WorldWideScience

Sample records for airships

  1. Stratospheric Airships: New Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ira; Perry, William; West, Mark

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and Aerostar International, Inc. have been involved in developing a lightweight, expendable stratospheric airship since 1997. The concept of a stratospheric airship has been around almost as long as stratospheric free balloons. Airships are defined as lighter-than-air vehicles with propulsion and steering systems. The basic technology that makes stratospheric airships possible is rooted in the free floating stratospheric super pressure balloon technology developed for NASA and the U.S. Air Force over the last 40 years. The current efforts are the next step in a spiral development program for a family of portable launch, long-endurance autonomous solar-electric, stratospheric airships. These low-cost systems will be capable of lifting small to medium payloads (20-200 pounds) to near-space pressure altitudes of 50 mbs for a duration of 30 days or greater. Designed for launch from remote sites like a free balloon, these airships will not require large hangars or special facilities. The paper will include a brief history of stratospheric airship development, a discussion of the flight environment, key technologies and performance trade study results for stratospheric airships. An overview of the application of this technology to Earth and Space Sciences will be presented.

  2. Airship formation control

    OpenAIRE

    Bicho, E.; Moreira, André; Diegues, Sérgio; Carvalheira, Manuel Pereira; Monteiro, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem underlying the control and coordination of multiple autonomous airships that must travel maintaining a desired geometric formation and simultaneously avoid collisions with moving or stationary obstacles. The control architecture is based on the attractor dynamics approach to behaviour generation. The airship physical model is presented and the mathematical background for the control architecture is explained. Simulations (with perturbations) ...

  3. Stratospheric Airship Design Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ira Steve; Fortenberry, Michael; Noll, . James; Perry, William

    2012-07-01

    The concept of a stratospheric or high altitude powered platform has been around almost as long as stratospheric free balloons. Airships are defined as Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) vehicles with propulsion and steering systems. Over the past five (5) years there has been an increased interest by the U. S. Department of Defense as well as commercial enterprises in airships at all altitudes. One of these interests is in the area of stratospheric airships. Whereas DoD is primarily interested in things that look down, such platforms offer a platform for science applications, both downward and outward looking. Designing airships to operate in the stratosphere is very challenging due to the extreme high altitude environment. It is significantly different than low altitude airship designs such as observed in the familiar advertising or tourism airships or blimps. The stratospheric airship design is very dependent on the specific application and the particular requirements levied on the vehicle with mass and power limits. The design is a complex iterative process and is sensitive to many factors. In an effort to identify the key factors that have the greatest impacts on the design, a parametric analysis of a simplified airship design has been performed. The results of these studies will be presented.

  4. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  5. Computer aided airship design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Rosenstein, H.

    1975-01-01

    The Comprehensive Airship Sizing and Performance Computer Program (CASCOMP) is described which was developed and used in the design and evaluation of advanced lighter-than-air (LTA) craft. The program defines design details such as engine size and number, component weight buildups, required power, and the physical dimensions of airships which are designed to meet specified mission requirements. The program is used in a comparative parametric evaluation of six advanced lighter-than-air concepts. The results indicate that fully buoyant conventional airships have the lightest gross lift required when designed for speeds less than 100 knots and the partially buoyant concepts are superior above 100 knots. When compared on the basis of specific productivity, which is a measure of the direct operating cost, the partially buoyant lifting body/tilting prop-rotor concept is optimum.

  6. Airship-assisted space launch.

    OpenAIRE

    Guenov, Marin D.; Peyron, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Being lighter-than-air, airships do not seem to be an obvious platform choice for dropping of heavy objects. We have challenged the idea and this paper presents the summary of a speculative concept which utilises airships as a reusable first stage of a space launch system. The inspiration behind the concept was that if not much cheaper, the airship-assisted space launch will be environmentally friendlier- an argument which is likely to become even more important...

  7. AIRSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong

    2006-01-01

    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  8. New Worlds Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve

    2013-09-01

    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  9. Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Bayard, David; Quadrelli, Marco; Johnson, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A parameterized linear mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of an airship is undergoing development. This model is intended to be used in designing control systems for future airships that would operate in the atmospheres of Earth and remote planets. Heretofore, the development of linearized models of the longitudinal dynamics of airships has been costly in that it has been necessary to perform extensive flight testing and to use system-identification techniques to construct models that fit the flight-test data. The present model is a generic one that can be relatively easily specialized to approximate the dynamics of specific airships at specific operating points, without need for further system identification, and with significantly less flight testing. The approach taken in the present development is to merge the linearized dynamical equations of an airship with techniques for estimation of aircraft stability derivatives, and to thereby make it possible to construct a linearized dynamical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a specific airship from geometric and aerodynamic data pertaining to that airship. (It is also planned to develop a model of the lateral dynamics by use of the same methods.) All of the aerodynamic data needed to construct the model of a specific airship can be obtained from wind-tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics

  10. Remote sensing using airships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavan, C.K. Jr. [Loral Defense Systems-Akron, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Loral Defense Systems-Akron (LDSA) has developed a laser-based mine detection system in response to the US Navy`s requirements for detecting, localizing and classifying mines in deep water shipping channels. This sensor system was tested recently at the Navy`s David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) at Bethesda, MD and at the US Army`s Camp Perry near Lake Erie. The testing at Camp Perry involved installation of the sensor system on the Goodyear Tim & Rubber Company`s airship {open_quotes}Spirit of Akron{close_quotes} and the conduct of control flight test experiments over Lake Erie. Resultant imagery has been analyzed in terms of water optical properties. Further tests are planned in a multispectral mode incorporating both active illumination and passive detection. The system can be extended to the detection of Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) in government test ranges and to detection of other devices both buried and at the surface. The utility of the airship (blimp) makes the approach practical due to long endurance, wide speed range and platform flexibility. 14 figs.

  11. An Airship Slide Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  12. Thermal modeling of stratospheric airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Fang, Xiande; Wang, Zhenguo; Hou, Zhongxi; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhang, Helei; Dai, Qiumin; Xu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    The interest in stratospheric airships has increased and great progress has been achieved since the late 1990s due to the advancement of modern techniques and the wide range of application demands in military, commercial, and scientific fields. Thermal issues are challenging for stratospheric airships, while there is no systematic review on this aspect found yet. This paper presents a comprehensive literature review on thermal issues of stratospheric airships. The main challenges of thermal issues on stratospheric airships are analyzed. The research activities and results on the main thermal issues are surveyed, including solar radiation models, environmental longwave radiation models, external convective heat transfer, and internal convective heat transfer. Based on the systematic review, guides for thermal model selections are provided, and topics worthy of attention for future research are suggested.

  13. Titan Airship Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzhanovich, V.; Yavrouian, A.; Cutts, J.; Colozza, A.; Fairbrother, D.

    2001-01-01

    Saturn's moon Titan is considered to be one of the prime candidates for studying prebiotic materials - the substances that precede the formation of life but have disappeared from the Earth as a result of the evolution of life. A unique combination of a dense, predominantly nitrogen, atmosphere (more than four times that of the Earth), low gravity (six times less than on the Earth) and small temperature variations makes Titan the almost ideal planet for studies with lighter-than-air aerial platforms (aerobots). Moreover, since methane clouds and photochemical haze obscure the surface, low-altitude aerial platforms are the only practical means that can provide global mapping of the Titan surface at visible and infrared wavelengths. One major challenge in Titan exploration is the extremely cold atmosphere (approx. 90 K). However, current material technology the capability to operate aerobots at these very low temperatures. A second challenge is the remoteness from the Sun (10 AU) that makes the nuclear (radioisotopic) energy the only practical source of power. A third challenge is remoteness from the Earth (approx. 10 AU, two-way light-time approx. 160 min) which imposes restrictions on data rates and makes impractical any meaningful real-time control. A small-size airship (approx. 25 cu m) can carry a payload approximately 100 kg. A Stirling engine coupled to a radioisotope heat source would be the prime choice for producing both mechanical and electrical power for sensing, control, and communications. The cold atmospheric temperature makes Stirling machines especially effective. With the radioisotope power source the airship may fly with speed approximately 5 m/s for a year or more providing an excellent platform for in situ atmosphere measurements and a high-resolution remote sensing with unlimited access on a global scale. In a station-keeping mode the airship can be used for in situ studies on the surface by winching down an instrument package. Floating above the

  14. Indoor Autonomous Airship Control and Navigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko Roman; Krukhmalev Victor

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an automatic control system for autonomous airship. The system is designed to organize autonomous flight of the mini-airship performing flight mission defined from ground control station. Structure, hardware and software implementation of indoor autonomous airship and its navigation and control system as well as experiment results are described.

  15. Indoor Autonomous Airship Control and Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Roman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic control system for autonomous airship. The system is designed to organize autonomous flight of the mini-airship performing flight mission defined from ground control station. Structure, hardware and software implementation of indoor autonomous airship and its navigation and control system as well as experiment results are described.

  16. Airship-floated wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether line system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive

  17. Development of UTHM’s Airship Virtual Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Azian Hariri; Darwin Sebayang; Ignatius Agung Wibowo

    2010-01-01

    Airship virtual simulator was developed by programming the solution of the airship equations of motion to Matlab GUI. This paper shows a case study done by applying the physical data of a designed airship called ‘UTHM’s Airship’ in the airship equations of motion for development of airship virtual simulator. In this study, the approximate and calculated stability modes of the designed airship were compared for validation purposes. The virtual simulator operates by selecting the desired contro...

  18. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R; Goldsmith, Paul F; Hall, Jeffery L; Hoffman, Scott E; Hovarter, Scott E; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M; Jones, Ross M; Kauffmann, Jens; Kiessling, Alina; King, Oliver G; Konidaris, Nick; Lachenmeier, Timothy L; Lord, Steven D; Neu, Jessica; Quetin, Gregory R; Ram, Alan; Sander, Stanley; Simard, Marc; Smith, Mike; Smith, Steve; Smoot, Sara; Susca, Sara; Swann, Abigail; Young, Eliot F; Zambrano, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude, stratospheric lighter-than-air (LTA) airship that could maneuver and remain in a desired geographic position (i.e., "station-keeping") for weeks, months or even years. Our study found considerable scientific value in both low altitude ( 60 kft) airships across a wide spectrum of space, atmospheric, and Earth science programs. Over the course of the study period, we identified stratospheric tethered aerostats as a viable alternative to airships where station-keeping was valued over maneuverability. By opening up the sky and Earth's strato...

  19. Airships for transporting highly volatile commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstegaard, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large airships may prove feasible as carriers of commodities that move as gases or cryogenic liquids; buoyant gaseous cargo could be ballasted with liquid cargo. Airships are compact in shape, operate in a rarified medium, and hence can be fast and perhaps economic carriers of costly cryogenic tanks. The high-pressure gas pipeline has excessive surface area when carrying hydrogen and excessive fluid density when carrying natural gas, while the cryogenic ocean tanker runs in a dense medium and makes gravity waves. But the airship, despite its fluid dynamic advantages, faces problems of safety, weather, and altitude control.

  20. Solar-powered airship. Solar angetriebenes Luftschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W. (Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)); Rehmet, M.A. (Inst. fuer Statik und Dynamik der Luft- und Raumfahrtkonstruktionen, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany))

    1994-01-01

    Two solar-powered airships were designed and built within 20 months. The principal aim was to identify ecological alternatives within individual technological fields of air traffic and to demonstrate their feasibility. The project is directed at the design of an ultra-light-weight remote-controlled airship (length 16m) with a video camera for on-line transmission of images and flight data. A particular technological challenge is posed by the design of a light-weight flexible photovoltaic generator and its integration with the airship shell. (orig./BWI)

  1. The medical investigation of airship accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C J; McMeekin, R R; Ruehle, C J; Canik, J J

    1988-07-01

    A review of the autopsy reports for 18 of 21 victims in 3 of the 4 nonrigid Navy airship accidents during the period 1955 to 1966 revealed that the patterns of injury, complicated by postcrash entrapment, immersion, or fire, are similar to the injuries observed in the low-speed, low-altitude crashes of rigid airships and of light aircraft. With the renewed interest in the development of airships for military purposes, there is a need for improved design related to crashworthiness and to aircrew habitability, safety, restraint, and egress in order to enhance the chance for survival in the event of an accident. PMID:3171506

  2. Roles of airships in economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, G. J.; Hidalgo, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    It is proposed that airships of known and tested technology could, in some cases, perform routine transport missions more economically than conventional transport modes. If infrastructure for direct surface transport is already in place or if such infrastructure can be justified by the size of the market and there are no unusual impediments to constructing it, then the airships of tested technology cannot normally compete. If, however, the surface routes would be unusually expensive or circuitous, or if they involve several transhipments, or if the market size is too small to spread infrastructure costs of conventional transport, the airships of tested technology present a workable alternative. A series of special cases are considered. The cases, though unusual, are not unique; there are several similar possible applications which, in total, would provide a reasonably large market for airships.

  3. Trajectory tracking control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zewei; Huo, Wei; Wu, Zhe

    2012-10-01

    Stratospheric airship is a new kind of aerospace system which has attracted worldwide developing interests for its broad application prospects. Based on the trajectory linearization control (TLC) theory, a novel trajectory tracking control method for an underactuated stratospheric airship is presented in this paper. Firstly, the TLC theory is described sketchily, and the dynamic model of the stratospheric airship is introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. Then, the trajectory tracking control strategy is deduced in detail. The designed control system possesses a cascaded structure which consists of desired attitude calculation, position control loop and attitude control loop. Two sub-loops are designed for the position and attitude control loops, respectively, including the kinematics control loop and dynamics control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Finally, simulation results for the stratospheric airship to track typical trajectories are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Power source unit of a small airship

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilík, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal on a construction of a power supply module that is intended to be implemented in a small airship. Because the bearing capacity of the airship is limited, simple and efficient voltage converters must be employed. The paper provides a description of a proposal on mutual timing of these converters that leads to eliminating of the interferences caused by the currents that are drawn by the converters. The hereby described method allows the designers to use smaller c...

  5. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Sarah H.; Fesen, Robert; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E.; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G.; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Hoffman, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude...

  6. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Sarah H.; Fesen, Robert; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E.; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G.; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Hall, Jeffery L.; Hoffman, Scott E.

    2014-01-01

    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude, stratospheric li...

  7. On the Development of Parameterized Linear Analytical Longitudinal Airship Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Johnson, Joseph R.; Bayard, David S.; Elfes, Alberto; Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore Titan, a moon of Saturn, airships must be able to traverse the atmosphere autonomously. To achieve this, an accurate model and accurate control of the vehicle must be developed so that it is understood how the airship will react to specific sets of control inputs. This paper explains how longitudinal aircraft stability derivatives can be used with airship parameters to create a linear model of the airship solely by combining geometric and aerodynamic airship data. This method does not require system identification of the vehicle. All of the required data can be derived from computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. This alternate method of developing dynamic airship models will reduce time and cost. Results are compared to other stable airship dynamic models to validate the methods. Future work will address a lateral airship model using the same methods.

  8. Development of UTHM’s Airship Virtual Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azian Hariri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Airship virtual simulator was developed by programming the solution of the airship equations of motion to Matlab GUI. This paper shows a case study done by applying the physical data of a designed airship called ‘UTHM’s Airship’ in the airship equations of motion for development of airship virtual simulator. In this study, the approximate and calculated stability modes of the designed airship were compared for validation purposes. The virtual simulator operates by selecting the desired control angle of elevator, rudder or vectored thrust as input and the response outputs are shown in motion of pitch, yaw or roll angle through a moving airship figure in the simulator. At the end of this paper, the virtual simulator had successfully helped interprets the response of the designed airship into an interesting and easy to understand visualization.

  9. Modelling and Control of a Complex Buoyancy-Driven Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaotao,; Moog, Claude; Márquez-Martínez, Luis Alejandro; Hu, Yueming

    2010-01-01

    The general model for a new generation airship is introduced from the model of an elementary mechanical system which embodies the core of the problem to more complex. It is shown that the basic properties of a suitable two degree of freedom mechanical system are instrumental for the analysis and synthesis of advanced airships. It is shown that the control of the airship mechanical system yields suitable approximations for the control of the airship subject to aerodynamic forces.

  10. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  11. Study of ground handling characteristics of a maritime patrol airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Mooring concepts appropriate for maritime patrol airship (MPA) vehicles are investigated. The evolution of ground handling systems and procedures for all airship types is reviewed to ensure that appropriate consideration is given to past experiences. A tri-rotor maritime patrol airship is identified and described. Wind loads on a moored airship and the effects of these loads on vehicle design are analyzed. Several mooring concepts are assessed with respect to the airship design, wind loads, and mooring site considerations. Basing requirements and applicability of expeditionary mooring also are addressed.

  12. An X-prize for transport airships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstetler, R. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Prentice, B.E. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Transport Inst.

    2007-07-01

    Domestic air freight in the United States is expected to increase by at least 3 per cent every year for the next decade, while international demand will increase at twice that rate. As such, a new type of airship will be the most promising technological advance for the twenty-first century. Congestion in built up areas and demand for transport in remote areas has stimulated a resurgence of market interest in the potential value of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles for transport. Although most technical challenges have been addressed, the greatest challenge facing shippers is a lack of business confidence and policy directions to support investment in technology. Shippers are reluctant to commit the initial development funds needed to construct operational prototypes for testing. In 2004 and 2005, SAIC Canada conducted studies on airship technologies for the United States Army, and for use in the construction of oil and gas pipelines in remote regions. This paper presented a literature review of LTA technology as well as a brief market assessment. The criterion for an airship X-prize was then proposed as a challenge to stimulate the development of a transport airship capable of year round operations. It was concluded that transport airships offer a more benign system of transport that reduce greenhouse gases and provide a means of mitigating the damages done by existing transport services. 5 refs.

  13. Heated-Atmosphere Airship for the Titan Environment: Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. S.; Landis, G. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Colozza, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Future exploration of Saturn's moon Titan can be carried out by airships. Several lighter-than-atmosphere gas airships and passive drifting heated-atmosphere balloon designs have been studied, but a heated-atmosphere airship could combine the best characteristics of both. This work analyses the thermal design of such a heated-atmosphere vehicle, and compares the result with a lighter-than-atmosphere (hydrogen) airship design. A design tool was created to enable iteration through different design parameters of a heated-atmosphere airship (diameter, number of layers, and insulating gas pocket thicknesses) and evaluate the feasibility of the resulting airship. A baseline heated-atmosphere airship was designed to have a diameter of 6 m (outer diameter of 6.2 m), three-layers of material, and an insulating gas pocket thickness of 0.05 m between each layer. The heated-atmosphere airship has a mass of 161.9 kg. A similar mission making use of a hydrogen-filled airship would require a diameter of 4.3 m and a mass of about 200 kg. For a long-duration mission, the heated-atmosphere airship appears better suited. However, for a mission lifetime under 180 days, the less complex hydrogen airship would likely be a better option.

  14. INVESTIGATION OF AIRSHIP AEROELASTICITY USING FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-min; LU Chuan-jing; XUE Lei-ping

    2008-01-01

    Due to the flexibility of the envelope of large stratosphere airships, the aerodynamic solution of such airship is closely related to its shape and the external aerodynamic forces which lead to the structural deformation. It is essentially one of the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems. This article aims at the numerical investigation of nonlinear airship aeroelasticity in consideration of aerodynamics and structure coupling, using an iteration method. The three-dimensional flow around the airship was numerically studied by means of the SIMPLE method based on the finite volume method. Nonlinear finite element analysis was employed for geometrically nonlinear deformation of the airship shape. Comparison of aerodynamic parameters and the pressure distribution between rigid and aeroelastic models was conducted when an airship is in a trimmed flight state in specified flight conditions. The effect of aeroelasticity on the airship aerodynamics was detailed.

  15. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  16. Parametric study of modern airship productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.; Flaig, K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for estimating the specific productivity of both hybrid and fully buoyant airships is developed. Various methods of estimating structural weight of deltoid hybrids are discussed and a derived weight estimating relationship is presented. Specific productivity is used as a figure of merit in a parametric study of fully buoyant ellipsoidal and deltoid hybrid semi-buoyant vehicles. The sensitivity of results as a function of assumptions is also determined. No airship configurations were found to have superior specific productivity to transport airplanes.

  17. The balloon and the airship technological heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    The balloon and the airship are discussed with emphasis on the identification of commonalities and distinctions. The aerostat technology behind the shape and structure of the vehicles is reviewed, including a discussion of structural weight, internal pressure, buckling, and the development of a stable tethered balloon system. Proper materials for the envelope are considered, taking elongation and stress into account, and flight operation and future developments are reviewed. Airships and tethered balloons which are designed to carry high operating pressure with low gas loss characteristics are found to share similar problems in low speed flight operations, while possessing interchangeable technologies.

  18. The 20-20-20 Airship Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Diaz, Ernesto; Miller, Sarah; Rhodes, Jason

    2014-06-01

    A NASA Centennial Challenge; (http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/index.html) is in development to spur innovation in stratospheric airships as a science platform. We anticipate a million dollar class prize for the first organization to fly a powered airship that remains stationary at 20km (65,000 ft) altitude for over 20 hours with a 20kg payload. The design must be scalable to longer flights with more massive payloads.In NASA’s constrained budget environment, there are few opportunities for space missions in astronomy and Earth science, and these have very long lead times. We believe that airships (powered, maneuverable, lighter-than-air vehicles) could offer significant gains in observing time, sky and ground coverage, data downlink capability, and continuity of observations over existing suborbital options at competitive prices. We seek to spur private industry (or non-profit institutions, including FFRDCs and Universities) to demonstrate the capability for sustained airship flights as astronomy and Earth science platforms. This poster will introduce the challenge in development and provide details of who to contact for more information.

  19. Water Model Tests for Semirigid Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, L.B.

    1926-01-01

    The design of complicated structures often presents problems of extreme difficulty which are frequently insoluble. In many cases, however, the solution can be obtained by tests on suitable models. These model tests are becoming so important a part of the design of new engineering structures that their theory has become a necessary part of an engineer's knowledge. For balloons and airships water models are used. These are models about 1/30 the size of the airship hung upside down and filled with water under pressure. The theory shows that the stresses in such a model are the same as in the actual airship. In the design of the Army Semirigid Airship RS-1 no satisfactory way was found to calculate the stresses in the keel due to the changing shape of the bag. For this purpose a water model with a flexible keel was built and tested. This report gives the theory of the design, construction, and testing of such a water model.

  20. A critical review of propulsion concepts for modern airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Galina; Páscoa, José; Dumas, Antonio; Trancossi, Michele

    2012-06-01

    After a few decades in which airships have been depromoted to the level of being only considered as a mere curiosity they seem now to reappear. The main reasons for this are related to the recent progress in technology of materials, aerodynamics, energy and propulsion. Airships are also presenting themselves as green friendly air vehicles, in particular if solar powered airships are considered. Their ability to remain aloft for long time periods have also expanded the range of mission profiles for which they are suited. Herein we have concentrated on a critical overview of propulsion mechanisms for airships. These include a detailed overview of past, present, and future enabling technologies for airship propulsion. Diverse concepts are revisited and the link between the airship geometry and flight mechanics is made for diverse propulsion system mechanisms.

  1. Indoor Unmanned Airship System Airborne Control Module Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    YongXia, Gao; YiBo, Li

    By adopting STC12C5A60S2 SCM as a system control unit, assisted by appropriate software and hardware resources, we complete the airborne control module's design of unmanned airship system. This paper introduces hardware control module's structure, airship-driven composition and software realization. Verified by the China Science and Technology Museum special-shaped airship,this control module can work well.

  2. Modelling and Linear Control of a Buoyancy-Driven Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaotao,; Moog, Claude; Hu, Yueming

    2009-01-01

    We describe the modelling and control of a newkind airship which is propelled by buoyancy. Based on the Newton-Euler equations and Kirchhoff equations, and referred to the models of underwater gliders and aircraft, a 6DOF nonlinear mathematical model of a buoyancy-driven airship is derived, with features distributed internal mass, and no thrust, elevators and rudders. The attitudes are controlled by the motion of internal mass. The performances of the airship are studied in the vertical plane...

  3. Computation of the Added Masses of an Unconventional Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Naoufel Azouz; Said Chaabani; Jean Lerbet; Azgal Abichou

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling of an unmanned airship. We are studying a quadrotor flying wing. The modelling of this airship includes an aerodynamic study. A special focus is done on the computation of the added masses. Considering that the velocity potential of the air surrounding the airship obeys the Laplace's equation, the added masses matrix will be determined by means of the velocity potential flow theory. Typically, when the shape of the careen is quite different from that of an elli...

  4. The development of a mathematical model of a hybrid airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Ghaffar, Alia Farhana

    The mathematical model of a winged hybrid airship is developed for the analysis of its dynamic stability characteristics. A full nonlinear equation of motion that describes the dynamics of the hybrid airship is determined and for completeness, some of the components in the equations are estimated using the appropriate methods that has been established and used in the past. Adequate assumptions are made in order to apply any relevant computation and estimation methods. While this hybrid airship design is unique, its modeling and stability analysis were done according to the typical procedure of conventional airships and aircrafts. All computations pertaining to the hybrid airship's equation of motion are carried out and any issues related to the integration of the wing to the conventional airship design are discussed in this thesis. The design of the hybrid airship is also slightly modified to suit the demanding requirement of a complete and feasible mathematical model. Then, linearization is performed under a chosen trim condition, and eigenvalue analysis is carried out to determine the general dynamic stability characteristics of the winged hybrid airship. The result shows that the winged hybrid airship possesses dynamic instability in longitudinal pitch motion and lateral-directional slow roll motion. This is due to the strong coupling between the aerostatic lift from the buoyant gas and aerodynamic lift from the wing.

  5. Hydrostatic Tests of an Airship Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1922-01-01

    An airship model made by the Goodyear Rubber Company was filled with water and suspended from a beam. The deformations of the envelope were studied under the following conditions: 1) both ballonets empty; 2) forward ballonets filled with air; 3) rear ballonets filled with air; and 4) both ballonets filled with air. Photographs were taken to record the deflections under each of these conditions, and a study was made to determine the minimum head of water necessary to maintain the longitudinal axis of the envelope under these conditions. It was concluded that any pressure sufficient to keep the airship full may be used. It appears that a pressure of one inch of water would provide a suitable factor of safety, and therefore it is the pressure that is recommended.

  6. Nonlinear Control of a Buoyancy Driven Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaotao,; Moog, Claude; Marquez Martinez, L.

    2009-01-01

    The control of a new kind of airship is presented. By restricting its flight to a vertical plane, the athematical model is reduced. The simplified model is proved to be minimum phase, and a nonlinear controller based on inputoutput linearization is designed. Since the performance of the controller is significantly impacted by the choice of parameters, simulations of three different pole placement strategies are presented. The nonlinear controller shows better performances than a linear LQR co...

  7. Preliminary Design Study of a Hybrid Airship for Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using components from four small helicopters and an airship envelope as the basis for a quad-rotor research aircraft was studied. Preliminary investigations included a review of candidate hardware and various combinations of rotor craft/airship configurations. A selected vehicle was analyzed to assess its structural and performance characteristics.

  8. Design of a new tandem wings hybrid airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Ye, ZhengYin; Gao, Chao

    2012-10-01

    It is scientifically important science value and engineering promising to develop the buoyancy-lift integrated hybrid airship for high attitude platform. Through the numerical method, a new tandem wings hybrid airship with both higher utility value and economy efficiency was obtained and its total performance and technical parameters were analyzed in detail. In order to further improve the lift-drag characteristics, we implemented the optimization design for aerodynamic configuration of tandem wings hybrid airship via the response surface method. The results indicate that the tandem wings hybrid airship has considerable volume efficiency and higher aerodynamic characteristics. After optimization, the lift-drag ratio of this hybrid airship was increased by 6.08%. In a given gross lift condition, tandem wings hybrid airship may provide more payload and specific productivity. Furthermore, the size of tandem airship is smaller so the demand for skin flexible materials can be reduced. Results of this study could serve as a new approach to designing buoyancy-lifting integrated hybrid airship.

  9. Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony; Dolce, James (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines the feasibility of this concept. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind speeds and payload are considered in establishing the capabilities of a given size airship. East and West coast operation were evaluated. The key aspect to success of this type of airship is the design and operation of the propulsion and power system. A preliminary propulsion/power system design was produced based on a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system and solar photovoltaic array for energy production. A modular system design was chosen with four independent power/propulsion units utilized by the airship. Results on payload capacity and flight envelope (latitude and time of year) were produced for a range of airship sizes.

  10. The 20-20-20 Airships NASA Centennial Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Diaz, Ernesto; Rhodes, Jason; Ortega, Sam; Eberly, Eric

    2015-08-01

    A 2013 Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) study examined airships as a possible platform for Earth and space science. Airships, lighter than air, powered, maneuverable vehicles, could offer significant gains in observing time, sky and ground coverage, data downlink capability, and continuity of observations over existing suborbital options at competitive prices. The KISS study recommended three courses of action to spur the development and use of airships as a science platform. One of those recommendations was that a prize competition be developed to demonstrate a stratospheric airship. Consequently, we have been developing a NASA Centennial Challenge; (www.nasa.gov/challenges) to spur innovation in stratospheric airships as a science platform. We anticipate a multi-million dollar class prize for the first organization to fly a powered airship that remains stationary at 20km (65,000 ft) altitude for over 20 hours with a 20kg payload. The design must be scalable to longer flights with more massive payloads. A second prize tier, for a 20km flight lasting 200 hours with a 200kg payload would incentivize a further step toward a scientifically compelling and viable new platform. This technology would also have broad commercial applications including communications, asset tracking, and surveillance. Via the 20-20-20 Centennial Challenge, we are seeking to spur private industry (or non-profit institutions, including Universities) to demonstrate the capability for sustained airship flights as astronomy and Earth science platforms.

  11. The naval airship and the revolution at sea

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby, James Richard

    1990-01-01

    A system is proposed to combine an airship based fire control system (using-off-the-shelf hardware) with surface ship launched SAMs (NTUSM-2-ER) to provide OTH wide area ASCM defense for convoys and surface battle groups currently without organic airborne AAW assets. The effectiveness of surface ship AAW area defense is compared, both with and without the airship system, against low-flying ASCMs. The proposed airship system is based on combining the F-14 fire control system (AWG-9) with extra...

  12. GPS Based Autonomous Flight Control System for an Unmanned Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu G Nair,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmanned airship, also known as a Unmanned aircraft System (UAS or a remotely piloted aircraft is a machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator or pilot. The unmanned airship uses the autonomous flight, navigation and guidance based on the telemetry command of ground station. The Autonomous Flight Control System (AFCS [1] plays a key role in achieving the given requirements and missions. This paper introduces the overall design architecture of the hardware and software of the flight control systems in a 50m long unmanned airship

  13. DYNAMIC MODELING FOR AIRSHIP EQUIPPED WITH BALLONETS AND BALLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  14. Global path following control for underactuated stratospheric airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zewei; Wu, Zhe

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops a nonlinear path following control method that drives an underactuated stratospheric airship onto a predefined planar path with a given speed profile. The dynamic model of the airship used for controller design is first introduced with kinematics and dynamics equations. In order to render good pilot behavior for the control action, a guidance controller by referring to the guidance-based path following principle is derived. Then the controller is extended to cope with the airship attitude and velocity by resorting to the backstepping and Lyapunov-based techniques. The designed control system finally possesses a cascaded structure which consists of guidance loop, attitude control loop and velocity control loop. Stability analysis shows that the controlled closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable, and the sway velocity which cannot be directly controlled is bounded. Simulation results for the airship following typical paths are illustrated to verify effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Modeling and analysis of floating performances of stratospheric semi-rigid airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Fang, Xiande; Dai, Qiuming; Zhou, Zhanru

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, the study of semi-rigid airship has revived with the development of airships. Semi-rigid airships have some characteristics of rigid airships and non-rigid airships. Due to the flexibility of the envelope of the non-rigid airship, the variation of the temperature of the inner gas will lead to its structure deformation and affect its flight altitude. This paper develops the structural mechanics model, thermodynamic model and dynamic model of the semi-rigid airship, based on which nonlinear finite element analysis is employed for geometrically nonlinear deformation of the airship upper film in consideration of thermodynamics and structural mechanics coupling. Based on the thermal-structural interaction, the thermal characteristics and flight performances of the airship during floating flight are investigated. The 3-D solar radiation and temperature distribution of the airship skin and the temperature variation of the inner gas are presented to investigate the thermal performance of the airship, flight velocity, acceleration and flight altitude are simulated to investigate the flight performance, and the variations of the volume and pressure difference of the inner gas are calculated to provide a basis for structure design. The results of the simulation can be referenced for the design of the semi-rigid airship, and can be used for the further study on the attitude control of the airship during its floating flight.

  16. GPS Based Autonomous Flight Control System for an Unmanned Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnu G Nair,; Dileep M V

    2014-01-01

    An unmanned airship, also known as a Unmanned aircraft System (UAS) or a remotely piloted aircraft is a machine which functions either by the remote control of a navigator or pilot. The unmanned airship uses the autonomous flight, navigation and guidance based on the telemetry command of ground station. The Autonomous Flight Control System (AFCS) [1] plays a key role in achieving the given requirements and missions. This paper introduces the overall design architecture of the ...

  17. Initial training of cranes for an airship migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Olsen, G.H.; Kwitowski, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the first year of our efforts to train cranes to accept the unnatural stimuli associated with being transported south in cages suspended beneath an airship. All 4 experimental cranes readily acclimated to entering a suspended cage and were trained to accept being jostled while in the cage, even when the cage was transported in the back of a pickup truck. With minor changes, the training protocol is ready for use in an actual airship migration.

  18. Unmanned airships for near earth remote sensing missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstetler, R.D. [Research Adventures,Inc., Kensington, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In recent years the study of Earth processes has increased significantly. Conventional aircraft have been employed to a large extent in gathering much of this information. However, with this expansion of research has come the need to investigate and measure phenomena that occur beyond the performance capabilities of conventional aircraft. Where long dwell times or observations at very low attitudes are required there are few platforms that can operate safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively. One type of aircraft that meets all three parameters is the unmanned, autonomously operated airship. The UAV airship is smaller than manned airships but has similar performance characteristics. It`s low speed stability permits high resolution observations and provides a low vibration environment for motion sensitive instruments. Maximum airspeed is usually 30mph to 35mph and endurance can be as high as 36 hours. With scientific payload capacities of 100 kilos and more, the UAV airship offers a unique opportunity for carrying significant instrument loads for protracted periods at the air/surface interface. The US Army has operated UAV airships for several years conducting border surveillance and monitoring, environmental surveys, and detection and mapping of unexploded ordinance. The technical details of UAV airships, their performance, and the potential of such platforms for more advanced research roles will be presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Coordinated Control of Pressure Difference and Rising Velocity for Stratospheric Airship with Thermal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Luhe Hong; Hui-Yu Jin; Xianwu Lin; Weiyao Lan

    2015-01-01

    Ascending control of stratospheric airship is a challenging control problem, especially if both the rising velocity and the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the airship are required to be controlled simultaneously during ascending. In this paper, a coordinated scheme to control pressure difference and rising velocity of stratospheric airship with vector thrust is presented. With the control scheme, the airship maintains the pressure difference by exhausting air ...

  20. An investigation into the flight dynamics of airships with application to the YEZ-2A

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, S. B. V.

    1990-01-01

    In order to construct a flight dynamics computer simulation model of airship flight with a high degree of fidelity in the aerodynamic modelling, extensive wind tunnel testing was carried out. This was aimed at, first developing some specific airship wind tunnel testing techniques and then to obtain aerodynamic data for the YEZ-2A project airship being designed and built by Airship Industries for the US Navy. The wind tunnel testing techniques so developed insured a good matching between wind ...

  1. Report on the 2011 and 2012 NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) / Alaska State Cargo Airship Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstettler, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the Cargo Airships for Northern Operations workshop that was held August 24-25, 2011. This workshop co-sponsored by NASA ARC and the Alaska State Department of Transportation was initiated by interest from Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell for assistance in investigating the potential benefits of proposed cargo airships for the Alaskan economy and societal needs. The workshop provided a brief background on the technology and operational aspects of conventional airships and hybrids followed by presentations on issues affecting cargo airship operations such as weather management, insurance, regulations, crew duty/rest rules, and available support infrastructures. Speakers representing potential cargo airship users from Alaskan State and commercial organizations presented the needs they felt could be met by cargo airship services. Presenters from Canadian private and military interests also detailed applications and missions that cargo airships could provide to remote regions of Canada. Cost drivers of cargo airship operations were also addressed and tools for modeling and analyzing operational factors and costs affecting cargo airship operations were discussed. Four breakout sessions were held which allowed workshop participants to contribute inputs to four topic areas: Business Approaches and Strategies (financing incentives public/private partnerships etc) for Airship Development and Operation, Design, Development, Production Challenges, and Possible Solutions, Regulatory, Certification, Legal, and Insurance Issues, and Operational Issues, Customer Requirements, and Airship Requirements. A follow on to the 2011 cargo airship workshop is being planned for July 31 August 2, 2012. A status update on this second workshop will also be presented.

