude of the environmental damage were strongly precluded by the lack of pre-spill information. Natural variability in the ecosystem and oil weathering-factors contributed to attenuate the acute pollution effects that lasted nine months. However, the post-spill environmental alterations caused by the Ixtoc-I blowout still remain unanswered. The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the deep-waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, in 2010 rekindled our concern for the great risk involved for human lives and the health of shallow and deep sea habitats. The authors of this contribution offer their views on this environmental riddle from their own perspective as direct witnesses of the Ixtoc-I environmental tragedy.

  13. Statistical forensic methodology for oil spill source identification using two-tailed student's t approach. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough chemical characterization of oil must be conducted following an oil spill in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to quantitatively evaluate the extent of impact of the spill. Gas chromatography, flame ionization and mass spectrometry analysis was used in conjunction with statistical data analysis to determine the source of a spill that occurred in 2004 in a harbor in the Netherlands. Three oil samples were collected from the harbor spill, where a thick layer of oil was found between a bunker boat and the quay next to the bunker centre. The 3 samples were sent to different laboratories for a round robin test to defensively correlate the spilled oil to the suspected source candidates. The source characterization and identification was validated by quantitative evaluation of 5 petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series (naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, fluorene and chrysene), pentacyclic biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoid compounds. The use of biomarkers for identifying the source of spilled oils has also increased in recent years due to their specificity and high resistance to biodegradation. There was no strong difference among the 3 oil samples according to radar plots of diagnostic ratios of PAHs, isoprenoids, biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoids. The two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests provided strong evidence for which ship was responsible for the oil spill incident. However, it was cautioned that although two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests along with oil fingerprinting successfully identified the spill source, the method has limitations. Experimental results showed that the spilled oil and two source candidates were quite similar in both chemical fingerprints and concentration profiles for determined target hydrocarbons. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  14. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  15. Anaerobic biodegradation of diesel fuel-contaminated wastewater in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, M Alvarez; Vezuli, J; Lohi, A; Upreti, S R

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuel spills have a major impact on the quality of groundwater. In this work, the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) treating synthetic wastewater is experimentally evaluated. The wastewater comprises tap water containing 100, 200 and 300 mg/L of diesel fuel and nutrients. Granular, inert, activated carbon particles are employed to provide support for biomass inside the reactor where diesel fuel is the sole source of carbon for anaerobic microorganisms. For different rates of organic loading, the AFBR performance is evaluated in terms of the removal of diesel fuel as well as chemical oxygen demand (COD) from wastewater. For the aforementioned diesel fuel concentrations and a wastewater flow rate of 1,200 L/day, the COD removal ranges between 61.9 and 84.1%. The concentration of diesel fuel in the effluent is less than 50 mg/L, and meets the Level II groundwater standards of the MUST guidelines of Alberta.

  16. Impact-induced splash and spill in a quasi-confined granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogale, S. B.; Shinde, S. R.; Karve, P. A.; Ogale, Abhijit S.; Kulkarni, A.; Athawale, A.; Phadke, A.; Thakurdas, R.

    2006-05-01

    The splash and spill effects caused by the impact of a ball dropped from a height into a granular medium held in a small open container are examined. Different granular media, namely rice, mustard seeds, cream of wheat and plastic beads are used. The quantity of spilled-over granular matter ( W, grams) is measured as a function of the ball-drop height and compared for different cases. Digital pictures of the splash process are also recorded. The quantity W is seen to vary approximately linearly with the energy of impact. Interestingly, a distinct upward jump is seen in the spilled quantity at specific impact energy in the case of mustard seeds, which have spherical shape and also exhibit some charging effects. Similar jump was also confirmed for the case of plastic beads with broadly similar properties. Although the parameters such as mass per grain and packing density for the case of mustard seeds are intermediate between those for rice and cream of wheat, the spill quantity for comparable impact energy is considerably higher in the former case. The possible reasons for this non-monotonicity of behavior are discussed in terms of the differences in grain shapes and properties. Experiments are also performed using plastic beads of the same type but with four different sizes to explore the dependence of spilled quantity on bead size. The container size dependence is also examined for various bead types. Interesting systematics are seen, which are discussed qualitatively.

  17. Impact of oil spill from ship on air quality around coastal regions of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zang-Ho; Song, Sang-Keun

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality around coastal regions, where regular maritime traffic emissions from cargo, other commercial, fishing and military vessels are significantly active, can be affected by their direct emission of primary air pollutants (NOx, SO2, particulate matter (PM), etc.). For instance, harbor traffic exerted an important impact on NO2, SO2, O3, and PM levels. In addition, regional air quality around coastal regions is also affected by oil spill caused by ship accident in the coast. On 7 Dec., 2007, a barge carrying a crane hit the oil tanker MT Hebei Sprit off the west coast of the Republic of Korea, Yellow Sea (approximately 10 km off the coast), at 0700 local time, causing the spill of total estimated 12,547 tons of Iranian heavy (IH) and Kuwait Export (KE) crude oils. Since then, oil began coming on shore late in the night on 7 Dec. More than 150 km of coastline had been identified as being impacted by 17 Dec. Much of the affected area is part of the Taean-gun National Park and the nearest coastal city to spilled area is Taean. On 8 Dec., the flow of oil from the tanker was stopped when the holes were patched. The accident is the worst oil spill in Korea and the spill area is about one-third of the size of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The short- and long-term effects of oil spill on marine environment have been numerously studied, not on atmospheric environment. In this study, the air quality impact near spilled area by the evaporation of hydrocarbons from the oil spill is studied in detail. The evaporation rates of the volatile fractions of the crude oils released by oil spill were estimated based on their mole fractions of crude oils and mass transfer coefficients. Based on a molecular diffusion process, the flux of spilled oil component (Fivap, mol m-2 s-1) can be expressed as follows: Fivap = Kivap(Civap - C∞vap) (1) where Civap is concentration (mol m-3) of a component i of crude oil vapor in the air at the oil-air interface; C∞vap is the

  18. The influence of volatility spill-overs and market beta on portfolio construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Heymans

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adds to Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT by providing an additional measure to market beta in constructing a more efficient investment portfolio. The additional measure analyses the volatility spill-over effects among stocks within the same portfolio. Using intraday stock returns from five top-40 listed stocks on the JSE between July 2008 and April 2010, volatility spill-over effects were estimated with a residual- based test (aggregate shock [AS] model framework. It is shown that when a particular stock attracted fewer volatility spill-over effects from the other stocks in the portfolio, the overall portfolio volatility decreased as well. In most cases market beta showcased similar results. Therefore, in order to construct a more efficient risk- adjusted portfolio, one requires both a portfolio that has a unit correlation with the market (beta-based, and stocks that showcase the least amount of volatility spill-over effects amongst one another. These results might assist portfolio managers to construct lower mean variance portfolios.