  2. An approach for shape optimization of stratosphere airships based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan-bao WANG; Jian CHEN; Gong-yi FU; Deng-ping DUAN

    2009-01-01

    Airship shape is crucial to the design of stratosphere airships. In this paper, multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) technology is introduced into the design of airship shape. We devise a composite objective function, based on this technology, which takes account of various factors which influence airship performance, including aerodynamics, structures, energy and weight to determine the optimal airship shape. A shape generation algorithm is proposed and appropriate mathematical models are constructed. Simulation results show that the optimized shape gives an improvement in the value of the composite objective function compared with a reference shape.

  3. A hybrid pi control scheme for airship hovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airship provides us many attractive applications in aerospace industry including transportation of heavy payloads, tourism, emergency management, communication, hover and vision based applications. Hovering control of airship has many utilizations in different engineering fields. However, it is a difficult problem to sustain the hover condition maintaining controllability. So far, different solutions have been proposed in literature but most of them are difficult in analysis and implementation. In this paper, we have presented a simple and efficient scheme to design a multi input multi output hybrid PI control scheme for airship. It can maintain stability of the plant by rejecting disturbance inputs to ensure robustness. A control scheme based on feedback theory is proposed that uses principles of optimality with integral action for hovering applications. Simulations are carried out in MTALAB for examining the proposed control scheme for hovering in different wind conditions. Comparison of the technique with an existing scheme is performed, describing the effectiveness of control scheme. (author)

  4. Soft Computing Control System of an Unmanned Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wei Kitt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft computing control system have been applied in various applications particularly in the fields of robotics controls. The advantage of having a soft computing controls methods is that it enable more flexibility to the control system compared with conventional model based controls system. Firstly, soft computing methods enable a transfer of human controls and thinking into the machine via training. Secondly it is more robust to error compared to conventional model based system. In this paper, a UAV airship is controlled using fuzzy logic for its propulsion and steering system. The airship is tested on a simulation level before test flight. The prototype airship has on board GPS and compass for telemetry and transmitted to the ground control system via a wireless link.

  5. Ascent trajectory optimization for stratospheric airship with thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao; Zhu, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Ascent trajectory optimization with thermal effects is addressed for a stratospheric airship. Basic thermal characteristics of the stratospheric airship are introduced. Besides, the airship’s equations of motion are constructed by including the factors about aerodynamic force, added mass and wind profiles which are developed based on horizontal-wind model. For both minimum-time and minimum-energy flights during ascent, the trajectory optimization problem is described with the path and terminal constraints in different scenarios and then, is converted into a parameter optimization problem by a direct collocation method. Sparse Nonlinear OPTimizer(SNOPT) is employed as a nonlinear programming solver and two scenarios are adopted. The solutions obtained illustrate that the trajectories are greatly affected by the thermal behaviors which prolong the daytime minimum-time flights of about 20.8% compared with that of nighttime in scenario 1 and of about 10.5% in scenario 2. And there is the same trend for minimum-energy flights. For the energy consumption of minimum-time flights, 6% decrease is abstained in scenario 1 and 5% decrease in scenario 2. However, a few energy consumption reduction is achieved for minimum-energy flights. Solar radiation is the principal component and the natural wind also affects the thermal behaviors of stratospheric airship during ascent. The relationship between take-off time and performance of airship during ascent is discussed. it is found that the take-off time at dusk is best choice for stratospheric airship. And in addition, for saving energy, airship prefers to fly downwind.

  6. Airships, hoverbarges offer remote mine transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-12-15

    For mine transportation in Ontario's swampy James Bay Lowlands, there are two innovative solutions which are greener and less disruptive to fragile natural habitats. The first solution is to use the HAV366 airship whose payload is 50 tons. A 200-tonne version could take until 2017 to be available. The top speed of an HAV366 is 130 kilometers per hour. It operates on a point to point basis and requires no airport, runway or any special infrastructure at either end. So it is potentially excellent transportation solution for, the Canadian Arctic or wherever transportation infrastructure does not exist. Yet another transportation solution is the hoverbarge, which is designed to travel over ice, snow and flat swampy terrain via a cushion of air. The payload of a hoverbarge can be up to 2,500 tons. One of the advantages of a hoverbarge is that it can take a shorter, direct route to a project site and isn't restricted to a specific route dictated by the topographical requirements of ice road construction.

  7. Computation of the Added Masses of an Unconventional Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoufel Azouz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modelling of an unmanned airship. We are studying a quadrotor flying wing. The modelling of this airship includes an aerodynamic study. A special focus is done on the computation of the added masses. Considering that the velocity potential of the air surrounding the airship obeys the Laplace's equation, the added masses matrix will be determined by means of the velocity potential flow theory. Typically, when the shape of the careen is quite different from that of an ellipsoid, designers in preprocessing prefer to avoid complications arising from mathematical analysis of the velocity potential. They use either complete numerical studies, or geometric approximation methods, although these methods can give relatively large differences compared to experimental measurements performed on the airship at the time of its completion. We tried to develop here as far as possible the mathematical analysis of the velocity potential flow of this unconventional shape using certain assumptions. The shape of the careen is assumed to be an elliptic cone. To retrieve the velocity potential shapes, we use the spheroconal coordinates. This leads to the Lamé's equations. The whole system of equations governing the interaction air-structure, including the boundary conditions, is solved in an analytical setting.

  8. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Raspopov; Sokolov, S. N.; Demina, I. M.; Pellinen, R.; Petrova, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin – Leningrad – Arkhangelsk – Franz Josef Land – Severnaya Zemlya – the Taimyr Peninsula ...

  9. Experimental investigation of transient thermal behavior of an airship under different solar radiation and airflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Fu; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of the thermal behavior of airships is crucial to the development of airship technology. An experiment apparatus is constructed to investigate the thermal response characteristics of airships, and the transient temperature distributions of both hull and inner gas are obtained under the irradiation of a solar simulator and various airflow conditions. In the course of the research, the transient temperature change of the experimental airship is measured for four airflow speeds of 0 m/s (natural convection), 3.26 m/s, 5.5 m/s and 7.0 m/s, and two incident solar radiation values of 842.4 W/m2 and 972.0 W/m2. The results show that solar irradiation has significant influence on the airship hull and inner gas temperatures even if the airship stays in a ground airflow environment where the heat transfer is dominated by radiation and convection. The airflow around the airship is conducive to reduce the hull temperature and temperature nonuniformity. Transient thermal response of airships rapidly varies with time under solar radiation conditions and the hull temperature remains approximately constant in ˜5-10 min. Finally, a transient thermal model of airship is developed and the model is validated through comparison with the experimental data.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of manual and automatic control deflection vector airship to take off stage

    OpenAIRE

    В.П. Гусинін; Гусинін, А.В.; О.М. Тачиніна

    2008-01-01

     In paper, results of the comparative effectiveness evaluation of the manual and automatic thrust vector control of airship in the class of «Zeppelin NT» at the takeoff are shown. The gust influences on the airship characteristics and the process of airship takeoff with one out of service engine are considered.

  11. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  12. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    OpenAIRE

    Yaxi Chen; Peiqing Liu; Zhihao Tang; Hao Guo

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP), dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs) and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the...

  13. Numerical Investigations of Turbulent Flow Past a Generic Airship

    OpenAIRE

    El Omari, Kamal; Schall, Eric; Koobus, Bruno; Dervieux, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent separated flows around an airship-like geometry (a prolate spheroid 6:1) are investigated using three turbulence modelings based on statistical and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approaches. The turbulence models used in the simulations are a standard high Reynolds $k$-$\\varepsilon$ model, a Smagorinsky LES model and a variational multiscale LES one. The flow of interest is characterized by a relatively low Mach number ($Mach =0.15$), an angle of attack set to $20^\\circ$ and a Reynolds...

  14. Numerical study of forced convective heat transfer around airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qiumin; Fang, Xiande

    2016-02-01

    Forced convective heat transfer is an important factor that affects the thermal characteristics of airships. In this paper, the steady state forced convective heat transfer around an ellipsoid is numerically investigated. The numerical simulation is carried out by commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software over the extended Re range from 20 to 108 and the aspect ratio from 2 to 4. Based on the regression and optimization with software, a new piecewise correlation of the Nusselt number at constant wall temperature for ellipsoid is proposed, which is suitable for applications to airships and other ellipse shaped bodies such as elliptical balloons. The thermal characteristics of a stratospheric airship in midsummer located in the north hemisphere are numerical studied. The helium temperature predicated using the new correlation is compared to those predicted by correlations applicable for spheres and flat plates. The results show that the helium temperature obtained using the new correlation at noon is about 5.4 K lower than that using the correlation of spheres and about 2.1 K higher than that of flat plates.

  15. 78 FR 38091 - Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model LMZ1M Airship AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

  16. Station-keeping control for a stratospheric airship platform via fuzzy adaptive backstepping approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yueneng; Wu, Jie; Zheng, Wei

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for station-keeping control of a stratospheric airship platform in the presence of parametric uncertainty and external disturbance. First, conceptual design of the stratospheric airship platform is introduced, including the target mission, configuration, energy sources, propeller and payload. Second, the dynamics model of the airship platform is presented, and the mathematical model of its horizontal motion is derived. Third, a fuzzy adaptive backstepping control approach is proposed to develop the station-keeping control system for the simplified horizontal motion. The backstepping controller is designed assuming that the airship model is accurately known, and a fuzzy adaptive algorithm is used to approximate the uncertainty of the airship model. The stability of the closed-loop control system is proven via the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control approach.

  17. Big, buoyant and back in business[Airships make a comeback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.

    2001-01-06

    This article focuses on airships and reports on the SkyCat hybrid air vehicle which is a small test part-aeroplane part-hovercraft airship developed by the Advanced Technologies Group; the German Cargo Lifter company which is looking to the heavy lifting market; and Zeppelin which wants to revive the passenger market. The history of the airship is traced covering the Zeppelin's Hindenburg disaster, and the comeback of giant airships with the use of the helium-filled Mineseeker in Kosova. Details are given of the design of the SkyCat with its envelope of strong composite fabrics, its use of the air cushion system for landing and take-off, the anticipated development of bigger models, and the potential use of airships for moving heavy cargo.

  18. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Atmospheric and Surface Exploration of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) powered airship for the near surface exploration of Titan was evaluated. The analysis did not consider the complete mission only the operation of the airship within the atmosphere of Titan. The baseline airship utilized two ASRG systems with a total of four general-purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. Hydrogen gas was used to provide lift. The ASRG systems, airship electronics and controls and the science payload were contained in a payload enclosure. This enclosure was separated into two sections, one for the ASRG systems and the other for the electronics and payload. Each section operated at atmospheric pressure but at different temperatures. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the surface of Titan based on the available power from the ASRGs. The atmospheric conditions on Titan were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Titan surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the flight altitude and payload mass and volume.

  19. Design and Analysis of Optimal Ascent Trajectories for Stratospheric Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph Bernard

    Stratospheric airships are lighter-than-air vehicles that have the potential to provide a long-duration airborne presence at altitudes of 18-22 km. Designed to operate on solar power in the calm portion of the lower stratosphere and above all regulated air traffic and cloud cover, these vehicles represent an emerging platform that resides between conventional aircraft and satellites. A particular challenge for airship operation is the planning of ascent trajectories, as the slow moving vehicle must traverse the high wind region of the jet stream. Due to large changes in wind speed and direction across altitude and the susceptibility of airship motion to wind, the trajectory must be carefully planned, preferably optimized, in order to ensure that the desired station be reached within acceptable performance bounds of flight time and energy consumption. This thesis develops optimal ascent trajectories for stratospheric airships, examines the structure and sensitivity of these solutions, and presents a strategy for onboard guidance. Optimal ascent trajectories are developed that utilize wind energy to achieve minimum-time and minimum-energy flights. The airship is represented by a three-dimensional point mass model, and the equations of motion include aerodynamic lift and drag, vectored thrust, added mass effects, and accelerations due to mass flow rate, wind rates, and Earth rotation. A representative wind profile is developed based on historical meteorological data and measurements. Trajectory optimization is performed by first defining an optimal control problem with both terminal and path constraints, then using direct transcription to develop an approximate nonlinear parameter optimization problem of finite dimension. Optimal ascent trajectories are determined using SNOPT for a variety of upwind, downwind, and crosswind launch locations. Results of extensive optimization solutions illustrate definitive patterns in the ascent path for minimum time flights across

  20. Stabilization and trajectory tracking of autonomous airship's planar motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan; Qu Weidong; Xi Yugeng; Cai Zili

    2008-01-01

    The stabilization and trajectory tracking problems of autonomous airship's planar motion are studied.By denning novel configuration error and velocity error,the dynamics of error systems are derived.By applying Lyapunov stability method,the state feedback control laws are designed and the close-loop error systems are proved to be uniformly asymptotically stable by Matrosov theorem.In particular,the controller does not need knowledge on system parameters in the case of set-point stabilization,which makes the controller robust with respect to parameter uncertainty.Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the controller designed.

  1. Stability and control of VTOL capable airships in hovering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.; Sumantran, V.

    1985-01-01

    The stability and control characteristics of an airship equipped with lifting rotors to provide a modest VTOL capability are discussed. The rotors are used for control and maneuvering in near-hovering flight. Configurations with two, three, and four lifting rotors are examined and compared with respect to control capabilities and dynamic response characteristics. Linearized models of the dynamics are employed for this study. A new approach to the prediction of rotor derivatives for operation near zero thrust in hover is presented. It is found that all three configurations have similar control and response characteristics. The responses are characterized by long time constants and low levels of angular damping.

  2. The stability and control characteristics of the neutrally bouyant non-rigid airship

    OpenAIRE

    Goineau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The response to controls of a neutrally buoyant non-rigid airship was investigated for a range of speeds from the hover to 30 m/s using a non-linear simulation model. The responses shown include both flight path and a range of motion variables. The latter show the influence of the stability modes on control. The controls included in the airship model comprise equivalent elevator, equivalent rudder, thrust magnitude and thrust vector direction. A linearised state model of the airship was o...

  3. Global Trade of Perishables in the 21st Century: The Case for Giant Airships

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Barry E.; Beilock, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    The 12 second flight of the world’s first heavier-than-air powered vehicle in 1904 heralded the birth of a new transport mode. In the days, months, and years following that event, it must have been evident that airplanes had a future, but not its shape and extent. The first propeller driven airship was flown 50 years earlier than the Wright Brothers airplane in 1852i. A century and a half later, we may be about to witness the birth, or rebirth, of airships as a transport mode. For airships, i...

  4. Strain transfer of surface-bonded fiber Bragg grating sensors for airship envelope structural health monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao ZHAO; Quan-bao WANG; Ye QIU; Ji-an CHEN; Yue-ying WANG; Zhen-min FAN

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with an improved bonding approach ofsurface-bonded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for airship envelope structural health monitoring (SHM) under the strain transfer theory.A theoretical formula is derived from the proposed model to predict the strain transfer relationship between the airship envelope and fiber core.Then theoretical predictions are validated by numerical analysis using the finite element method (FEM).Finally,on the basis of the theoretical approach and numerical validation,parameters that influence the strain transfer rate from the airship envelope to fiber core and the ratio of effective sensing length are analyzed,and some meaningful conclusions are provided.

  5. Structural Performance Evaluation Procedure for Large Flexible Airship of HALE Stratospheric Platform Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wu-jun; XIAO Wei-wei; Bernd Kr(o)plin; Andreas Kunze

    2007-01-01

    Basic loads applied on the airship envelope were analyzed. The resultant forces, the static bending moment and the dynamic bending moment were formulated. Based on classic linear elastic membrane theory, the procedures to calculate the minimum pressure were proposed for sufficient rigidity evaluation. The limit load capacity was further investigated, and the related formula were developed. Finally, the stress and internal forces analysis was carried out for cylindrical and non-cylindrical approximations of envelope hull of airship. The present research is very valuable to the overall preliminary design of airship and further research.

  6. Robust H∞directional control for a sampled-data autonomous airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曰英; 王全保; 周平方; 段登平

    2014-01-01

    A robust H∞ directional controller for a sampled-data autonomous airship with polytopic parameter uncertainties was proposed. By input delay approach, the linearized airship model was transformed into a continuous-time system with time-varying delay. Sufficient conditions were then established based on the constructed Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which guarantee that the system is mean-square exponentially stable with H∞performance. The desired controller can be obtained by solving the obtained conditions. Simulation results show that guaranteed minimum H∞ performance γ=1.4037 and fast response of attitude for sampled-data autonomous airship are achieved in spite of the existence of parameter uncertainties.

  7. LOW ALTITUDE AIRSHIPS FOR SEAMLESS MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN AIR TRAVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Aviation Administration policy prohibits the use of mobile phones in Aircraft during transition for the reason it may harm their communication system due to Electromagnetic interference. In case the user wants to access cellular network at higher altitudes, base station access is a problem. Large number of channels are allocated to a single user moving at high speed by various Base Stations in the vicinity to service the request requiring more resources. Low Altitude Platforms (LAPs are provided in the form of Base stations in the Airships with antennas projected upwards which has direct link with the Ground Station. LAPs using LongEndurance Multi-Intelligence Vehicle (LEMVs equipped with an engine for mobility and stable positioning against rough winds are utilized. This paper proposes a system that allows the passengers to use their mobiles in Aircraft using LAPs as an intermediate system between Aircraft and Ground station. As the Aircraft is dynamic, it has to change its link frequently with the Airships, MANETs using AODV protocol is established in the prototype using NS2 to provide the service and the results are encouraging

  8. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 2: Parametric analysis (task 3). [lift, weight (mass)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of lighter-than-air vehicles from fully buoyant to semibuoyant hybrids were examined. Geometries were optimized for gross lifting capabilities for ellipsoidal airships, modified delta planform lifting bodies, and a short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle concept. It is indicated that: (1) neutrally buoyant airships employing a conservative update of materials and propulsion technology provide significant improvements in productivity; (2) propulsive lift for VTOL and aerodynamic lift for cruise significantly improve the productivity of low to medium gross weight ellipsoidal airships; and (3) the short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle, consisting of a simple combination of an ellipsoidal airship hull and existing helicopter componentry, provides significant potential for low-cost, near-term applications for ultra-heavy lift missions.

  9. A heat transient model for the thermal behavior prediction of stratospheric airships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas temperature of a stratospheric airship plays an important role in its flight dynamics. A multi-nodes heat transient model is proposed and evaluated by the theoretical solutions of the adiabatic processes and the high altitude flight test data. A thermodynamic analysis code for stratospheric airships (TACSA) is developed to investigate the ascent subcooling induced by the thermodynamic expansion and the descent superheating induced by the thermodynamic compression. The simulation results show that the airship volume, vertical speed and the solar radiation have evident influence on the ascent subcooling descent superheating effects. - Highlights: • A multi-nodes heat transient model for stratospheric airships is proposed. • The thermal behaviors of the ascent and descent processes are predicted. • The volume, vertical speed and solar radiation have significant influence

  10. Study of a zero-emission airship transport system based on the geostrophic flight concept

    OpenAIRE

    Betorz Martínez, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to study the feasibility of a sustainable and non-contaminant recreational airship flight by using accurate weather forecasting data and an electric propulsion system powered by solar cells.

  11. Posthumous Numerical Study of DTV Broadcast Antenna Integration with Prototype Stratospheric Airship Gondola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Derek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a follow-on to the 2002 digital television (DTV broadcast demonstration from a solar-powered stratospheric flying wing, a prototype stratospheric airship was used for a more realistic DTV broadcast demonstration in 2004, albeit at a lower altitude. The DTV signal was occasionally lost at the receiver directly below the airship during the demonstration. Adverse antenna-vehicle integration effects were investigated using a commercially available antenna simulation software, because the radiation pattern of the antenna on the airship could not be measured directly. The ground handling bars on the airship gondola were found to introduce deep and sharp nulls into the radiation pattern of the broadcast antenna. Some mitigation techniques that would have fitted within the constraints of the time are discussed. Changing to nonconductive ground handling bars and a multiturn helical antenna would have avoided the problem, according to the simulation results.

  12. Development of the educational Arduino module using the helium gas airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Ho; Kim, Won-Hoe; Seo, Suk-Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Various educational Arduino modules with its simplicity have been developed since Arduino's release into the market. In this study, the helium gas airship was employed to make an Arduino module by applying Arduino Mini, Bluetooth and Android applications.

  13. Posthumous Numerical Study of DTV Broadcast Antenna Integration with Prototype Stratospheric Airship Gondola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Miura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As a follow-on to the 2002 digital television (DTV broadcast demonstration from a solar-powered stratospheric flying wing, a prototype stratospheric airship was used for a more realistic DTV broadcast demonstration in 2004, albeit at a lower altitude. The DTV signal was occasionally lost at the receiver directly below the airship during the demonstration. Adverse antenna-vehicle integration effects were investigated using a commercially available antenna simulation software, because the radiation pattern of the antenna on the airship could not be measured directly. The ground handling bars on the airship gondola were found to introduce deep and sharp nulls into the radiation pattern of the broadcast antenna. Some mitigation techniques that would have fitted within the constraints of the time are discussed. Changing to nonconductive ground handling bars and a multiturn helical antenna would have avoided the problem, according to the simulation results.

  14. Ultra-heavy vertical lift system: The Heli-Stat. [helicopter - airship combination for materials handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, F. N.

    1975-01-01

    A hybrid VTOL airship which is combined with helicopters is evaluated. The static lift of the airship supports approximately the full empty weight of the entire assembly. The helicopter rotors furnish the lift to support the payload as well as the propulsion and control about all axes. Thus existing helicopters, with no new technology required, can be made to lift payloads of ten times the capacity of each one alone, and considerably more than that of any airship built so far. A vehicle is described which has a 75-ton payload, based on four existing CH-53D helicopters and an airship of 3,600,000 cu. ft. The method of interconnection is described along with discussion of control, instrumentation, drive system and critical design conditions. The vertical lift and positioning capabilities of this vehicle far exceed any other means available today, yet can be built with a minimum of risk, development cost and time.

  15. Thermal Characteristics of Multilayer Insulation Materials for Flexible Thin-Film Solar Cell Array of Stratospheric Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen Sun; Qinzhen Yang; Yang Yang; Shun Wang; Jianming Xu; Qiang Liu; Yong Xie; Peng Lou

    2014-01-01

    Flexible thin-film solar cell is an efficient energy system on the surface of stratospheric airship for utilizing the solar energy. In order to ensure the normal operation of airship platform, the thermal control problem between the flexible thin-film solar cell and the airship envelope should be properly resolved. In this paper, a multilayer insulation material (MLI) is developed first, and low temperature environment test is carried out to verify the insulation effect of MLI. Then, a therma...

  16. Airships 101: Rediscovering the Potential of Lighter-Than-Air (LTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E.; Hochstetler, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of airships past, present, and future is provided in a Powerpoint-formatted presentation. This presentation was requested for transfer to the British MOD by Paul Espinosa of NASA Ames, Code PX. The presentation provides general information about airships divided into four main categories: the legacy of NASA Ames in LTA (Lighter-Than-Air), LTA taxonomy and theory, LTA revival and missions, and LTA research and technology.

  17. A comparison of turbulence models in airship steady-state CFD simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshin, Vitaly; Chen, Yong K.; Calay, Rajnish K.

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy and resource consumption of the four different turbulence models based on the eddy viscosity assumption, namely, $k-\\varepsilon$, two $k-\\omega$ and Spallart-Allmaram models, in modeling airships are investigated. The test airship shape is a conventional shape. Three different angles of attack are considered. The results are checked against the wind tunnel experimental data. The resource consumption study is based on the benchmark of 1500 iterations. Based on all data obtained it...

  18. Guidance, Navigation and Control of Unmanned Airships under Time-Varying Wind for Extended Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassan Atmeh; Kamesh Subbarao

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the control of lighter-than-air vehicles, more specifically the design of an integrated guidance, navigation and control (GNC) scheme that is capable of navigating an airship through a series of constant-altitude, planar waypoints. Two guidance schemes are introduced, a track-specific guidance law and a proportional navigation guidance law, that provide the required signals to the corresponding controllers based on the airship position relative to a target waypoint. A no...

  19. A Brief Study on Airship Using Aerospace, Electronic and Communication Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abdul Sami; N.Alekhya Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an outpour of revived interest in the use of high altitude airships for a number of applications. Present day developments in materials, propulsion, solar panels,Wireless Communication and energy storage systems and the need for a more eco-oriented approach to flight are increasing the curiosity in airships, as the series of new projects deployed in recent years show; moreover, the exploitation of the always mounting simulation capabilities in CAD/CAE, CFD a...

  20. Posthumous Numerical Study of DTV Broadcast Antenna Integration with Prototype Stratospheric Airship Gondola

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu Miura; Mikio Suzuki; Mamoru Nagatsuka; Derek Gray

    2008-01-01

    Abstract As a follow-on to the 2002 digital television (DTV) broadcast demonstration from a solar-powered stratospheric flying wing, a prototype stratospheric airship was used for a more realistic DTV broadcast demonstration in 2004, albeit at a lower altitude. The DTV signal was occasionally lost at the receiver directly below the airship during the demonstration. Adverse antenna-vehicle integration effects were investigated using a commercially available antenna simulation software, because...

  1. COUPLING COMPUTATION OF THE FLOW FIELD AND THE LARGE DEFORMATION OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE OF STRATOSPHERE AIRSHIPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-min

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the mathematical model of the coupling of the three-dimensional fluid flow and the large deformation of membrane structure is established. The fluid-structure coupling interaction is simulated using the computational codes developed by the authors. By analyzing the interactions of membrane and flow field, the aeroelasticity of the airship is detailed. All the results are adopted in the focused study of the stratosphere airship in trimmed state.

  2. Research on Structural Safety of the Stratospheric Airship Based on Multi-Physics Coupling Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Z.; Hou, Z.; Zang, X.

    2015-09-01

    As a large-scale flexible inflatable structure by a huge inner lifting gas volume of several hundred thousand cubic meters, the stratospheric airship's thermal characteristic of inner gas plays an important role in its structural performance. During the floating flight, the day-night variation of the combined thermal condition leads to the fluctuation of the flow field inside the airship, which will remarkably affect the pressure acted on the skin and the structural safety of the stratospheric airship. According to the multi-physics coupling mechanism mentioned above, a numerical procedure of structural safety analysis of stratospheric airships is developed and the thermal model, CFD model, finite element code and criterion of structural strength are integrated. Based on the computation models, the distributions of the deformations and stresses of the skin are calculated with the variation of day-night time. The effects of loads conditions and structural configurations on the structural safety of stratospheric airships in the floating condition are evaluated. The numerical results can be referenced for the structural design of stratospheric airships.

  3. A Brief Study on Airship Using Aerospace, Electronic and Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Abdul Sami

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an outpour of revived interest in the use of high altitude airships for a number of applications. Present day developments in materials, propulsion, solar panels,Wireless Communication and energy storage systems and the need for a more eco-oriented approach to flight are increasing the curiosity in airships, as the series of new projects deployed in recent years show; moreover, the exploitation of the always mounting simulation capabilities in CAD/CAE, CFD and FEA provided by modern computers allow an accurate design useful to optimize and reduce the development time of these vehicles. The purpose of this contribution is to examine the different aspects of airship development with a review of current modeling techniques for airship dynamics and aerodynamics along with conceptual design and optimization techniques, structural design and manufacturing technologies , wireless and energy system technologies .A brief history of airships is presented followed by an analysis of conventional and unconventional airships including current projects and conceptual designs

  4. Airship back on earth. The launch of the modern zeppelin; Luchtschip weer terug op aarde. Lancering moderne zeppelin loopt vertraging op

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, B. [ed.

    2000-12-13

    Several factors that hinder the revival of airships (zeppelin) are discussed. In particular, attention is paid to the developments at two Dutch companies: Rigid Airship Design (RAD) in Lelystad, Netherlands, and Heros Airship Design in Velp, Netherlands, and a German company: Cargolifter in Wiesbaden, Germany. 5 refs.

  5. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Technology for High-Altitude Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon

    2011-01-01

    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various application potential and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology for HAA maneuverability and mission-oriented applications must come from its surroundings, e.g. solar power. The energy harvesting system considered for HAA is based on the advanced thermoelectric (ATE) materials being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The materials selected for ATE are silicon germanium (SiGe) and bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), in multiple layers. The layered structure of the advanced TE materials is specifically engineered to provide maximum efficiency for the corresponding range of operational temperatures. For three layers of the advanced TE materials that operate at high, medium, and low temperatures, correspondingly in a tandem mode, the cascaded efficiency is estimated to be greater than 60 percent.

  6. Control response measurements of the Skyship-500 airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, H. R.; Hogue, J. R.; Gelhausen, P.

    1985-01-01

    An examination is conducted of the Skyship 500's dynamic response to control inputs from elevators, rudders, and throttles at zero, 25, and 40 kts indicated airspeed. Input frequency sweeps were made with pitch and turn controls at 25 and 40 kts, ranging in frequency from about 0.03 to 1.5 Hz. FFT data analysis was then applied to compute describing functions for each run. Frequency responses are noted to be very smooth, and comparisons between repeat runs indicate excellent agreement. Summary plots of the faired describing functions from each run form the core of the data presented. These data constitute a comprehensive and reliable data base on which to predicate future dynamic simulation mathematical models of small airship dynamic response.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Testing of Mooring Masts for Remotely Controlled Indoor and Outdoor Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleelullah, Syed; Bhardwaj, Utsav; Pant, Rajkumar Sureshchandra

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design and structural details of two mooring masts, one for remotely controlled outdoor airships and another one for remotely controlled indoor airships. In a previous study, a mast for outdoor remotely controlled airship was designed to meet several user-specified operating requirements, and a simplified version of the same was fabricated. A spring loaded device was incorporated that sounds an alarm when the wind-loads exceed a threshold value, so that the airship can be taken indoors. The present study started with a critical analysis of that mast, and a new mast was designed and fabricated to remove several of its shortcomings. This mast consists of power screw operated telescopic module made of aluminium, mounted on a five legged base with castor wheels, for ease in mobility. Components of the existing mast were used to the possible extent, and the design was simplified to meet the assembly and transportation requirements. The spring mechanism used in alarming device was also modified to ensure higher sensitivity in the range of maximum expected wind-loads acting on the airship. A lightweight mooring mast for indoor remotely controlled airships was also designed and fabricated, which can accommodate non-rigid indoor airships of length up to 5 m. The mast consists of an elevating bolt operated telescopic module mounted on a tripod adapter base, with lockable castor wheels, and has a specially designed mooring-clamp at the top. The various modules and components of the mast were designed to enable quick assembly and transportation.

  8. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Low Altitude Operation on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a Stirling engine powered airship for the near surface exploration of Venus was evaluated. The heat source for the Stirling engine was limited to 10 general purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. The baseline airship utilized hydrogen as the lifting gas and the electronics and payload were enclosed in a cooled insulated pressure vessel to maintain the internal temperature at 320 K and 1 Bar pressure. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the Venus surface based on the available thermal power. The atmospheric conditions on Venus were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Venus surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the internal temperature of the payload chamber and the flight altitude. In addition other lifting methods were evaluated such as an evacuated chamber, heated atmospheric gas and augmented heated lifting gas. However none of these methods proved viable.

  9. Deformation Evaluation Due to Poisson's Ratio Variation of Coated Fabric for Airship Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To target to evaluate the deformation due to only Poisson’s ratio variation of coated fabric for airship envelop, series biaxial extension tests were carried out for a particular envelop Uretek3216 and the mechanical property parameters were calculated accordingly from the plain composite theory. On the basis of elastic engineering theory, three typical cases of tension ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:1~1:2 were proposed for evaluation on Poisson’s ratio variation, which is cruciform specimen, inflatable fabric beam and streamline airship. Parametric analysis was carried out for each case through numerical simulation. And the geometry dimension effect was also investigated with scaled model. The significant deformation variation of airship is found from only Poisson’s ratio variation, Poisson ratio variation is necessary to be considered for accurate deformation predication of large flexible airship. The presented work is valuable to numerical analysis and engineering design for non-rigid airship structures.

  10. Prediction of thermal behavior and trajectory of stratospheric airships during ascent based on simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xixiang

    2016-06-01

    For designers, operators and users, the ability to accurately predict thermal behavior and trajectory of stratospheric airships is very important. Thermal models and dynamic models of stratospheric airships during ascent are developed, including solar radiation, infrared radiation, convection heat transfer and gas expulsion equation. Based on the model, performance parameters of a stratospheric airship during ascent are obtained, including film temperature, helium gas temperature, air temperature, pressure differential, altitude and ascent velocity, changing regulation for these parameters are discussed, and influence of initial helium gas volume and film radiation properties on thermal behavior is analyzed. Simulation results show that, (1) stratospheric airships experience supercooling during ascent, the maximum value is about 30 K, supercooling causes loss of net buoyancy, and affects ascent velocity and trajectory in the end, (2) stratospheric airships experience superheating at the floating altitude, and the maximum value is about 51 K, (3) initial volume ratio of helium gas and the solar radiation absorptivity of film have important effect on thermal behavior and trajectory during ascent, the larger the initial volume ratio is, the faster the ascent velocity will be, and the bigger the solar radiation absorptivity of film is, the smaller the temperature differential between helium gas and outside atmosphere will be.

  11. Fish-like propulsion of an airship with planar membrane dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of our project is to mimic fish-like movement in air, propelling an airship by undulating its hull and a caudal fin. The activation of the fish-like body in air is realized by dielectric elastomers. These actuators are quite unique for their soft light-weight membrane structure and they are therefore very appropriate to the application on inflated structures. The principles of biomimetics for the structural design and movement are discussed and the conception and design of the airship is described. Various development tests, including wind tunnel testing and flight trials, were performed and the results obtained are presented. It can be shown that an 8 m model airship can be propelled in a fish-like manner in air and that the propulsion can be drastically improved by undulating the body as well as the caudal fin contrary to propulsion with only the caudal fin.

  12. Gain-scheduling model predictive control for unmanned airship with LPV system description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Cui,Li Chen,; Dengping Duan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a gain-scheduling model predictive control (MPC) for linear parameter varying (LPV) systems subject to actuator saturation. The proposed gain-scheduling MPC algo-rithm is then applied to the lateral control of unmanned airship. The unmanned airship is modeled by an LPV-type system and transformed into a polytopic uncertain description with actuator saturation. By introducing a parameter-dependent state feedback law, the set invariance condition of the polytopic uncertain sys-tem is identified. Based on the invariant set, the gain-scheduling MPC control er is presented by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization problem. The proposed gain-scheduling MPC algorithm is demonstrated by simulating on the unmanned airship system.

  13. Fish-like propulsion of an airship with planar membrane dielectric elastomer actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, C; Michel, S; Fink, E

    2010-06-01

    The goal of our project is to mimic fish-like movement in air, propelling an airship by undulating its hull and a caudal fin. The activation of the fish-like body in air is realized by dielectric elastomers. These actuators are quite unique for their soft light-weight membrane structure and they are therefore very appropriate to the application on inflated structures. The principles of biomimetics for the structural design and movement are discussed and the conception and design of the airship is described. Various development tests, including wind tunnel testing and flight trials, were performed and the results obtained are presented. It can be shown that an 8 m model airship can be propelled in a fish-like manner in air and that the propulsion can be drastically improved by undulating the body as well as the caudal fin contrary to propulsion with only the caudal fin. PMID:20498517

  14. Fish-like propulsion of an airship with planar membrane dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordi, C; Michel, S [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research, Ueberlandstr. 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Fink, E, E-mail: christa.jordi@empa.c [TU Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The goal of our project is to mimic fish-like movement in air, propelling an airship by undulating its hull and a caudal fin. The activation of the fish-like body in air is realized by dielectric elastomers. These actuators are quite unique for their soft light-weight membrane structure and they are therefore very appropriate to the application on inflated structures. The principles of biomimetics for the structural design and movement are discussed and the conception and design of the airship is described. Various development tests, including wind tunnel testing and flight trials, were performed and the results obtained are presented. It can be shown that an 8 m model airship can be propelled in a fish-like manner in air and that the propulsion can be drastically improved by undulating the body as well as the caudal fin contrary to propulsion with only the caudal fin.

  15. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping

  16. Flight testing the Titanic: re-visiting the loss of His Majesty's Airship R101

    OpenAIRE

    Gratton, G

    2014-01-01

    His Majesty’s Airship R101 was a British airship built between 1926 and 1929; requiring a crew of 48 of whom an absolute minimum of 15 were required to be on duty at any time, and at 866ft with a gas capacity over 5 million cubic feet long it remains the third largest aircraft ever flown –3.6 times the length of an A380. R101 also incorporated many points of new and under-development technology, including recovery of water ballast, semi-rigid construction, steel framework, wire cage gasbag re...

  17. Design of robust stability augmentation system for an airship using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Jin; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design of stability augmentation system (SAS) for the airship, which is robust with respect to parametric plant uncertainties. A robust pole placement approach is adopted in the design,which uses genetic algorithm (GA) as the optimization tool to derive the most robust solution of the state-feedback gain matrix K. The method can guarantee the resulting closed-loop poles to remain in a specified allocation region despite plant parameter uncertainty. Thus, the longitudinal stability of the airship is augmented by robustly assigning the closed-loop poles in a prescribed region of the left half s-plane.

  18. A comparison of turbulence models in airship steady-state CFD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly; Calay, Rajnish K

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy and resource consumption of the four different turbulence models based on the eddy viscosity assumption, namely, $k-\\varepsilon$, two $k-\\omega$ and Spallart-Allmaram models, in modeling airships are investigated. The test airship shape is a conventional shape. Three different angles of attack are considered. The results are checked against the wind tunnel experimental data. The resource consumption study is based on the benchmark of 1500 iterations. Based on all data obtained it is evident that Spallart-Allmaras model is the most optimal one in the majority of cases.

  19. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-03-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping.

  20. Modeling and Simulation Tools for Heavy Lift Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Ron; Chachad, Girish; Hardy, Gordon; Blanken, Matthew; Melton, John

    2016-01-01

    For conventional fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft a variety of modeling and simulation tools have been developed to provide designers the means to thoroughly investigate proposed designs and operational concepts. However, lighter-than-air (LTA) airships, hybrid air vehicles, and aerostats have some important aspects that are different from heavier-than-air (HTA) vehicles. In order to account for these differences, modifications are required to the standard design tools to fully characterize the LTA vehicle design and performance parameters.. To address these LTA design and operational factors, LTA development organizations have created unique proprietary modeling tools, often at their own expense. An expansion of this limited LTA tool set could be accomplished by leveraging existing modeling and simulation capabilities available in the National laboratories and public research centers. Development of an expanded set of publicly available LTA modeling and simulation tools for LTA developers would mitigate the reliance on proprietary LTA design tools in use today. A set of well researched, open source, high fidelity LTA design modeling and simulation tools would advance LTA vehicle development and also provide the analytical basis for accurate LTA operational cost assessments. This paper will present the modeling and analysis tool capabilities required for LTA vehicle design, analysis of operations, and full life-cycle support. A survey of the tools currently available will be assessed to identify the gaps between their capabilities and the LTA industry's needs. Options for development of new modeling and analysis capabilities to supplement contemporary tools will also be presented.

  1. Solar regenerative fuel cell system for high altitude airships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text': A closed-loop regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system that serves as an energy storage device for space activities is studied through dynamic simulations. The unique nature of the closed-loop RFC makes it an ideal power system for key applications in homeland defense and earth observatory systems such as high altitude aircrafts /airships, unmanned aerial vehicles, and in planetary exploration for flyer or for surface power. The RFC considered using the photovoltaic cells to produce electric power during the day, part of which is used to produce hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. The stored hydrogen and oxygen is used through a fuel cell to produce electric power during night hours. A MATLAB/SIMULINK model was developed for the components of the RFC that include a fuel cell, electrolyzer, photovoltaic solar array, power bus, humidifiers, compressor/motor assembly, expander, pumps, phase separators, storage tanks for hydrogen, oxygen and water, control valves and piping, electric grid system and controls. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and PEM electrolyzer were modeled in detail that included the mass momentum, energy, chemical reaction rates at cathode and anode. The PEM fuel cell voltage was modeled accounting cell activation and ohmic polarizations. A modular approach was used to develop models for each component. Component models were based on fundamental physics to the extent practical. Steady state and dynamic response of the RFC for different operational conditions including start-up, shut down, load changes and (accidental) transients was studied. (author)

  2. Lighter than Air Robots Guidance and Control of Autonomous Airships

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina

    2012-01-01

    An aerial robot is a system capable of sustained flight with no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. A lighter than air robot is an aerial robot that relies on the static lift to balance its own weight. It can also be defined as a lighter than air unmanned aerial vehicle or an unmanned airship with sufficient autonomy. Lighter than air systems are particularly appealing since the energy to keep them airborne is small. They are increasingly considered for various tasks such as monitoring, surveillance, advertising, freight carrier, transportation. This book familiarizes readers with a hierarchical decoupled planning and control strategy that has been proven efficient through research. It is made up of a hierarchy of modules with well defined functions operating at a variety of rates, linked together from top to bottom. The outer loop, closed periodically, consists of a discrete search that produces a set of waypoints leading to the goal while avoiding obstacles and weighed regions. The sec...

  3. Autonomous Airship Equipped by Multi-Sensor Mapping Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, J.; Koska, B.; Pospíšil, J.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the project is to create measuring system with specific properties suitable for effective mapping of medium-wide areas (units to tens of square kilometers). The system should be useful especially for ranges that are too large for conventional surveying with GNSS or total station and too small for use of manned air vehicles from economical and accuracy point of view. Accessories of the system will allow e.g. collecting data for urban area modeling, creating thermometric georeferenced maps, mapping of dangerous or inaccessible areas (damps, open-pit mines). For this reason the platform is equipped with laser scanner, VIS camera (one for vertical capturing or more for slope capturing), thermo camera and INS/GPS as an exterior orientation (pose) determination unit. Especially in task of urban modeling the airship, as carrier, have legislative advantages due to prepared restriction for UAV. The resulting absolute accuracy of the developed system should be better than 10 cm (position standard deviation) and the random component is less than 5 cm. This accuracy is lower than for conventional measurements, but significantly higher than the scanning system carried by piloted aircraft. In terms of properties (accuracy, speed of data collection) our system is close to the terrestrial mobile scanning systems, which has disadvantage in the lack of availability in hard to reach locations.

  4. Human fatigue and the crash of the airship Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Bendrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The airship Italia, commanded by General Umberto Nobile, crashed during its return flight from the North Pole in 1928. The cause of the accident was never satisfactorily explained. We present evidence that the crash may have been fatigue-related. Nobile's memoirs indicate that at the time of the crash he had been awake for at least 72 h. Sleep deprivation impairs multiple aspects of cognitive functioning necessary for exploration missions. Just prior to the crash, Nobile made three command errors, all of which are of types associated with inadequate sleep. First, he ordered a release of lift gas when he should have restarted engines (an example of incorrect data synthesis, with deterioration of divergent thinking; second, he inappropriately ordered the ship above the cloud layer (a deficiency in the assessment of relative risks; and third, he remained above the cloud layer for a prolonged period of time (examples of attention to secondary problems, and calculation problems. We argue that as a result of these three errors, which would not be expected from such an experienced commander, there was no longer enough static lift to maintain level flight when the ship went below the cloud layer. Applying Circadian Performance Simulation Software to the sleep–wake patterns described by Nobile in his memoirs, we found that the predicted performance for someone awake as long as he had been is extremely low. This supports the historical evidence that human fatigue contributed to the crash of the Italia.

  5. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Jelenciak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a dynamics viewpoint. The principle of this method is based on applying Newton's mechanics, which are then combined with a specific form of the finite element method to cover additional effects. The main advantage of the PEM is that it is not necessary to carry out measurements in a wind tunnel for the identification of the model’s parameters. The plausible dynamical behaviour of the model can be achieved by specific correction parameters, which can be determined on the basis of experimental data obtained during the flight of the aircraft. In this article, we present the PEM as applied to an airship as well as a comparison of the data calculated by the PEM and experimental flight data.

  6. Mutant selection from Monascus purpureus by aerospace flight in recoverable airship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monascus purpureus was carried into aerospace by the return airship 'Shenzhou No. 3'. After flight, the strain was rejuvenized, segregated and selected. 8 strains with high productivity of lovastatin and Selenium tolerance were obtained. A series of tests showed that the acquired character of the mutants is stable

  7. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on a quadrotor heavy lift airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The response of a quadrotor heavy lift airship to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated using a four-point input model. Results show interaction between gust inputs and the characteristic modes of the vehicle's response. Example loop closures demonstrate tradeoffs between response regulation and structural loads. Vehicle responses to a tuned discrete wave front compare favorably with the linear results and illustrate characteristic HLA motion.

  8. Installation mechanism of solar cells for an airship. Hikosen'yo taiyo denchi sochaku kiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, K. (Tokyo (Japan)); Tanaka, K. (Yokohama (Japan))

    1994-06-10

    This invention aims to present an installation mechanism to equip solar cell units on the envelope of the hull of an airship and the mechanism follows easily expansion and contraction of the envelope material of the hull of the airship and is detachable. This invention presents the installation mechanism of solar cells for an airship, in which a suitable number of supporting connectors are installed on a front part, a back part and both sides of number of elastic supports fixed to each solar cell unit, lead connectors are equipped on the leads of the solar cell units, a solar cell extensible module is formed by mutual connection of the elastic supports and the leads via the supporting connectors and lead connectors in a detachable way, and the solar cell extensible modules are installed on the envelope of the hull of the airship so that the solar cell extensible modules cover the envelope without direct fixation of the elastic support to the envelope. 7 figs.

  9. Private and Commercial Pilot: Ligher-Than-Air Airship. Flight Test Guide. (Part 61 Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    The flight test guide assists the applicant and his instructor in preparing for the flight test for the Private or Commercial Pilot Certificate with a Lighter-Than-Air Category and Airship Class Rating under Part 61 (revised) of Federal Aviation Regulations. It contains information and guidance concerning pilot operations, procedures, and…

  10. Optimization design of the stratospheric airship's power system based on the methodology of orthogonal experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIU; Quan-bao WANG; Hai-tao ZHAO; Ji-an CHEN; Ye QIU; Deng-ping DUAN

    2013-01-01

    The optimization design of the power system is essential for stratospheric airships with paradoxical requirements of high reliability and low weight.The methodology of orthogonal experiment is presented to deal with the problem of the optimization design of the airship's power system.Mathematical models of the solar array,regenerative fuel cell,and power management subsystem (PMS) are presented.The basic theory of the method of orthogonal experiment is discussed,and the selection of factors and levels of the experiment and the choice of the evaluation function are also revealed.The proposed methodology is validated in the optimization design of the power system of the ZhiYuan-2 stratospheric airship.Results show that the optimal configuration is easily obtained through this methodology.Furthermore,the optimal configuration and three sub-optimal configurations are in the Pareto frontier of the design space.Sensitivity analyses for the weight and reliability of the airship's power system are presented.

  11. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA. Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible.

  12. Cooperative scheduling of imaging observation tasks for high-altitude airships based on propagation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA). Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA) is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA) to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible. PMID:23365522

  13. Airship Sparse Array Antenna Radar Real Aperture Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing and Sparsity in Transform Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Li Liechen; Li Daojing; Huang Pingping

    2016-01-01

    A conformal sparse array based on combined Barker code is designed for airship platform. The performance of the designed array such as signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed. Using the hovering characteristics of the airship, interferometry operation can be applied on the real aperture imaging results of two pulses, which can eliminate the random backscatter phase and make the image sparse in the transform domain. Building the relationship between echo and transform coefficients, the Compressed Se...

  14. Membrane Material-Based Rigid Solar Array Design and Thermal Simulation for Stratospheric Airships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve effective utilization of rigid solar array used in stratospheric airships here, the flexible connection design and light laminated design were introduced to rigid solar array. Based on the analysis of the design scheme, firstly, the equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity was calculated by the theoretical formula. Subsequently, the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell module were accurately modeled and simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Compared to the results of test samples, the solar cell module described here guaranteed effective output as well as good heat insulating ability, effectively improving the feasibility of the stratospheric airship design. In addition, the simulation model can effectively simulate the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell, which, therefore, provides technical support for the engineering application.

  15. Guidance, Navigation and Control of Unmanned Airships under Time-Varying Wind for Extended Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Atmeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of lighter-than-air vehicles, more specifically the design of an integrated guidance, navigation and control (GNC scheme that is capable of navigating an airship through a series of constant-altitude, planar waypoints. Two guidance schemes are introduced, a track-specific guidance law and a proportional navigation guidance law, that provide the required signals to the corresponding controllers based on the airship position relative to a target waypoint. A novel implementation of the extended Kalman filter, namely the scheduled extended Kalman filter, estimates the required states and wind speed to enhance the performance of the track-specific guidance law in the presence of time-varying wind. The performance of the GNC system is tested using a high fidelity nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variety of flying conditions. Representative results illustrate the performance of the integrated system for chosen flight conditions.

  16. Revival of the airship. An outlook for the possibilities to re-introduce the airship for passengers and cargo transport in the Netherlands; Revival van het luchtschip. Een verkenning naar de mogelijkheden van een herinvoering van het luchtschip voor passagiers en vrachtvervoer in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, P.M.; Tensen, D.K.; Sleurink, M.; Van Timmeren, A. [Peeters Advies, Haarlem (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    The main question in the detailed title study is whether airships can be an alternative for high-speed trains and the short-distance air traffic or will the use be restricted to niche markets. The study is subdivided into three parts: (1) technical characteristics of airships, based on a literature study, interviews with experts in the field, and a calculation scheme to gain insight into the relation between different parameters that determine the characteristics of airships; (2) the spatial fitting in of airships: everything that is necessary to land and to start the airship, also based on a literature study, interviews with experts in the field and a desk study; an (3) the market for airships for transport of passengers or cargo. 49 refs.

  17. Aeroelastic Coupling Between a Low Mach Inviscid Flow and a Flexible Generic Airship

    OpenAIRE

    El Omari, Kamal; Schall, Eric; Koobus, Bruno; Dervieux, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In the context of an airship development programme, inviscid flow behavior and its coupling with structure flexibility are investigated. For this purpose, we have chosen a nonlinear analysis tool relying on the unsteady Euler model for the flow part and the classical elastodynamic equations for the structure. The numerical model for the flow is based on a Mixed Element Volume discretization derived in an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian framework in order to cope with the structural deformations...

  18. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Aiwu Zhang; Shaoxing Hu; Xiangang Meng; Lingbo Yang; Hanlun Li

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA) without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single ...

  19. Competing Technologies and Economic Opportunities for Northern Logistics: The Airship Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Barry E.; Russell, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Northern Canada is constrained by the cost of transportation and logistics. The limited transportation options available increase the direct costs of shipping and add to the indirect costs of inventories. Concerns about climate change impacts, delays in environmental approvals and uncertainty regarding First Nations land claims further increase investment risk. As a result, the transportation solution offered by airships is gathering increased interest in northern Can...

  20. Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) mission capability

    OpenAIRE

    Agpaoa, Roy; Cawley, Matthew; Cossey, Chad; Galvan, Jose; Giang, Alan; Hanchinamani, Joseph; Ikeda, Jeffrey; Kenney, John; Magnusson, Lance; Martinez, Christopher; Newberry, Mike; Raymond, Eldridge; Rykala, John; Watts, Jason; Wood, Micheal

    2008-01-01

    The Hybrid Airship Multi-Role (HAMR) Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Mission Module project applies established systems engineering principles and processes to the design of an ASW payload module that examines the capability of the HAMR to perform persistent ASW mission support. Critical system functions and objectives are identified and are assigned appropriate quantitative metrics. Additionally, three alternative architectures are generated and evaluated using the appropriate metrics based...

  1. Membrane Material-Based Rigid Solar Array Design and Thermal Simulation for Stratospheric Airships

    OpenAIRE

    Kangwen Sun; Ming Zhu; Qiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve effective utilization of rigid solar array used in stratospheric airships here, the flexible connection design and light laminated design were introduced to rigid solar array. Based on the analysis of the design scheme, firstly, the equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity was calculated by the theoretical formula. Subsequently, the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell module were accurately modeled and simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynami...

  2. 某常规飞艇与混合式飞艇总体设计和性能分析%Overall Design and Performance Analysis of a Conventional Airship and a Hybrid Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙飞; 黄龙太; 姜琬

    2012-01-01

    为了对常规单囊体飞艇和混合式飞艇各自的性能特点有更清晰的认识,分别设计了某常规飞艇和混合式飞艇的总体方案,建立了两类飞艇的分析模型,并从气动特性、浮升特性、重量特性、续航特性方面对二者的综合性能进行了比较和分析。研究表明:在体积相同的情况下,虽然混合式飞艇在阻力特性方面不如单囊体飞艇,但由于混合式飞艇动升力较大,并可以借助动升力来平衡燃油的消耗,且有效载荷大、载油量大、可操纵性好,更有利于长航时飞行。研究结果可为我国开展长航时和大载重飞艇研制提供一定的设计参考。%To make the performances of conventional ellipsoidal airship and hybrid airship more clear, firstly, the overall design of a conventional airship and a hybrid airship are accomplished respectively, then the analytical models of the two kinds of airships are established, both comprehensive performances of aerodynamics, lift, weight, duration and maneuverability are compared and analyzed. It is found that drag of hybrid airship is not as good as conventional ellipsoidal airship in the case of same volume, but hybrid airship's dynamic lift is large, and can compensate the oil consumption. Furthermore, the characteristics of heavy payload, large oil-loaded, fine maneuverability of the hybrid airship are fit for the long endurance flight. The study results can be of certain references to the development of heavy-load airship.

  3. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  4. Yaw controller design of stratospheric airship based on phase plane method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jinggang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stratospheric airships prefer to employ a vectored tail rotor or differential main propellers for the yaw control, rather than the control surfaces like common low-altitude airship. The load capacity of vectored mechanism and propellers are always limited by the weight and strength, which bring challenges for the attitude controller. In this paper, the yaw channel of airship dynamics is firstly rewritten as a simplified two-order dynamics equation and the dynamic characteristics is analyzed with a phase plane method. Analysis shows that when ignoring damping, the yaw control channel is available to the minimum principle of Pontryagin for optimal control, which can obtain a Bang–Bang controller. But under this controller, the control output could be bouncing around the theoretical switch curve due to the presence of disturbance and damping, which makes adverse effects for the servo structure. Considering the structure requirements of actuators, a phase plane method controller is employed, with a dead zone surrounded by several phase switch curve. Thus, the controller outputs are limited to finite values. Finally, through the numerical simulation and actual flight experiment, the method is proved to be effective.

  5. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Sokolov, S. N.; Demina, I. M.; Pellinen, R.; Petrova, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin - Leningrad - Arkhangelsk - Franz Josef Land - Severnaya Zemlya - the Taimyr Peninsula - Novaya Zemlya - Arkhangelsk - Berlin. One of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published. Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic, showing new methods in such surveys.

  6. Yaw controller design of stratospheric airship based on phase plane method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Jinggang; Zhou Jianghua; Nie Ying; Yang Xin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stratospheric airships prefer to employ a vectored tail rotor or differential main propellers for the yaw control, rather than the control surfaces like common low-altitude airship. The load capacity of vectored mechanism and propellers are always limited by the weight and strength, which bring challenges for the attitude controller. In this paper, the yaw channel of airship dynamics is firstly rewritten as a simplified two-order dynamics equation and the dynamic charac-teristics is analyzed with a phase plane method. Analysis shows that when ignoring damping, the yaw control channel is available to the minimum principle of Pontryagin for optimal control, which can obtain a Bang–Bang controller. But under this controller, the control output could be bouncing around the theoretical switch curve due to the presence of disturbance and damping, which makes adverse effects for the servo structure. Considering the structure requirements of actuators, a phase plane method controller is employed, with a dead zone surrounded by several phase switch curve. Thus, the controller outputs are limited to finite values. Finally, through the numerical simulation and actual flight experiment, the method is proved to be effective.

  7. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Raspopov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin – Leningrad – Arkhangelsk – Franz Josef Land – Severnaya Zemlya – the Taimyr Peninsula – Novaya Zemlya – Arkhangelsk – Berlin. One of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published. Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic, showing new methods in such surveys.

  8. 常规飞艇与组合式飞艇升阻特性研究%Research on Lift-Drag Characteristics of ConventionalAirship and Hybrid Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 薛松海; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    对常规飞艇和日益受到重视的组合式飞艇升阻特性进行了研究,总结了飞艇升阻特性的主要影响参数及一般规律,为飞艇早期布局形式确定提供了依据。以某飞翼式飞艇为例,与常规飞艇的升阻特性进行了对比分析,得到了两种飞艇升阻特性的特点和高升阻比区域。该分析方法也适用于其它组合式飞艇。%The lift‐drag characteristics of the conventional airship and hybrid airship that are taken in‐creasingly seriously are studied in this paper ,the main influencing parameter and the general laws of lift‐drag characteristics are summarized ,and basis for confirmation of the layout form is provided for the air‐ship design during the early stage .With a flying wing type airship as an example ,it is compared with the lift‐drag characteristics of conventional airship to obtain the lift‐drag characteristics and high lift‐drag ratio region .The analysis method is also applicable to other hybrid airships .

  9. Research on Lift-Drag Characteristics of ConventionalAirship and Hybrid Airship%常规飞艇与组合式飞艇升阻特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 薛松海; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    对常规飞艇和日益受到重视的组合式飞艇升阻特性进行了研究,总结了飞艇升阻特性的主要影响参数及一般规律,为飞艇早期布局形式确定提供了依据。以某飞翼式飞艇为例,与常规飞艇的升阻特性进行了对比分析,得到了两种飞艇升阻特性的特点和高升阻比区域。该分析方法也适用于其它组合式飞艇。%The lift‐drag characteristics of the conventional airship and hybrid airship that are taken in‐creasingly seriously are studied in this paper ,the main influencing parameter and the general laws of lift‐drag characteristics are summarized ,and basis for confirmation of the layout form is provided for the air‐ship design during the early stage .With a flying wing type airship as an example ,it is compared with the lift‐drag characteristics of conventional airship to obtain the lift‐drag characteristics and high lift‐drag ratio region .The analysis method is also applicable to other hybrid airships .

  10. Discussion on Transformable Near Space Airship Technology%临近空间变体飞艇技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖益军

    2013-01-01

    介绍临近空间飞艇国外发展现状,分析变体飞艇系统重量轻、飞行升限高、环境适应性和持续驻空能力强的独特优势,论述临近空间飞艇的高效变体模式,阐述临近空间变体飞艇的关键技术,如飞艇变体控制技术、飞艇飞行控制技术,为临近空间飞艇后续研究提供参考。%This paper introduces the state of the development of near-space airship ,analyzes the advantages of anamorphic airship ,such as light weight ,high ceiling ,atmospheric feasibility and long endurance ,dem-onstrates the high-efficiency transformation mode for near-space airship ,and expounds the key techniques in detail ,such as transformation control technique and airship flight control technique so as to offer refer-ences for the follow-up study of transformable near space airship .

  11. Method for simulation of the nonlinear aerodynamics of airship configurations; Verfahren zur Simulation der nichtlinearen Aerodynamik von Luftschiffkonfigurationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, A.

    2007-07-01

    Air flow around airship configurations is highly complex and is governed by 3D aerodynamic effects. Detailed knowledge of this nonlinear aerodynamics is important especially in airship design. The author describes the relevant physical effects governing flow and shows how they are taken account of in the method of calculation he presents. A panel boundary layer method is described in detail which calculates frictionless external flow in a 3D panel method coupled with a 3D integral method for laminar or turbulent boundary layers. The method calculates the tensor of the virtual mass of any given airship takes account of desplacement by the boundary layer, and simulates the effects of propellers. The modelling of free vortex layers in the context of potential theory is described in detail, and the results are discussed. A new panel with two-dimensional vortex distribution is derived. (orig.)

  12. Effect of buoyancy and power design parameters on hybrid airship performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, P. D.; Gelhausen, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of several design parameters on the performance of hybrid airships having rotors and propellers were examined with a simple mathematical model. The parameters included buoyancy ratio, Froude number, ratio of rotor power to total power, and rotor shaft tilt. Performance variations resulting from changes in these parameters were calculated, and are presented and discussed. Performance quantities included best climb rate, equivalent vehicle L/D, and maximum speed. Performance at all speeds between hover and maximum speed was found to be sensitive to power distribution between rotors and propellers, and to rotor shaft tilt.

  13. High altitude airship configuration and power technology and method for operation of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A new High Altitude Airship (HAA) capable of various extended applications and mission scenarios utilizing inventive onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology comprises an advanced thermoelectric (ATE) thermal energy conversion system. The high efficiency of multiple stages of ATE materials in a tandem mode, each suited for best performance within a particular temperature range, permits the ATE system to generate a high quantity of harvested energy for the extended mission scenarios. When the figure of merit 5 is considered, the cascaded efficiency of the three-stage ATE system approaches an efficiency greater than 60 percent.

  14. Deformation Evaluation Due to Poisson's Ratio Variation of Coated Fabric for Airship Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Yufeng Chen; Wujun Chen

    2014-01-01

    To target to evaluate the deformation due to only Poisson’s ratio variation of coated fabric for airship envelop, series biaxial extension tests were carried out for a particular envelop Uretek3216 and the mechanical property parameters were calculated accordingly from the plain composite theory. On the basis of elastic engineering theory, three typical cases of tension ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:1~1:2 were proposed for evaluation on Poisson’s ratio variation, which is cruciform specimen, inflatabl...

  15. Ozone Exposure System Designed and Used to High-Altitude Airship Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K.

    2005-01-01

    High-altitude airships can receive high doses of ozone over short mission durations. For example, in 1 year at an altitude of 70,000 ft, the ozone fluence (number arriving per unit area) can be as high as 1.2 1024 molecules/sq cm. Ozone exposure at these levels can embrittle materials or change the performance of solar cells. It is important to expose components and materials to the expected ozone dosage to determine if the ozone exposure could cause any mission-critical failures.

  16. Heavy hauler : a new dirigible airship may introduce a paradigm shift to heavy-lift capability in the oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2008-09-15

    This article discussed an extreme heavy lift dirigible airship designed by SkyHook International Inc. The JHL-40 Heavy Lifter is a new commercial rotorcraft designed to transport equipment and materials to remote regions. As a helium-filled dirigible, the SkyHook floats its own weight as well as the weight of its 4 rotors, which means that the dirigible's 20,000 horsepower can be used to lift up to 40 tonne loads. The craft also has significantly better fuel economy, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and lower capital costs than heavy lift helicopters. Fully loaded helicopters consume the same amounts of energy as unloaded helicopters. However, the JHL-40 is capable of shutting down its lift engines for the return journey. It is expected that costs to build the airships will be 50 per cent lower than costs to build a large helicopter. An early prototype of the airship will be developed by 2010, and production of the airships may start by 2012. The article noted that helicopter usage in Canada's northern regions is increasing. 2 figs.

  17. Bright prospects to new airships; Un nouveau souffle pour les dirigeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouat, S.

    2000-10-01

    France, Russia, The Netherlands..., numerous countries work on projects concerning airships. The most advanced one is the German super-freighter CL160 that could be used to convey parts of the giant Airbus A3XX. CL160 will be 260 meters long for a 550.000 m{sup 3} volume, it will be able to carry 160 tons load over 10.000 kilometers with a mean velocity of 80-100 km/h. A reduced-scale model has already flown in spring 2000. CL160 is scheduled to be ready for its first flight in 2 or 3 years. In France a modular airship is being studied, this new concept is based on a cluster of vertical cylindrical balloons, the number of balloons depending on the weight of the load to carry (from 70 up to 500 tons). The Russian prototype (Thermoplane) is lens-shaped which gives it a better stability and makes easier its handling in mooring moves but this project lacks funding. (A.C.)

  18. Development of the extension method of overhead power transmission wires utilizing radio controlled, small-sized airships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanimoto, Nariyuki

    1988-11-01

    Chubu Electric Power's Yokkaichi Electric Power Bureau has, with the cooperation of Taiheiyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. in Ogaki City, developed a radio-controlled, small-sized airship to fly across the particular spans (rivers, valleys, residential areas) for the installation of power transmission wires. This small-sized airship doesn't require a runway, neither does it cause danger to the workers because it does not have such large rotary wings as a radio-controlled helicopter. The ship's body length is 7.7m. Its weight is 28kg, and its carrying capacity is 3kg. It is possible for several operators to fly the ship in relays by radio control. At the starting point, a gondola is attached to the ship body. The gondola is equipped with a guide rope of 1.8mm diameter. After an electric mechanic has hooked an electric wire to the guide rope at the top of the starting steel tower, the airship flies across the span to the next steel tower, and thus extends the electric wire. At the terminal steel tower, an electric mechanic receives the wire, separates the gondola from the airship, and then the airship lands. Depending on the occasions, it is possible to station operators on the way and assure the flight. At present the span length limit is 700m. This method was experimentally carried out for the wire extension of 688m span across the Suzuka River, and for the wire extension of continuous spans in the Kawai branch line installation work. Thus the method was successfully put to practical use. 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. 无人飞艇的基于计算机视觉导航和预设航线跟踪控制%Computer Vision-based Navigation and Predefined Track Following Control of a Small Robotic Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少荣; 罗均; 饶进军; 龚振邦

    2007-01-01

    For small robotic airships, it is required that the airship should be capable of following a predefined track. In this paper,computer vision-based navigation and optimal fuzzy control strategies for the robotic airship are proposed. Firstly, visual navigation based on natural landmarks of the environment is introduced. For example, when the airship is flying over a city, buildings can be used as visual beacons whose geometrical properties are known from the digital map or a geographical information system (GIS).Then a geometrical methodology is adopted to extract information about the orientation and position of the airship. In order to keep the airship on a predefined track, a fuzzy flight control system is designed, which uses those data as its input. And genetic algorithms (GAs), a general-purpose global optimization method, are utilized to optimize the membership functions of the fuzzy controller. Finally, the navigation and control strategies are validated.

  20. Review of power source for oversea stratospheric airship%国外平流层飞艇用电源技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇

    2011-01-01

    电源是平流层飞艇持续飞行的关键,所以开发高效的电源系统至关重要.综述了平流层飞艇用电源的技术进展,概括了美国平流层飞艇的开发现状,展望了平流层飞艇用电源的未来发展方向.%Power source is the key of the continuous flying of stratospheric airship, so it is very important to develop a high efficient power system. The advance of power source for stratospheric airship was reviewed, the current development of US stratospheric airship was introduced, and the future development of power source for stratospheric airship was proposed.

  1. An Unmanned Airship Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing System for Low-Altitude and High Spatial Resolution Monitoring of Urban Thermal Environments: Integration and an Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Ren; Qinglin Meng; Yufeng Zhang; Lihua Zhao; Xu Yuan; Xiaoheng Feng

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data that lacks spatial resolution and timeliness is of limited ability to access urban thermal environment on a micro scale. This paper presents an unmanned airship low-altitude thermal infrared remote sensing system (UALTIRSS), which is composed of an unmanned airship, an onboard control and navigation subsystem, a task subsystem, a communication subsystem, and a ground-base station. Furthermore, an experimental method and an airborne-field experiment for collecting...

  2. Analysis on Affecting Factors for Load Capacity of Airship%飞艇载荷能力影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伯峰; 李德顺; 何健; 何文昌

    2014-01-01

    In order to find rules that load capacity of airship varies with atmosphere environment and flight status of airship, research affecting factors for load capacity of airship. First the endured forces of conventional airship under equilibrium condition were analyzed. And affecting factors for load capacity of airship were gained. Through further theoretical analysis, force mathematical model of airship was established basing on certain assumptions and simulations were carried out with Matlab software platform. Relationship of value changes between load capacity of airship and atmosphere environment, flight conditions, the initial conditions of charging into helium, taking off height were given, which making itself a theoretical basis for the use of airship.%飞艇载荷能力会随着大气环境因素和飞艇自身飞行状况的变化而变化,为了找出这种变化规律,对飞艇载荷能力的影响因素进行研究。首先分析飞艇在飞行过程中处于平衡状态下的受力情况,得出对飞艇载荷能力的各种影响因素,而后通过进一步的理论分析,在一定的假设前提下,建立飞艇受力的数学模型,并利用Matlab软件进行仿真分析,给出飞艇载荷能力与大气环境、飞行情况、初始充入氦气情况、起飞高度之间的数值变化关系。该研究可为飞艇的使用提供借鉴和理论依据。

  3. Transport by airship in the Netherlands. Chances for strategic niche management. Interim report desk study; Vervoer per luchtschip n Nederland. Kansen voor strategisch niche management. Interim rapport deskstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenstrijd, G.J. [Platform Luchtschepen, Utrecht (Netherlands); De Haan, A. [Faculteit der Techniek, Bestuur en Management, Sectie Technology Assessment, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    An overview is given of the state-of-the-art with respect to the development of airships: functionality, types, airship building companies, operational aspects, infrastructure, economic aspects, and the situation in the Netherlands. [Dutch] De stand van zaken m.b.t. luchtschepen wordt besproken aan de hand van de functioaliteit, soorten luchtschepen, huidige consortia en bouwers, operationele aspecten, de infrastructuur, economische aspecten van vervoer per luchtschip, en de situatie in Nederland.

  4. 平流层飞艇强迫对流特性数值仿真分析%Numerical research on forced convective heat transfer of stratospheric airships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武江涛; 麻震宇; 侯中喜; 柳兆伟

    2016-01-01

    During the floating flight,the complex radiation-convection environment remarkably affects the flight performance and security of the stratospheric airship.The forced convection around the stratospheric airship plays an important role in the thermal behavior of the airship.Based on the hypothesis of pure heat conduction inside the airship,a three dimensional CFD model of stratospheric airships was developed and the thermal characteristics of the forced convective heat transfer of the airship were investigated.The distributions of the temperature of skins of the airship and the average temperature of the inner gas were calculated with the variation of the angle of the sun,the wind velocity and the angle of attack. Simulation results can be referenced for the accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of stratospheric airships.%强迫对流换热特性对平流层飞艇热状态有重要影响。以平流层飞艇流线型封闭囊体为研究对象,基于囊体内部纯导热传热的假设,采用计算流体力学方法建立平流层飞艇外部流场三维数值模型,对飞艇外部强迫对流换热特性进行仿真分析,得到了不同太阳照射角度、风速和攻角条件下的飞艇表面温度分布和内部平均温度变化规律,为平流层飞艇热状态预测和热控设计提供参考依据。

  5. 飞艇载荷能力影响因素分析%Analysis on Affecting Factors for Load Capacity of Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伯峰; 李德顺; 何健; 何文昌

    2014-01-01

    飞艇载荷能力会随着大气环境因素和飞艇自身飞行状况的变化而变化,为了找出这种变化规律,对飞艇载荷能力的影响因素进行研究。首先分析飞艇在飞行过程中处于平衡状态下的受力情况,得出对飞艇载荷能力的各种影响因素,而后通过进一步的理论分析,在一定的假设前提下,建立飞艇受力的数学模型,并利用Matlab软件进行仿真分析,给出飞艇载荷能力与大气环境、飞行情况、初始充入氦气情况、起飞高度之间的数值变化关系。该研究可为飞艇的使用提供借鉴和理论依据。%In order to find rules that load capacity of airship varies with atmosphere environment and flight status of airship, research affecting factors for load capacity of airship. First the endured forces of conventional airship under equilibrium condition were analyzed. And affecting factors for load capacity of airship were gained. Through further theoretical analysis, force mathematical model of airship was established basing on certain assumptions and simulations were carried out with Matlab software platform. Relationship of value changes between load capacity of airship and atmosphere environment, flight conditions, the initial conditions of charging into helium, taking off height were given, which making itself a theoretical basis for the use of airship.

  6. Analysis of thermal environment of low-altitude airships%低空飞艇太阳辐射热环境分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晟; 封卫兵; 张武; 赵攀峰; 徐忠新

    2011-01-01

    The thermal environment and influencing factors of low-altitude airships are analyzed in detail by combining the weather conditions of low altitude with characters of low-altitude airships. A numerical simulation approach is used to compute a airship model which uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT and compiling parallel UDF programs with its providing interfaces. The results predict the distribution of temperature including the highest temperature and average temperature of airship in boat and shin surface.This method has higher accuracy, the results well conduct the material selection used in airship shin and research the thermal environment in the stratospheric airship.%结合低空气象条件,详细分析了飞艇的热环境情况和影响因素,并运用计算流体力学软件FLUENT及其提供的接口编制的并行的UDF程序,对标准飞艇模型进行了数值模拟计算,获得了全天时飞艇内部、蒙皮表面的最高温度、平均温度等分布情况.该方法具有较高的精度,对于指导飞艇材料的选取,以及推广到平流层飞艇的热环境分析具有指导作用.