  19. BC Citizen's Advisory Committee on oil spill prevention 1995-1996 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A committee comprised of BC citizens with some experience in oil spill issues was established in 1990 to give advise to the BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. The committee was responsible for conducting discussions with government, industry and public representatives on the state and progress of oil spill matters, particularly on the attempts to prevent and respond to spills. Within the context of a brief report about the accomplishments of the past year, this report focused on issues raised by the BC public during three public forums. These issues were: (1) update of government activities, (2) general response capability on the BC coast and BC waters, (3) support for BC Citizen's Advisory Committee, (4) wildlife response, (5) spill prevention plans, (6) escort tugs, (7) waste oil disposal and prevention of land based sources of marine pollution, and (8) fishing and tourism concerns. The report described the discussions on the issues and summarized the recommendations for action in each of these areas of concern. 2 tabs

  20. Pre-spill shoreline mapping in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Lamarche, A.; Reimer, P.D.; Marchant, S.O.; O'Brien, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    A long-term shoreline mapping program has been initiated in Prince William Sound, Alaska, to generate pre-spill data to assist in the planning activities for oil spill response in the area. Low-altitude aerial videotape surveys and video images form the basis for the mapping effort. The coast was initially divided into alongshore segments. The physical shore-zone is relatively homogeneous within each segment. A pre-spill Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) database, using the ShoreData software, was created based on this initial detailed mapping. The SCAT field teams are therefore equipped with a detailed analysis of the shore-zone character. The same information was also used to develop a separate database for use by planning and response operations groups. The data is entered into the Graphical Resource Database (GRD), and a Geographic Information System (GIS). A simplified characterization of the primary features of each segment is then made available through interpretation of the data. In the event of an oil spill, the SCAT data in the ShoreData files can be combined with field data on shoreline oiling conditions using a second software package called ShoreAccess R which provides summaries of the main parameters required by the planning group. It can also be used as a data storage and management tool. As part of this program, more than 1700 kilometres of shoreline in Prince William Sound have already been mapped. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Cold weather oil spill response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; Owens, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, a three-day oil spill response training program was conducted on Alaska's North Slope. The unique hands-on program was specifically developed for Chevron Corporation's world-wide response team. It featured a combination of classroom and outdoor sessions that helped participants to learn and apply emergency measures in a series of field exercises performed in very cold weather conditions. Temperatures remained below minus 20 degrees C and sometimes reached minus 40 degrees C throughout the training. The classroom instructions introduced participants to the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group's Field Guide for Spill Response in Arctic Waters. This guide provides response strategies specific to the Arctic, including open water, ice and snow conditions. The sessions also reviewed the Alaska Clean Seas Tactics Manual which addresses spill containment and recovery, storage, tracking, burning and disposal. The issues that were emphasized throughout the training program were cold weather safety and survival. During the training sessions, participants were required to set up weather ports and drive snowmobiles and all terrain vehicles. Their mission was to detect oil with infra-red and hand-held devices. They were required to contain the oil by piling snow into snow banks, and by augering, trenching and slotting ice. Oil was removed by trimming operations on solid ice, snow melting, snow blowing, skimming and pumping. In-situ burning was also performed. Other sessions were also conducted develop skills in site characterization and treating oiled shorelines. The successfully conducted field sessions spanned all phases of a cleanup operation in cold weather. 5 refs., 7 figs

  2. Evaluating technologies of oil spill surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hover, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    Surveillance and monitoring of oil in the marine environment imposes a broad spectrum of remote sensing requirements. At the US Coast Guard Research ampersand Development Center, the environmental safety branch is sponsoring oil spill remote sensing research in four areas of technology: Synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Frequency-scanning microwave radiometry (FSR), Laser fluorosensing (LFS), and Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagers. SAR technology uses sophisticated signal processing to overcome prior limitations, providing images of higher and more uniform spatial acuity which may enable interpreters to more-readily distinguish petroleum slicks from others. The ability to determine the distribution of oil thickness within a slick is necessary when an estimate of oil volume is desired. Scientists at MIT have formulated a new approach to radiometric oil thickness measurement that takes advantage of recent advances in electronic component technology. The initial data collected with a prototype FSR instrument have validated the FSR concept and more work is ongoing. The Coast Guard is co-funding a program to demonstrate and evaluate the capabilities of an airborne laser fluorosensor to support oil spill response operations. During a controlled test, the instrument successfully demonstrated an ability to detect oil on water, ice, and various beach surfaces. Additional testing included different oil types and allowed for weathering. Data analysis is ongoing. Recent developments in infrared imager technology have produced a wide variety of off-the-shelf, portable cameras that could potentially provide a rapid-response spill assessment capability. The R ampersand D Center has been involved in the testing of many of these sensors

  3. Modelling Oil-Spill Detection with Swarm Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aznar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, swarm robotics research is having a great increase due to the benefits derived from its use, such as robustness, parallelism, and flexibility. Unlike distributed robotic systems, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability. Among the multiple applications of such systems we could find are exploring unstructured environments, resource monitoring, or distributed sensing. Two of these applications, monitoring, and perimeter/area detection of a given resource, have several ecological uses. One of them is the detection and monitoring of pollutants to delimit their perimeter and area accurately. Maritime activity has been increasing gradually in recent years. Many ships carry products such as oil that can adversely affect the environment. Such products can produce high levels of pollution in case of being spilled into sea. In this paper we will present a distributed system which monitors, covers, and surrounds a resource by using a swarm of homogeneous low cost drones. These drones only use their local sensory information and do not require any direct communication between them. Taking into account the properties of this kind of oil spills we will present a microscopic model for a swarm of drones, capable of monitoring these spills properly. Furthermore, we will analyse the proper macroscopic operation of the swarm. The analytical and experimental results presented here show the proper evolution of our system.