  7. A Method for Structure Analysis of Airship Envelopes%一种飞艇囊体结构分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜标; 王平安

    2011-01-01

    飞艇是典型的充气薄膜结构,对结构内应力、变形等的准确预测是这里结构设计的关键问题.基于有限元分析软件NASTRAN,提出了一种飞艇囊体结构仿真分析的方法.给出了飞艇模型的建立、网格的划分、约束施加和载荷处理等过程.通过对某飞艇模型在俯仰和转弯两种工况下的分析计算,得到飞艇囊体应力和应变分布,结果与实际情况符合较好.为飞艇囊体的设计提供了参考依据.%The airship is typical inflatable membrane structure with large deformation and small strain. The air-ship modeling, meshing, constraints and loading process are introduced. Through the finite element analysis soft-ware NSTRAN of airship's pitching and turning two conditions are analyzed by airship, The stress and strain distri-bution under airship's pitching and turning two conditions are obtained with the finite element analysis software NSTRAN. By applying reasonable constraint and load handling reasonable results are got which is helpful for the se-curity design of airship.

  8. 平流层飞艇艇身外形研究%Reaerch on Shape of Airship Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓亮; 单雪雄

    2011-01-01

    为了完成特定的任务,平流层飞艇需要克服风场保持长期定点,因此要求其阻力最小.飞艇总阻力中艇身阻力占60-70%,因此对飞艇而言,针对艇身外形进行研究得到阻力小而且实际可用的外形是非常重要.本文采用势流-边界层耦合方法与混合遗传算法对平流层飞艇艇身的外形进行了优化.外部势流采用在艇身表面分布点源的Hess-Smith面元法求解,边界层计算采用积分边界层方法,阻力系数采用Squire-Young方法计算得到.最优外形通过由遗传算法和Nelder-Mead单纯形法组成的混合遗传算法优化得到.通过优化分析得到了一种实际可用的优化外形,具有在湍流和层流两种流态下阻力系数都比较小的优点.%The stratosphere airship must overcome the wind field for the purpose of keeping station for a certain specific mission. Thus, it is necessary for airship to minimize the drag. The drag of the airship hull accounts for about 2/3 0f the total drag. It is very important to obtain the shape of airship hull with minimum drag, and used in the practical condition.Using an inviscid-boundary layer model and a hybrid genetic algorithm, the shape optimization of airship hull is considered in this paper. The inviscid flow is computed by using point sources distributed airship surface. The boundao layer is computed hy using an integral formulation. The drag coefficient is computed by using the Squire-Young formula. OpLimization problems are solved by using a hybrid genetic algorithm composed of Cenetic Algorithm and Nelder-Mead simplex search method. The optimized shape has minimum drag under the condilion of turbulence and laminar flows and can be used in the practical condition.

  9. The biological effect of SP1 tomatoes after boarding on airship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of four tomato cultivars were traveled in Shenzhou No. 4 airship and the variations of seed germination and plant growth were studied. The results showed that seed germinating ability changed after the space shuttle carrying treatment, but the changes varied with cultivars. The first flower opening date was delayed 0.7-5.4 days and plant height was shorter than that of the control. The differences between individual plants were somewhat large. Some effects of space treatment on the position of the first inflorescence formation, leaf interval between inflorescences and the fruit setting ability were measured. Moreover, some changes in the leaf shape and fruit color were observed in some SP1 cultivars

  10. Long-Duration Low-to Medium-Altitude Solar Electric Airship Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the conceptual design for a solar electric lighter-than-air, unmanned aerial vehicle, based on existing technology already reduced to practice, that could carry a 600-kg (1322-lbm) payload to altitudes up to 30 kft (9000 m), continuously maintain an airspeed up to 40 kt (21 m/sec), and remain in flight for up to 100 days. The design is based on modern nonrigid airship technology, high-strength polymer fabrics and barrier films, and previously demonstrated aerospace electrical power technology, including lightweight photovoltaics and hydrogen-air polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The vehicle concept exploits the inherent synergy between the use of hydrogen as a lifting gas and the use of hydrogen-air PEM fuel-cell technology for onboard solar energy storage. In this report, the air vehicle concept is physically characterized and its estimated performance envelope is defined

  11. Generic multi-body formulation of heavy lift airship equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Jex, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a comprehensive set of equations which describe the dynamic behavior of a generic heavy lift airship (HLA). They are being used in a digital computer simulation to investigate the response dynamics and flying qualities of HLAs operating with various payloads in a variety of operational environments. A key feature is the separate treatment of each component body making up the HLA. This allows the analyst to vary the configuration (e.g., number of lift-propulsion units, presence or absence of slung payload, etc.) without rewriting the equations. It further provides measures of key structural and control loads acting on the HLA and eases the task of modeling wind disturbances.

  12. Simulation of Heavy Lift Airship dynamics over large ranges of incidence and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Ringland, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear, multibody, six-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation has been developed to study generic Heavy Lift Airship (HLA) dynamics and control. The basic aerodynamic functions developed to model the hull, tail, and rotor loads continuously over all incidence ranges are reviewed and applied to a Quadrotor HLA with a low fineness ratio hull and a small vee-tail. Trim calculations for a test vehicle suggest control power deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded vehicle. Gust responses show the importance of correctly calculating loads due to accelerated relative motion of air and hull. Numerically linearized dynamics for the test vehicle show the existence of a divergent yaw mode, and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristics are sensitive to flight speed. A considerable improvement in the vehicle's stability and response results from a simple multi-axis closed-loop control system operating on the rotors and propeller blades.

  13. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  14. Multisensor fusion for an experimental airship based on strong tracking filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Jin Zhihua; Tian Weifeng

    2005-01-01

    To improve the independent ability of attitude determination and positioning for an unmanned experimental airship platform, a micro inertial measurement system (MIMS) is expected to integrate with the existing system, which incorporates a digital magnetic compass and a differential pseudorange GPS receiver. The navigation error of the low-precision MIMS will be calibrated using nondrift DGPS receiver and magnetic compass. This paper proposes an adaptive strong tracking filter to perform multisensor fusion to assure state-error estimation of convergence under some uncertain conditions. These uncertainties include model simplification, unknown microsensor stochastic characteristics, a large-scale initial filtering parameter variation, and state sudden change. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the filter has strong robustness to all the uncertainties mentioned above. By this filtering approach, the navigation errors of MIMS are limited to a certain range. Accordingly, the whole integrated measurement system will respond to dynamics, and its automotive navigation ability is also enhanced.

  15. Microwave-powered airship system design for high-altitude power relay and other applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R.M. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center

    1997-11-01

    A concept for a next generation of stratospheric airship platforms was presented and examined. The design was based on a 1MW DC power output from beamed microwave power from the ground. The ground and airborne major subsystems were described. In the future, airborne near-stationary platforms could provide power beaming relay functions plus telecommunications and observation. The system will allow for near-continuous regional Earth sensing of soil moisture, crop condition, vehicular traffic on the ground or vessels at sea and craft in the air, environmental impacts, local weather, stream flow and floods, ice, migration patterns, land use, aerial photographs for mapping, surveillance, detection and tracking. A summary description of how the system might be applied and the currently available applicable technology was presented. System requirements and constraints were also described. A rough cost estimate of a point-design was provided. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Tearing analysis of a new airship envelope material under uniaxial tensile load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. X.; Xu, W.; Chen, Y. L.; Fu, G. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper experimentally investigated the tearing properties of a new kind of coated woven fabrics, GQ-6, made of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber. Such material can be used for the envelope materials of a stratospheric airship. First, the uniaxial tearing tests were carried out. Effects of the stretching rate, the initial crack length, and the initial crack orientation on the material's tearing tensile strength were investigated. Experimental results showed that the initial crack length and the initial crack orientation can be represented by the equivalent initial crack length while the stretching rate has a slight influence on tearing behavior of the uniaxial tensile specimens. Then analytical studies using three methods, i.e. Griffith energy theory, the stress intensity factor theory, and Thiele's empirical theory, among which, the stress intensity factor theory gives the best correlation with the test data. Finally, a 48mm threshold of the equivalent initial crack length was recommended to the envelope material in operation.

  17. Particle concentrations and number size distributions in the planetary boundary layer derived from airship based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Ralf; Zhao, Defeng; Ehn, Mikael; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Rohrer, Franz; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particles play a key role for regional and global climate due to their direct and indirect radiative forcing effects. The concentration and size of the particles are important variables to these effects. Within the continental planetary boundary layer (PBL) the particle number size distribution is influenced by meteorological parameters, local sinks and sources resulting in variable spatial distributions. However, measurements of particle number size distributions over a broad vertical range of the PBL are rare. The airship ZEPPELIN NT is an ideal platform to measure atmospheric aerosols on a regional scale within an altitude range up to 1000 m. For campaigns in the Netherlands, Northern Italy and South Finland in 2012 and 2013 the airship was deployed with a wide range of instruments, including measurements of different trace gases, short lived radicals, solar radiation, aerosols and meteorological parameters. Flights were carried out at different times of the day to investigate the influence of the diurnal evolution of the PBL on atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. During night and early morning hours the concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particles were found to be strongly influenced by the layered structure of the PBL, i.e. the nocturnal boundary layer and the residual layer. Within the residual layer particle concentrations stay relatively constant as this layer is decoupled from ground sources. The particles persist in the accumulation mode as expected for an aged aerosol. In the nocturnal boundary layer particle concentrations and size are more dynamic with higher concentrations than in the residual layer. A few hours after sunrise, the layered structure of the PBL intermixes. During daytime the PBL is well mixed and a negative concentration gradient with increasing height is observed. Several height profiles at different times of the day and at different locations in Europe were measured. The aerosol measurements will be

  18. 一种翼艇式飞行器方案研究%Exploring Effective Configuration Design of a Winged Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 宋笔锋; 钟小平

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The introduction of the full paper discusses existing problems and then proposes our exploration,which is explained in sections 1, 2 and 3. To solve two critical problems for the flight of a winged airship in near space at low speed, section 1 uses rarefied air to produce the lift of a winged airship and balance its weight and the limited solar energy to produce the power needed by the winged airship for long-time flight. Section 2 designs the configuration of the winged airship; its core consists of: ( 1 ) the lift and buoyancy integration mode and the daynight energy saving mode are used for the winged airship; (2) we use the iteration method to calculate the design parameters of the winged airship, the iteration flow chart being given in the block diagram shown in Fig. 3. Section 3 designs the optimal parameters of the winged airship; its core is that we use the NSGA( non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm) to perform the multi-objective optimization of the winged airship; the design results, given in Tables 2 and 3 and Fig. 4, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the total weight of lithium batteries used at night is much smaller; (2) the volume of winged airship is much smaller; (3) its flight velocity is much greater than that of the airship in near space. Section 4 draws the preliminary conclusions that: ( 1 ) the winged airship is suitable for the payload of Doppler effect such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR); (2) the size of the airship in near space which is obtained by using our design method is close to that of the high-altitude airship published by Lockheed Martin Inc, indicating that our design method for the winged airship is effective.%文章提出了一种翼艇式飞行器方案,较好地解决了以低速在临近空间飞行的两个关键问题:①如何利用临近空间稀薄空气产生升力克服飞行器重量;②如何有效利用有限太阳能产生飞行器长时间飞行的动力.该飞行器采用了升浮一

  19. Imaging tasks scheduling for high-altitude airship in emergency condition based on energy-aware strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimeng, Li; Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship's cruising speed based on the distribution of task's deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible. PMID:23864822

  20. Airship Sparse Array Antenna Radar Real Aperture Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing and Sparsity in Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liechen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A conformal sparse array based on combined Barker code is designed for airship platform. The performance of the designed array such as signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed. Using the hovering characteristics of the airship, interferometry operation can be applied on the real aperture imaging results of two pulses, which can eliminate the random backscatter phase and make the image sparse in the transform domain. Building the relationship between echo and transform coefficients, the Compressed Sensing (CS theory can be introduced to solve the formula and achieving imaging. The image quality of the proposed method can reach the image formed by the full array imaging. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Boundary layer control and profile drag of stationkeeping airships; Teiryugata hikosen no kyokaiso seigyo to keijo teiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuuchi, K.; Yamamura, N. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Eguchi, Y. [Honda Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, T. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Onda, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-25

    Our aim is to optimize the aerodynamic shape of airships, which cruise at high Reynolds number. A cryogenic wind tunnel is used to achieve the desired flow. In the present paper we discuss the drag coefficient for airship models incorporating suction slots, for the purpose of boundary layer control. The pressure distributions on the models are measured over a wide range of Reynolds number for various suction discharges. By integrating the pressure distributions, it was found that the profile drag could be reduced using boundary layer control as low as the theoretical limit. Furthermore, the flow patterns around the models can be classified into four categories. The relationship between suction and surface velocity was also examined, which is critical in understanding drag reduction. 7 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Airship measurements of aerosol size distributions, cloud droplet spectra, and trace gas concentrations in the marine boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, G.M.; Hoppel, W.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The use of an airship as a platform to conduct atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and cloud microphysical research is described, and results from demonstration flights made off the Oregon coast are presented. The slow speed of the airship makes it an ideal platform to do high-spatial resolution profiling both vertically and horizontally, and to measure large aerosol and cloud droplet distributions without the difficulties caused by high-speed aircraft sampling. A unique set of data obtained during the demonstration flights show the effect that processing marine boundary layer aerosol through stratus clouds has on the aerosol size distribution. Evidence of new particle formation (nucleation of particles) was also observed on about half the days on which flights were made. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Experiment and numerical simulation on the characteristics of fluid–structure interactions of non-rigid airships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluid–structure interaction is an important issue for non-rigid airships with inflated envelopes. In this study, a wind tunnel test is conducted, and a loosely coupled procedure is correspondingly established for numerical simulation based on computational fluid dynamics and nonlinear finite element analysis methods. The typical results of the numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment, including the overall lift and deformation, are in good agreement with each other. The results obtained indicate that the effect of fluid–structure interaction is noticeable and should be considered for non-rigid airships. Flow-induced deformation can further intensify the upward lift force and pitching moment, which can lead to a large deformation. Under a wind speed of 15 m/s, the lift force of the non-rigid model is increased to approximately 60% compared with that of the rigid model under a high angle of attack.

  4. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 1: Summary and mission analysis (tasks 2 and 4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloetscher, F.

    1975-01-01

    The histroy, potential mission application, and designs of lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles are researched and evaluated. Missions are identified to which airship vehicles are potentially suited. Results of the mission analysis are combined with the findings of a parametric analysis to formulate the mission/vehicle combinations recommended for further study. Current transportation systems are surveyed and potential areas of competition are identified as well as potential missions resulting from limitations of these systems. Potential areas of military usage are included.

  5. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhimeng; He Chuan; Qiu Dishan; Liu Jin; Ma Manhao

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are design...

  6. Thermal Characteristics of Multilayer Insulation Materials for Flexible Thin-Film Solar Cell Array of Stratospheric Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible thin-film solar cell is an efficient energy system on the surface of stratospheric airship for utilizing the solar energy. In order to ensure the normal operation of airship platform, the thermal control problem between the flexible thin-film solar cell and the airship envelope should be properly resolved. In this paper, a multilayer insulation material (MLI is developed first, and low temperature environment test is carried out to verify the insulation effect of MLI. Then, a thermal heat transfer model of flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI is proposed, and the equivalent thermal conductivity coefficients of flexible thin-film solar cell and Nomex honeycomb are calculated based on the environment test and the temperature profile of flexible thin-film solar cell versus each layer of MLI. Finally, FLUENT is used for modeling and simulation analysis on the flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI, and the simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which validate the correctness of the proposed heat transfer model of MLI. In some way, our study can provide helpful support for further engineering applications of flexible thin-film solar cell.

  7. Development of Autonomous Deep Space Airship Explorer%深空自主飞艇探测器技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范春石; 王彦广; 马蓉; 李勇; 宋琦; 姚伟; 王文隽

    2012-01-01

    介绍了美国典型自主飞艇探测器的研究现状、总体技术方案和关键支撑技术。针对我国未来的深空飞艇技术发展,提出以火星应用为重点,促进在智能自主控制、新型材料、同位素热电等关键技术领域的技术发展,并与地球临近空间飞艇技术的发展彼此借鉴等建议,可为我国未来深空探测提供参考。%The research status,baseline design and enabling technologies of American autonomous airship platforms are introduced.The suggestions on developing Chinese airship explorer have been put forward as follows.The development of Martian airship explorer should be focused on,the technological development in autonomous operation,advanced materials and radioisotope power should be stimulated,and the deep space airship and terrestrial near space airship developments would benefit from each other.The suggestions can be used as a reference for Chinese deep exploration in future.

  8. 临近空间飞艇全数字仿真设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Full Digital Simulation of Near Space Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2013-01-01

    全数字仿真在临近空间飞艇研制过程中起着重要作用。本文以临近空间飞艇为研究目标,首先分析飞艇的受力情况,将体积中心作为艇体坐标系原点建立飞艇动力学方程和运动学方程。综合起飞、降落和巡航中的风场特点,建立可变的风场模型。利用Matlab/simulink软件搭建仿真模型,实现飞艇全数字仿真。最后对仿真结果进行了简要分析。%Full digital simulation plays an important role in the development process of near space airship. Based on near space airship as a research object, the first analysis of stress conditions of airship, the airship volume functions as a dynamic and kinematic equations of the origin of the hull coordinate system. Based on the take-off, landing and cruise of the wind field characteristics, the establishment of wind field model is possible. Simulation model is built by using Matlab/simulink software, realize the airship digital simulation. Finally, the simu lation results are analyzed.

  9. Research on High-altitude Airship Thermal Analysis%高空飞艇热分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江京; 慎利峰

    2012-01-01

    According to the latitude and the sun running rules at the fixed-pointed time zone, as well as flying posture of the high-altitude airship, the finite element modeling of the envelope and the Helium in- flated of the airship are established, and the temperature calculation is carried out by FEM. The rules of the average temperature of the Helium inflated in the airship are obtained in relation to the time chan- ging, and also the temperature range of Helium is obtained. As to comparing the result of the temperature calculation of Helium without the thermal capacity of the airship envelope, the difference of the analysis result of the Helium with and without the thermal capacity of the airship envelope has been found. The necessity of the accounting of the thermal capacity, the weight of the envelope and the solar cell is indica- ted by the analysis of the calculation results.%根据高空飞艇的定点运行区域地球纬度、定点运行时域的太阳运行规律,以及高空飞艇的飞行姿态,对高空飞艇囊体及所包容的氦气建立有限元物理模型并进行有限元热分析,得到高空飞艇艇内氦气平均温度在太阳辐射情况下随时间变化的规律及温差范围。同时,与不包括飞艇囊体热容量的飞艇氦气热分析进行了比较,得到了高空飞艇热分析中加入囊体材料热容及忽略囊体热容的差异。研究证明高空飞艇的热分析必须考虑囊体的质量和热容及薄膜电池的质量和热容。

  10. Research and Manufacture of Composite Materials for Airship Envelope in China%我国飞艇艇囊用复合材料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秋萍; 席德科; 张彬乾

    2011-01-01

    简述了飞艇及其艇囊材料的发展,着重阐述了飞艇艇囊材料的结构与性能,总结了我国飞艇艇囊复合材料研制进展情况,并提出艇囊材料研制过程中需要注意的几个问题.%The development of raw materials used for airship and envelope are briefly introduced. The structure and properties of the materials of airship and envelope are mainly described and the progress of research and manufacture of composite materials for airship and envelope is summed up in the paper. The points which should be noted in the development of envelope materials are given.

  11. The Polar Cultural Heritage as a Tourism Attraction: a Case Study of the Airship Mooring Mast at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    ROURA, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of narratives in the transformation of historic sites in the polar regions into attractions and consumable tourism products. The analysis is based on a case study of visitation to the airship mooring mast built at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, for the 1926 “Amundsen-Ellsworth-Nobile Transpolar Flight” of the airship Norge. The questions addressed in this paper are: How does cultural heritage in the polar regions operate as a tourist attraction? What is the role of tourism ...

  12. Exploiting Attitude Sensing in Vision-Based Navigation for an Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G. B. Mirisola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS is used to compensate for rotational motion, facilitating vision-based navigation above smooth terrain by generating virtual images to simulate pure translation movement. The AHRS combines inertial and earth field magnetic sensors to provide absolute orientation measurements, and our recently developed calibration routine determines the rotation between the frames of reference of the AHRS and the monocular camera. In this way, the rotation is compensated, and the remaining translational motion is recovered by directly finding a rigid transformation to register corresponding scene coordinates. With a horizontal ground plane, the pure translation model performs more accurately than image-only approaches, and this is evidenced by recovering the trajectory of our airship UAV and comparing with GPS data. Visual odometry is also fused with the GPS, and ground plane maps are generated from the estimated vehicle poses and used to evaluate the results. Finally, loop closure is detected by looking for a previous image of the same area, and an open source SLAM package based in 3D graph optimization is employed to correct the visual odometry drift. The accuracy of the height estimation is also evaluated against ground truth in a controlled environment.

  13. Thermoelasticity of a Fabric Membrane Composite for the Stratospheric Airship Envelope Based on Multiscale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junhui; Cao, Shuai; Qu, Zhipeng; Li, Jun; Lv, Mingyun

    2016-08-01

    As a main structure of the stratosphere airship, the typical envelope material is flexible fabric membrane composite. The high-low alternated temperature of the stratosphere has a great influence on the mechanical property of the envelope material. Thermoelasticity of the envelope material is first investigated based on a micromechanical model. The modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion of the material are simulated respectively and compared with the measured results. It can be concluded that the material owns the similar nonlinearity character both in warp and weft directions and the modulus in both directions increase to a steady-state value gradually from a relatively small value. The coefficients of thermal expansion of the material in two directions in the plane are quite small compared with the out-plane direction because of the constraint effect between yarns and matrix. The thermal distribution and the deformation of the envelope material in different temperatures are carried out at last. It is expected that the results are significative for the engineering design.

  14. Mechanical Properties and Strength Criteria of Fabric Membrane for the Stratospheric Airship Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junhui; Lv, Mingyun; Qu, Zhipeng; Li, Penghui

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, specimens of a new kind of envelope material for the stratospheric airship with and without initial notches are tested under uniaxial and biaxial tensile conditions. It can be seen from the tests that the characteristics of nonlinearity and anisotropy are not so obvious, especially for the biaxial specimens. The damage process of the on-axial specimen is brittle failure, because the damage of the specimen takes place suddenly without any distinct phenomenon, and there is no obvious yield stage before the failure of the material. The failure strength and the damage mode of the envelope material are determined by the strength of the woven fabric and the off-axial angle, respectively. The simplified maximum stress criterion and a new modified Tsai-Hill criterion can be used to predict the failure of the envelope material under on-axial and off-axial tension, respectively. The results show that it is the number of the cutoff yarns but not the shape of the initial damage determines the failure strength of the envelope material. In addition, the stress concentration factor of the envelope material is much higher than the isotropic material, because of the difficulty to transfer concentrated stress around the initial opening hole.

  15. Characteristics of the nocturnal boundary layer inferred from ozone measurements onboard a Zeppelin airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Franz; Li, Xin; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Ehlers, Christian; Holland, Frank; Klemp, Dieter; Lu, Keding; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is a sublayer within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which evolves above solid land each day in the late afternoon due to radiation cooling of the surface. It is a region of several hundred meters thickness which inhibits vertical mixing. A residual and a surface layer remain above and below the NBL. Inside the surface layer, almost all direct emissions of atmospheric constituents take place during this time. This stratification lasts until the next morning after sunrise. Then, the heating of the surface generates a new convectionally mixed layer which successively eats up the NBL from below. This process lasts until shortly before noon when the NBL disappears completely and the PBL is mixed convectionally. Ozone measurements onboard a Zeppelin airship in The Netherlands, in Italy, and in Finland are used to analyse this behaviour with respect to atmospheric constituents and consequences for the diurnal cycles observed in the surface layer, the nocturnal boundary layer, and the residual layer are discussed.

  16. An experimental study of visual flight trajectory tracking and pose prediction for the automatic computer control of a miniature airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haecker, Jens; Kroeplin, Bernd H.

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes our current work in developing a vision-based tracking and trajectory prediction system for an aerial robot based on low-cost digital cameras, image processing techniques, and a filtering and prediction algorithm. The system determines the pose (location and orientation) of a miniature airship, online during indoor flight, and will be used in a development framework for a future autonomous flight control system. Object localization is achieved by tracking an infra-red target array mounted to a model airship. Its pose in three-dimensional space can be computed from corresponding points in the images of two cameras which are calibrated in a global coordinate system. The calibration procedure and the localization, as well as some aspects of the measurement accuracy achieved, are discussed. Real-world applications provide an uncertain static or dynamic environment which complicates the tracking of a target. To overcome problems due to noisy data or even failed target detection in image frames, a filtering procedure is applied for estimating the airship's pose. In a first step, points in the two-dimensional image planes are directly tracked and propagated forward to the vehicle pose. In a second step, an adaptive noise Kalman filter is applied for estimating and predicting the flight trajectory. Its state is propagated back to points in the image planes to guide the detection algorithm by defining regions of confidence. Both approaches are combined in a tracking algorithm. In-flight measurements are used to validate the parameters of the adaption procedure. Some experimental results are shown.

  17. Analysis of numerical investigation on strength plate of airdrome outerco-veres from affect more heavy air-ship

    OpenAIRE

    А.А. Бєлятинський; Талах, С.М.

    2010-01-01

     Weight is of used for air-transport are increasing impetuously and consequently is necessary define more precisely solution on strength of airdrome strict outercoveres. In methodology is considering flan task of investigation of strength-deformation state of half-space for interaction with soil-mass.Put on task is deciding with help effective numerical method – method of finite element.Example is considering of influence on half-space of above-heavy air-transport air-ship Аn-225.Engineering ...

  18. An airship for the research. A zeppelin flies in scientific mission for the climate research over southern and northern Europe; Ein Luftschiff fuer die Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    In may 2012 the hitherto greatest scientific mission of a NT zeppelin starts. The Juelich institute for energy and climate research (IEK-8) coordinates thereby the numerous experiments aboard. The special: Especially for the research the ZLT Zeppelin Luftschifftechnik in Friedrichshafen builds a new airship.

  19. 室内无人飞艇导航系统的研究与仿真%Research and simulation of navigation system for indoor unmanned airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一波; 倪恒; 初丽华

    2011-01-01

    According to navigation application characteristics of indoor airship,an application approach for using ultra wide-band (UWB) navigation systems in an autonomous flight control system of indoor unmanned airship is described. According to the requirements of indoor places and other conditions,a navigation model of indoor airship system is established. Simulation experiment of real time navigation is carried out using Matlab/Simulink as platform. The result of the simulation shows that the integrated navigation system not only has higher precision than the single ones, but also shows another good way to study the indoor airship navigation system.%根据室内飞艇导航应用的特点,介绍了超宽带(UWB)导航系统在室内无人飞艇自主飞行系统中的应用方法,根据室内场所等条件的要求,建立了室内飞艇系统的导航模型,以Matlab/Simulink为平台,对UWB进行了实时导航的仿真实验.实验结果不仅证明该导航方法具有较高的导航精度,而且为进一步研究室内飞行器导航系统开辟了一条比较实用的道路.

  20. Technologies Progress and Applied Expectation of Stratospheric Airship%平流层飞艇预警探测技术进展及应用展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文琳; 丛力田

    2011-01-01

    Key technologies are analyzed about overall integration , airships platform and task load involved in the stratospheric airship suweillance system, and the foreign typical stratosphere airships program development and examination progress are summarized. Aiming at the characteristics of stratosphere airships surveillance syatem, the basic components and combat mission are proposed; Finally, its development trend is prospected.%分析了平流层飞艇预警探测系统总体集成、飞艇平台及任务载荷涉及的关键技术,总结了国外典型平流层飞艇预警监视项目的研制和试验进展情况.针对平流层飞艇预警探测系统的特点,提出了其基本组成和作战使命任务.最后,对并对其发展趋势进行了展望.

  1. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis Model Development and Application Study Comparing Solar Powered Airplane and Airship Station-Keeping Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    There have been ongoing efforts in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a suite of integrated physics-based computational utilities suitable for modeling and analyzing extended-duration missions carried out using solar powered aircraft. From these efforts, SolFlyte has emerged as a state-of-the-art vehicle analysis and mission simulation tool capable of modeling both heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicle concepts. This study compares solar powered airplane and airship station-keeping capability during a variety of high altitude missions, using SolFlyte as the primary analysis component. Three Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) concepts were designed for this study: an airplane (Operating Empty Weight (OEW) = 3285 kilograms, span = 127 meters, array area = 450 square meters), a small airship (OEW = 3790 kilograms, length = 115 meters, array area = 570 square meters), and a large airship (OEW = 6250 kilograms, length = 135 meters, array area = 1080 square meters). All the vehicles were sized for payload weight and power requirements of 454 kilograms and 5 kilowatts, respectively. Seven mission sites distributed throughout the United States were selected to provide a basis for assessing the vehicle energy budgets and site-persistent operational availability. Seasonal, 30-day duration missions were simulated at each of the sites during March, June, September, and December; one-year duration missions were simulated at three of the sites. Atmospheric conditions during the simulated missions were correlated to National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) historical data measurements at each mission site, at four flight levels. Unique features of the SolFlyte model are described, including methods for calculating recoverable and energy-optimal flight trajectories and the effects of shadows on solar energy collection. Results of this study indicate that: 1) the airplane concept attained longer periods of on

  2. 径向变体飞艇总体参数估算方法%Parameters estimation method of radial transformable airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖治垣; 郦正能

    2012-01-01

    To break the crucial technical difficulties of controllable aerostat in near space,and make it possible of controlling aerostat going and returning between ground and near space,the conception of solar powered radial transformable airship was raised,and it’s parameters estimation method was given.The method was based on Archimedes theory and Li-style transformable airship theory.The self-adapting and controllable-transformation of sectional area was actualized by radial transformation of structure,net lift was changed by controlling the volume of airship.Controllable aerodynamic configuration was consistently kept through the change of volume,thereby the controls for ascending,descending and staying of airship were actualized.Size of inside ballonet and outside ballonet were accounted by designing transformation project,length of airship was accounted by analyzing dynamics balance and energy balance.Based on study out design parameter,an overall design project for solar powered radial transformable airship was given,feasibility and practicality of the method was validated by example.%为突破临近空间可操纵浮空器的关键技术难点,使可操纵浮空器往返地面至临近空间成为可能,提出了一种径向变体飞艇的总体参数估算方法,该方法基于阿基米德浮力定律和李式变体飞艇原理(Li-Style Transformable Airship Theory),通过艇体结构的径向变形来实现艇体截面积的自适与可控变化,控制飞艇容积变化以改变净升力大小,并使飞艇在容积变化中始终保持可操纵的气动外形,从而实现飞艇的升、降与驻空和飞行等控制.通过设计变形方案估算内气囊与外气囊尺寸,分析力学平衡与能源平衡估算飞艇长度.在拟定设计参数的基础上,给出了一种太阳能径向变体飞艇的总体设计方案,并通过设计实例验证了此方法的可行性与实用性.

  3. Motion analysis and simulation of a stratospheric airship%平流层飞艇运动分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国昌; 吴美平

    2011-01-01

    针对平流层飞艇自主运行的需要,对其稳定性、能控性以及运动特性进行了研究.基于飞艇非线性动力学模型,利用线性化方法判断稳定性并分析了结构能控性;以线性化模型为基础,采用模态分析方法,研究其运动特性;采用仿真方法分析了扰动和控制作用下飞艇的运动特性.研究得到飞艇运动是不稳定的,同时飞艇是结构能控的,其纵向运动分为摆动、缓慢阻尼和快速阻尼3个模态,横侧向运动包括偏航振荡和滚动衰减2个模态.飞艇运动特性分析可作为实际飞艇控制的设计参考.%While considering the requirements of self-action for stratospheric airships, stability, controllability, and motion characteristics were studied. Based on the nonlinear dynamic model of an airship, stability was determined and structural controllability was analyzed. The motion characteristics were also studied using the mode method on the basis of the linear model. Lastly, the motion characteristics of an airship under disturbance and control functions were analyzed using a simulation method. Theoretical and simulation results indicate the motion of the airship is unstable, and meanwhile, the airship is structurally controllable. The vertical motion can be classified into three modes of swaying, slow damping and rapid damping, and the transverse sideways movement includes two modes of yawing oscillation and rolling attenuation. The analysis of airship motion characteristics can be the theoretical basis for the control design of a stratospheric airship.

  4. [Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence at airborne level based on unmanned airship platform and hyperspectral sensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ni, Zhuo-Ya; Wang, Ran; Wang, Qing-Shan

    2013-11-01

    The solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has a close relationship with photosynthetic and is considered as a probe of plant photosynthetic activity. In this study, an airborne fluorescence detecting system was constructed by using a hyperspectral imager on board an unmanned airship. Both Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) and 3FLD used to extract ChlF require the incident solar irradiance, which is always difficult to receive at airborne level. Alternative FLD (aFLD) can overcome the problem by selecting non-fluorescent emitter in the image. However, aFLD is based on the assumption that reflectance is identical around the Fraunhofer line, which is not realistic. A new method, a3FLD, is proposed, which assumes that reflectance varies linearly with the wavelength around Fraunhofer line. The result of simulated data shows that ChlF retrieval error of a3FLD is significantly lower than that of aFLD when vegetation reflectance varies near the Fraunhofer line. The results of hyperspectral remote sensing data with the airborne fluorescence detecting system show that the relative values of retrieved ChlF of 5 kinds of plants extracted by both aFLD and a3FLD are consistent with vegetation growth stage and the ground-level ChlF. The ChlF values of aFLD are about 15% greater than a3FLD. In addition, using aFLD, some non-fluorescent objects have considerable ChlF value, while a3FLD can effectively overcome the problem. PMID:24555390

  5. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  6. 飞艇蒙皮材料加速老化性能试验研究%Research on Accelerated Aging Test of Airship Envelop Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金奎; 刘涛; 鲁国富

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究某飞艇蒙皮材料加速老化性能,以及不同环境因素对飞艇蒙皮材料老化的影响。方法根据某飞艇的使用环境,对 URETEK-3216LV 和 HD-150两种飞艇蒙皮材料进行了实验室加速老化组合试验。结果得到了不同环境条件下两种飞艇蒙皮材料加速老化后断裂强力退化规律。结论 URETEK-3216LV 材料对高湿环境最为敏感,而 HD-150材料对高温环境最为敏感。 URETEK-3216LV 材料耐候性能比 HD-150材料耐候性强。%Objective To study the aging property of envelop material for a certain type of airship and the effect of dif-ferent environmental factors on the airship envelop material. Methods Based on the operation environment of the airship, laboratory accelerated aging combination test was carried out for the two airship envelop materials URETEK-3216LV and HD-150. Results The deterioration law of breaking force of the two airship envelop materials after accelerated aging in dif-ferent environmental conditions was obtained. Conclusion The test results showed that high-humidity environment had the greatest influence on the ageing performance of URETEK-3216LV, while high-temperature environment had the greatest in-fluence on the ageing performance of HD-150. The weatherability of URETEK-3216LV was better than that of HD-150.

  7. 高空飞艇系统总体设计优化初探%Exploration of High-altitude Airship System General Design Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江京

    2012-01-01

    Due to the restriction of rigorous natural conditions in the stratospheric environment,the top design of the high-altitude airship system is completely different from the design concept of airships at low altitude or middle altitude.The design concept of three balances in the top design of the high-altitude airship system is put forward from the view point of the environmental conditions in the stratospheric.It is pointed out that "Three Balances" is a key line of optimization design of high-altitude airship system.Based on the design concept of "Three Balances",eight principal research aspects on the top design optimization of the high-altitude airship system are brought forward.%由于平流层苛刻的环境条件制约,高空飞艇系统总体顶层设计完全不同于中低空飞艇的设计理念。根据平流层环境条件从系统顶层设计角度提出了高空飞艇系统总体设计中的能量平衡、热平衡和重量平衡三个平衡设计概念。指出三个平衡是高空飞艇优化设计的总纲,并根据三个平衡设计概念提出了高空飞艇系统总体设计优化的8个主要研究内容。

  8. Comparison Investigation for Architecture of Stratospheric Demonstration Airship%平流层验证飞艇结构体系比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海健; 陈务军; 付功义

    2011-01-01

    为研究平流层飞艇的受力、变形及合理的结构体系布局,根据平流层飞艇结构特点,提出了十种结构体系布局方案.基于浮力与重力作用下平衡形态的原理,建立平流层飞艇结构分析方法和各体系分析模型.以一个25m验证飞艇作为对象进行了系统的数值分析,与工程弹性理论进行比较,论证了各体系的结构特点,最后提出合理的结构体系.本文对平流层飞艇结构设计具有参考价值.%Ten kinds of architectures are proposed for the stratospheric airship according to the nature of structural characteristics. On the basis of equilibrium configuration of the floating airship subjected to the ascent helium buoyancy and gravity, the structural analysis procedure is developed and the analytical models are presented for the airship. Then the comprehensive numerical analysis is carried out for a 25 m long demonstration airship, the comparison of principal stress of envelope is performed between the nonlinear structural analysis and the engineering elastic theory. The structural performances are evaluated thoroughly. Finally, the reasonable architectures are proposed. Accordingly , the results herein are valuable to structural design for stratospheric airship.

  9. Research on Accelerated Aging Test of Airship Envelop Material%飞艇蒙皮材料加速老化性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金奎; 刘涛; 鲁国富

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the aging property of envelop material for a certain type of airship and the effect of dif-ferent environmental factors on the airship envelop material. Methods Based on the operation environment of the airship, laboratory accelerated aging combination test was carried out for the two airship envelop materials URETEK-3216LV and HD-150. Results The deterioration law of breaking force of the two airship envelop materials after accelerated aging in dif-ferent environmental conditions was obtained. Conclusion The test results showed that high-humidity environment had the greatest influence on the ageing performance of URETEK-3216LV, while high-temperature environment had the greatest in-fluence on the ageing performance of HD-150. The weatherability of URETEK-3216LV was better than that of HD-150.%目的:研究某飞艇蒙皮材料加速老化性能,以及不同环境因素对飞艇蒙皮材料老化的影响。方法根据某飞艇的使用环境,对 URETEK-3216LV 和 HD-150两种飞艇蒙皮材料进行了实验室加速老化组合试验。结果得到了不同环境条件下两种飞艇蒙皮材料加速老化后断裂强力退化规律。结论 URETEK-3216LV 材料对高湿环境最为敏感,而 HD-150材料对高温环境最为敏感。 URETEK-3216LV 材料耐候性能比 HD-150材料耐候性强。

  10. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but

  11. Modeling and Analysis of a Buoyancy-Ballast Driven Airship%一类“浮力-压块”驱动飞艇建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬依林; 刘屿

    2012-01-01

    In view of a new kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship, the model and dynamics of a kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship are studied. Based on Kirchhoff equations and Newton-Euler laws, we developed the six degree of freedom nonlinear dynamic model for an airship equipped with independent ballonets and moveable ballast by analysis its movement and stress. On the condition of little perturbation, the nonlinear dynamic model is divided into three group equations by restricting airship motion in longitudinal, lateral and e2-e3 planes respectively. Then the characteristics of mode and respond to input of airship are studied using linearization model and its related parameter. The results of simulation verify the correctness of established model and rationality of theoretical analysis on this kind of stratospheric airship, thus making itself a theoretical basis for the design of its control strategy.%针对一类新型“浮力-压块”驱动的自治飞艇,研究了该类飞艇的动力学建模和动力学特性.在Kirchhoff方程和Newton-Euler理论基础上,通过对飞艇运动及受力分析,建立了包括独立气囊和可运动压块的飞艇六自由度非线性动力学模型,并采用小扰动线性化方法,将飞艇运动分别限制在纵向、横侧向和e2-e3平面内,得到与之对应的三组飞艇线性化方程,其后基于飞艇相关参数和线性化模型,利用Matlab软件平台对飞艇运动模态和输入响应特性进行了分析研究.仿真结果验证了谊类飞艇模型的正确性和理论分析的合理性,为其后控制策略设计提供理论依据.

  12. 飞艇系留系统静态与动态仿真研究%Static and Dynamic Simulation of Tethered Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚伟; 贾月红; 陈智谦; 韩雅慧; 杨春信

    2012-01-01

    文章建立了飞艇系留系统多体力学仿真模型,将绳索处理为质点-弹簧-阻尼系统,在有风条件下针对某型飞艇产品进行了静力学和动力学分析。结果表明,张力从地面沿系留绳逐渐增大,在与飞艇连接处达到峰值;在一定范围内,随着飞艇攻角的增加,飞艇的驻空高度增加,偏移量减小,但绳索内部张力也有显著的提高;绳索质量增大会影响飞艇系留系统性能;随着风速的增加,飞艇的水平偏移量增大,驻空高度降低,绳索张力增大;在变风场条件下,绳索内张力波动范围不大。%Both static and dynamic models of a tethered airship are developed,in which the cable is divided into several segments of nodes and each segment is considered to be a lumped mass spring.The result of simulation of the airship in static state shows that the internal tension increases along the cable from ground to the junction of airship;In a certain extents,the altitude of airship increases and the horizontal shift decreases as increasing of the angle of attack,however the internal tension also significantly increases;weight of the cable has a great effect on the performance of the tethered airship system.As wind speed increases,the altitude of airship decreases,the horizontal shift increases,while the tension increases.In changing wind conditions,the internal tension varies a little.

  13. High Altitude Airship Altitude Control System Design and Simulation%高空飞艇高度控制系统设计及仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凡永华; 于云峰; 闰杰

    2011-01-01

    The high altitude airship can not have desired performance to control the altitude rapidly and accurately when the elevator and ancillary air bursa charge or deflation are used only, because the elevator has few efficiency when the velocity is low, and auxiliary ballonet charge or deflation control is very slow. A method is presented to design altitude control system for a high altitude airship using auxiliary ballonet charge or deflation and elevator combination control. This combination control scheme is that the ancillary air bursa and elevator are also used to control the airship attitude to get large raise velocity and the ancillary air bursa control is used to adjust the airship altitude for suspension. In this paper, a high altitude airship model with compound control of elevator and ancillary air bursa charging and deflation is given firstly. Then the optimum control is depicted to design the altitude control system for a high altitude airship. Finally, it has been proved by simulation that the attitude control system has desirable performance and the compound control scheme is feasible.%高空飞艇在上升和下降阶段时单独的空气舵控制或副气囊充放气操纵都难以实现飞艇的快速爬升和悬停的要求.针对高空飞艇纵的控制操纵特点,提出了采用副气囊充放气和空气舵组合控制的高空飞艇高度控制方案.当高度存在大误差时,采用副气囊和空气舵组合控制改变飞艇的姿态实现快速爬升或下降;当接近悬停高度时,主要采用副气囊充放气进行高度调整,从而实现高度的大范围控制.首先完成了采用组合控制的高空飞艇动力学建模;然后,基于最优控制对高空飞艇纵向高度控制系统进行了设计;最后给出了高空飞艇高度控制系统的仿真验证.结果表明所提出的高空飞艇组合控制方案是可行的.

  14. Identification of Lateral Dynamics of Zy - 1 Airship%平流层验证飞艇横侧向模型辨识研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭烨; 陈丽; 段登平

    2012-01-01

    The identification process of lateral dynamic model of the stratospheric validate airship was presented based on real flight data. To solve the problem of the disturbance of wind and measurement noise, the strategy using filter error method to identify the stability derivative and control derivative of airship model was proposed. Firstly, we simplified the lateral model to identify the stability derivative and control derivative of airship model for the mass and inertia's variation. Then, as the motion of the airship was strongly affected by wind effects, the filter error method of parameter identification was applied in the identification, and the flight experiment was designed according to the a-nalysis of the airship lateral motion characteristics. Finally, the airship lateral model was identified and verified by multiple sets of experimental data.%研究采用系统辨识方法建立平流层验证飞艇横侧向模型,针对飞行试验中风的扰动和测量噪声明显,对辨识参数的精度有影响.为解决上述问题,提出了采用滤波误差法,辨识稳定微分和控制微分系数的策略,获得飞艇较精确的平飞横侧向模型.首先考虑飞艇为浮力体,质量和惯量受环境影响较大,很难精确测量的问题,将飞艇非线性模型转化为具有稳定性微分和控制微分的飞艇横侧向线性模型,辨识参数不受质量、惯量变化的影响,并采用滤波误差方法,辨识模型的稳定微分和控制微分,可以减小风的扰动误差对辨识精度的影响,最后用辨识模型进行飞行仿真,将仿真得到的数据和实际飞行试验数据进行对比分析,结果表明,辨识得到的模型可以较好地反映飞艇的动力学特性,可为飞艇偏航控制器的设计提供参考.

  15. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhimeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship’s cruising speed based on the distribution of task’s deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible.

  16. Application of the Airship in the emergency rescue system%飞艇在应急救援系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭平; 陈云

    2012-01-01

      Analysis of the drawbacks of the current domestic aviation emergency rescue vector, combined with the airship has a high efficiency, low consumption, safe, reliable and without airport a number of adv-antages. Airship used in aviation emergency rescue carrier emergency means of feasibility and practicality.%  分析目前国内在航空应急救援载体上存在的弊端,结合飞艇具有高效、低耗、安全可靠和无需机场起飞等一系列优势。提出了将飞艇运用于航空应急救援载体的应急手段,具有一定的可行性和实用性。

  17. 控制分配在平流层飞艇姿态控制中的应用%Control allocation approach for stratospheric airship attitude control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对平流层飞艇一般采用多控制机构的特点,将广义逆控制分配方法应用到飞艇姿态控制系统中,并根据飞艇控制机构特性采用了加权伪逆控制分配算法。飞艇姿态控制仿真结果表明:设计的控制分配方法可以有效实现多控制机构的协调操纵,对姿态角控制效果良好,避免了单一操纵舵面过早进入饱和状态的情况;合理调整控制分配权值可减少能量损耗,增强实时性,便于工程实现。%The stratospheric airships generally act with the redundant control effectors,thus a control allocation approach based on generalized inverse was applied to the airship attitude control system and the weighted pseudo-inverse control allocation method was adopted on the basis of characteristics of airship control effectors.The simulation results of a stratospheric airship attitude control show that:the designed control allocation approach can realize the coordinated operation of redundant control effectors effectively and its control effect on attitude angle is good,which avoids the premature saturation of control surface when using single effector;the reasonable adjustment of control allocation weights can reduce energy consumption,enhance instantaneity and provide convenience in engineering.

  18. Control allocation approach for stratospheric airship attitude control%控制分配在平流层飞艇姿态控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对平流层飞艇一般采用多控制机构的特点,将广义逆控制分配方法应用到飞艇姿态控制系统中,并根据飞艇控制机构特性采用了加权伪逆控制分配算法。飞艇姿态控制仿真结果表明:设计的控制分配方法可以有效实现多控制机构的协调操纵,对姿态角控制效果良好,避免了单一操纵舵面过早进入饱和状态的情况;合理调整控制分配权值可减少能量损耗,增强实时性,便于工程实现。%The stratospheric airships generally act with the redundant control effectors,thus a control allocation approach based on generalized inverse was applied to the airship attitude control system and the weighted pseudo-inverse control allocation method was adopted on the basis of characteristics of airship control effectors.The simulation results of a stratospheric airship attitude control show that:the designed control allocation approach can realize the coordinated operation of redundant control effectors effectively and its control effect on attitude angle is good,which avoids the premature saturation of control surface when using single effector;the reasonable adjustment of control allocation weights can reduce energy consumption,enhance instantaneity and provide convenience in engineering.

  19. An Experimental Study of Two Winged-airships%动升力翼飞艇气动特性与修正技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白静; 解亚军

    2011-01-01

    A comparative experimental study of two similar winged airships is presented. The force measurement experiments are carried out in NF-3 low speed wind tunnel at Northwestern Polytechnical University. Due to the specialty of airship experiments, several experimental aspects such as test models, balance configurations, process control and data processing are presented in detail. Necessary corrections including side - slip angle, blockage effect and lift effect are implemented to increase accuracy. The aerodynamic characteristics of two airships are also discussed.%针对动升力翼飞艇模型在双翼浮升和大载重浮升情况下风洞测力实验的特殊性,系统地开展了实验模型、测力天平、过程控制与数据处理方法等研究.对实验结果进行了支架干扰修正、气流偏角修正、阻塞效应及升力效应修正,给出了两种飞艇模型的气动特性,提高了实验精度.

  20. Survey of flight control for the stratosphere airship%平流层飞艇飞行控制研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟; 杨跃能; 吴杰

    2013-01-01

    Flight control approaches for the stratosphere airship are reviewed.Literatures on control strategy for near-space airships are analyzed,with particular emphases on control approach and its application,including feedback linearization control,variable structure control,adaptive control,intelligent control and so on.The paper summarizes the key problems to be solved in the domain of fight control for nearspace airships,and points out some future research directions.%综述了平流层飞艇控制研究的最新成果和发展动态,系统分析了反馈线性化控制、变结构控制、自适应控制、智能控制等方法的特点及其在飞艇控制系统设计中的研究应用现状.在总结已有研究成果的基础上,针对平流层飞艇的环境特性和应用特点,提出了需进一步研究的重难点问题,包括多物理场耦合与协调控制、上升段航迹优化与控制、异类执行机构复合控制等,并对今后的发展趋势进行了展望.

  1. 无人飞艇平台摄像机防振研究%Research on the Stability of the Airship Platform of Vidicon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白云昌; 田西柱

    2011-01-01

    无人飞艇作为理想的信息平台,在预警、反恐、侦察监视和通信等方面发挥着重要作用。而艇载侦察监视设备CCD摄像机受到飞艇发动机振动的影响,会对成像产生消极影响。为此,分析了影响飞艇摄像机的成像质量的因素,采用被动减振的方案,达到了有效克服振动的目的。%Mooting airship plays a significant role in forecast, antiterrorism, communication, reconnaissance and surveillance as a perfect platform. However, vibration which is caused by airship engine, has a negative affect on image of reconnaissance and surveillance equipment CCD vidicon . To this end, the impacts affecting the stability of the airship platform are analyzed. Passive snubbing mechanism is adopted to restrict vibration.

  2. 平流层飞艇定点气动力计算与仿真分析%Calculation and Simulation Analysis of Aerodynamic Force for Stratosphere Airship during Floating Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴二兵; 胡少兴; 张爱武

    2012-01-01

    研究飞艇定点动力性能分析,关于平流层飞艇动力特性问题是影响系统稳定的关键.为使飞艇能正常工作,必须对气动特性进行精确地分析.根据平流层飞艇的定点飞行特点,考虑空气粘性因素,建立了平流层飞艇的湍流边界层方程,采用动量积分关系式方法,求解飞艇表面摩擦阻力,利用有限元分析软件ANSYS仿真,分析了飞艇的空气动力特性.仿真结果表明,空气黏性对飞艇运动的影响不可忽略,动量积分法可有效解决飞艇摩擦阻力的计算.%Research the dynamic performance analysis about airship during floating flight. Dynamic characteristic is the key to influencing stability of airship system. To ensure that stratosphere airship can work properly, aerodynam-ic characteristics have to be analyzed accurately. Considering the characteristics of floating flight and the factor of air viscosity, turbulent boundary layer equations were established. Applying the momentum integral method, skin-fric-tion resistance of airship was solved. Adopting ANSYS to simulate, aerodynamic characteristics of airship were ana-lyzed. Results of simulation indicate that influence of air viscosity on the motion of airship cannot be neglected, and momentum integral method can be validly used for calculating friction resistance.

  3. 基于神经网络的飞艇非线性鲁棒滑模飞行控制%Nonlinear robust sliding-mode flight control for the airship based on neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杰; 冯星; 陈谋; 尹卫平

    2011-01-01

    为了提高飞艇飞行的鲁棒性能,针对飞艇水平面受扰运动提出了一种基于非线性滑模的鲁棒神经网络飞行控制方案.对于飞艇模型中的不确定性,采用神经网络进行逼近,同时对神经网络权值进行在线调整以达到在线逼近的目的.为了有效地处理外部时变干扰对飞艇飞行控制的影响,将参数自适应、神经网络输出与滑模控制相结合设计了飞艇的鲁棒飞行控制.最后,通过飞艇水平面运动控制验证了本文所提出的飞艇鲁棒飞行控制方法的有效性.%The robust neural network flight control scheme is proposed for the plane movement of the airship with disturbance based on the nonlinear sliding mode technology to improve the flight robust performance. The neural networks are used to approximate the uncertainty of the airship model and the weight values are adjusted on line to achieve the approximation. To effectively handle the external disturbance of the airship, the robust flight control is designed combining the parameter adaptation with neural networks and sliding mode control for the airship. Finally, the plane movement control of the airship is executed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robust airship flight control method.

  4. SQLite 在飞艇监控中的应用与优化%Optimization and Application of SQLite in Monitoring and Control System of Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春艳; 李帅

    2014-01-01

    为了提高飞艇测控中监视数据的管理水平,简化数据库操作的复杂度,提高数据存储和访问的速率,提出了在飞艇监控中使用轻量级数据库系统 SQLite 的方案。并针对监视系统中实时性要求高的特点,提出了四点 SQLite 性能优化策略,有效提高了 SQLite 数据库的访问速度。通过测试与连续试验表明, SQLite 能够满足飞艇监控对数据实时存储及数据持久保存与管理的需求。该方案已经成功应用于某型号飞艇集成演示验证系统中。%In order to improve data management in airship monitoring and control system,simplify the complexity in database operation,and improve the performance of data storage and access,the application of SQLite database in the monitoring and control system is introduced.According to the real time requirement, four optimization principles are proposed to improve the SQLite’s performance.The test and continuous ex-periment show that the SQLite database is a good substitute for commercial DBMS and can meet the data storage and management requirement in the airship monitoring and control system.This design is applied in a certain airship successfully.

  5. Research on High-Altitude Airship Heat-Resistance Ability%关于高空飞艇抗热能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江京

    2012-01-01

    The average temperature of helium in the airship is obviously affected by the solar radiation and the low temperature of the stratospheric environment during the fight of day/night alternation.The change of the differential pressure between in and out of the hull of the airship will be caused by this change of average temperature of helium,and will be the basic index for the design of the hull material and structure of the airship at the stage of general design.According to HAA heat-resistance ability simulation calculation and analysis,to fundamentally increase the ability of heat-resistance of the HAA,the premise is improving the strength of the membrane material of the hull;while enlarging the volume of hull/ballonet does not obviously help the increase ofheat-resistance ability,but will result in airship weight increase.%高空飞艇在平流层高度昼夜工作过程中,作为浮升气体的艇体内氦气受太阳能辐射以及艇外低温环境的影响,其平均温度变化范围较大。艇体内氦气平均温度的变化将导致飞艇艇体内外压差的变化,而艇体内外压差的变化是高空飞艇总体设计阶段对囊体材料选取时必须考虑的重要设计依据之一。通过高空飞艇抗热能力仿真计算与分析,指出高空飞艇的抗热能力必须在提高囊体强度的前提下才可以得到根本的提升,而加大副气囊体积对抗热能力影响不大反而将导致飞艇重量的增加。

  6. 近地空间伪卫星定位系统浮空器节点构型分析%Analysis of airships' nodes configuration in near-space navigation and positioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫常青; 吴晓联; 刘勇

    2011-01-01

    为了提高近地空间伪卫星定位系统的定位精度,针对其中对定位精度影响较大的浮空器布站方式,采用了数值仿真方法进行了分析.仿真模型将浮空器布设成正方型和"Y"型,分别布设在不同的高度和距离上,从而得到不同的GDOP(几何精度因子)和PDOP(空间位置误差系数).分析结果表明,如果浮空器以正方形布设,地面用户定位的GDOP值的分布不均衡,差异性较大;以"Y"型布设,得到的GDOP值优于正方形布设的情形,在相同的仿真参数下,精度提高近1个数量级.建议在浮空器布设时尽可能布成以其中一个站为中心的等边三角形,布站时尽量将三角形下面2个端点靠近后方上空,这样能够得到比较均衡、精度较高的定位效果.%To improve the position precision the influence of the airships' nodes configuration was analyzed by monte-carlo numeric simulation. In the simulation, the airship was established in square type and “Y” type at different height and distance, and then different GDOP (geometric dilution of precision) and PDOP (position dilution of precision) were found out. The research result was that the distribution of GDOP was disequilibrium if the airship was established in square type ; that it has higher Gray precision if the airship was established in “Y” type; and that under the same factors, the precision improvement approaches decuple.The conclusion is that the airship should be established in “Y” type, and that the outside three airships should be established in equilateral triangle type with one airship in the center, in which way more balanced and accurate result is provided.

  7. 1∶500 Mapping Based on Unmanned Airship%无人飞艇平台航测1∶500成图生产工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军利

    2014-01-01

    介绍利用无人飞艇平台进行1∶500大比例尺航测成图的关键技术,重点说明了通过在航空摄影、外业控制点布设、空三加密、正射影像制作、立体测图等生产工序采取新的技术措施,实现利用无人飞艇平台航测1:500成图,精度达到规范要求。%This paper introduces the use of unmanned airship platform for large scale aerial mapping,including aerial photography,control point layout,technical scheme of aerial triangulation encryption,orthophoto production,and stereo mapping.The accuracy analysis of the production process using unmanned airship platform was also performed,and the technical measures to improve the overall accuracy were summarized.

  8. 低空无人飞艇状态监测系统的硬件设计%Hardware Design of State Monitoring System for Low AItitude Unmanned Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑锋; 贺喜; 张渫

    2014-01-01

    介绍了一种以C8051F120单片机为核心设计了低空无人飞艇状态监测系统的硬件设计,详细给出了系统的总体架构和工作流程;着重说明了主要功能模块的电路设计。地面测试和飞行试验表明该监测系统硬件性能稳定,能满足飞艇状态监测的要求。%The hardware design of state monitoring system for Iow aItitude unmanned airship are introduced based on singIe chip processor C8051F120 in this paper.OveraI architecture and workfIow of the exist system are described in detaiI.The circuit design of function moduIe are emphasized.The resuIts of ground and fIight tests indicate that the hardware shows a stabIe performance and can meet the requirement of the airship.

  9. 低空无人飞艇状态监测系统的硬件设计%Hardware Design of State Monitoring System for Low AItitude Unmanned Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑锋; 贺喜; 张渫

    2014-01-01

    The hardware design of state monitoring system for Iow aItitude unmanned airship are introduced based on singIe chip processor C8051F120 in this paper.OveraI architecture and workfIow of the exist system are described in detaiI.The circuit design of function moduIe are emphasized.The resuIts of ground and fIight tests indicate that the hardware shows a stabIe performance and can meet the requirement of the airship.%介绍了一种以C8051F120单片机为核心设计了低空无人飞艇状态监测系统的硬件设计,详细给出了系统的总体架构和工作流程;着重说明了主要功能模块的电路设计。地面测试和飞行试验表明该监测系统硬件性能稳定,能满足飞艇状态监测的要求。

  10. An Unmanned Airship Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing System for Low-Altitude and High Spatial Resolution Monitoring of Urban Thermal Environments: Integration and an Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing data that lacks spatial resolution and timeliness is of limited ability to access urban thermal environment on a micro scale. This paper presents an unmanned airship low-altitude thermal infrared remote sensing system (UALTIRSS, which is composed of an unmanned airship, an onboard control and navigation subsystem, a task subsystem, a communication subsystem, and a ground-base station. Furthermore, an experimental method and an airborne-field experiment for collecting land surface temperature (LST were designed and conducted. The LST pattern within 0.8-m spatial resolution and with root mean square error (RMSE value of 2.63 °C was achieved and analyzed in the study region. Finally, the effects of surface types on the surrounding thermal environment were analyzed by LST profiles. Results show that the high thermal resolution imagery obtained from UALTIRSS can provide more detailed thermal information, which are conducive to classify fine urban material and assess surface urban heat island (SUHI. There is a significant positive correlation between the average LST of profiles and the percent impervious surface area (ISA% with R2 around 0.917. Overall, UALTIRSS and the retrieval method were proved to be low-cost and feasible for studying micro urban thermal environments.

  11. 无人飞艇平台航测1∶500成图生产工艺研究%1∶500 Mapping Based on Unmanned Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军利

    2014-01-01

    介绍利用无人飞艇平台进行1∶500大比例尺航测成图的关键技术,重点说明了通过在航空摄影、外业控制点布设、空三加密、正射影像制作、立体测图等生产工序采取新的技术措施,实现利用无人飞艇平台航测1:500成图,精度达到规范要求。%This paper introduces the use of unmanned airship platform for large scale aerial mapping,including aerial photography,control point layout,technical scheme of aerial triangulation encryption,orthophoto production,and stereo mapping.The accuracy analysis of the production process using unmanned airship platform was also performed,and the technical measures to improve the overall accuracy were summarized.

  12. Ascent Trajectory Planning for Stratospheric Airship Based on Gauss Pseudospectral Method%基于Gauss伪谱法的平流层飞艇上升段航迹规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼学; 王中伟; 杨希祥; 宋庆雷

    2013-01-01

    The trajectory planning model for stratosphere airship ascent was completed by introducing the net buoyancy calculate method.The objective function and constraints was deduced from the flight characteristic analysis of stratospheric airship ascent process.In addition,the minimum ascent time and minimum energy use were simulated based on the Gauss pseudospectral method.The results show that the minimum ascent time for airship is 2913.6 s; and if the ascent time is abundant,stratospheric airship can fly to 20 km without exhausting any energy.The simulation results can provide useful reference for stratosphere airship integrated design and argument.%引入净浮力计算方法,完善了平流层飞艇航迹规划问题的数学模型,并通过对其飞行过程的分析,得出了模型的目标函数和约束条件.基于Gauss伪谱法对时间最少和能量最省2种情况下的平流层飞艇上升段航迹进行了规划.仿真结果表明,飞艇的最短上升时间为2913.6 s,在时间允许的情况下飞艇可以实现零耗能升空.仿真结果可为平流层飞艇的总体设计提供有益参考.

  13. Parameters Estimation of Stratospheric Airship and Modeling of Charging and Discharging Air%平流层飞艇参数估算及充放气模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少兴; 张爱武; 吴二兵

    2011-01-01

    平流层飞艇是一个复杂的系统。飞艇的参数估算及飞行控制是其设计过程中很重要的关键环节。本文依据飞艇体积和重量的耦合关系对其部分参数进行了估算,设计了飞艇的概念模型。针对给出的飞艇模型,基于内外压差保持一致,建立了飞艇放飞和回收过程的充放气模型,并对该模型进行了仿真分析。仿真结果表明,飞艇的飞行速度、高度和气囊温度等对充放气速率有很大影响。%Stratospheric airship is a complicated system. Parameters estimation and flight control are two important sides in the designation of stratospheric airship. According to the coupled relationship between volume and mass of stratospheric airship, partial parameters were estimated, and a conceptual model of stratospheric airship was established on the basis of these parameters. According to the model established, based on the consistency of pressure difference between internal and external of stratospheric airship,a model of charging and discharging air in the period of ascent and descent was established and simulated. The result shows that the temperature of bal-lonet and the height and speed of flying have great influence on the velocity of charging and discharging air.

  14. 平流层飞艇高能激光武器防御弹道导弹%Defending Ballistic Missile using High-Energy Laser Weapon basing Stratosphere Airships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车学科; 聂万胜; 何炬恒

    2011-01-01

    防御弹道导弹逐渐受到世界各国的重视,扩大拦截窗口是重要的发展趋势之一.平流层飞艇有可能通过艇载激光武器或者中继反射地基激光两种方式拦截自由段弹道导弹,为评估这两种方式的拦截效果和可行性,分析了平流层飞艇搭载高能激光武器的可能性以及中继反射作战方式的特点,建立了激光烧蚀模型,采用数值计算方法对激光的烧蚀效果进行了研究.结果表明:平流层飞艇部署位置应距离导弹发射点800~1000km,平流层中继激光飞艇能够在短时间内引爆弹头,艇载激光武器采用烧蚀弹头防热层的方法同样可以达到拦截弹道导弹的目的.%The importance of ballistic missile defence is known by many countries. One main trend is extending the intercept window. Stratosphere airships can intercept ballistic missile through two ways of airship borne laser and relay ground base laser. In order to evaluate the intercept capability and feasibility of these ways, the possibility that stratosphere airship can bear high-energy laser weapon and the superiority of relay mode are analyzed in this paper, and the laser ablation model is built, furthermore the laser ablation effect is computed. The results show airship should deploy 800~1000km away form the missile launch point, and the laser-relay airship will detonate warhead rapidly, while airship bome laser can achieve same interception effect by ablating the thermal protection layer.

  15. 壳体辐射物性参数对平流层飞艇热特性影响的研究%Researches on Thermal Characteristics of Stratospheric Airships Affected by Radiative Properties of Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小建; 方贤德; 戴秋敏

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical models of heat transfer of airships are established, including thermal balance equations, direct solar radiation, diffuse radiation from the sky, reflected solar radiation from the Earth, infrared radiation heat transfer between the airship hull and the sky, infrared radiation heat transfer between the airship hull and the Earth, convective heat transfer, as well as radiation heat transfer between the different parts of the interior surface of the airship hull. Based on the mathematical models,the temperature variations of a stratospheric airship hull and buoyancy gas are discussed. By numerical simulation ,the temperature variation of the buoyancy gas and 3-D temperture profile of the stratospheric airship during station keeping have been presented. The effects of solar absorptivity and emissivity of the hull on the temperture variations of buoyancy gas and the non-uniform temperture distribution of the hull have been especially analysed. Heat stress can be calculated and analysed and it will provide a guide for selection and design of the hull.%建立了飞艇的传热数学模型,包括热平衡方程,太阳直射辐射、天空散射辐射、地面反射辐射、大气长波辐射、地球长波辐射、对流换热,以及飞艇内表面之间的辐射换热等.在此基础上,对平流层飞艇悬浮过程中壳体和浮升气体的温度变化进行了数值模拟,得到定点悬浮过程中平流层飞艇壳体的三维温度分布和飞艇浮升气体昼夜变化规律,重点分析了壳体辐射物性(太阳吸收率和发射率)对浮升气体温度昼夜变化和飞艇壳体温度分布非均匀性的影响,从而便于计算和分析由热问题引起的壳体应力,为飞艇壳体的选择和设计提供依据.

  16. Research progress and requirement analysis of envelope materials for near space airship%临近空间飞艇蒙皮材料研究进展和需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭惠丰; 刘羽熙; 刘宇艳; 杨宏林; 杨宇明; 施雷

    2012-01-01

    The near space airship has widespread and uninterrupted ability of efficient information capturing and transmitting, which is the future information platform recently developed warmly in the world. The envelope materials are the chief materials of the near space airship, and regarded as the foundation of developing the near space airship, whose mass and performance determine the size, service life and cost of the airship. Aiming at several difficulties existing in the selection and application of the envelope materials for the near space airship, and based on the project requirements of the envelope materials, several aspects of the research progress in the envelope materials were reviewed in this paper, including the strength, weatherability, barrier property and test evaluation method, and the direction of future research on the high performance envelope materials for the near space airship were discussed.%临近空间飞艇具有大范围不间断的高效信息获取与传输能力,是近期国际上竞相发展的未来信息平台。蒙皮材料是临近空间飞艇的主要材料,其质量和性能决定了飞艇的大小、寿命和成本,是发展临近空间飞艇的基础。本文中针对临近空间飞艇蒙皮材料选取和应用存在的若干困难,从蒙皮材料工程需求出发,对蒙皮材料的强度、耐候性、阻隔性和试验评价方法等方面的研究现状进行总结和分析,讨论未来高性能临近空间飞艇蒙皮材料的研究发展方向。

  17. A Method of Calculating Airship Dynamic Derivative Based on CFD Dynamic Mesh Technique%基于CFD动网格技术的飞艇动导数计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄龙太; 王红伟; 姜琬

    2013-01-01

    由于飞艇和飞机这两种飞行器在飞行原理、气动外形等方面都存在较大的差别,因此现有的飞机动导数工程估算公式和经验数据并不适用于飞艇动导数求解。为了解决上述问题,提出了一种新的基于CFD动网格技术的飞艇动导数计算方法。通过非结构化动网格技术,建立飞艇在流场中的强迫振动模型,采用有限体积法对N-S方程求解,研究飞艇在强迫振动中的气动特性变化规律,并基于数值计算结果求解飞艇的动导数。研究发现,得到的计算结果与风洞试验结果基本一致,表明基于CFD动网格技术进行飞艇的动导数求解是有效可行的。%There are many differences between airship and aircraft vehicle in flight theory , aerodynamic configuration etc ,which leads to a result that the aircraft dynamic derivative calculating equations and da-ta are not applicable to the airship .To solve this problem , a new dynamic derivative calculating method applied to airship on the basis of CFD dynamic mesh technique is presented .First,forced vibration model of the airship in the atmosphere is set up based on unstructured dynamic mesh method .Then, the finite volume method is adopted to solve N-S equations.Finally,the airship dynamic derivatives are figured out on the basis of numeric computing results .The study indicates that the results obtained from the new method has a good accordance with the wind tunnel test ,which confirms that the airship dynamic deriva-tive calculating method on the basis of CFD dynamic mesh technique is effective and feasible .

  18. Experiment teaching of unmanned airship low-altitude photogrammetry technology%无人飞艇低空摄影测量技术实验教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 刘凤英; 王志勇

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, some analysis on the photogrammetry experiment teaching of the current domestic universities and the employment needs of some mapping production units were given. In order to respond the policies of National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation for promoting the unmanned aerial vehicle system, and with the situation of our school's photogrammetry teaching and the laboratory's equipments such as the unmanned airship low-altitude photogrammetry system, some teaching reforms for photogrammetry experiment and the characteristic teaching projects of domestic universities based on the unmanned airship low-altitude photogrammetry system were done. By designing the reasonable experimental content and methods, the students could be interested in profession and exercise their practical ability. Then the teaching quality of photogrammetry could be improved .%本文分析了目前国内高校摄影测量实验教学情况和一些测绘生产单位的用人需求,积极响应国家测绘地理信息局对无人飞行器航测系统的推广政策,结合我校无人飞艇低空摄影测量系统等实验室现有的仪器设备和摄影测量教学现状,积极进行摄影测量实验教学改革,以无人飞艇航测系统为基础建立国内高校摄影测量特色实验教学项目,通过设计合理的实验教学内容和方法,培养学生对专业的兴趣,锻练学生的实践动手能力,提升摄影测量学教学质量.

  19. Land drainage system detection using IR and visual imagery taken from autonomous mapping airship and evaluation of physical and spatial parameters of suggested method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, Bronislav; Křemen, Tomáš; Štroner, Martin; Pospíšil, Jiří; Jirka, Vladimír.

    2014-10-01

    An experimental approach to the land drainage system detection and its physical and spatial parameters evaluation by the form of pilot project is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is partly based on using of unique unmanned aerial vehicle - airship with some specific properties. The most important parameters are carrying capacity (15 kg) and long flight time (3 hours). A special instrumentation was installed for physical characteristic testing in the locality too. The most important is 30 meter high mast with 3 meter length bracket at the top with sensors recording absolute and comparative temperature, humidity and wind speed and direction in several heights of the mast. There were also installed several measuring units recording local condition in the area. Recorded data were compared with IR images taken from airship platform. The locality is situated around village Domanín in the Czech Republic and has size about 1.8 x 1.5 km. There was build a land drainage system during the 70-ties of the last century which is made from burnt ceramic blocks placed about 70 cm below surface. The project documentation of the land drainage system exists but real state surveying haveńt been never realized. The aim of the project was land surveying of land drainage system based on infrared, visual and its combination high resolution orthophotos (10 cm for VIS and 30 cm for IR) and spatial and physical parameters evaluation of the presented procedure. The orthophoto in VIS and IR spectrum and its combination seems to be suitable for the task.

  20. Drag reduction of high altitude airships by active boundary layer control. Effect of a cusp on the reduction; Nodo kyokaiso seigyo ni yoru koso hikosen no teiko teigen. Cusp ni yoru teigen koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuuchi, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Sasaki, A. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Onda, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-25

    The aerodynamic character of station-keeping airships at high Reynolds numbers is examined. The boundary layer developing on the surface is sucked by an axial flow fan through a slot located at the rear part of the airship and the sucked gas is blown out as a jet. To know the effect of the cusp two models with and without a cusp attached to the inlet of the suction slot were used. The flow field near the inlet, in particular the pressure on the surface, was measured as the suction discharge was varied. We obtained the form drag by integrating the pressure distribution in a wide range of Reynolds number and of suction discharge. Taking into account the jet thrust and the calculated friction drag, we finally determined the total drag and evaluated the role of the cusp. It was found that the cusp plays an efficient role in reducing the drag. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  1. 基于遗传算法的临近空间飞艇多学科优化设计%Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Near Space Airship Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕初; 王生; 顾逸东; 李英堂

    2012-01-01

    Facing to the problem of designing of the near space airship, a new MDO method based on genetic algorithm has been developed. First, the theoretic framework was built and an optimization program was designed. Then, a MDO method integrating aerodynamics, structure, and strength was introduced. And a genetic algorithm was used to optimize airship shape, which concludes a composite objective function. Finally, a practical case was provided. Results from the CA show that when designing an airship, besides the drag of airship and system weight, structural strength and other factors should also be taken into account.%临近空间飞艇设计中,确定系统总体参数、给出优化的艇体外形十分关键,针对传统设计方法,为改进其中串行设计的不足,提出了并行多学科优化设计方法;并基于遗传算法开展了飞艇外形优化设计方法研究,结合气动、结构、强度进行了一体化优化.仿真结果表明利用遗传算法开展飞艇多学科优化是可行的,另外在进行设计时,不能仅将减阻作为研究重点,还应全面考虑结构重量、强度等其它因素.