  4. Development and application of an oil spill model with wave–current interactions in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, WeiJun; Hao, Yanni; Zhang, Li; Xu, Tiaojian; Ren, Xiaozhong; Cao, Feng; Wang, Shoudong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical oil spill developed by incorporating wave–current interactions and applied to hindcasting the Dalian oil spill. • Numerical model results taking into wave–current coupling shows better conformity with the observed data. • Oil dispersion will be enhanced due to the gradient of surface wave radiation stress in the coastal waters. - Abstract: The present paper focuses on developing a numerical oil spill model that incorporates the full three-dimensional wave–current interactions for a better representation of the spilled oil transport mechanics in complicated coastal environments. The incorporation of surface wave effects is not only imposing a traditional drag coefficient formulation at the free surface, but also the 3D momentum equations are adjusted to include the impact of the vertically dependent radiation stresses on the currents. Based on the current data from SELFE and wave data from SWAN, the oil spill model utilizes oil particle method to predict the trajectory of individual droplets and the oil concentration. Compared with the observations in Dalian New Port oil spill event, the developed model taking into account wave–current coupling administers to giving better conformity than the one without. The comparisons demonstrates that 3D radiation stress impacts the spill dynamics drastically near the sea surface and along the coastline, while having less impact in deeper water

  5. Need For Coastal Water Management Tool For Oil Spill Simulation In Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ghanaian water bodies have been under threats recently ranging from illegal mining sand winning reclamation of water bodies for the purposes of human settlement pollution etc. Civil and mechanical installations on the coastal waters have increase due to the discovery of oil recently and such situations are not spared by oil spills. Oil spills are an inevitable consequence of the need to produce store and transport oil. The commercialization of oil production has placed Ghana among High-Risk Zones which are characterised by high traffic density and the presence of navigational hazards. Despite Ghanas awareness about oil spill accidents in both preparedness and response it is likely it will be compromised when any accident occurs as it has more pressing demands on finite funds and resources. This situation might place Ghana among ill-prepared countries against oil spill combat. An important part of contingency plan is the prediction of locations that are susceptible to oil after spillage. This can be done by the use of satellite information reviewing and comparing previous incidents laboratory work or by fine tuning models which as of now the country is not having despite all the precautions to prevent oil spills. When spill models are used properly they provide ecological economic and social benefits. Hence the need for such decision-making tool for Ghana to create an environment for the contingency plans to be tested validated and upgraded. Such exercises not only maintain and increase the skills of the response personnel but also lead to improvements and fine tuning of the plan as weaknesses and gaps are identified.

  6. A multi-component oil spill model for calculation of evaporation and dissolution of condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, H.

    1994-01-01

    It is sometimes argued that oil spilled on the sea surface will go much faster into evaporation than solution. This statement may not always be true due to effects from wave action. In such cases high concentrations in the water may occur which could be harmful to biologic life below the sea surface. This paper explains a numerical model which simulates the surface spreading of a continuous spill, exposed to currents, wind and wave action. The spill is decomposed into the different constituents present in the spill. The oil or condensate is divided into 20 different classes with increasing carbon number within the interval C4 to C55. Asphalthenes are not included (non-emulgating spill). Within each class, the hydrocarbons are divided further into 5 subsets (n-alcanes, cycloalcanes, aromatics, napthenes and resins). The model then keeps track of what happens to each of the components (evaporation, dissolution, as droplets or remains in the slick) during an actual spill event. The effect of wave action is included by assuming a balance between the downward flux of hydrocarbons caused by the breaking waves, and the upward flux of droplets driven by the boyancy of the droplets. The dissolution and evaporation of the different oil (or spill) components are then computed. The model shows that the evaporation and dissolution may in some cases be competing processes, in particular for the aromatic compounds. The paper outlines the approach chosen, as well as some example results. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. The Galeta Oil Spill. II. Unexpected Persistence of Oil Trapped in Mangrove Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K. A.; Garrity, S. D.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L.

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahía las Minas (Panamá) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove ( Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills.

  8. Advanced RF-KO slow-extraction method for the reduction of spill ripple

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Uesugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Kanazawa, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    Two advanced RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction methods have been developed at HIMAC in order to reduce the spill ripple for accurate heavy-ion cancer therapy: the dual frequency modulation (FM) method and the separated function method. As a result of simulations and experiments, it was verified that the spill ripple could be considerably reduced using these advanced methods, compared with the ordinary RF-KO method. The dual FM method and the separated function method bring about a low spill ripple within standard deviations of around 25% and of 15% during beam extraction within around 2 s, respectively, which are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  9. Forensic fingerprinting and source identification of the 2009 Sarnia (Ontario) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Sun, J; Hollebone, B; Brown, C; Landriault, M

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a case study in which integrated forensic oil fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques were used to characterize the chemical compositions and determine the source of the 2009 Sarnia (Ontario) oil spill incident. The diagnostic fingerprinting techniques include determination of hydrocarbon groups and semi-quantitative product-type screening via gas chromatography (GC), analysis of oil-characteristic biomarkers and the extended suite of parent and alkylated PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) homologous series via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), determination and comparison of a variety of diagnostic ratios of "source-specific marker" compounds, and determination of the weathering degree of the spilled oil, and whether the spilled oil hydrocarbons have been mixed with any other "background" chemicals (biogenic and/or pyrogenic hydrocarbons). The detailed chemical fingerprinting data and results reveal the following: (1) all four samples are mixtures of diesel and lubricating oil with varying percentages of diesel to lube oil. Both samples 1460 and 1462 are majority diesel-range oil mixed with a smaller portion of lube oil. Sample 1461 contains slightly less diesel-range oil. Sample 1463 is majority lubricating-range oil. (2) The diesel in the four diesel/lube oil mixture samples was most likely the same diesel and from the same source. (3) The spill sample 1460 and the suspected-source sample 1462 have nearly identical concentrations and distribution patterns of target analytes including TPHs, n-alkane, PAHs and biomarker compounds; and have nearly identical diagnostic ratios of target compounds as well. Furthermore, a perfect "positive match" correlation line (with all normalized ratio data points falling into the straight correlation line) is clearly demonstrated. It is concluded that the spill oil water sample 1460 (#1, from the water around the vessel enclosed by a boom) matches with the suspected source sample 1462

  10. Energy considerations in spraying process of a spill-return pressure-swirl atomizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We analyse energy conversion in simplex and spill-return pressure-swirl atomizer. • Inlet (pressure) energy converts into liquid motion with nozzle efficiency ∼58%. • Kinetic energy of developed spray at closed spill line is ∼33% of the inlet energy. • It consists of energy of droplets (∼2/3) and entrained air (1/3). • Atomization efficiency is <0.3%; it declines with inlet pressure and spill opening. - Abstract: The work focuses on energy conversion during the internal flow, discharge and formation of the spray from a pressure-swirl (PS) atomizer in the simplex as well as spill-return mode. Individual energy forms are described in general and assessed experimentally for a particular PS atomizer and light heating oil as a medium. The PS spray was observed at various loads to investigate the liquid breakup process and the spray characteristics. Spatially resolved diameters and droplet velocities, measured by means of phase-Doppler anemometry, served for estimation of the energy characteristics in the PS spray. The input energy given by the potential energy of the supplied liquid partially converts into the kinetic energy (KE) in the swirling ports with hydraulic loss in per cent scale. Most of the pressure drop is associated with rotational motion in the swirl chamber with total conversion efficiency at the exit orifice ∼58%. The rest of the input energy ends up as friction loss, leaving room for improvement. The overall value (ID 32 ) of the Sauter mean diameter of droplets in the spray, D 32 , varies with pressure drop Δp l powered to −0.1. The radial profiles of D 32 widen with the increase in spill/feed ratio (SFR), but the ID 32 remain almost constant within the studied SFR range. The spray KE at closed spill line covers the droplet KE (21–26%) and that of entrained air (10–13%), both moderately varying with Δp l . The specific KEs of both the liquid and air markedly drop down with the spill line

  11. Phosphorus and nitrogen loading depths in fluvial sediments following manure spill simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure spills that enter streams can devastate the aquatic ecosystem. The depth of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading in fluvial sediments following a manure spill have not been documented. Thus, the objectives of this study were (i) to determine the depth of N and P contamination as a result o...