  2. GENERAL PARAMETER DESIGN OF PV POWER ENERGY SYSTEM OF STRATOSPHERIC AIRSHIP%平流层飞艇光伏能源系统总体参数设计与计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张衍垒; 李兆杰; 张向强

    2013-01-01

    针对平流层飞艇光伏能源系统设计中涉及的薄膜太阳电池布设量及储能电池容量确定的问题,提出一种计算方法.基于该方法,建立太阳辐射物理模型和实体飞艇四边形网格划分几何模型,分别针对太阳电池布设量最少或能源系统总质量最小两种目标要求设计能源系统的总体参数,并对算例飞艇进行仿真计算.结果表明,利用该方法可方便地确定出平流层飞艇光伏能源系统的总体设计参数.%A calculation method was proposed for the designing the amount of thin film solar cells and storage battery used in the PV power system of stratospheric airships, and the solar radiation model and quadrilateral mesh model of the airship was set up based on the method. It could be used to design the parameters of the PV power system for different requirements such as seeking the minimum amount of solar cells or the minimum weight of energy system. A simulation was conducted to a specified airship. The results indicate that the parameters of the PV power system for stratospheric airship can be easily determined with this method.

  3. 基于遗传算法的平流层飞艇航迹规划方法研究%The Research of Route Planning for Stratospheric Airships Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雷; 李勇; 李智斌

    2011-01-01

    Research and simulation analysis of route planning of stratospheric airships were carried out in the paper. Firstly, considering the stratospheric airship's flight characteristics, its motion equations and wind models were established. Then a cost function of the airship flight energy consumption was formulated based on proper assumptions. Finally, the approach of genetic algorithm was presented for searching optimal route. The ex ample numerical simulations showed that the genetic algorithm was able to quickly, stably converge to the optimal solution, and it was an effective approach for solving this kind of problem; the cost function made in this paper could reflect airship ' s flight characteristics and it was sensitive to the wind environment.%文章针对平流层飞艇驻空阶段航迹规划问题进行研究和仿真分析.考虑平流层飞艇自身飞行的特点,建立其运动学方程和风场模型,并在适当假设基础上,构造能够反映其飞行能耗的代价函数.最后采用遗传算法进行算例计算,求解平流层飞艇最优轨迹.仿真结果表明,遗传算法能够有效、快速地收敛并稳定至问题的最优解;其所构造的代价函数能够反映飞艇自身飞行特点,并敏感于外界风场环境.

  4. 舵面故障情况下推力矢量在飞艇中的应用研究%The Application of Thrust Vector in Airship with Control Surface Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾瑞; 吴梅

    2013-01-01

    Thrust vector control technology is an advanced thrust control program, and can help or even replace control surfaces to accomplish certain flight purpose when applied in airship. The mathematical model of airship with thrust vector was establishied, common failure forms of control surfaces was analysed and the compensation and reconfiguration of thrust vector against control surface failure was researched. Simulation result shows that the thrust vector can control airship with control surface failure effectivelly, as a result, the security and reliability of airship are enhanced.%推力矢量控制技术是一种先进的推力控制方案,将其应用于飞艇的飞行控制,可以在飞艇低速气动舵面失效或者舵面故障等特殊情况下,辅助甚至替代舵面控制飞艇正常飞行.建立了考虑推力矢量的飞艇数学模型,增加了飞艇的控制余度,分析了飞艇常见的舵面故障形式,研究了推力矢量对飞艇舵面故障的补偿和重构.仿真结果表明,推力矢量可以在舵面故障情况下对飞艇进行有效的控制,提高飞艇飞行的安全性和可靠性.

  5. 中性浮力下飞艇的自适应镇定与轨迹跟踪%Adaptive Stabilization and Trajectory Tracking of Airship with Neutral Buoyancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 屈卫东; 席裕庚; 蔡自立

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive nonlinear control solution to the horizontal motion of an autonomous airship. We define a novel family of error functions including configuration error and velocity error. Then, we establish the error system. The adaptive nonlinear controller stabilizing the error system is designed by Lyapunov direct method and Matrosov theorem. Numerical studies are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  6. 雨刮电机在无人飞艇涵道控制系统中的应用%Application of the wiper in unmanned airship ducted control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭平

    2011-01-01

    The wiper as a drive body,is designed the corresponding control circuit to form a new ducted device.It can be used to drive ducted deflection of the small and medium unmanned airship,to ensure the safety of the Unmanned airship take off and landing.This drive device verified by a variety of unmanned airship,is characterized by control simple,light weight,small size and low-cost etc.%将雨刮电机作为驱动机构,设计相应控制电路,组成一种新的飞艇涵道驱动设备,可用来驱动中小型无人飞艇涵道的偏转,从而确保无人飞艇起飞和降落的安全。经多种无人飞艇使用表明,该驱动设备具有控制简单、重量轻、体积小和成本低廉等特点。

  7. Application of Ducted Fan in Unmanned Airship Pressure Control System%涵道风扇在无人飞艇压力调节系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭平; 李万明

    2011-01-01

    Configuring the corresponding control circuit for ducted fan to form a new inflatable device, which can be used to inflate the ballonet of small unmanned airship for solving problems of small flow and high-cost of unmanned airship traditional pressure control system fan. This inflatable device verified by a variety of unmanned airship models, is characterized by large air volume, light weight, small size and low-cost etc.%将涵道风扇作为一种充气设备,配置相应的控制电路,就可用来对中小型无人飞艇副气囊进行充气,以解决无人飞艇传统压力调节系统风机风量小和价格昂贵等需求矛盾.这种充气设备经多种无人飞艇型号实际应用,具有风量大、重量轻、体积小和价格便宜等优点.

  8. Airship-windmill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelsman, G.J.

    1984-09-11

    From one or more lighter than air bodies, carrying wind energy catching rotor devices, like windmills, turbines or the like, the caught energy is mechanically transmitted to earth by at least one endless cable-rope transmission. Each of the cables is led over an individual sheave fitted to a turntable on earth (ground, ship, float or so), from which it drives a stationary machine, like a generator or such, and cable guide rolls are provided as needed. All functions of forcetransmission, consisting of energy transmission, wind-resistance and upward-floating forces and steering are performed by the turntable through the endless energy transmission cable(s), and no tethering or other force-transmitting cables are applied. In addition a loose, very low tensioned communication line for control, gas supply and the like extends from the turntalbe to the floating parts. Cable guide rolls are provided as needed. The design aims for a simple installation which avoids cables getting entangled when wind direction changes suddenly or in absolute calm.

  9. La instrumentación virtual aplicada a un banco experimental de centraje de aeronaves. // Virtual instrumentation applied to an experimental bank for centering diameter of airships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analizan los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas basados en macros abiertos de trabajo, para larealización de mediciones del centro de gravedad de aeronaves utilizando herramientas virtuales de análisis yprocesamientos a través de un sistema de adquisición de datos. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados unaidea global del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como lametodología seguida para medir el centro de gravedad de aeronaves. Estos métodos pueden ser adaptados y extendidos aotras ramas dentro de la mecánica, si se poseen los medios tecnológicos para el diseño experimental de medición, con elobjetivo de medir no-solo el centro de gravedad, sino elementos como los momentos de inercia de los cuerpos nohomogéneos, las deformaciones elásticas de determinados cuerpos, etc. También se expone aspectos generales del soportede software utilizado para el desarrollo del instrumento virtual diseñado al efecto, los cuales proveen a científicos eingenieros de herramientas para satisfacer necesidades propias de instrumentación y automatización.Palabras claves: Diámetro central de aeronaves, instrumento virtual, centro de gravedad, centro de masas,medición experimental.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this paper the methods for the elaboration of systems based on open macros and the realization of mensurations of center ofgravity of airships by using virtual tools of analysis and prosecutions through a system of data acquisition. The different topicsapproached give the interested parties a global idea of the development of this computacional technology and their application tobranches of mechanics, as well as the followed methodology to measure the center of gravity of airships. These methods can beadapted and extended to other branches inside the mechanics, if the technological means are

  10. Airship Observations of Formaldehyde in the Po Valley as a Probe of Boundary Layer Development and Non-Classical Radical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stagnant meteorological conditions and high anthropogenic emissions make the Po Valley in Northern Italy one of Europe's most polluted regions. Understanding the processes controlling ozone production in this environment is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies. As both a source of HO2 radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads to ozone production. During the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls Climate Interaction Study (PEGASOS), HCHO measurements were acquired via a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FiLIF) instrument onboard a Zeppelin airship. This mission represents the first successful airborne deployment of the FiLIF instrument. With low flight speeds and vertical profiling capabilities, these Zeppelin-based observations in conjunction with other measurements may offer new insights into the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric composition within the Po Valley region. Preliminary comparisons of modeled and measured HCHO concentrations at various altitudes and VOC/NOx regimes will be presented. Analysis will focus on 1) the transition from nocturnal to daytime boundary layers, and 2) the potential role of "non-classical" radical chemistry in ozone production.

  11. Structural performance analysis of a flexible airship and its suspended curtain%柔性飞艇及其悬挂屏体系结构力学性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇峰; 陈务军; 何艳丽; 张大旭

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the structural performance of a large flexible airship and its suspended curtain structure , the 1 ∶ 3 scaled ZY-1 demonstration airship was used to simulate the structural performance of the self-e-quilibrium system which was subjected to only pressure differences and an equilibrium system under weight and buoyancy. Based on the initial geometry configuration of the flexible airship envelop, the deformed equilibrium shape and stress are obtained by nonlinear structural analysis under inner pressure. Based on the block Lanczos method, the natural vibration performance was analyzed for the flexible airship with a suspended curtain of two e-quilibrium systems. The effects of the manufacturing errors of the suspended cable length on the structural behavior were analyzed. The results indicate that the local area of the airship envelope connected to the suspended cable is the weak part. Various pressure differences and pressure gradients have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the suspended curtain. The mechanical properties of the suspended curtain may be altered because of manufacturing errors with the suspended cable length which could result in deformation of the local airship enve-lope.%为研究大型柔性飞艇及其悬挂屏结构体系力学性能,以25 m验证飞艇( ZY-1)放大3倍的模型为对象,分析了仅考虑内外压差自平衡体系和考虑浮力、重力的平衡体系结构性能。基于柔性飞艇主气囊初始形状,通过充气压力静力非线性分析得到充气平衡形态位形和应力。利用兰索斯法分析了含悬挂屏飞艇结构在2种平衡体系中不同气压下的自振特性;探讨了悬挂屏悬索制作误差对自振特性影响。分析表明:悬挂屏悬索与囊体连接部位是飞艇的薄弱部位,囊体的内外压差和压力梯度的大小对悬挂屏力学性能影响显著;悬挂屏悬索制作误差导致囊体局部形变,从而改变悬挂屏力学性能。

  12. 柔性飞艇及其悬挂屏体系结构力学性能分析%Structural performance analysis of a flexible airship and its suspended curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇峰; 陈务军; 何艳丽; 张大旭

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the structural performance of a large flexible airship and its suspended curtain structure , the 1 ∶ 3 scaled ZY-1 demonstration airship was used to simulate the structural performance of the self-e-quilibrium system which was subjected to only pressure differences and an equilibrium system under weight and buoyancy. Based on the initial geometry configuration of the flexible airship envelop, the deformed equilibrium shape and stress are obtained by nonlinear structural analysis under inner pressure. Based on the block Lanczos method, the natural vibration performance was analyzed for the flexible airship with a suspended curtain of two e-quilibrium systems. The effects of the manufacturing errors of the suspended cable length on the structural behavior were analyzed. The results indicate that the local area of the airship envelope connected to the suspended cable is the weak part. Various pressure differences and pressure gradients have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the suspended curtain. The mechanical properties of the suspended curtain may be altered because of manufacturing errors with the suspended cable length which could result in deformation of the local airship enve-lope.%为研究大型柔性飞艇及其悬挂屏结构体系力学性能,以25 m验证飞艇( ZY-1)放大3倍的模型为对象,分析了仅考虑内外压差自平衡体系和考虑浮力、重力的平衡体系结构性能。基于柔性飞艇主气囊初始形状,通过充气压力静力非线性分析得到充气平衡形态位形和应力。利用兰索斯法分析了含悬挂屏飞艇结构在2种平衡体系中不同气压下的自振特性;探讨了悬挂屏悬索制作误差对自振特性影响。分析表明:悬挂屏悬索与囊体连接部位是飞艇的薄弱部位,囊体的内外压差和压力梯度的大小对悬挂屏力学性能影响显著;悬挂屏悬索制作误差导致囊体局部形变,从而改变悬挂屏力学性能。

  13. 飞艇应急通信系统在抗灾救援中的重大应用磁%Significant Application of Airship Emergency Communication System in Disaster Relief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾文恺; 王大华

    2014-01-01

    Analysis demonstrates that our existing emergency communication system can't satisfactorily meet the needs of disaster relief .To solve this problem ,the airship emergency communication system which consist of an airship equipped with emergency communications equipment is presented in this paper .The structure and function of the system is designed . The altitude of airship ,communication frequency selection ,antenna design requirements ,communications coverage and other technical indicators are analyzed and calculated .This system not only has many outstanding advantages but also has broad prospects in the emergency communications needs ,in military applications of information technology .%分析表明,我国现有的应急通信系统均不能良好地满足抗灾救援的需求。为了解决此问题,论文提出了一种利用飞艇搭载应急通信设备构成的飞艇应急通信系统,对系统的结构和功能进行了设计,对系统中飞艇的飞行高度、通信频率的选择、天线设计要求、通信覆盖范围等技术指标进行了分析和计算。该系统不仅在满足抗灾救援过程中应急通信需求上具有多方面的突出优势,并且在信息化条件下的军事应用方面也有着广阔的前景。

  14. Sliding Mode Control.with Compensation by Wavelet Neural Network for Stratosphere Airship%基于小波神经网络补偿的飞艇滑模控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 吴红芳

    2011-01-01

    The Stratospheric airship has the characteristics of nonlinear and slowly time-varying parameters, etc. It also affected by the gusts and atmospheric turbulence in endurance, so the backstepping sliding mode technique is used to implement the robust attitude control of the airship and ensure the system to stability. To avoid the inherent chattering in variable structure control,the self- recurrent wavelet neural networks (SRWNN) are employed to adjust the size of the switch gain in real time. The self - recurrent elements of SRWNN can overcome the oscillation properties of wavelet functions, making estimation more smooth. Digital simulation results show that the controller can adapt to the change of structural parameters of the airship and the impact of external disturbances,and make the system get strong robustness and good dynamic performance.%平流层飞艇具有非线性、参数慢时变等特征,在滞空期间,还受到阵风及大气紊流的影响.将反推滑模技术用于实现飞艇姿态的鲁棒控制,保证了系统稳定.为避免变结构控制中固有的抖振现象,使用自回归小波神经网络(Self-Recurrent Wavelet Neural Networks,SRWNN)实时调整开关增益的大小,网络的自回归单元可以克服小波函数的振荡特性,使得估计更为平滑.仿真结果表明:控制器能够适应飞艇结构参数变化及外部扰动的影响,获得强的鲁棒性与好的动态性能.

  15. 临近空间飞艇内部自然对流的流场特征仿真%Simulation on flow field characteristics of natural convection inside near space airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    针对临近空间飞艇,对其内部氦气的自然对流特征进行了数值模拟。采用计算流体力学方法,并利用自编的用户自定义函数将外部的温度边界条件导入壁面网格。在不同的稳态条件下,通过对内部氦气压力、温度、速度的分布等流场特征参数的研究,分析了临近空间飞艇内部气体自然对流的运动特性及其影响规律,并对自然对流非稳态变化过程进行了初步的探索。仿真结果表明,在临近空间环境下,飞艇内部氦气的自然对流,对于内部氦气自身的热交换具有一定程度的促进作用,而对蒙皮受力和结构安全性影响很小。%Aiming at the near space airship,the natural convection characteristics of the helium inside an airship were simulated numerically. On the basis of the computational fluid dynamics method and user-defined function,external temperature boundary condition was imported into the wall grids.Under conditions of different steady states,the motion characteristics and influence regulations of gas natural convection inside the airship were analyzed by researching the characteristic parameters of flow field,such as distribution of pressure,temperature,speed.Besides,the unstable change process of natural convection was also studied preliminarily.The simulation results show that natural convection of helium inside a near space airship has some active influence on heat exchange of inside helium,but the influence is very weak on stressed skin and structural safety.

  16. Simulation on flow field characteristics of natural convection inside near space airship%临近空间飞艇内部自然对流的流场特征仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the near space airship,the natural convection characteristics of the helium inside an airship were simulated numerically. On the basis of the computational fluid dynamics method and user-defined function,external temperature boundary condition was imported into the wall grids.Under conditions of different steady states,the motion characteristics and influence regulations of gas natural convection inside the airship were analyzed by researching the characteristic parameters of flow field,such as distribution of pressure,temperature,speed.Besides,the unstable change process of natural convection was also studied preliminarily.The simulation results show that natural convection of helium inside a near space airship has some active influence on heat exchange of inside helium,but the influence is very weak on stressed skin and structural safety.%针对临近空间飞艇,对其内部氦气的自然对流特征进行了数值模拟。采用计算流体力学方法,并利用自编的用户自定义函数将外部的温度边界条件导入壁面网格。在不同的稳态条件下,通过对内部氦气压力、温度、速度的分布等流场特征参数的研究,分析了临近空间飞艇内部气体自然对流的运动特性及其影响规律,并对自然对流非稳态变化过程进行了初步的探索。仿真结果表明,在临近空间环境下,飞艇内部氦气的自然对流,对于内部氦气自身的热交换具有一定程度的促进作用,而对蒙皮受力和结构安全性影响很小。

  17. Simulating Parameter Matching for Propulsion System of High Altitude Airship%高空飞艇推进系统参数匹配设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈声麒; 宋笔锋; 王海峰

    2013-01-01

    进行临近空间飞艇推进系统动态性能仿真可以预先调整部件参数,优化推进系统效率,减小太阳电池和锂电池重量。利用Matlab/Simulink建模仿真工具,通过对稀土永磁无刷直流电机多个独立功能模块的建立和组合,构建了基于PID以及PI控制的转速、电流双闭环串级控制电机仿真模型;根据螺旋桨的运动方程建立了螺旋桨的动态仿真模型。按照电机和螺旋桨的扭矩、转速匹配关系对各仿真模块进行协同化处理。利用集成化仿真模型,进行推进系统各部件参数匹配。得出推进系统功率30 kW时不同桨径推进系统的动态响应特性以及不同高度下最佳减速比,得出了6.8 m桨径推进系统的最佳额定工作点及其工作区域。%The dynamic simulation of the performance of the propulsion system of a high-altitude airship can adjust the parameters of the energy-consuming parts in advance , enhance its efficiency and reduce the weights of a solar cell and lithium battery .We use the MATLAB/Simulink and the PID and PI controls to establish the simulation model of the rotational speed and current double-loop serial control motor by building and integrating the multiple independent functional modules of a rare-earth permanent magnet brushless DC motor .We also use the motion e-quation of the propeller of the high-altitude airship to establish its dynamic simulation model .Then we integrate all the simulation modules with the matching between the torque of the DC motor and the rotational speed of the propel -ler.With the integrated simulation modules , we match the parameters of all the parts of the propulsion system .The simulation results, given in Figs.2 through 6, and their analysis show preliminarily that deceleration ratio of the propulsion system decreases with increasing altitude .Thus we obtain the optimal deceleration ratio of the propulsion system at different altitudes and the dynamic response

  18. The Development Status and Trend of Large Troposphere Airship Abroad%国外大型对流层飞艇发展现状、特点与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金明; 龙飞

    2015-01-01

    美国、德国等发达国家在大型对流层飞艇研发、应用等方面一直处于世界先进水平。介绍了目前国外大型对流层飞艇的发展现状,分析了现有大型对流层飞艇的发展特点、关键技术与未来的发展趋势。未来,大型对流层飞艇将主要向长航时、大载重、多功能、一体化等方向发展。%The developed countries such as America and Germany represent the advanced world levels in the development and application of large troposphere airship. The development status of large troposphere airship abroad was introduced, as well as the development characteristics, key technology and future trend of which were analyzed. In the future, the main trend of development is long-endurance, large payload, multifunction and integrated.

  19. The Development Status and Trend of Large Troposphere Airship Abroad%国外大型对流层飞艇发展现状、特点与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金明; 龙飞

    2015-01-01

    The developed countries such as America and Germany represent the advanced world levels in the development and application of large troposphere airship. The development status of large troposphere airship abroad was introduced, as well as the development characteristics, key technology and future trend of which were analyzed. In the future, the main trend of development is long-endurance, large payload, multifunction and integrated.%美国、德国等发达国家在大型对流层飞艇研发、应用等方面一直处于世界先进水平。介绍了目前国外大型对流层飞艇的发展现状,分析了现有大型对流层飞艇的发展特点、关键技术与未来的发展趋势。未来,大型对流层飞艇将主要向长航时、大载重、多功能、一体化等方向发展。

  20. Orientation of the National Policy on Technology---With the Rise and Fall of the German Rigid Airship Technology as Reference%国家政策对技术的导向--以德国硬式飞艇技术的兴衰为关照点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋琳; 刘璐

    2013-01-01

    In the first 40 years of the twentieth century, German rigid airship technology had been prosperous in the field of aviation, called as“era of airship”, but it was ended with a sudden stop by the order of Nazi government. In the article, the author analyses the effects of policy intervention on airship technical development and believes that national policy intervention, national identity sense making, war preparing, the education mode had great influence on the rise and fall of the rigid airship technology development in Germany. Based on this case study, several principles are laid out in order to improve the results of national policy intervention on technology research.%德国硬式飞艇技术曾经在20世纪的前40年代活跃于航空领域,并创造了一个“飞艇时代”,但是这种兴盛并没有得以延续。文章在国家政策干预技术发展的框架下对其进行分析,认为德国政府推行的经济干预政策、制造的民族认同感、以及战争中作战方案的制定和教育模式的形成,对硬式飞艇技术的兴衰具有重要意义。

  1. Measurements of HOx radicals and the total OH reactivity (kOH) in the planetary boundary layer over southern Finland aboard the Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, Sebastian; Gomm, Sebastian; Fuchs, Hendrik; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Bachner, Mathias; Bohn, Birger; Häseler, Rolf; Jäger, Julia; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Thayer, Mitchell; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The concentration of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO2) radicals (also named HOx) and the total OH reactivity were measured over southern Finland and during transfer flights over Germany, Denmark and Sweden aboard the Zeppelin NT airship within the framework of the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls-climate interaction Study (PEGASOS) field campaign in 2013. The measurements were performed with a remotely controlled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) instrument which was installed on top of the airship. Together with a comprehensive set of trace gas (O3, CO, NO, NO2, HCHO, HONO, VOCs), photolysis frequencies and aerosol measurements as well as the measurement of meteorological parameters, these data provide the possibility to test the current understanding of the chemical processes in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over different landscapes and in different chemical regimes. The unique flight performance of the Zeppelin NT allowed us to measure transects at a constant altitude as well as vertical profiles within the range of 80 m to 1000 m above ground. The transect flights show changes in the HOx distribution and kOH while crossing different chemical regimes on the way from Friedrichshafen, Germany to Jämijärvi, Finland over Germany, Denmark and Sweden. Vertical profile flights over the boreal forest close to Jämijärvi and Hyytiälä (both Finland) gave the opportunity to investigate the layering of the PBL and with that the vertical distribution of HOx and kOH with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Gradients in the HOx concentration and kOH were measured between the different layers during the early morning hours. The maximum radical concentrations found during the campaign were 1.0 x 107 cm-3 for OH and 1.0 x 109 cm-3 for HO2. The total OH reactivity measured in Finland was much lower than what was reported before in the literature from ground based measurements and ranged from 1 s-1 to 6 s-1. Acknowledgement: PEGASOS project funded by the European

  2. Successful test flight of an airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the Balloon Aircraft Research Center (BARC) of the Academy of Opto-electronics, CAS, succeeded in their first test flight of an aeroboat with a flight altitude up to 1,000 meters and an effective payload of 20 kilograms in Shandong on 25 December, 2007.

  3. LOW ALTITUDE AIRSHIPS FOR SEAMLESS MOBILE COMMUNICATION IN AIR TRAVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu D; Santhoshkumar M K; Swarnalatha Srinivas; Narendra Kumar G

    2014-01-01

    The Aviation Administration policy prohibits the use of mobile phones in Aircraft during transition for the reason it may harm their communication system due to Electromagnetic interference. In case the user wants to access cellular network at higher altitudes, base station access is a problem. Large number of channels are allocated to a single user moving at high speed by various Base Stations in the vicinity to service the request requiring more resources. Low Altitude Platfo...

  4. AUTONOMOUS AIRSHIP EQUIPPED BY MULTI-SENSOR MAPPING PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Jon, J.; B. Koska; J. Pospíšil

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the project is to create measuring system with specific properties suitable for effective mapping of medium-wide areas (units to tens of square kilometers). The system should be useful especially for ranges that are too large for conventional surveying with GNSS or total station and too small for use of manned air vehicles from economical and accuracy point of view. Accessories of the system will allow e.g. collecting data for urban area modeling, creating thermometric geo...

  5. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    OpenAIRE

    Frantisek Jelenciak; Michael Gerke; Ulrich Borgolte

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM) as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a...

  6. Soft Computing Control System of an Unmanned Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Wei Kitt; Ali Chekima; J. A. Dhargam; Wong, F; T. A..Tabet

    2010-01-01

    Soft computing control system have been applied in various applications particularly in the fields of robotics controls. The advantage of having a soft computing controls methods is that it enable more flexibility to the control system compared with conventional model based controls system. Firstly, soft computing methods enable a transfer of human controls and thinking into the machine via training. Secondly it is more robust to error compared to conventional model...

  7. A Solar Power System for High Altitude Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiang

    This research is intended to produce a power system suitable for an aerostat operating at 67,500 ft and powered only by solar energy. A battery will be charged during daylight hours and will then power the system whenever adequate sunlight is not available. To obtain adequate solar energy, it is necessary to mount solar panels on several different surfaces such as the top, two sides, and the front of the aerostat. Although power can be provided by all of these panels, their output curves can vary widely because of various levels of solar intensity. These panels should not be connected in parallel because the higher power panels will be loaded by the lower power panels. Therefore a system that provides peak power tracking (PPT) for each of the panel surfaces is proposed in this research. Moreover, in order to guarantee the safety of the battery, a battery management system (BMS) is included. Embedded systems are applied to the solar power system to realize the PPT and BMS functions. Communication between PPTs and the BMS is implemented by a CAN (Controller Area Network) serial data link. A 1500W Laboratory Prototype will be developed to validate the feasibility of the proposed solar power system for the aerostat.

  8. The transport of nuclear power plant components. [via airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, S. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of transporting nuclear power plant components to landlocked sites where the usual mode of transport by barge cannot be used are considered. Existing methods of ground-based overland transport are discussed and their costs presented. Components are described and traffic density projections made to the year 2000. Plots of units transported versus distance transported are provided for units booked in 1973 and booked and proposed in 1974. It is shown that, for these cases, overland transport requirements for the industry will be over 5,000,000 ton-miles/year while a projection based on increasing energy demands shows that this figure will increase significantly by the year 2000. The payload size, distances, and costs of existing overland modes are significant enough to consider development of a lighter than air (LTA) mode for transporting NSSS components.

  9. System identification approach for determining flight dynamical characteristics of an airship from flight data

    OpenAIRE

    Kornienko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge of dynamical characteristics of a flight vehicle is necessary for the control system design and realization of high fidelity flight simulators. The development of a flight mechanical model and determination of its basic components, as for example mass properties and the major aerodynamic terms, addresses a complex process involving various analytical, numerical and experimental techniques. The objective of this dissertation is a determination of the basic dynamical character...

  10. Exploiting Attitude Sensing in Vision-Based Navigation for an Airship

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Dias; Mirisola, Luiz G. B.

    2009-01-01

    An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) is used to compensate for rotational motion, facilitating vision-based navigation above smooth terrain by generating virtual images to simulate pure translation movement. The AHRS combines inertial and earth field magnetic sensors to provide absolute orientation measurements, and our recently developed calibration routine determines the rotation between the frames of reference of the AHRS and the monocular camera. In this way, the rotation is compen...

  11. The role of radio in rescuing the survivors of the airship Italia

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Harvey M.; Cala-Lazar, Philip

    2008-01-01

    During WWI, rapid technical advances led to the development of relatively small and efficient short wave transmitters and receivers. By the mid-1920s, explorers of the polar regions were using such equipment to communicate with their home bases, and for direction finding. This was prior to the widespread use of radio for voice transmission, and hence all operators were skilled in the use of the International Morse code.

  12. Flight dynamics analysis and simulation of heavy lift airships. Volume 2: Technical manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Emmen, R. D.; Ashkenas, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical models embodied in the simulation are described in considerable detail and with supporting evidence for the model forms chosen. In addition the trimming and linearization algorithms used in the simulation are described. Appendices to the manual identify reference material for estimating the needed coefficients for the input data and provide example simulation results.

  13. Airship-based observations of formaldehyde in the planetary boundary layer over rural Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Mitchell; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank; Bachner, Mathias; Broch, Sebastian; Bohn, Birger; Fuchs, Hendrik; Gomm, Sebastian; Häseler, Rolf; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Jäger, Julia; Li, Xin; Lohse, Insa; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Mentel, Thomas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important tracer for oxidative processes in the atmosphere such as oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and production of HO2 radicals (by photolysis or reaction with OH). Products of VOC oxidation and radical cycling, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone, have direct impacts on human health. During the Pan-European Gas-AeroSOls Climate Interaction Study (PEGASOS), HCHO measurements were obtained together with OH reactivity, OH, HO2, CO, O3, NOx, HONO, HONO, VOCs, and aerosol particle size distribution. HCHO concentration was measured by the Madison FIber Laser-Induced Fluorescence (FILIF) instrument, optimized for flight campaigns to accommodate size and power requirements. Here we present data collected in rural areas near Jämijärvi, Finland in Spring 2013. Finland provides a pristine environment, allowing investigation of primarily biogenic emission and cycles. Measurements were carried out aboard a Zeppelin, which flew vertical profiles ranging in altitude from ~ 200 - 1000 meters. In this way, we studied the height-dependent evolution of the lower atmosphere, in which most VOC oxidation chemistry occurs. Flights were carried out with starting times ranging from sunrise to post-sunset. We present overall trends seen during the campaign of HCHO and related species within the context of VOC oxidation and secondary pollutant production.

  14. Steam Man and Airships: Technology of the Future in the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Caroline C.; Carano, Kenneth T.; Berson, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Frank Reade dime novels, published in 1882, that are now recognized as the beginnings of the modern science fiction novel in the United States. They illustrate the hope that Americans of the time held for the future that newly invented technology could offer. Although the Frank Reade stories highlighted the promise of…

  15. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airship. A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight in an airship must receive and... ascending and descending flight and altitude control; (11) Control of the airship solely by reference...

  16. Basic relationships for LTA technical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction to airship performance is presented. Static lift equations are shown which, when combined with power requirements for conventional airships, allow parametric studies of range, payload, speed and airship size. It is shown that very large airships are required to attain reasonable speeds at transoceanic ranges.

  17. 14 CFR 61.57 - Recent flight experience: Pilot in command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplane, powered-lift, helicopter, or airship for maintaining instrument experience. Within the 6 calendar... and iterations in an airplane, powered-lift, helicopter, or airship, as appropriate, for the... airplane, powered-lift, helicopter, or airship, as appropriate, for the instrument rating privileges to...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 141 - Private Pilot Certification Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-lift. (f) Glider. (g) Lighter-than-air airship. (h) Lighter-than-air balloon. 2. Eligibility for... rating. (4) 35 hours of training if the course is for a lighter-than-air category with an airship class..., powered-lift, or airship rating. (2) 6 hours of training if the course is for a glider rating. (3) 8...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 141 - Commercial Pilot Certification Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-lift. (f) Glider. (g) Lighter-than-air airship. (h) Lighter-than-air balloon. 2. Eligibility for... rating. (2) 65 hours of training if the course is for a lighter-than-air category with an airship class...-lift rating. (2) 155 hours of training if the course is for an airship rating. (3) 115 hours...

  20. Modélisation et Commande d’un Dirigeable Propulsé par la Force de Flottabilité

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaotao,

    2011-01-01

    A new concept of airship without thrust, elevator or rudder is considered in this thesis. It is actuatedby a moving mass and a mass-adjustable internal air bladder. This results into the motion ofthe center of gravity and the change of the net lift. The development of this concept of airship ismotivated by energy saving. An eight degrees-of-freedom complete nonlinear mathematical model ofthis airship is derived through the Newton-Euler approach. The interconnection between the airship’srigid ...

  1. Truck-Mounted Testing System Design and Validation for the Propeller of High Altitude Airships%高空飞艇螺旋桨车载试验系统设计与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦俊; 宋笔锋; 张玉刚; 李育斌

    2015-01-01

    In order to get enough experimental data of propellers operating in the low Reynolds number, high Mach number flight environment, a truck⁃mounted testing technology which used to be applied in aerodynamic propeller test, is proposed in this paper to solve the problem. The system uses an assembled sensor balance to measure the force and torque of the propeller,and according to the trucked mounted experimental characteristic, electric genera⁃tor, voltage stabilizer, anemometer and barometer were applied for supplying stable power and indicating the experi⁃mental atmospheric conditions. Due to the advantages of the LABVIEW graphical programming platform, the control and measurement process became easy and intelligent. At last, a 6. 8 meter propeller model experiments were carried out for different altitudes with different atmosphere densities;results obtained from the truck mounted exper⁃iments agree fairly well with those of the numerical simulation, which verifies the accuracy of the testing system.%针对高空飞艇螺旋桨低雷诺数高马赫数的气动特性,设计了一种车载试验测控系统,将螺旋桨、电机、电源和测控设备等安装在运输车上,通过改变螺旋桨试验海拔高度改变试验环境大气参数,得到不同密度下的螺旋桨性能。该测控系统使用一种组合式传感器天平,利用基于虚拟仪器的Lab⁃VIEW开发软件实现了试验数据采集和仪器控制,并根据车载试验的特点提出了车载试验的数据处理方法。通过对比分析车载试验的结果和CFD计算数据可知,二者基本吻合,从而验证了高空飞艇螺旋桨车载试验测控系统的可行性。

  2. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave. // Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of the profile of the airship wing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una funciónanalítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodoscomputacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelosmatemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseñosasistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una ideaglobal del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodologíaseguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la funciónAUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Palabras claves: perfil de alas, modelos matemáticos, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, medición experimental.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analyticfunction of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration ofsystem of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used todeveloping the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interestedparties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanicalspecialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposedof the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.Key words: Wing profiles, mathematical models, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, experimental measurement.

  3. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave. // Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of the profile of the airship wing.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Cabrera Pedroso; L. Pestana Álvarez; J. Wellesley-Bourke Funcasta

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una funciónanalítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodoscomputacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelosmatemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseñosasistidos por computadoras e...

  4. Data Processing of Boxing County Unmanned Airship Low-altitude Aerial Survey%博兴县无人飞艇低空航摄测量数据处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰; 潘宝玉

    2012-01-01

    介绍了无人飞艇低空航摄测量系统,利用此系统对博兴县城区约15 km2的区域进行航摄测量、空三加密并制作DEM和DOM,各项指标均达到了国家1∶1 000航摄测量的精度要求.对比载人飞机,无人飞艇机动灵活,获取的影像数据分辨率高,数据获取快及处理效率高,精度满足国家标准的要求,成本低廉.

  5. The return of airships - report 2. Study on wind power expansion in Sweden with focus on transport and logistics issues; Luftskeppens aaterkomst - rapport 2. Studie om vindkraftens utbyggnad i Sverige med fokus paa transport och logistikfraagor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Matts; Svensson, Ulf

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with the efforts carried out in Sweden in the wind power area as part of the adjustment process of the Swedish energy system. An effort which is important for achieving parliamentary climate goals and other objectives of the energy policy. The purpose of the study is to find attractive solutions to the transportation and logistics issues. If handled in a less advantageous way it can be costly for the society, the businesses, local residents, the natural systems and for the climate. The emphasis and main focus of the study is on transport- and logistics-related issues. First, we compared conventional transport solutions with the option to also use lighter-than-air technology, where the focus has been on comparisons of application and cost standpoint. Secondly, we have put the issues into a broader development framework as the expansion of wind power generates transports affecting use of existing infrastructure, building of new infrastructure and various ecosystem services as well as land use in general

  6. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  7. A review of lighter-than-air progress in the United States and its technological significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.; Krida, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Lighter-than-air craft for transportation and communications systems are discussed, with attention given to tethered balloons used to provide stable platforms for airborne surveillance equipment, freight-carrying balloons, manned scientific research balloons such as Atmosat, high-altitude superpressure aerostats employed in satellite communications systems, airport feeder airships, and naval surveillance airships. In addition, technical problems associated with the development of advanced aerostats, including the aerodynamics of hybrid combinations of large rotor systems and aerostat hulls, the application of composites to balloon shells, computer analyses of the complex geometrical structures of aerostats and propulsion systems for airships, are considered.

  8. Distributing of power of signals on the entrance of receiver of height aerial platform

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Bychkovsky; Yu. Yu. Reutskaya

    2010-01-01

    The method of determination of probability density of power of signal is considered on the entrance of receiver for organization of effective informative exchange between telephone subscriber stations through balloon retransmitting station, located on airship.

  9. СИНТЕЗ АЛГОРИТМУ ОПТИМАЛЬНОГО КЕРУВАННЯ РУХОМ АЕРОСТАТИЧНОГО ЛІТАЛЬНОГО АПАРАТА НА ЕТАПІ ПОСАДКИ

    OpenAIRE

    ГУСИНІН Андрій Вячеславович

    2013-01-01

    The automated control algorithm by aerostatic vehicle thrust vector tilting at landing stage was synthesized. The possibility and effectiveness of synthesized control algorithm by thrust vector tilting was presented by simulation of airship «Zeppelin NT» landing.

  10. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  11. Basic relationships for LTA economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Operating costs based on data of actual and proposed airships for conventional lighter than air craft (LTA) are presented. An economic comparison of LTA with the B-47F is included, and possible LTA economic trends are discussed.

  12. Distributing of power of signals on the entrance of receiver of height aerial platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bychkovsky

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination of probability density of power of signal is considered on the entrance of receiver for organization of effective informative exchange between telephone subscriber stations through balloon retransmitting station, located on airship.

  13. Distributing of power of signals on the entrance of receiver of height aerial platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bychkovsky

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The method of determination of probability density of power of signal is considered on the entrance of receiver for organization of effective informative exchange between telephone subscriber stations through balloon retransmitting station, located on airship.

  14. Structural and Aerodynamics Analysis on Different Architectures for the Elettra Twin Flyer Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vazzola, Matteo; Battipede, Manuela; Gili, Piero

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyze and compare two airship configurations for the Elettra Twin Flyer prototype, an innovative airship concept which is remotely-controlled and intended for monitoring, surveillance, exploration and reconnaissance missions. The aim of the comparison is to determine the most appropriate solution in terms of performance, cost and maneuvering capabilities. In particular two potential solutions are analyzed: the first consists of a double-hull configuration, charact...

  15. The dosimetry thermoluminescent in civil aeronautics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexico we are carrying out a project to measure the ionizing radiation doses received by the crew members in civil airships as well as the environmental dose in the airships, with the purpose to determine if these doses surpass the cut-off one 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the publish in general and if therefore, these workers should be considered as occupational exposed works

  16. A concept set for take-off? Lightweight idea may be heavyweight transportation solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2004-12-01

    This paper described the use of airships in changing the bulk transport business. Mercatus Ventures Inc. is working with Ontario-based 21st Century Airships Inc. on developing a heavy lift spherical airship that could replace the need for roads to remote oil and gas mining development sites. Airships would be particularly useful in Canada's North where bulk products cannot be transported outside of ice road season. Transportation accounts for 60 per cent of the cost of drilling a natural gas well in areas that lack all-weather road access. In addition to being environmentally sound, a $10 million or $20 million airship could save companies many millions of dollars in transportation costs. The design of the 21st Century models can be readily adapted to carry heavy loads. A prototype is currently under development to carry 20 to 40 tonnes of equipment including coil tubing rigs and parts of drilling platforms to remote work locations. The Century 21st spherical airship is equipped with panoramic windows and a glass bottom floor and can also be used for high altitude communications and surveillance. Test flights have sailed at altitudes of 6,234 meters. An unmanned version is under development to soar up to 20,000 meters, well above problematic weather systems. An airship equipped with fuel cells and solar panels can stay aloft for more than a year at that level. New airship models use non-flammable helium to support the ship's weight. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  17. O espetáculo cultural na rede social: a abordagem midiática do coletivo dirigível de teatro no facebook = The cultural spectacle in digital social network: the media approach of airship theatre collective on facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Filho, Otacílio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa formas de apropriação e usos do Facebook, enquanto condição midiática e mediadora para a divulgação de Espetáculos Culturais. Para a realização desta pesquisa, optou-se pela escolha de um espetáculo cultural teatral intitulado O pequeno Grande Aviador e o Planeta do Invisível, do grupo de teatro paraense Dirigível Coletivo de Teatro. A metodologia utilizada nesta pesquisa é composta por três métodos que se completam e auxiliam: o modelo tripartite, proposto por Sodré (2007; a netnografia e o estudo de análise de redes sociais (ARS, proposto por Fragoso; Recuero e Amaral (2009. Entre os dias 10 e 19 de novembro de 2012, foram realizados o levantamento descritivo e a análise da utilização do perfil do grupo na rede social digital Facebook

  18. Matching trajectory optimization and nonlinear tracking control for HALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangjong; Jang, Jieun; Ryu, Hyeok; Lee, Kyun Ho

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns optimal trajectory generation and nonlinear tracking control for stratospheric airship platform of VIA-200. To compensate for the mismatch between the point-mass model of optimal trajectory and the 6-DOF model of the nonlinear tracking problem, a new matching trajectory optimization approach is proposed. The proposed idea reduces the dissimilarity of both problems and reduces the uncertainties in the nonlinear equations of motion for stratospheric airship. In addition, its refined optimal trajectories yield better results under jet stream conditions during flight. The resultant optimal trajectories of VIA-200 are full three-dimensional ascent flight trajectories reflecting the realistic constraints of flight conditions and airship performance with and without a jet stream. Finally, 6-DOF nonlinear equations of motion are derived, including a moving wind field, and the vectorial backstepping approach is applied. The desirable tracking performance is demonstrated that application of the proposed matching optimization method enables the smooth linkage of trajectory optimization to tracking control problems.

  19. Design nákladní vzducholodě

    OpenAIRE

    Klvaňa, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem této diplomové práce je návrh designu nákladní vzducholodě. Práce se zabývá analýzou problému a následným návrhem vizionářského řešení designu exteriéru nákladní vzducholodě. Subject of this diploma thesis is design of cargo airship. The thesis concerns analysis of problem and concept design vision of cargo airship exterior. C

  20. 75 FR 1809 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... National Register criteria for evaluation may be forwarded by United States Postal Service, to the National... Landmarks Program. California Monterey County USS MACON (airship remains), Address Restricted, Big Sur... County Klots Throwing Company Mill, 917 Gay St., Cumberland, 09001282. New York Columbia County...

  1. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  2. DESIGN CONCEPT OF A LONG-ENDURANCE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Sawicki, Łukasz; State School of Higher Education in Chełm; Widziszowski, Jacek; State School of Higher Education in Chełm; Płaskociński, Norman; State School of Higher Education in Chełm

    2013-01-01

    The work includes concept of hybrid of a lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft. The following summary presents a rough idea of this solution. This allows the ship to fly quickly to the destination and then move like an airship.

  3. THE GENERAL AIMS OF CONSRTUCTING UAVs

    OpenAIRE

    Sawicki, Łukasz; State School of Higher Education in Chelm; Widziszowski, Jacek; State School of Higher Education in Chelm; Płaskociński, Norman; State School of Higher Education in Chelm

    2013-01-01

    The work includes concept of hybrid of a lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft. The following summary presents a rough idea of this solution. This allows the ship to fly quickly to the destination and then move like an airship.

  4. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 141 - Additional Aircraft Category and/or Class Rating Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-lift. (f) Glider. (g) Lighter-than-air airship. (h) Lighter-than-air balloon. 2. Eligibility for... for an additional powered-lift category rating. (1) For the private pilot certificate, the course... must include— (i) Three hours of cross country flight training in a powered-lift except as...

  5. Update on the Solar Power Satellite transmitter design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    A number of remaining problems in the conceptual design of the transmitting antenna for the Solar Power Satellite have been solved as a result of additional technology development. Much of the technology was derived from the conceptual design of a ground-based transmitting antenna for beaming power to a high altitude airship or airplane.

  6. Tokyo Jane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Schafer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo Jane is an accessible fashion jewelry company that makes and markets its products as “luxury for less” by designing, importing and selling fashion jewelry pieces that look luxurious but cost only a fraction of the high-priced items that inspired them. Finished products are air-shipped...

  7. СИНТЕЗ АЛГОРИТМУ ОПТИМАЛЬНОГО КЕРУВАННЯ РУХОМ АЕРОСТАТИЧНОГО ЛІТАЛЬНОГО АПАРАТА НА ЕТАПІ ПОСАДКИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ГУСИНІН Андрій Вячеславович

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The automated control algorithm by aerostatic vehicle thrust vector tilting at landing stage was synthesized. The possibility and effectiveness of synthesized control algorithm by thrust vector tilting was presented by simulation of airship «Zeppelin NT» landing.

  8. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  9. 飞艇续航时间论证方法研究%Study of Airborne Endurance Analyzing Method of Tethered Aerostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜琬

    2013-01-01

    由于飞艇续航时间受飞行速度、重力浮力配平方式、载油量变化、风场条件等多种因素的影响,飞机续航时间计算方法并不适用于飞艇,因此提出了一种新的基于试验设计和统计分析方法的飞艇续航时间论证方法。分析了工作高度的风场速度分布规律,分别给出完全靠发动机推力矢量平衡和完全靠动升力平衡两种不同情况下飞艇续航时间计算方法,以某大型对流层飞艇为研究对象,计算了初始方案在不同平均巡航速度、配平重量和配平方式下的平均燃油消耗率和最大续航时间,对经过减阻、减重、减少耗油率等技术改进后优化方案能达到的续航时间和概率进行了分析和论证。研究表明,某飞艇初始方案在使用区域风场条件下基本能满足留空时间72 h的指标要求,经技术改进后,指标仍有较大的提升的空间。方法考虑了飞艇续航时间的多种影响因素、取值变化和交互影响,比较适宜在飞艇这类涉及重浮力配平和任务耗油率变化的浮空器上使用。%The cruise duration calculating method of aircraft is not suitable for airship because airship ′s endurance in flight is influenced by many factors , such as velocity , balance of weight and buoyancy , change of fuel load and wind condition ,and therefore a new endurance analyzing method according to air-ship on the basis of experiment design and statistic analysis means is presented .Firstly,the wind velocity distributing regulation at working altitude is analyzed .Then two kinds of airship endurance calculating methods under different conditions are given respectively ,including power plant thrust vector counterbal-ance and aerodynamic lift counterbalance .After that,taking a large troposphere airship as study object , the average fuel consumption and maximum endurance of its primary scheme at different average cruise velocity,trim weight and means are

  10. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyang Zhou; Beilei Zhao; Guohao Gong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) applied in an unmanned airship (UA), by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS®; then, to analyze the system’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics under ope...

  11. Hydrogen: ''Fuel for the 21st century''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article briefly discusses the impact of the Hindenburg airship disaster on the reputation of hydrogen. The global production of hydrogen, growing interest in the use of hydrogen as a fuel, the desire to reduce emissions, and the status of hydrogen fuels in Japan, Germany, USA and Canada are explored. The possible mixing of hydrogen with natural gas, and the use of fuel cells are considered. (UK)

  12. Research activities of Academician Frantisek Behounek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biography and research and development activities are reviewed of the Czech physicists, Academician Frantisek Behounek. Discussed in more detail are Behounek's scientific contribution during the North Pole Expedition of the Italia airship commanded by U. Nobile, leading to the discovery of the so-called width effect of cosmic radiation and his scientific work in the post-World War II period in the dosimetry and protection of personnel handling ionizing radiation. (B.S.)

  13. ВЫЧИСЛИТЕЛЬНЫЕ И ЭНЕРГЕТИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ВЕРТИКАЛЬНЫМИ МАНЕВРАМИ ЛЕТАТЕЛЬНЫХ АППАРАТОВ АЭРОСТАТИЧЕСКОГО ТИПА

    OpenAIRE

    Нейдорф, Рудольф

    2014-01-01

    In this article the task of ensuring of the airships vertical maneuvering, based on the hydrostatic principle of retention in the air justified and solved within the paradigm of the concentration of their parameters. Currently such devices are increasingly recognized as vehicles in various fields of national economy, technology, science, defense and other. Excluded from aviation machines with aerodynamic principle of support in the air in the 30s of the last century, and undeservedly forgotte...

  14. Concept Design of a Near-Space Radar for Maritime Surveillance and Near-Field Tsunami Early-Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Galletti, Michele; Börner, Thomas; Krieger, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Off-shore detection of Tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective Tsunami early warning system (TEWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local Tsunamis, namely Tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes from the triggering quake. In this paper we propose a new concept for near-field Tsunami early warning. NESTRAD (Near-Space Tsunami Radar) consists of a real aperture radar accommodated inside a stationary stratospheric airship providing continuous monitoring o...

  15. Strange interlude at Virgohamna, Danskøya, Svalbard, 1906: the merkelig mann, the engineer and the spy

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Capelotti; Van Dyk, Herman; Cailliez, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Just over a century ago, the American journalist Walter Wellman first tried to reach the North Pole by airship. Despite the hoopla that surrounded the expedition, it was a fiasco and the attempt became a quirky and somewhat obscure episode in the history of polar exploration. In this issue of Polar Research, we present two complementary contributions about this event. The first paper, below, is a collaboration between Penn State University Abington College archaeologist P. J. Capelotti, engin...

  16. New concepts for space-borne Tsunami early warning using microwave sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Thomas; Galletti, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami warning system (TWS). Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes from the triggering quake. In this presentation we propose two new concepts for tsunami detection. NESTRAD (Near-Space Tsunami Radar) consists of a real aperture radar accommodated inside a stationary stratospheric airship providing continuous monitoring of tsunamigen...

  17. Influencia de la relación velocidad de corte-avance en la calidad superficial de muestras taladradas de fibra de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, M; Carrillero, M. S.; Ares, J. E.; González, J.M.; Marcos, M.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial applications of Carbon Fiber (CF) have increased in the last years. Particularly, in the aerospace industry, these materials are usually drilled because of the assembly requirements of the structural elements of airships. However, drilling of CF can be accompanied of troubles such as delaminations, lost of surface quality and quick wear of cutting tool. In this work, a study on the surface quality of CF drilled samples as a function of the cutting parameters has been achieved.&...

  18. Hydrogen: ``Fuel for the 21st century``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-11-01

    This article briefly discusses the impact of the Hindenburg airship disaster on the reputation of hydrogen. The global production of hydrogen, growing interest in the use of hydrogen as a fuel, the desire to reduce emissions, and the status of hydrogen fuels in Japan, Germany, USA and Canada are explored. The possible mixing of hydrogen with natural gas, and the use of fuel cells are considered. (UK)

  19. THE AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THE PROFILES FOR FLYING WINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using an un-piloted aerial vector is determined by the aerodynamic characteristics and performances. The design for a tailless unmanned aerial vehicles starts from defining the aerial vector mission and implies o series of geometrical and aerodynamic aspects for stability. This article proposes to remark the aerodynamic characteristics of three profiles used at flying wing airship through 2D software analysis.

  20. Studying the vertical aerosol extinction coefficient by comparing in situ airborne data and elastic backscatter lidar

    OpenAIRE

    Rosati, Bernadette; Herrmann, Erik; Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Cairo, Francesco; Gysel, Martin; Tillmann, Ralf; Größ, Johannes; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Di Liberto, Luca; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weingartner, Ernest; Virtanen, Annele; Mentel, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol particle optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ∼  50 and 800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol particle size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective inde...

  1. Lipids differentially degraded during tissue freezing and thawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Plants cope with freezing and thawing by altering the lipid composition of their cell membranes. Such cellular responses go through three phases Successful test flight of an airship Researchers with the Balloon Aircraft Research Center (BARC) of the Academy of Opto-electronics, CAS, succeeded in their first test flight of an aeroboat with a flight altitude up to 1,000 meters and an effective payload of 20 kilograms in Shandong on 25 December, 2007.

  2. Design and Implementation of Software for Mobile Tethered Aerostat Measure and Control System%机动式系留气球测控系统软件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐黎江

    2013-01-01

    This paper first introduces content of real-time operation system and tethered airship measure and control system. It explains and analyses the composition and characteristic of tethered airship. On the basis of the properties of function, this paper introduce detailedly the process of the design and the implement of software structure of tethered airship measure and control system, and software designed process is also given. The application of software in actual system proved the feasibility, reliability and character of real-time.%介绍了VxWorks实时操作系统、系留气球测控系统的相关内容,阐述并分析了系留气球的组成和特点.根据系留气球测控系统的功能,详细介绍了系留气球测控系统软件的设计和实现过程,给出了软件设计的流程图,并通过在实际系统中的应用,验证了软件的可行性、可靠性和实时性.

  3. Airborne megawatt class free-electron laser for defense and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Whitney; David Douglas; George Neil

    2005-03-01

    An airborne megawatt (MW) average power Free-Electron Laser (FEL) is now a possibility. In the process of shrinking the FEL parameters to fit on ship, a surprisingly lightweight and compact design has been achieved. There are multiple motivations for using a FEL for a high-power airborne system for Defense and Security: Diverse mission requirements can be met by a single system. The MW of light can be made available with any time structure for time periods from microseconds to hours, i.e. there is a nearly unlimited magazine. The wavelength of the light can be chosen to be from the far infrared (IR) to the near ultraviolet (UV) thereby best meeting mission requirements. The FEL light can be modulated for detecting the same pattern in the small fraction of light reflected from the target resulting in greatly enhanced targeting control. The entire MW class FEL including all of its subsystems can be carried by large commercial size airplanes or on an airship. Adequate electrical power can be generated on the plane or airship to run the FEL as long as the plane or airship has fuel to fly. The light from the FEL will work well with relay mirror systems. The required R&D to achieve the MW level is well understood. The coupling of the capabilities of an airborne FEL to diverse mission requirements provides unique opportunities.

  4. Modelamiento, simulación y hallazgo de modelos linealizados a partir de técnicas de identificación de un cuatrirrotor / Modelling, simulation and finding of linear models from identification techniques of a quadrotor

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Giraldo, Mauricio Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    En esta tesis, se modeló matemáticamente una aeronave de despegue vertical poco convencional que tiene una dinámica y aerodinámica compleja como lo es el Cuatrirrotor. Partiendo de un modelo no lineal se hacen simplificaciones, suposiciones y finalmente linealizaciones que facilitan el diseño de controladores de estabilización que permitieron hacer identificación de modelos lineales en diferentes puntos de operación. / Abstract. In this thesis, an airship of little conventional vertical take ...

  5. Neutron radiography with RP-10 reactor and its practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrography is a non destructive essay, their principal characteristics are the high neutron absorption by light elements and the high contrast of materials of similar thickness, the typical applications that we can mention are the analysis of nuclear fuels, detection of hydrogenated and organic materials, detection of flaws in turbine blades, corrosion in airships components, ceramic materials quality control, drugs and explosive materials detection (useful in the pyrotechnic industry and ammunitions), study of archaeological materials, detection of lubricating film in bearing systems as well as dynamic processes of lubrication and combustion and so for. In the present work, varied examples of applications obtained with the RP-10 reactor are shown. (orig.)

  6. Immersive flight for surveillance applications

    OpenAIRE

    Righetti, Xavier; Cardin, Sylvain; Thalmann, Daniel; Vexo, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper , we present a VR-based first-person view paradigm applied to a tele-surveillance application. Using an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), we have developed an intuitive tangible interface between the pilot and his airship (blimp). The idea is to make transparent the manipulation of an embedded camera by controlling it instinctively with the head’s movement so that the user is available for other tasks such as piloting the blimp. In other words, the user becomes part of the interface. ...

  7. Conception d'antennes spirales large bande à alimentation coplanaire pour des applications radar sur dirigeable

    OpenAIRE

    Louertani, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Un dirigeable haute altitude (HAA: High Altitude Airship) évoluant à plus de 20 km au-dessus du sol est envisagé en tant que plate-forme d'accueil pour un réseau d'antennes spirales pour des applications radar. L'antenne spirale d'Archimède est un excellent élément rayonnant pour des applications nécessitant une large bande de fréquences ainsi qu'une polarisation circulaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l'alimentation se fait au centre de l'antenne spirale. Cependant, certains environnements inte...

  8. New perspectives on the Italia tragedy and Umberto Nobile

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Steinar

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-seven years ago a tragedy took place in the Norwegian Arctic which shook the international community–especially Norwegians–and led to the public condemnation of the Italian explorer and airship builder Umberto Nobile. Steinar Aas, historian and author of a book on Nobile, has perused a trove of “new” material recently donated to the Norwegian Polar Institute and the Polar Museum in Tromsø, Norway. In this (unreviewed) piece, Aas explains why he finds the new collection a fascinating s...

  9. A study of useful inflatables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sean A.

    It is demonstrated that inflatable structures can provide large amounts of stiffness compared to traditional structures of the same mass. A variety of inflatable structures are investigated theoretically. A pressurized lobed cylindrical wall is shown to be sufficiently lightweight and stiff that it can form a lighter-than-air vacuum chamber. Some prototype inflatables are built. Mechanical and optical tests are performed. Some applications in aerospace and solar energy which require large linear dimension, small mass, or large stiffness are discussed including electromagnetic space launch, airship buoyancy control, solar chimney power plants, and large inflatable mirrors.

  10. AEROSTATIC AND AERODYNAMIC MODULES OF A HYBRID BUOYANT AIRCRAFT: AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  11. Concept study of radar sensors for near-field tsunami early warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Börner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Off-shore detection of tsunami waves is a critical component of an effective tsunami early warning system (TEWS. Even more critical is the off-shore detection of local tsunamis, namely tsunamis that strike coastal areas within minutes after generation. In this paper we propose new concepts for near-field tsunami early detection, based on innovative and up-to-date microwave remote sensing techniques. We particularly introduce the NESTRAD (NEar-Space Tsunami RADar concept, which consists of a real aperture radar accommodated inside a stationary stratospheric airship providing continuous monitoring of tsunamigenic oceanic trenches.

  12. Research on the Key Technology of Large Scale Mapping from Low Altitude Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo-Yi, Wu; Ning, Zhang; Guo-Zhong, Su

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theoretic analysis of the accuracy in large scale photogrammetric mapping, some defects in traditional procedure were discussed. A set of key technologies dedicate to accuracy improvement in low altitude photogrammetry were analyzed in detail, namely the utilization of wide angle camera and low altitude flight, enhancement in image matching, predesigned layout of Ground Control Points (GCPs) in field survey, optimization of adjustment model and improvement in map processing. Besides, a low altitude aerial unmanned airship system was established. Finally, successful implementation in 1:500 topographic mapping project in built-up areas of 30 counties in Shanxi Province proves the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  13. A study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multi-rotor systems with application to hybrid heavy lift vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    An aeroelastic model suitable for the study of aeroelastic and structural dynamic effects in multirotor vehicles simulating a hybrid heavy lift vehicle was developed and applied to the study of a number of diverse problems. The analytical model developed proved capable of modeling a number of aeroelastic problems, namely: (1) isolated blade aeroelastic stability in hover and forward flight, (2) coupled rotor/fuselage aeromechanical problem in air or ground resonance, (3) tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage problems, and (4) the aeromechanical stability of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA). The model was used to simulate the ground resonance boundaries of a three bladed hingeless rotor model, including the effect of aerodynamic loads, and the theoretical predictions compared well with experimental results. Subsequently the model was used to study the aeromechanical stability of a vehicle representing a hybrid heavy lift airship, and potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle were identified. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes was identified.

  14. High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC): Proofs of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Bassett, George Z.; Clark, James R.; Hennig, Anthony I.; Snyder, Jessica C.

    2015-01-01

    The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30-day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere at 50 kilometers. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus during the entry sequence, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Two proofs of concept were identified that would aid in addressing some of the key technical challenges. To mitigate the threat posed by the sulfuric acid ambient in the atmosphere of Venus, a material was needed that could protect the systems while being lightweight and not inhibiting the performance of the solar panels. The first proof of concept identified candidate materials and evaluated them, finding FEP-Teflon (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene-Teflon) to maintain 90 percent transmittance to relevant spectra even after 30 days of immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid. The second proof of concept developed and verified a packaging algorithm for the airship envelope to inform the entry, descent, and inflation analysis.

  15. Development of LTA technology; Hikosen, kikyu gijutsu no hatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, T.

    2000-02-05

    This paper describes technologies for LTA (lighter-than-air aircraft). LTA such as airship and balloon cruises by static buoyancy of gas. Since the body of LTA becomes large inevitably because of small buoyancy of gas, LTA has such essential demerits as dependence on wind, inconvenient handling and low speed. However, LTA is featured by large carrying capacity by large body, and long-distance and long- time flight. At present, LTA is in use for not military use and transport but advertisement, publicity, sports and observation. For development of its new fields, a stratospheric platform for a radio relay station and ground monitoring is in experiment which is composed of many unmanned balloons around 20km in altitude. A solar airship with solar panels on its wide surface is also under investigation. A planet observation balloon is also under review in many countries. The pioneering of the upper part (30-40km in altitude) of the stratosphere by LTA is promising because such space is a frontier never pioneered by manned light plane. (NEDO)

  16. Annual view (1999) - aeronautic relation/space relation. Aeronautic relation - special aircraft; Nenkan tenbo (1999) koku kankei uchu kankei. Tokushu kokuki kanren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-05

    The military use tilt rotor entered the practical use stage, and in May the first plane of quantity model MV-22B was delivered to the U.S. Marine Corps. As to the private use BA609, the development is being proceeded with, jointly with Kawasaki Heavy Industries which also joined the development, and that is planned to be completed in 2000. Relating to the unmanned aircraft, in Japan, Fuji Heavy Industries has completed aircraft with jet engine for experiment on soft landing under the lunar probe orbitary satellite plan worked on by National Space Development Agency of Japan and the Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science. The flight test is planned to be conducted in 2000. At National Aerospace Laboratory, Science and Technology Agency, non-powered unmanned supersonic experimental transport is planned, and the flight test is expected to be made in FY 2002. At NASA of the U.S., a prototype made a flight in August of the unmanned flying wing which flies at a high altitude for a long time by solar cells and fuel cells. The airship is now reviewed in the light of the environmental problem. National Aerospace Laboratory, Science and Technology Agency has started the R and S of an unmanned airship aimed at stationarily staying in the stratosphere using solar cells and fuel cells. (NEDO)

  17. Solar electric energy supply at high altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaupp, W.; Mundschau, E. [Zentrum fur Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Solar-hydrogen systems were analyzed regarding their usability as energy supply system for high altitude platforms. In a first step for an assessment of solar and photovoltaic resources near-ground spectral transmittances of atmosphere were extended with simplified height correction functions to achieve spectral irradiance descriptions versus atmospheric height up to 25 km. The influence of atmospheric height to different solar cell technologies regarding electrical performance was quantified at some examples for the aspect of spectral distribution with the help of the introduced spectral height factor. The main attention during analysis of the whole solar-hydrogen energy system was directed to characteristics of current or near term available technology. Specific power weight of photovoltaic system, electrolyzer, fuel cell and gas tanks and their dependence on operation mode and power range were assessed. A pre-design of a solar-hydrogen energy system was carried out for an airship (volume 580,000 m3) withstanding continuous wind speeds up to {approx} 130 km/h. The calculated coverage ratio of photovoltaic and load share of energy system mark the frame of usability. Depending on the airship size, shape and other external boundary conditions the total electrical energy demand could be covered by a solar-hydrogen energy system of current or near term technology for full year operation. However further investigations are necessary regarding e.g. further mass reductions. (author)

  18. Two hundred years of flight in America: A bicentennial survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emme, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    The first recorded balloon ascension in America took place on June 19, 1784, when an unmanned balloon was raised in a public demonstration at Bladensburg, Maryland. On June 24, 1784, a thirteen-year-old boy ascended in the same balloon. The history of actual flight during the nineteenth century was entirely concerned with balloons except for several gliders and models leading to the coming of the airship and the aircraft. The history of practical flight in America begins in the twentieth century. The described developments related to aerostatics are concerned with balloons, rigid airships, and blimps. In a review of the evolution of aeronautics, attention is given to general aviation and its search for a market, trends in military aeronautics, and commercial aviation. It is pointed out that American air transport had its birth on New Year's Day, 1914, at Tampa Bay, Florida. The evolution of astronautics during the period from 1957 to 1976 is also examined, taking into account scientific satellites, the Apollo project, the exploration of the planets with the aid of unmanned spacecraft, strategic reconnaissance satellites, missile alarm satellites, instrumental satellites for detecting nuclear and thermonuclear explosions, weather satellites, communications satellites, and earth resource survey and geodetic satellites.

  19. Lightweight, Flexible Solar Cells on Stainless Steel Foil and Polymer for Space and Stratospheric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beernink, Kevin; Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Jeff; Banerjee, Arindam; Lord, Ken; DeMaggio, Greg; Liu, Frank; Pietka, Ginger; Johnson, Todd; Reinhout, Melanie; Younan, Kais; Wolf, David

    2007-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, lightweight and reliable photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important component in reducing the cost of satellites and spacecraft. In addition, future high-power spacecraft will require lightweight PV arrays with reduced stowage volume. In terms of the requirements for low mass, reduced stowage volume, and the harsh space environment, thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells have several advantages over other material technologies (1). The deposition process is relatively simple, inexpensive, and applicable to large area, lightweight, flexible substrates. The temperature coefficient has been found to be between -0.2 and -0.3 %/degC for high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy cells, which is superior for high temperature operation compared to crystalline Si and triple-junction GaAs/InGaP/Ge devices at 0.53 %/degC and 0.45 %/degC, respectively (2). As a result, the reduction in efficiency at high temperature typical in space conditions is less for a-Si alloy cells than for their crystalline counterparts. Additionally, the a-Si alloy cells are relatively insensitive to electron and proton bombardment. We have shown that defects that are created by electrons with energies between 0.2 to 2 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 15) e/sq cm and by protons with energy in the range 0.3 MeV to 5 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 13) p/sq cm can be annealed out at 70 C in less than 50 hours (1). Further, modules incorporating United Solar s a-Si alloy cells have been tested on the MIR space station for 19 months with only minimal degradation (3). For stratospheric applications, such as the high altitude airship, the required PV arrays are typically of considerably higher power than current space arrays. Airships typically have a large area available for the PV, but weight is of critical importance. As a result, low cost and high specific power (W/kg) are key factors for airship PV arrays. Again, thin-film a-Si alloy solar cell technology is well

  20. Cost analysis of stratospheric albedo modification delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform engineering cost analyses of systems capable of delivering 1–5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of albedo modification material to altitudes of 18–30 km. The goal is to compare a range of delivery systems evaluated on a consistent cost basis. Cost estimates are developed with statistical cost estimating relationships based on historical costs of aerospace development programs and operations concepts using labor rates appropriate to the operations. We evaluate existing aircraft cost of acquisition and operations, perform in-depth new aircraft and airship design studies and cost analyses, and survey rockets, guns, and suspended gas and slurry pipes, comparing their costs to those of aircraft and airships. Annual costs for delivery systems based on new aircraft designs are estimated to be $1–3B to deliver 1 Mt to 20–30 km or $2–8B to deliver 5 Mt to the same altitude range. Costs for hybrid airships may be competitive, but their large surface area complicates operations in high altitude wind shear, and development costs are more uncertain than those for airplanes. Pipes suspended by floating platforms provide low recurring costs to pump a liquid or gas to altitudes as high as ∼ 20 km, but the research, development, testing and evaluation costs of these systems are high and carry a large uncertainty; the pipe system’s high operating pressures and tensile strength requirements bring the feasibility of this system into question. The costs for rockets and guns are significantly higher than those for other systems. We conclude that (a) the basic technological capability to deliver material to the stratosphere at million tonne per year rates exists today, (b) based on prior literature, a few million tonnes per year would be sufficient to alter radiative forcing by an amount roughly equivalent to the growth of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing over the next half century, and that (c) several different methods could possibly deliver this quantity for less

  1. Theoretical study of the influence of decentring on longitudinal stability of a flat-convex lenticular lighted wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flat-convex lenticular wings have a very interesting polar-diagram, with a big relative thickness, good for partial static lifting force by introduction of light gas. But the longitudinal balance can be easily realized only with a notable decentring for the load. The theoretical study of stability conditions, in horizontal propulsed flight, as in gliding without engine power, gives the localization of a balance center, different of the gravity center, and the calculation of an optimal centring, function of a diagram-family cm(i) established on computer. In this new calculation, described in this paper, the relative of static lifting force is one of the principal parameters. A 16 mm coloured movie in annex shows the flight tests with a motorized wireless-controlled scale-model, realized according to the theory. This experiments give proof of aeronautical possibilities of this flat-convex lenticular lighted air-ship, with the name of: 'flying turtle' project. (author)

  2. Initial comments on the aero geophysical information present at the B and C areas of the Itatira (Brazil) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aero geophysical project called Itatira,, accomplished by LASA Engenharia e Prospeccoes S.A., Between September and November/1977 through contract with NUCLEBRAS, corresponds to one of the first project of this gender accomplished in national territory. In this project were flight more than 80 000 km of linear lines, which covered approximately 38 000 km2 on the precambrian terrains of the Ceara State, NE Brazil. For several reasons, the total area of the project was subdivided in three sub-areas (A, B and C), each one covered by a different airship (LAS, 1977). This paper presents the geophysical information and preliminary interpretations of the areas B and C that were obtained through the integrated use of the soft wares AUTOCAD r. 14, OASIS MONTAJ r.4.2 and ERMAPPER r.5.5. (author)

  3. Cosmic ray measurements in the knee region: new perspectives for simultaneous air-borne and ground-based observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements of cosmic ray composition and energy spectra in the knee region (1015 to 1016 eV) represent a real challenge for balloon and space borne experiments due to their limited exposure. On the other hand, ground-based extensive air shower arrays (EAS) can provide a measurement of the primary particle energy but fail to identify unambiguously its nature. The possibility to couple a large area instrument in flight, dedicated to the charge identification of the primary nucleus, with a ground array is explored. This task is within the reach of today detector technologies but requires a formidable step in the current development of stratospheric airship platforms capable of maintaining a long-duration stationary position above the EAS array

  4. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2009. After having noticed some initiatives (French commitment in renewable energy production, new role for the CEA, cooperation between different research and industrial bodies, development of electric vehicles, research programs), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure, basic research by the CEA and CNRS, demonstration projects (H2E), transport applications (a hybrid 307 by Peugeot, the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Hychain European project by Air Liquide, a dirigible airship, an ultra-light aviation project, a submarine), some stationary applications (the Myrte project, a wind energy project), activity in small and medium-sized enterprises, regional initiatives, colloquiums and meetings.

  5. Radiated Emissions from a Remote-Controlled Airplane-Measured in a Reverberation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Mielnik, John J.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.; Strom, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    A full-vehicle, subscale all-electric model airplane was tested for radiated emissions, using a reverberation chamber. The mission of the NASA model airplane is to test in-flight airframe damage diagnosis and battery prognosis algorithms, and provide experimental data for other aviation safety research. Subscale model airplanes are economical experimental tools, but assembling their systems from hobbyist and low-cost components may lead to unforseen electromagnetic compatibility problems. This report provides a guide for accommodating the on-board radio systems, so that all model airplane systems may be operated during radiated emission testing. Radiated emission data are provided for on-board systems being operated separately and together, so that potential interferors can be isolated and mitigated. The report concludes with recommendations for EMI/EMC best practices for subscale model airplanes and airships used for research.

  6. High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Architecture for Space and Terrestrial Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Taysir; Fast, Brian; Raible, Daniel; Dinca, Dragos; Tollis, Nick; Jalics, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    High Intensity Laser Power Beaming (HILPB) has been developed as a technique to achieve Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) for both space and terrestrial applications. In this paper, the system architecture and hardware results for a terrestrial application of HILPB are presented. These results demonstrate continuous conversion of high intensity optical energy at near-IR wavelengths directly to electrical energy at output power levels as high as 6.24 W from the single cell 0.8 cm2 aperture receiver. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers. This type of system would enable long range optical refueling of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion.

  7. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  8. Applications of a high-altitude powered platform /HAPP/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhner, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    The high-altitude powered platform (HAPP) is a conceptual unmanned vehicle which could be either an airship or airplane. It would keep station at an altitude of 70,000 ft above a fixed point on the ground. A microwave power transmission system would beam energy from the ground up to the HAPP to power an electric motor-driven propeller and the payload. A study of the HAPP has shown that it could potentially be a cost-competitive platform for such remote sensing applications as forest fire detection, Great Lakes ice monitoring and Coast Guard law enforcement. It also has significant potential as a communications relay platform for (among other things) direct broadcast to home TVs over a large region.