  12. Automatic Mexico Gulf Oil Spill Detection from Radarsat-2 SAR Satellite Data Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a genetic algorithm is exploited for automatic detection of oil spills of small and large size. The route is achieved using arrays of RADARSAT-2 SAR ScanSAR Narrow single beam data obtained in the Gulf of Mexico. The study shows that genetic algorithm has automatically segmented the dark spot patches related to small and large oil spill pixels. This conclusion is confirmed by the receiveroperating characteristic (ROC) curve and ground data which have been documented. The ROC curve indicates that the existence of oil slick footprints can be identified with the area under the curve between the ROC curve and the no-discrimination line of 90%, which is greater than that of other surrounding environmental features. The small oil spill sizes represented 30% of the discriminated oil spill pixels in ROC curve. In conclusion, the genetic algorithm can be used as a tool for the automatic detection of oil spills of either small or large size and the ScanSAR Narrow single beam mode serves as an excellent sensor for oil spill patterns detection and surveying in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Usefulness of high resolution coastal models for operational oil spill forecast: the "Full City" accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Broström

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution, the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas.

  14. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  15. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  16. Co-optimization of diesel fuel biodegradation and N2 fixation through the addition of particulate organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piehler, M.; Swistak, J.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment is widespread and current bioremedial techniques are often not cost effective for small spills. The formulation of simple and inexpensive bioremedial methods could help reduce the impacts of frequent low volume spills in areas like marinas and ports. Particulate organic carbon (POC) was added to diesel fuel amended samples from inshore marine waters in the form of corn-slash (post-harvest leaves and stems), with and without inorganic nutrients (nitrate and phosphate). Biodegradation of diesel fuel ( 14 C hexadecane mineralization) and N 2 fixation were measured in response to the additions, The addition of POC was necessary for N 2 fixation and diesel fuel biodegradation to co-occur. The effects of diesel fuel and inorganic nutrient additions on N 2 fixation rates were not consistent, with both inhibitory and stimulatory responses to each addition observed. The highest observed diesel fuel biodegradation levels were in response to treatments that included inorganic nutrients. The addition of POC alone increased diesel fuel degradation levels above that observed in the control. In an attempt to determine the effect of the POC on the microbial community, the corn particles were observed microscopically using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy with tetrazolium salt additions. The corn particles were found to have abundant attached bacterial communities and microscale oxygen concentration gradients occurring on individual particles. The formation of oxygen replete microzones may be essential for the co-occurrence of aerobic diesel fuel biodegradation and oxygen inhibited N2 fixation. Mesocosm experiments are currently underway to further examine the structure and function of this primarily heterotrophic system and to explore the potential contribution of N 2 fixation to the N requirements of diesel fuel biodegradation

  17. Integration of multi-technology on oil spill emergency preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhenliang; Hannam, Phillip M; Xia, Xiaowei; Zhao, Tingting

    2012-10-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of technologies including Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for establishing emergency preparedness for oil spill accidents. In CBR, the Frame method is used to define case representation, and the HEOM (Heterogeneous Euclidean-Overlap Metric) is improved to define the similarity of case properties. In GA, we introduce an Improved Genetic Algorithm (IGA) that achieves case adaptation, in which technologies include the Multi-Parameter Cascade Code method, the Small Section method for generation of an initial population, the Multi-Factor Integrated Fitness Function, and Niche technology for genetic operations including selection, crossover, and mutation. In ANN, a modified back-propagation algorithm is employed to train the algorithm to quickly improve system preparedness. Through the analysis of 32 fabricated oil spill cases, an oil spill emergency preparedness system based on the integration of CBR, GA and ANN is introduced. In particular, the development of ANN is presented and analyzed. The paper also discusses the efficacy of our integration approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Satellite observations and modeling of oil spill trajectories in the Bohai Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Li, Xiaofeng; Wei, Yongliang

    2013-01-01

    On June 4 and 17, 2011, separate oil spill accidents occurred at two oil platforms in the Bohai Sea, China. The oil spills were subsequently observed on different types of satellite images including SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), Chinese HJ-1-B CCD and NASA MODIS. To illustrate the fate of the oil...

  19. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  20. Eco-toxicological studies of diesel and biodiesel fuels in aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinskiene, Asta; Martinkus, Povilas; Rebzdaite, Vilija

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare diesel fuel to biodiesel fuel by determining the toxicity of analyzed materials and by quantitatively evaluating the microbial transformation of these materials in non-adapted aerated soil. The toxicity levels were determined by measuring the respiration of soil microorganisms as well as the activity of soil dehydrogenases. The quantitative evaluation of biotransformation of analyzed materials was based on the principle of balancing carbon in the following final products: (a) carbon dioxide; (b) humus compounds; (c) the remainder of non-biodegraded analyzed material; and (d) intermediate biodegradation products and the biomass of microorganisms. The results of these studies indicate that diesel fuel has toxic properties at concentrations above 3% (w/w), while biodiesel fuel has none up to a concentration of 12% (w/w). The diesel fuel is more resistant to biodegradation and produces more humus products. The biodiesel is easily biotransformed. - The comparison of diesel and biodiesel fuels' eco-toxicological parameters in non-adapted aerated soil is relevant when considering the effects of these substances on the environment in cases of accidental spills

  1. The contribution of air cushioned vehicles in oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.W.; McGrath, J.

    1993-01-01

    On July 22, 1991, the Tuo Hai, a 46,500 ton Chinese grain carrier, collided with the Tenyo Maru, a 4,800 ton Japanese fish processing ship, off the coast of Washington State. The Tenyo Maru sank, creating an oil spill that cost upwards of $4 million (US) to clean up. The incident initiated a joint response from the US and Canadian governments. As part of this response, the Canadian Coast Guard mobilized an SRN-6 hovercraft. This air cushioned vehicle (ACV) provided logistical support to responders on both sides of the international boundary. The response operation along the Pacific Coast was extensive. Dense fog and the remote location of the impacted area provided formidable challenges to the cleanup effort. It was the mission scenario of the Canadian SRN-6 hovercraft to provide logistical support-as an experiment in ACV utility-to the organizations responding to this incident. Based on this experience, it can be argued that the hovercraft offers great potential value in responding to marine oil spills. Appropriate application of ACV technology can enhance oil spill response work, spill waste management, and incident surveillance. This paper discusses the contribution of the SRN-6 hovercraft to the Tenyo Maru response, briefly examines the use of another, very different hovercraft, during a response in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and reviews a new hovercraft design and discusses its potential contributions

  2. Information needs and priorities for assessing the sensitivity of marine birds to oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, J.A.; Ford, G.; Heinemann, D.

    1984-01-01

    Experience in developing models to predict the potential impacts of oil spills on colonially breeding marine birds has revealed some major gaps in the information available on these systems. The authors consider the availability of data for a variety of parameters of seabird biology that are required in modelling efforts, and assign provisional priorities to the information needs. In order to develop means of predicting the impacts of oil spills on seabirds, the authors suggest that colony- or site-specific information on the timing of reproduction and colony occupancy, chick growth rates and body weights, several metabolic parameters, flight speed, and food load size is of relatively low overall priority. Intermediate priority is assigned to the collection of specific data on the dynamics of oil spills, the age and breeding structure of the populations, reproductive success, foraging activity budgets and flight paths, flight costs, and the response of growing chicks to food deprivation. The authors suggest that studies of seabird biology should give highest priority to obtaining information of population sizes, the probability of adult death upon encountering a spill, age-specific fecundity and survivorship, the time required in foraging trips, the lag time in the response of birds to an oil spill, foraging rate as a function of resource density, and changes in the availability of resources to the birds as a consequence of oil spills.

  3. Environmental implications of offshore oil and gas development in Australia. Part 6; Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, J.K.; Revill, A.T.; Miller, G.J.; Connell, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The total amount of oil spilled in Commonwealth offshore waters from offshore oil exploration and production has been estimated by the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry and Energy to be 440 barrels (70 000 litres) to the end of 1991. When more recent spills are added, plus spills from coastal waters under State jurisdiction, it is estimated that the total of oil spilled is about 600 barrels (95 000 litres). This estimate does not include hydrocarbon inputs from discharge of formation waters or drill cuttings. Most of these spills have been very small (less than 20 barrels) and in only a very few instances has any of the oil reached the shore. In most cases, it has been possible to allow the oil to degrade and disperse naturally. Given the small quantities spilled it is highly unlikely that these oil spills have caused significant environmental damage although it must be added that few follow up studies to assess this have been carried out. This review concludes that oil spills affect marine ecosystems generally in the same way as many other forms of marine pollutants even though the degree of persistence is less than with heavy metals for example. That is, the system is modified and destabilized and in severe cases it can shift to a reduced biological diversity characteristic of early successional or pioneer stages. Adverse effects range from the short term (days to months), to decades. Two phases and/or effects are usually observed: (i) the short-term mortality phase particularly affects biota at or near the air/sea interface and is attributed to physical coating, ingestion and inhalation of high concentrations of low-boiling aromatic hydrocarbons; and (ii) the longer term effects of the weathered oil being incorporated into the sediment where it inhibits the growth of seedlings and larger plants as well as affecting infauna and epifauna. 584 refs., 49 tabs., 43 figs

  4. Biodegradation of marine oil spills in the Arctic with a Greenland perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Wegeberg, Susse; Aamand, Jens

    2018-01-01

    New economic developments in the Arctic, such as shipping and oil exploitation, bring along unprecedented risks of marine oil spills. Microorganisms have played a central role in degrading and reducing the impact of the spilled oil during past oil disasters. However, in the Arctic, and in particu......New economic developments in the Arctic, such as shipping and oil exploitation, bring along unprecedented risks of marine oil spills. Microorganisms have played a central role in degrading and reducing the impact of the spilled oil during past oil disasters. However, in the Arctic......, and in particular in its pristine areas, the self-cleaning capacity and biodegradation potential of the natural microbial communities have yet to be uncovered. This review compiles and investigates the current knowledge with respect to environmental parameters and biochemical constraints that control oil...... biodegradation in the Arctic. Hereby, seawaters off Greenland are considered as a case study. Key factors for biodegradation include the bioavailability of hydrocarbons, the presence of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the availability of nutrients. We show how these key factors may be influenced...

  5. Prolonged Financial Distress After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Predicts Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Holmes, Katherine; Glenn Morris, J; Grattan, Lynn M

    2018-03-13

    The economic impact of disasters is well known; however, the link between financial loss and behavioral health problems is unknown. Participants included 198 adults of ages 21 to 82, living within 10 miles of the Gulf Coast during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and were involved in the fishing, harvesting, seafood processing, or service/tourism industries. The functional impact of financial resource loss at 2.5 years post spill was measured using the 26-item Financial Life Events Checklist (FLEC). Individuals responded to financial distress by reducing social events and utility bills and changing food-shopping habits. The FLEC significantly predicted higher drug use (Drug Abuse Screening Test), alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), mood problems (Profile of Mood States), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II) (p values ≤ 0.05) 4.5 years after the spill. This preliminary study supports the notion that the functional impact of financial loss has a long-term impact on behavioral health after an oil spill.

  6. CROSERF: Toward a standardization of oil spill cleanup agent ecological effects research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, M.; Tjeerdema, R.; Aurand, D.; Clark, J.; Sergy, G.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment in 1994 of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF) for the development of standardization of protocols used in ecological research of oil spills and remediation efforts was described. Background and the need for such an organization was discussed. Discussions at the two meetings of the forum to date (generation of scientific data for decision making in August 1994 at the University of California at Santa Cruz, and toxicity testing of the water-accommodated fraction of the oil in March 1995 at the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office in Baton Rouge) were summarized. A list of the organizations represented at the meetings was given. 5 refs

  7. Major oil spills, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bills, C.E.; Whiting, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The destruction caused by Hurricane Hugo resulted in two major oil spills on the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Roughly 10,000 barrels of oil were discharged from damaged storage tanks at the Hess Oil Virgin Island Corporation and 14,000 barrels of oil were discharged from the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority facility in Christiansted. Pollution responders overcame the lack of power, water, food lodging, communications and transportation to perform an effective cleanup of these spills. This paper presents details of the pollution response effort as coordinated by the Federal On Scene Coordinator

  8. The hospital tech laboratory: quality innovation in a new era of value-conscious care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keteyian, Courtland K; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    For decades, the healthcare industry has been incentivized to develop new diagnostic technologies, but this limitless progress fueled rapidly growing expenditures. With an emphasis on value, the future will favor information synthesis and processing over pure data generation, and hospitals will play a critical role in developing these systems. A Michigan Medicine, IBM, and AirStrip partnership created a robust streaming analytics platform tasked with creating predictive algorithms for critical care with the potential to support clinical decisions and deliver significant value.

  9. Assessment of the use of dispersants on oil spills in California marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, K.; Ross, S.; Belore, R.; Buffington, S.; Ogawa, C.; Panzer, D.

    2002-01-01

    The technical issues regarding the use of dispersants to clean up oil spills from offshore production sources and transportation sources in California were assessed in this study which examined both operational and environmental issues. The operational issues included the dispersibility of produced and imported oils, along with the capabilities of California response resources to deal with typical spills and limiting environmental impacts to offshore environments. The environmental issues include the risks associated with typical spills and potential net environmental benefit of chemically dispersing oil spills. Most crude oils produced offshore California are heavy and border on the undispersable range, but the imported crudes are somewhat lighter. Modeling has shown that most produced oils and some imported oils emulsify quickly and weather more quickly to the point where they are no longer dispersible. There is a very narrow window of time for chemical dispersions to be used effectively. The net environmental benefit analysis demonstrates that the use of dispersants lessens the total environmental impact of spill scenarios. It was emphasized that it is necessary to act quickly if chemical dispersion is to be effective. Rapid response strategies are needed, including locally based vessel and helicopter spraying systems. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Lazy Spilling for a Time-Predictable Stack Cache: Implementation and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Jordan, Alexander; Brandner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The growing complexity of modern computer architectures increasingly complicates the prediction of the run-time behavior of software. For real-time systems, where a safe estimation of the program's worst-case execution time is needed, time-predictable computer architectures promise to resolve......, we show that lazy spilling can be analyzed with little extra effort, which benefits the worst-case spilling behavior that is relevant for a real-time system....

  11. Oil spill hazards at the upstream level: a risk management paradigm for a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okogu, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents the experience of recent oil spills internationally and in Nigeria and proposes an appropriate system of risk management. In the best of circumstances, externality problems are difficult to handle; they are even worse in developing countries with weak sociopolitical institutions and where transnational companies tend to have lower operating standards. Typically, a company would invest in spill prevention up to the point where the marginal benefit just equals marginal costs. In a situation where spill detection and clean up enforcement are weak, as is the case in many developing countries, investment in prevention will tend to be low. Consequently, an insurance-type oil spill contingency fund, financed through an oil tax, is proposed. (author)

  12. Coconut endocarp and mesocarp as both biosorbents of dissolved hydrocarbons in fuel spills and as a power source when exhausted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis-Zarate, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Mayra Cecilia; Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Chazaro-Ruiz, Luis Felipe; Rangel-Mendez, Jose Rene

    2018-04-01

    Health and environmental problems associated with the presence of toxic aromatic compounds in water from oil spills have motivated research to develop effective and economically viable strategies to remove these pollutants. In this work, coconut shell (endocarp), coconut fiber (mesocarp) and coconut shell with fiber (endocarp and mesocarp) obtained from coconut (Cocos nucifera) waste were evaluated as biosorbents of benzene, toluene and naphthalene from water, considering the effect of the solution pH (6-9) and the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural water (14 mg/L). In addition, the heat capacity of saturated biosorbents was determined to evaluate their potential as an alternative power source to conventional fossil fuels. Tests of N 2 physisorption, SEM, elemental and fiber analysis, ATR-FTIR and acid-based titrations were performed in order to understand the materials' characteristics, and to elucidate the biosorbents' hydrocarbon adsorption mechanism. Coconut fiber showed the highest adsorption capacities (222, 96 and 5.85 mg/g for benzene, toluene and naphthalene, respectively), which was attributed to its morphologic characteristics and to its high concentration of phenolic groups, associated with the lignin structure. The pH of the solution did not have a significant influence on the removal of the contaminants, and the presence of DOM improved the adsorption capacities of aromatic hydrocarbons. The adsorption studies showed biphasic isotherms, which highlighted the strong affinity between the molecules adsorbed on the biosorbents and the aromatic compounds remaining in the solution. Finally, combustion heat analysis of coconut waste saturated with soluble hydrocarbons showed that the heat capacity increased from 4407.79 cal/g to 5064.43 ± 11.6 cal/g, which is comparable with that of woody biomass (3400-4000 cal/g): this waste biomass with added value could be a promising biofuel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Oh β s concerns surface after spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A spill of uranium- and radium-contaminated water from a reservoir at the Key Lake Mine in northern Saskatchewan in early January 1984 created extensive public concern. Now attention is being focussed on the issue of worker safety

  14. Structure Changes of Macrobenthic Community on Rocky Shores After the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hwan Jung; Heung-Sik Park; Kon-Tak Yoon; Hyung-Gon Lee; Chae-Woo Ma

    2013-01-01

    In Korea, more than 300 oil spill accidents occur every year. Despite the frequency, only a small pool of data is available on the initial effect of oil spill on macrobenthic fauna inhabiting rocky shores. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of macrobenthic fauna composition and community structure on rocky shores, and understand the impact of oil on rocky shore organisms after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Field surveys were carried out in five regions dose to the wreck site in ...

  15. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Iturbe-Darkistade, Iñaky; Putman, Emily M; Richards, Paul M; Verley, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration and stage-specific survival rates. Simulations indicated that 321 401 (66 199-397 864) green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) turtles were likely within the spill site. These predictions compared favourably with estimates from in-water observations recently made available to the public (though our initial predictions for Kemp's ridley were substantially lower than in-water estimates, better agreement was obtained with modifications to mimic behaviour of young Kemp's ridley turtles in the northern Gulf). Simulations predicted 75.2% (71.9-76.3%) of turtles came from Mexico, 14.8% (11-18%) from Costa Rica, 5.9% (4.8-7.9%) from countries in northern South America, 3.4% (2.4-3.5%) from the United States and 1.6% (0.6-2.0%) from West African countries. Thus, the spill's impacts may extend far beyond the current focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Contingency plan improvement for managing oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2014-12-15

    The estimated risks of being impacted by oil spills in the coastal waters were used to improve the oil spill contingency plan of Thailand. Functional roles of local agencies are integrated into the plan. Intensive measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in high-very high risk zones, whereas light and moderate measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in low and moderate risk zones, respectively. The estimated percentage risks due to simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources (PRoilspill) were used to guide the year-round water activities that should be carefully handled at a certain radius with a low-moderate PRoilspill, whereas they should be avoided at a certain radius with a high-very high PRoilspill. Important measures before, during, and post periods of an oil spill incident are suggested to prevent and monitor oil spill incidents and mitigate their impacts on the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A 50 to 70-year-old-oil-spill : Bluefish Creek, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstrom, C.B. [Imperial Oil Resources, Cold Lake, AB (Canada); Jensen, P.K. [Imperial Oil Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1991, an oil spill was discovered in Bluefish Creek near Fort Norman, Northwest Territories. It was estimated that the spill was between 50 to 70 years old. The spill was discovered in an excavated area that appeared to be a drilling sump. The old spill exhibited an unusual occurrence of patterned partitioning of translucent wax-like material. Gas chromatography found the substance to be consistent with a paraffin based crude oil similar to Norman Wells crude oil. It is possible that Norman Wells crude was used for drilling purposes at the site. It is not likely that the Bluefish wells were the source of the oil because they were both dry holes and there were no records of hydrocarbons being encountered during drilling. Imperial Oil Resources (NWT) Ltd., and Fort Norman Band have made joint efforts in removing 118 barrels of oily debris and have successfully restored the site. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Fate of oil determinations under Arctic conditions: The Komi Pipeline oil spill experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeau, R.J.; Hansen, O.

    1995-01-01

    The rationale developed by a United Nations team to estimate the fate and transport of spilled oil remaining on the ground in the Pechora River basin in Russia following the Komi Pipeline spill disaster, was presented. The team consisted of experts from Norway, Canada, the United States and the European Union. Detailed background of the spill event, petroleum industry setting, geographic setting and hydrology of the regions was presented. Nine contaminated sites were identified. A worst case scenario was developed for the fate of the spilled oil. It was estimated that 93 000 - 97 000 tonnes of oil remained on the ground. Further pollution of the environment outside of Russia was considered unlikely under the circumstances, but petroleum contamination of the drinking water, tar balls and residual oil were expected to continue to persist in the affected area for many months. The UN team concluded that chronic pollution posed a significant threat to the region's natural resources. 4 refs., 3 figs

  19. Analysis of potential effects of the Idoho-QIT oil spill on river-estuarine fisheries in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inyang, L.E.D.; Essien, G.E.; Gundlach, E.R.; Moses, B.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    40,000 bbls of Nigerian crude oil were released into the offshore waters of Nigeria when a 24-inch pipeline ruptured offshore of the Mobil Qua Iboe Terminal on January 12, 1998. Most of the oil was dispersed by natural processes and by the application of 299 bbls of dispersants. There was very limited contact of the oil with shoreline and estuaries of Nigeria. Several short and long term studies into the health and socio-economic impacts of the spill were conducted to determine the impacts. In particular, this paper discusses the evaluation of river-mouth fisheries using pre-spill data, data obtained during the spill, and data obtain 9 to 12 months following the spill. Catch rates, fisheries composition, and fish tissue chemistry was reviewed. It was determined that catch rates in the spill zone and control areas were within the historical range expected in the rainy season. There was no major difference in species composition values within the study and those expected for the rainy season. A rich and diverse fish population was found to exist in the spill zone, suggesting that there was no detectable effects of the spill. Concentrations of copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, mercury, nickel and vanadium were below recommended limits. None of the metals are indicative of petroleum in fish tissues. Total lipids were also well below 25 ppm. 31 refs., 11 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Analysis of inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Thomas M; Di Bianca, Paisly; Krysa, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Although coastal oil spills tend to be highly publicized, crude oil spills in the United States affect inland areas relatively often. Spills to inland areas often affect sensitive environments and can have greater impacts to health and welfare than spills to coastal areas. For these reasons, the authors investigated inland crude oil spill threats, vulnerabilities, and emergency response in the midwestern U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. These states work with the Region 5 Offices of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Region 5's geospatial data in the Inland Sensitivity Atlas were turned into metrics indicating inland crude oil spill threats and vulnerabilities among the Region's sub-watersheds. These threats and vulnerabilities were weighted using data from the National Response Center and the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Priority System. The locations of the Region's emergency responders were geocoded in GIS. The GIS calculated the emergency response times to the Region's sub-watersheds. The resulting scatter plots are connected to the sub-watersheds in the map so stakeholders can (1) see the outlying sub-watersheds of concern and (2) better understand how reducing threats and better response time can reduce the risk of inland crude oil spills. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  1. Assessment of the impact of oil spill on Mumbai harbor bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, G.G.; Saradhi, I.V.; Puranik, V.D.; Sharma, D.N.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2011-04-01

    On 7 th August, 2010 two cargo ships MSC Chitra and MV Khalijia collided off Mumbai coast causing an oil spill that spread quickly through Maharashtra's coastline. MSC Chitra ruptured its tank when it hit incoming MV Khalijia. MSC Chitra tilted to about 80 degrees soon after the collision, spilling an estimated 400 to 500 tonnes of oil. The ship was loaded with an estimated 2,600 tonnes of oil, 300 tonnes of diesel and 70 tonnes of lubricating oil at the time of the accident. The oil spill has spreaded over an area of 25 square kilometers. MSC Chitra was carrying 1219 containers out of which 31 had hazardous chemicals like organophosphate pesticides. After the collision about 400 containers fall off into to the sea from the deck of MSC Chitra. The oil spill has resulted in severe environmental damage along the Mumbai coastline as well as to the marine life. In order to assess the impact of oil spill on the marine environment daily monitoring of oil and grease levels has been carried out at CIRUS Jetty. Additionally three field surveys have been carried out along the coast line of Mumbai harbor bay from Vashi Jetty to Uran collecting sea water samples. The samples collected at CIRUS Jetty and Mumbai harbor bay are analyzed for various water quality parameters apart from oil and grease. The results indicate the oil and grease levels in sea water at CIRUS Jetty reduced to background levels within 15 days. The filed survey along Mumbai harbor bay also shows a decreasing trend in the oil and grease levels in seawater. (author)

  2. Community patterns of psychiatric disorders after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palinkas, L.A.; Petterson, J.S.; Russell, J.; Downs, M.A. (Impact Assessment, Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between exposure to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup efforts and the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depressive symptoms in 13 Alaska communities. METHOD: A community survey of 599 men and women was conducted approximately 1 year after the spill occurred. Questions from the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule were used to assess symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to assess levels of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The post-spill (i.e., 1-year) prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and PTSD for the study communities with all degrees of exposure was 20.2% and 9.4%, respectively. The prevalence of respondents with CES-D Scale scores above 16 and 18 was 16.6% and 14.2%, respectively. When compared with the unexposed group, members of the high-exposure group were 3.6 times as likely to have generalized anxiety disorder, 2.9 times as likely to have PTSD, 1.8 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 16 and above, and 2.1 times as likely to have a CES-D Scale score of 18 and above. Women exposed to this event were particularly vulnerable to these conditions, and Alaska Natives were particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms after the oil spill. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the oil spill's impact on the psychosocial environment was as significant as its impact on the physical environment. The Exxon Valdez experience suggests a number of implications for the mental health needs of disaster victims, particularly in primary care settings.

  3. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Walsh, Lauren; Garfin, Dana Rose; Wilson, Fiona E; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon “British Petroleum (BP)” oil spill was a mega-disaster characterized as the petroleum industry’s largest-volume marine oil spill in history. Following a “wellhead blowout” that destroyed the drilling platform, 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf of Mexico over 87 days and the spill expanded to cover 68,000 square miles of sea surface. However, despite the expansive scope of the event, systematic surveys of affected coastal populations found only modest effects on mental health and substance abuse. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences in relation to exposure to the unique constellation of hazards associated with the spill. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected Gulf Coast population--in terms of exposure to hazard, loss, and change--were created specifically for this human-generated ecological disaster. Psychological risk characteristics of this event included: human causation featuring corporate culpability, large spill volume, protracted duration, coastal contamination from petroleum products, severe ecological damage, disruption of Gulf Coast industries and tourism, and extensive media coverage. The multiple impact effect was notable due to prior exposure of the region to Hurricane Katrina. These stressors were counterbalanced by the relative absence of other prominent risks for distress and psychopathology. Coastal residents did not experience significant onshore spill-related mortality or severe injury, shortages of survival needs, disruption of vital services (health care, schools, utilities, communications, and transportation), loss of homes, population displacement, destruction of the built environment, or loss of social supports. Initial acute economic losses were partially offset by large-sum BP payments for cleanup and recovery of the coastal economy. Not only did Gulf

  4. Utilization of a genetic algorithm for the automatic detection of oil spill from RADARSAT-2 SAR satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An oil platform located 70 km from the coast of Louisiana sank on Thursday. • Oil spill has backscatter values of −25 dB in RADARSAT-2 SAR. • Oil spill is portrayed in SCNB mode by shallower incidence angle. • Ideal detection of oil spills in SAR images requires moderate wind speeds. • Genetic algorithm is excellent tool for automatic detection of oil spill in RADARSAT-2 SAR data. - Abstract: In this work, a genetic algorithm is applied for the automatic detection of oil spills. The procedure is implemented using sequences from RADARSAT-2 SAR ScanSAR Narrow single-beam data acquired in the Gulf of Mexico. The study demonstrates that the implementation of crossover allows for the generation of an accurate oil spill pattern. This conclusion is confirmed by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The ROC curve indicates that the existence of oil slick footprints can be identified using the area between the ROC curve and the no-discrimination line of 90%, which is greater than that of other surrounding environmental features. In conclusion, the genetic algorithm can be used as a tool for the automatic detection of oil spills, and the ScanSAR Narrow single-beam mode serves as an excellent sensor for oil spill detection and survey

  5. Decalcification of benthic foraminifera due to "Hebei Spirit" oil spill, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Gyu; Kim, Shin; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Woo, Han Jun; Park, Min Woo; Kim, Byeong Hak; Son, Maeng Hyun; Choi, Yang Ho

    2014-10-15

    In order to determine the effects on foraminifera due to spilled crude oil in the "Herbei Spirit" incident, a study of benthic foraminiferal assemblages was carried out on sediment samples collected from the Sogeunri tidal flat, Taean Peninsula, Korea. Breakages of the chambers in the Ammonia beccarii and Elphidium subincertum species of the Sogeunri tidal flat with a low pH (6.98 on average) were marked. These chamber breakages occurred in 71.6% of A. beccarii and are thought to be caused by decalcification due to the fall in pH resulting from the "Hebei Spirit" oil spill. The factors that affect breakage of the chamber in benthic foraminifera under low pH condition may be not only deto decalcification but also to exposure duration of substrata in the tidal flat spilled crude oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BP fusion model for the detection of oil spills on the sea by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; An, Jubai; Zhang, Hande; Lin, Bin

    2003-06-01

    Oil spills are very serious marine pollution in many countries. In order to detect and identify the oil-spilled on the sea by remote sensor, scientists have to conduct a research work on the remote sensing image. As to the detection of oil spills on the sea, edge detection is an important technology in image processing. There are many algorithms of edge detection developed for image processing. These edge detection algorithms always have their own advantages and disadvantages in the image processing. Based on the primary requirements of edge detection of the oil spills" image on the sea, computation time and detection accuracy, we developed a fusion model. The model employed a BP neural net to fuse the detection results of simple operators. The reason we selected BP neural net as the fusion technology is that the relation between simple operators" result of edge gray level and the image"s true edge gray level is nonlinear, while BP neural net is good at solving the nonlinear identification problem. Therefore in this paper we trained a BP neural net by some oil spill images, then applied the BP fusion model on the edge detection of other oil spill images and obtained a good result. In this paper the detection result of some gradient operators and Laplacian operator are also compared with the result of BP fusion model to analysis the fusion effect. At last the paper pointed out that the fusion model has higher accuracy and higher speed in the processing oil spill image"s edge detection.

  7. The Galeta oil spill: Pt. 2; Unexpected persistence of oil trapped in mangrove sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Jorissen, D.; MacPherson, J.; Stoelting, M.; Tierney, J.; Yelle-Simmons, L. (Bermuda Biological Station, Ferry Reach (Bermuda)); Garrity, S.D. (Coastal Zone Analysis, Sopchoppy, FL (United States))

    1994-04-01

    Sediment chemistry studies, undertaken as part of the long-term assessment of the Bahia las Minas (Panama) oil spill, showed the unexpected persistence of the full range of aromatic hydrocarbon residues of the spilled crude oil in anoxic muds of coastal mangroves. Mangrove muds served as long-term reservoirs for chronic contamination of contiguous coastal communities for over 5 years. One result of the repeated history of oil pollution incidents along this coast was an increased proportion of dead mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) roots in sediment cores which was related to contaminant loading and was detectable for at least 20 years after major oil spills. We suggest that this is the minimum time-scale that is to be expected for the loss of toxicity of oil trapped in muddy coastal habitats impacted by catastrophic oil spills. (author)

  8. Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill PSA (:24)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 24 second PSA from Dr. Regina Benjamin, U.S. Surgeon General, encourages people to get help if they are feeling sad, angry, depressed, or stressed as a result of the Gulf oil spill. It was recorded so that localities can add their own "For more information" at the end, as appropriate.

  9. A concern-based method to prioritize spill response activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.; Bart, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) of the Emergencies Division of Environment Canada in the Ontario Region developed a computerized method to help rank segments of shoreline according to levels of concern in the event of an oil spill. The original SCAT approach was designed to allow survey teams to acquire information about the state of shoreline spills so that assessments of oilings would be comparable in time and space. The SCAT method, which allows several decision makers to obtain an unbiased evaluation of the oiling situation, has been recognized in both Canada and the United States as a method that ensures the consistency of data gathering and processing for prioritization purposes. The concern-based prioritization system was integrated within the computerized response tools used by the SCAT team using tools such as the Great Lakes Electronic Environmental Sensitivities Atlas (GLEESA), a geographic information system (GIS) of environmental data, and Shore Assess, a GIS based computerized system used to provide support during a response phase of a spill. It was noted that this method is considered to be a practical response tool designed around the principles of performance support and cybernetics to help decision makers set priorities. It is not designed for pre-impact assessment. Instead, it ensures that existing knowledge of the spill characteristics and environmental conditions are used in