  9. Programmable thermal dissociation of reactive gaseous mercury – a potential approach to chemical speciation: results from a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tatum Ernest

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of programmable thermal dissociation (PTD as an approach to investigating the chemical speciation of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, Hg2+ has been explored in a field study. In this approach RGM is collected on a denuder and analyzed using PTD. The denuder is placed in an oven and the dissociation of the RGM is measured, as a function of temperature, by monitoring the evolution of elemental mercury (GEM, Hg0 in real time using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF. The technique was tested in a field campaign at a coal-fired power plant in Pensacola, Florida. Uncoated tubular denuders were used to obtain samples from the plant's stack exhaust gases and from the stack plume, downwind of the stack using an airship. The PTD profiles from these samples were compared with PTD profiles of HgCl2.

  10. Development and application of a new mobile LOPAP instrument for the measurement of HONO altitude profiles in the planetary boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Häseler

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The LOPAP (long path absorption technique has been shown to be very sensitive for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO in the atmosphere. However, current instruments were mainly built for ground based applications. Therefore, we designed a new LOPAP instrument to be more versatile for mobile measurements and to meet the requirements for airborne application. The detection limit of the new instrument is below 1 ppt at a time resolution of 5 to 7 min. As a first test, the instrument was successfully employed during the ZEPTER-1 campaign in July 2007 on board of the Zeppelin NT airship. During 15 flights on six days we measured HONO concentration profiles over southwest Germany, predominantly in the range between 100 m and 650 m above ground level. On average, a mixing ratio of 34 ppt was observed, almost independently of height. Within a econd campaign, ZEPTER-2 in fall 2008, higher HONO mixing ratios were observed in the Lake Constance area.

  11. Hydrogen and fuel cell activity report - France 2009; Rapport d'activites Hydrogene et Piles a combustible - France 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The report gathers the main outstanding facts which occurred in France in the field of hydrogen and fuel cells in 2009. After having noticed some initiatives (French commitment in renewable energy production, new role for the CEA, cooperation between different research and industrial bodies, development of electric vehicles, research programs), the report presents several projects and programs regarding hydrogen: ANR programs, creation of a national structure, basic research by the CEA and CNRS, demonstration projects (H2E), transport applications (a hybrid 307 by Peugeot, the Althytude project by GDF and Suez, the Hychain European project by Air Liquide, a dirigible airship, an ultra-light aviation project, a submarine), some stationary applications (the Myrte project, a wind energy project), activity in small and medium-sized enterprises, regional initiatives, colloquiums and meetings.

  12. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holis Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

  13. A Method for Establishing a Station-Keeping, Stratospheric Platform for Astronomical Research

    CERN Document Server

    Fesen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During certain times of the year at middle and low latitudes, winds in the upper stratosphere move in nearly the opposite direction than the wind in the lower stratosphere. Here we present a method for maintaining a high-altitude balloon platform in near station-keeping mode that utilizes this stratospheric wind shear. The proposed method places a balloon-borne science platform high in the stratosphere connected by a lightweight, high-strength tether to a "tug" vehicle located in the lower or middle stratosphere. Using aerodynamic control surfaces, wind-induced aerodynamic forces on the tug can be manipulated to counter the wind drag acting on the higher altitude science vehicle, thus controlling the upper vehicle's geographic location. We describe the general framework of this station-keeping method, some important properties required for the upper stratospheric science payload and lower tug platforms, and compare this station-keeping approach with the capabilities of a high altitude airship and conventional...

  14. High-Altitude Platforms - Present Situation and Technology Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Araripe D'Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude platforms (HAPs are aircraft, usually unmanned airships or airplanes positioned above 20 km, in the stratosphere, in order to compose a telecommunications network or perform remote sensing. In the 1990 and 2000 decades, several projects were launched, but very few had continued. In 2014, 2 major Internet companies (Google and Facebook announced investments in new HAP projects to provide Internet access in regions without communication infrastructure (terrestrial or satellite, bringing back attention to the development of HAP. This article aims to survey the history of HAPs, the current state-of-the-art (April 2016, technology trends and challenges. The main focus of this review will be on technologies directly related to the aerial platform, inserted in the aeronautical engineering field of knowledge, not detailing aspects of the telecommunications area.

  15. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pechac

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

  16. DEVELOPMENT AND TEST OF BLIMP-BASED COMPACT LIDAR POWEWR-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Pan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a compact LIDAR system designed to inspect overhead transmission line for maintenance purposes. This LIDAR system is carried by a small unmanned helium airship, which is guided by GPS and laser ranging to fly automatically along the power-line over a limited distance. The 3D coordinates of the power line, power tower and power line channel features are gathered by LIDAR. Test have been accomplished using this blimp-based compact LIDAR power-line inspection system. Its inspections of a 500kV power lines also shows the high efficient inspection, less risk to personnel and more inspections per day compared with manual inspection.

  17. Cosmic ray measurements in the knee region: new perspectives for simultaneous air-borne and ground-based observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocchesi, P.S. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Siena and INFN, 56 via Roma, 53100 Siena (Italy)]. E-mail: marrocchesi@pi.infn.it

    2006-01-15

    Direct measurements of cosmic ray composition and energy spectra in the knee region (10{sup 15} to 10{sup 16} eV) represent a real challenge for balloon and space borne experiments due to their limited exposure. On the other hand, ground-based extensive air shower arrays (EAS) can provide a measurement of the primary particle energy but fail to identify unambiguously its nature. The possibility to couple a large area instrument in flight, dedicated to the charge identification of the primary nucleus, with a ground array is explored. This task is within the reach of today detector technologies but requires a formidable step in the current development of stratospheric airship platforms capable of maintaining a long-duration stationary position above the EAS array.

  18. Automatic Three-Dimensional Measurement of Large-Scale Structure Based on Vision Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaokun Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All relevant key techniques involved in photogrammetric vision metrology for fully automatic 3D measurement of large-scale structure are studied. A new kind of coded target consisting of circular retroreflective discs is designed, and corresponding detection and recognition algorithms based on blob detection and clustering are presented. Then a three-stage strategy starting with view clustering is proposed to achieve automatic network orientation. As for matching of noncoded targets, the concept of matching path is proposed, and matches for each noncoded target are found by determination of the optimal matching path, based on a novel voting strategy, among all possible ones. Experiments on a fixed keel of airship have been conducted to verify the effectiveness and measuring accuracy of the proposed methods.

  19. Feasibility of UAV Link Space Diversity in Wooded Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Simunek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Space diversity techniques provide an effective way to mitigate the deep fades in received power in a scattering environment. Space diversity influence on narrowband UAV links, which are unique due to the elevation angle and mutual position of a moving transmitter in homogeneous environment and static receiver in scattering environment, is analyzed in a wooded area using a remotely controlled airship at 2 GHz. The experimental link forms a 1x4 SIMO configuration with influence quantified by values of diversity gain and subsequent comparison with Rayleigh fading series. The mutual antenna distance and elevation angle influence is also studied as the difference between the wooded area and an open field or urban environment.

  20. Initial comments on the aero geophysical information present at the B and C areas of the Itatira (Brazil) project; Comentarios iniciais sobre as informacoes aerogeofisicas presentes nas areas B e C do Projeto Itatira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Neivaldo Araujo de; Castelo Branco, Raimundo Mariano Gomes [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Geofisica de Prospeccao e Sensoriamento Remoto

    1999-07-01

    The aero geophysical project called Itatira,, accomplished by LASA Engenharia e Prospeccoes S.A., Between September and November/1977 through contract with NUCLEBRAS, corresponds to one of the first project of this gender accomplished in national territory. In this project were flight more than 80 000 km of linear lines, which covered approximately 38 000 km{sup 2} on the precambrian terrains of the Ceara State, NE Brazil. For several reasons, the total area of the project was subdivided in three sub-areas (A, B and C), each one covered by a different airship (LAS, 1977). This paper presents the geophysical information and preliminary interpretations of the areas B and C that were obtained through the integrated use of the soft wares AUTOCAD r. 14, OASIS MONTAJ r.4.2 and ERMAPPER r.5.5. (author)

  1. Floating into Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  2. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.

    2010-12-01

    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  3. Technical note: New particle formation event forecasts during PEGASOS-Zeppelin Northern mission 2013 in Hyytiälä, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, T.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Manninen, H. E.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2015-11-01

    New particle formation (NPF) occurs frequently in the global atmosphere. During recent years, detailed laboratory experiments combined with intensive field observations in different locations have provided insights into the vapours responsible for the initial formation of particles and their subsequent growth. In this regard, the importance of sulfuric acid, stabilizing bases such as ammonia and amines as well as extremely low volatile organics, have been proposed. The instrumentation to observe freshly formed aerosol particles has developed to a stage where the instruments can be implemented as part of airborne platforms, such as aircrafts or a Zeppelin-type airship. Flight measurements are technically more demanding and require a greater detail of planning than field studies at the ground level. The high cost of flight hours, limited time available during a single research flight for the measurements, and different instrument payloads in Zeppelin airship for various flight missions demanded an analysis tool that would forecast whether or not there is a good chance for an NPF event. Here we present a methodology to forecast NPF event probability at the SMEAR II site in Hyytiälä, Finland. This methodology was used to optimize flight hours during the PEGASOS (Pan-European Gas Aerosol Climate Interaction Study)-Zeppelin Northern mission in May-June 2013. Based on the existing knowledge, we derived a method for estimating the nucleation probability that utilizes forecast air mass trajectories, weather forecasts, and air quality model predictions. With the forecast tool we were able to predict the occurrence of NPF events for the next day with more than 90 % success rate (10 out of 11 NPF event days correctly predicted). To our knowledge, no similar forecasts of NPF occurrence have been developed for other sites. This method of forecasting NPF occurrence could be applied also at other locations, provided that long-term observations of conditions favouring particle

  4. Technical Note: New particle formation event forecasts during PEGASOS-Zeppelin Northern mission 2013 in Hyytiälä, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nieminen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation (NPF occurs frequently in the global atmosphere. During recent years detailed laboratory experiments together with intensive field observations in different locations have provided insights into the vapours responsible for the initial formation of particles and their subsequent growth. In this regard, the importance of sulphuric acid, stabilizing bases such as ammonia and amines as well as extremely low volatile organics have been proposed. The instrumentation to observe freshly formed aerosol particles has developed to a stage where the instruments can be implemented as part of airborne platforms, such as aircrafts or a Zeppelin-type airship. Flight measurements are technically more demanding and require a greater detail of planning than field studies at the ground level. The high cost of flight hours, limited time available during a single research flight for the measurements and different instrument payloads in Zeppelin airship for various flight missions demanded an analysis tool that would forecast whether or not there is a good chance for a NPF event. Here we present a generalized methodology to derive NPF event probability that was used to optimise flying hours during Zeppelin campaign in Finland during the PEGASOS-Zeppelin Northern mission in 2013. Based on the existing knowledge we derived a method for estimating the nucleation probability that utilizes forecast air mass trajectories, weather forecasts and air quality model predictions. With the forecast tool we were able to predict the occurrence of NPF events for the next day with more than 90% success rate (10 out of 11 NPF event days correctly predicted.

  5. Continued thinning of sea ice at the North Pole and in the Transpolar Drift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, C.; Etienne, J.

    2007-12-01

    The extent of Arctic sea ice is strongly decreasing, with a new record summer minimum observed in 2007. However, the interpretation of this rapid decline in the context of climate change is hampered by the lack of ice thickness data, as it is unclear how much of the retreat is due to variations in thermodynamic or dynamic boundary conditions. A 350 km long ice thickness profile was obtained in April 2007 between the North Pole and 87N, 58W by means of helicopter-borne electromagnetic profiling. The measurements revealed the presence of predominantly second-year ice with a mean total (snow plus ice) thickness of 3.31 +/- 1.51 m and a modal total thickness of 2.35 m. There was no strong ice thickness trend towards the coast of Ellesmere Island. Ground-based measurements showed a bi-modal snow thickness distribution, with 0.05 m of snow on first-year ice and 0.2 to 0.4 m on second-year ice. If compared with earlier sporadic measurements in the same region between 1991 and 2001, the results indicate a continued ice thinning of 0.3 to 0.7 m between 2001 and 2007. However, the comparison is complicated by the unknown amplitude of the seasonal thickness cycle, as previous measurements were only performed during August. Therefore, the paper discusses the use of additional data like e.g. from ice mass balance buoys which can give insights into the thermodynamic components of sea ice mass balance, and outlines the urgent need for more systematic snow and ice thickness observations. This need has unfortunately only barely been met so far during the ongoing International Polar Year. The paper will also present plans for future, more systematic airborne campaigns, which could cover the whole region of the Arctic Ocean. These include an Arctic airship crossing of the Total Pole Airship project, and an Arctic circumnavigation with a new, German BT67 airplane.

  6. ЧИСЛЕННОЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЯ ДИРИЖАБЛЯ С АТМОСФЕРНЫМИ СТРУЙНЫМИ ТЕЧЕНИЯМИ

    OpenAIRE

    СЕМЕНЧИКОВ НИКОЛАЙ ВИТАЛЬЕВИЧ; ТА СУАН ТУНГ

    2016-01-01

    Приводятся результаты численного исследования аэродинамических характеристик дирижабля с гондолой и без нее при установившемся движении дирижабля через атмосферные струйные течения. Определено влияние гондолы и расположения дирижабля по отношению к оси струйного течения на величины аэродинамических коэффициентов дирижабля.The results of numerical research of aerodynamic characteristics of airship with or without gondola in steady movement of the airship through the atmospheric jet streams. Th...

  7. Research on construction of 3D building based on oblique images from UAV%倾斜航空影像的城市建筑物三维模型构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂德竹; 林宗坚; 张成成

    2012-01-01

    针对当前城市建筑物三维模型构建的需要,本文提出一套利用无人飞艇载四组合特宽角相机同时实现高精度空中三角测量和建筑物景观三维建模的技术路线.一方面通过基于四相机重叠影像自动匹配的自检校,达到设备轻小型化条件下的精密等效中心投影构像,用以支持高精度空中三角测量;另一方面,通过自检校的4个方向倾斜的相机,达到一次飞行同时获得四方向建筑物侧面影像的目的,为城市景观的三维表达、精细建模和可视化提供一种新的、快捷的技术方案.%Due to the limit of flight height and aerial photography' s pose (vertical or small angle photography) , satellite remote sensing with fixed orbit, median altitude aerial photogrammetry and fixed-wing UAV( Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) only can acquire part of height information and roof texture information of building. Aiming at acquiring three dimensional information of buildings quickly to meet the demands of current three dimensional digital city, a low-altitude UAV-airship photogrammetry system that takes low-altitude UAV-airship as flying platform carrying wide-angle and combined camera was designed to support high precision aerial triangulation and ' three dimensional city buildings construction. On the one hand, self-calibration based on auto-matching of four cameras overlap images formed a precision equivalent project image for aerial triangulation, on the other hand, building profile images could be acquired at one flight from four oblique cameras.

  8. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Beilei; Gong, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) applied in an unmanned airship (UA), by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS(®); then, to analyze the system's kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB(®) SIMULINK(®) controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP) is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance. PMID:26287210

  9. Acoustic properties in the low and middle atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi

    2016-08-01

    Generic predictions for acoustic dispersion and absorption in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are presented. For Mars, Pathfinder and Mars Express ambient data and averaged thermophysical parameters are used as inputs to a preliminary model based on the continuum approximation for Mars' thin atmosphere-the need for Boltzmann-based treatment is discussed in the context of Knudsen numbers. Strong absorption constrains acoustic sensing within the Martian planetary boundary layer. For the dense atmosphere of Venus, the van der Waals equation of state is used. The thermophysical and transport parameters were interpolated at the ambient conditions. Acoustic sensing is discussed at 50 km above Venus' surface, a level where aerostats (e.g., European Space Agency's EVE) and manned airships (e.g., NASA's HAVOC) may be deployed in the future. The salient atmospheric characteristics are described in terms of temperature, pressure, and convective stability profiles, followed by wavenumber predictions, and discussions of low- and high-frequency sensing applications. At low frequencies, emphasis is placed on infrasound. A simple generation mechanism by Martian dust devils is presented, yielding fundamental frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz. High-frequency sensing is exemplified by ultrasonic anemometry. Of the two environments, Venus is notably more dispersive in the ultrasonic range. PMID:27586769

  10. Simplified Analysis of Airspike Heat Flux Into Lightcraft Thermal Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Dean R.; Seo, Junghwa; Cassenti, Brice N.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    An approximate method is presented for estimating the airspike heat flux into a 9-meter diameter lightcraft, integrated over its flight to low Earth orbit. The super-pressure lightcraft's exotic twin-hull, sandwich structure is assumed to be fabricated from SiC/SiC thin-film ceramic matrix composites of semiconductor grade purity, giving superior structural properties while being transparent to 35-GHz microwave radiation. The vehicle's MHD slipstream accelerator engine is energized by an annular microwave power beam — converted on-board into DC electric power by two concentric, water-cooled microwave rectenna arrays. The vehicle's airspike is created by a central 3-m diameter laser beam that sustains a laser-supported detonation wave at a distance of 10-m ahead of the craft; the LSD wave propagates up the beam with a velocity that matches the lightcraft's flight speed. The simplified analysis, which is based on aerodynamic heating during re-entry, shows that helium flowing at a velocity of 10 m/s through the lightcraft's double-hull is sufficient to keep the outer, 0.13-mm thick SiC skin safely under its maximum service temperature. The interior helium pressurant that maintains the structural integrity of this exotic pressure-airship, increases in temperature by only 25 K during the flight to LEO.

  11. The ABB perspective on the future of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What separates a successful technology from a technology destined for replacement? In 1937, just 54 yr ago, at Lakehurst, New Jersey, what had appeared to be a promising technology came to an end as the Hindenburg crashed on landing. Meanwhile, in Germany, Heinkel had just introduced the first successful jet-powered airplane. Then, just 2 yr later, the technological future of the world was again changed at the stands in Chicago where a new energy technology was born. That day ushered in the beginning of a new technological age - an age that has been the basis of many careers and much discussion. The successful technology that our nuclear industry is based on has matured and evolved over those past 50 yr and easily outlasted the faulty technology of the great airships. But no matter how we look at it, the technology is 50 yr old. Will nuclear energy continue to play an important role in the energy future of the world? What is the ABB perspective on the future of nuclear energy? Will we all go the way of the dirigible, or is there another 50 yr of promise ahead? Looking forward 50 yr is not any eash task. Sometimes it is better to look back within the perspective of other technologies that have reached their 50-yr mark. The author examines various criteria for evaluating nuclear power as a viable technology and for evaluating standardized designs

  12. Changing the world with hydrogen and nuclear: From past successes to shaping the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviews the past history of hydrogen and nuclear energy, while considering how they had been important forever, how they have been used to change the world when they were discovered and understood, and how they will likely shape our future to face specific challenges of the 21. century. Content: 1 - hydrogen and nuclear reactions at the origin of the universe: the universe and supernovae, the sun, the blue planet, the evolution of man; 2 - understanding and first uses of hydrogen: the discovery of hydrogen, hydrogen balloons, airships or dirigibles, the discovery of the electrolysis and the fuel cell, Jules Vernes; 3 - development of nuclear over the 20. century: pioneers of nuclear energy, Fermi reactor, EBR-1; 4 - development of hydrogen over the 20. century, expanding uses of hydrogen over the second half of the 20. century; 5 - four major endeavours gathering hydrogen and nuclear: light water reactors, naval reactors, nuclear rockets, controlled fusion, the PNP-500 project; 6 - stakes in hydrogen and nuclear production in the 21. century: energy challenge for the 21. century, peaking of fossil fuel production, renaissance of nuclear energy, changes in transportation model, hydrogen market, technologies for nuclear hydrogen production, carbon taxes, the path forward: international demonstrations towards industrialisation, a new generation of scientists for our dreams come true

  13. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with

  14. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  15. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Medicion de la dosis a pilotos aviadores usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, ESIME Culhuacan (Mexico)]. e-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.mx

    2004-07-01

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  16. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Beilei; Gong, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) applied in an unmanned airship (UA), by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS®; then, to analyze the system’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB® SIMULINK® controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP) is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance. PMID:26287210

  17. Influencia de la relación velocidad de corte-avance en la calidad superficial de muestras taladradas de fibra de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, M.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial applications of Carbon Fiber (CF have increased in the last years. Particularly, in the aerospace industry, these materials are usually drilled because of the assembly requirements of the structural elements of airships. However, drilling of CF can be accompanied of troubles such as delaminations, lost of surface quality and quick wear of cutting tool. In this work, a study on the surface quality of CF drilled samples as a function of the cutting parameters has been achieved.

    En los últimos años, la fibra de carbono (FC encuentra, cada vez, más aplicaciones en los distintos sectores industriales. En el caso particular de la industria aeronáutica, este tipo de materiales se somete frecuentemente a operaciones de taladrado formando parte de estructuras híbridas PC/substrato metálico, debido a las necesidades de montaje en los elementos estructurales de una aeronave. Sin embargo, en el taladrado de FC se puede presentar una serie de problemas como las delaminaciones, la pérdida de calidad en el acabado superficial o el desgaste rápido y excesivo de la herramienta de corte. En este trabajo se lleva a cabo un primer estudio de la calidad de acabado superficial obtenida en muestras de FC taladradas en función de las condiciones de corte impuestas.

  18. Pressure induced stability: from pneumatic structures to Tensairity(R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf H. Luchsinger; Mauro Pedretti; Andreas Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Structural stabilization by a pressurized fluid is very common in nature, however hardly found in technology. Car tires, hot air balloons, airships and airhouses are among the few technical exceptions, which are stabilized by a compressed medium,typically air. Restricted by simple geometries and a very limited load bearing capacity these pneumatic structures could succeed only in very specialized applications. Nevertheless, prospective concepts ag has systematically investigated pneumatic structures during the last few years. As a major result, it was demonstrated that almost any shape can be made with pneumatic structures and that astonishing structures such as the pneumatic airplane Stingray can be realized even with low air pressure. On top of that,Airlight Ltd. in close collaboration with prospective concepts ag has recently developed the fundamental new structural concept Tensairity. The synergetic combination of an inflated structure with conventional structural elements such as cables and struts yields pneumatic light-weight structures with the load bearing capacity of steel girders. Thus, complex forms and high strength open up many new opportunities for pressure induced stability in technology. An overview of these recent developments is presented and the close relationship of pneumatic structures with biology is outlined.

  19. Stable Imaging and Accuracy Issues of Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable imaging of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry system is an important issue that affects the data processing and application of the system. Compared with traditional aerial images, the large rotation of roll, pitch, and yaw angles of UAV images decrease image quality and result in image deformation, thereby affecting the ground resolution, overlaps, and the consistency of the stereo models. These factors also cause difficulties in automatic tie point matching, image orientation, and accuracy of aerial triangulation (AT. The issues of large-angle photography of UAV photogrammetry system are discussed and analyzed quantitatively in this paper, and a simple and lightweight three-axis stabilization platform that works with a low-precision integrated inertial navigation system and a three-axis mechanical platform is used to reduce this problem. An experiment was carried out with an airship as the flight platform. Another experimental dataset, which was acquired by the same flight platform without a stabilization platform, was utilized for a comparative test. Experimental results show that the system can effectively isolate the swing of the flying platform. To ensure objective and reliable results, another group of experimental datasets, which were acquired using a fixed-wing UAV platform, was also analyzed. Statistical results of the experimental datasets confirm that stable imaging of a UAV platform can help improve the quality of aerial photography imagery and the accuracy of AT, and potentially improve the application of images acquired by a UAV.

  20. Attenuated Realities: Pynchon's Trajectory from V. to Inherent Vice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hume

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Part of what established Pynchon as postmodern was his piling up of multiple realities. Hence, the surprise that 'Inherent Vice' retains only the most attenuated forms of such worlds alternative to our own. In earlier fiction, we find a world served by the Tristero postal system, a world inhabited by angels, by thanatoids and other forms of the dead, by Japanese film monsters, by giant vegetables. In Pynchon’s fictive realities, an airship can sail beneath desert sand or through the center of the globe via Symmes’s Hole, and the photograph of a corpse can be run backward in time to show its murderer. Up through 'Against the Day', Pynchon showered us with alternate realities that reached beyond the material world that most of us accept as 'alles, was der Fall ist'. 'Inherent Vice' departs from this vision. Has Pynchon simply grown up? Or grown old? Or is something else operating here? I will provide a brief taxonomy of Pynchon’s multiple worlds as characterized by paranoia, mysticism, religion, and humor and then analyze what remains of these in 'Inherent Vice'. Among the causes for his changed technique may be his choice of genre. The detective story is epistemological rather than ontological in its questions, so Pynchon concerns himself far more with what Doc Sportello can know than with making him navigate through multiple realities. I argue, however, that 'Inherent Vice' is surprisingly a worst-case scenario for Pynchon.

  1. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  2. The investigation and prospect on optical principles of multiple space laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalin; An, Yan; Jiang, Huilin; Jiang, Lun; Wang, Chao; Zhan, Juntong; Han, Long

    2015-10-01

    Multiple laser communication is the key point of integrated space-ground network system, and it is the necessary prerequisite of realizing the network communication link between multiple satellites. In this paper, current situation and the development status of multiple laser communication are introduced, then optical principles and methods of multiple laser communication are discussed, and advantages and disadvantages are compared and analyzed with different multiple space laser communication system. The systems were classified according to different principles, including the simple principle type, exchange points type, RF and laser combined type, field expanding type and large field communication type. Then we look into the future of multiple laser communication systems, and the result shows that the paraboloid of revolution type has great potential in the future's laser communication space network ,for it's large communication range and high energy efficiency. It can be used to communicate between the aircraft platform, airship platforms and satellite platforms. Which laid the foundation for the future development of the laser communication space network.

  3. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP applied in an unmanned airship (UA, by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS®; then, to analyze the system’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB® SIMULINK® controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance.

  4. Emissions of the city of Augsburg determined using the mass balance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalthoff, N.; Corsmeier, U.; Schmidt, K.; Kottmeier, C.; Fiedler, F. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung; Habram, M.; Slemr, F. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Atmospharische Umweltforschung, Garmisch (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Air quality models require emission data of air pollutants with high temporal and spatial resolution. The highly resolved emissions are calculated by complex emission models and may thus be subject to considerable uncertainties. To assess the uncertainty of the emission model calculations, emissions of the city of Augsburg in southern Germany were determined experimentally on several days in October 1998 using the technique of mass balance. Two algorithms were used to estimate the CO and NO{sub x} emissions from the data measured by two research aircraft, two tethered balloons, and an airship on the lateral surface enclosing the area of investigation. The two algorithms provided results which agree within the calculated uncertainties. The differences can be attributed mainly to the different interpolation methods applied to the layer between the lowest flight level and the ground. The measurements show that on the different weekdays both CO and NO{sub x} emissions varied by about a factor of two which is much larger than the variability predicted by the emission model. Higher than predicted CO emissions were observed on Saturday, 10 October 1998, whereas NO{sub x} emissions on 10 October were substantially smaller than predicted by the emission model. (author)

  5. Global demand for EVs 2000-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrop, P.J. [Footnote Analysis Ltd., Long Sutton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Research was conducted in 26 countries by Footnote Analysis Ltd. on the market penetration of electric vehicles and how they can be profitable. Beginning with a definition of the terms electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicles, the author proceeded through a list of benefits to be derived from the utilization of electric vehicles in a variety of settings, from military operations to wildlife watching from an electric vehicle (airship, boat, or off-road vehicle). There are some cost savings associated with the use of electric vehicles over their internal combustion engine counterpart: forklift, golf cart or airport ground support equipment are 35 per cent cheaper over their life. The author forecasted that electric vehicles will still be using batteries as the most important electric vehicle component, even though fuel cells are receiving increased funding and attention. Approximately 1.3 million electric vehicles were made globally in 1999, that earned US$14.02 billion from sale and associated services. It is expected that the figures for 2010 will be in the vicinity of 12.5 million vehicles and US$48.31 billion. Mix (battery vs hybrid vs fuel cell) and unit prices will drastically differ from what they are today. tabs., figs.

  6. A method for establishing a long duration, stratospheric platform for astronomical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesen, Robert; Brown, Yorke

    2015-10-01

    During certain times of the year at middle and low latitudes, winds in the upper stratosphere move in nearly the opposite direction than the wind in the lower stratosphere. Here we present a method for maintaining a high-altitude balloon platform in near station-keeping mode that utilizes this stratospheric wind shear. The proposed method places a balloon-borne science platform high in the stratosphere connected by a lightweight, high-strength tether to a tug vehicle located in the lower or middle stratosphere. Using aerodynamic control surfaces, wind-induced aerodynamic forces on the tug can be manipulated to counter the wind drag acting on the higher altitude science vehicle, thus controlling the upper vehicle's geographic location. We describe the general framework of this station-keeping method, some important properties required for the upper stratospheric science payload and lower tug platforms, and compare this station-keeping approach with the capabilities of a high altitude airship and conventional tethered aerostat approaches. We conclude by discussing the advantages of such a platform for a variety of missions with emphasis on astrophysical research.

  7. Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, Roy; Neil, George

    2007-02-01

    The goal of 100 kilowatts (kW) of directed energy from an airborne tactical platform has proved challenging due to the size and weight of most of the options that have been considered. However, recent advances in Free-Electron Lasers appear to offer a solution along with significant tactical advantages: a nearly unlimited magazine, time structures for periods from milliseconds to hours, radar like functionality, and the choice of the wavelength of light that best meets mission requirements. For an Airborne Tactical Free-Electron Laser (ATFEL) on a platforms such as a Lockheed C-130J-30 and airships, the two most challenging requirements, weight and size, can be met by generating the light at a higher harmonic, aggressively managing magnet weights, managing cryogenic heat loads using recent SRF R&D results, and using FEL super compact design concepts that greatly reduce the number of components. The initial R&D roadmap for achieving an ATFEL is provided in this paper. Performing this R&D is expected to further reduce the weight, size and power requirements for the FELs the Navy is currently developing for shipboard applications, as well as providing performance enhancements for the strategic airborne MW class FELs. The 100 kW ATFEL with its tactical advantages may prove sufficiently attractive for early advancement in the queue of deployed FELs.

  8. Programmable Thermal Dissociation of Reactive Gaseous Mercury, a Potential Approach to Chemical Speciation: Results from a Field Study§

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Tatum Ernest

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmable Thermal Dissociation (PTD has been used to investigate the chemical speciation of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM, Hg2+. RGM was collected on denuders and analyzed using PTD. The technique was tested in a field campaign at a coal-fired power plant in Pensacola, Florida. Stack gas samples were collected from ducts located after the electrostatic precipitator and prior to entering the stack. An airship was used to sample from the stack plume, downwind of the stack exit. The PTD profiles from these samples were compared with PTD profiles of HgCl2. Comparison of stack and in-plume samples suggest that the chemical speciation are the same and that it is possible to track a specific chemical form of RGM from the stack and follow its evolution in the stack plume. Comparison of the measured plume RGM with the amount calculated from in-stack measurements and the measured plume dilution suggest that the stack and plume RGM concentrations are consistent with dilution. The PTD profiles of the stack and plume samples are consistent with HgCl2 being the chemical form of the sampled RGM. Comparison with literature PTD profiles of reference mercury compounds suggests no other likely candidates for the speciation of RGM.

  9. Stable carbon isotope ratios of toluene in the boundary layer and the lower free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wintel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of stable carbon isotope ratios in VOC are a powerful tool to identify sources or to track both dynamical and chemical processes. During the field campaign ZEPTER-2 in autumn 2008 whole air samples were collected on board a Zeppelin NT airship in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over south-west Germany. These samples were analysed with respect to VOC mixing ratios and stable carbon isotope ratios using a gas chromatograph combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In this study we present the results for toluene, one of the major anthropogenic pollutants. In the boundary layer we observed rather fresh emissions mixing into the background and derived a toluene source isotope ratio of δ13C = −28.2 ± 0.5 ‰. Using the concept of the effective kinetic isotope effect, we were able to separate the effects of dilution processes and photochemical degradation in the free troposphere. We estimated the photochemical age of toluene in the atmosphere in two different ways (using isotope ratios and mixing ratios, respectively. The results differ strongly in the planetary boundary layer, probably due to mixing processes, but are compatible with each other in the free troposphere.

  10. Fabrication Process of Silicone-based Dielectric Elastomer Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Samuel; Araromi, Oluwaseun A; Schlatter, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R

    2016-01-01

    This contribution demonstrates the fabrication process of dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs). DETs are stretchable capacitors consisting of an elastomeric dielectric membrane sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. The large actuation strains of these transducers when used as actuators (over 300% area strain) and their soft and compliant nature has been exploited for a wide range of applications, including electrically tunable optics, haptic feedback devices, wave-energy harvesting, deformable cell-culture devices, compliant grippers, and propulsion of a bio-inspired fish-like airship. In most cases, DETs are made with a commercial proprietary acrylic elastomer and with hand-applied electrodes of carbon powder or carbon grease. This combination leads to non-reproducible and slow actuators exhibiting viscoelastic creep and a short lifetime. We present here a complete process flow for the reproducible fabrication of DETs based on thin elastomeric silicone films, including casting of thin silicone membranes, membrane release and prestretching, patterning of robust compliant electrodes, assembly and testing. The membranes are cast on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates coated with a water-soluble sacrificial layer for ease of release. The electrodes consist of carbon black particles dispersed into a silicone matrix and patterned using a stamping technique, which leads to precisely-defined compliant electrodes that present a high adhesion to the dielectric membrane on which they are applied. PMID:26863283

  11. A review of thrust-vectoring in support of a V/STOL non-moving mechanical propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páscoa, José; Dumas, Antonio; Trancossi, Michele; Stewart, Paul; Vucinic, Dean

    2013-09-01

    The advantages associated to Vertical Short-Take-Off and Landing (V/STOL) have been demonstrated since the early days of aviation, with the initial technolology being based on airships and later on helicopters and planes. Its operational advantages are enormous, being it in the field of military, humanitarian and rescue operations, or even in general aviation. Helicopters have limits in their maximum horizontal speed and classic V/STOL airplanes have problems associated with their large weight, due to the implementation of moving elements, when based on tilting rotors or turbojet vector mechanical oriented nozzles. A new alternative is proposed within the European Union Project ACHEON (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting-jet Nozzle). The project introduces a novel scheme to orient the jet that is free of moving elements. This is based on a Coanda effect nozzle supported in two fluid streams, also incorporating boundary layer plasma actuators to achieve larger deflection angles. Herein we introduce a state-of-the-art review of the concepts that have been proposed in the framework of jet orienting propulsion systems. This review allows to demonstrate the advantages of the new concept in comparison to competing technologies in use at present day, or of competing technologies under development worldwide.

  12. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  13. Wing Warping and Its Impact on Aerodynamic Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ben; Jacob, Jamey

    2007-11-01

    Inflatable wings have been demonstrated in many applications such as UAVs, airships, and missile stabilization surfaces. A major concern presented by the use of an inflatable wing has been the lack of traditional roll control surfaces. This leaves the designer with several options in order to have control about the roll axis. Since inflatable wings have a semi-flexible structure, wing warping is the obvious solution to this problem. The current method is to attach servos and control linkages to external surface of the wing that results in variation of profile chamber and angle of attack from leading edge or trailing edge deflection. Designs using internal muscles will also be discussed. This creates a lift differential between the half-spans, resulting in a roll moment. The trailing edge on the other half-span can also be deflected in the opposite direction to increase the roll moment as well as to reduce roll-yaw coupling. Comparisons show that higher L/D ratios are possible than using traditional control surfaces. An additional benefit is the ability to perform symmetric warping to achieve optimum aerodynamic performance. Via warping alone, an arbitrary span can be warped such that it has the same aerodynamic characteristics as an elliptical planform. Comparisons between lifting line theory and test results will be presented.

  14. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI

  15. First Breakthrough for Future Air-Breathing Magneto-Plasma Propulsion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goksel, Berkant

    2016-01-01

    A new breakthrough in jet propulsion technology since the invention of the jet engine is achieved. The first critical tests for future air-breathing magneto-plasma propulsion systems have been successfully completed. In this regard, it is also the first time that a pinching dense plasma focus discharge could be ignited at one atmosphere and driven in pulse mode using very fast, nanosecond electrostatic excitations to induce self-organized plasma channels for ignition of the propulsive main discharge. Depending on the capacitor voltage (200-600 V) the energy input at one atmosphere varies from 52-320 J/pulse corresponding to impulse bits from 1.2-8.0 mNs. Such a new pulsed plasma propulsion system driven with one thousand pulses per second would already have thrust-to-area ratios (50-150 kN/m2) of modern jet engines. An array of thrusters could enable future aircrafts and airships to start from ground and reach altitudes up to 50km and beyond. The needed high power could be provided by future compact plasma fu...

  16. Carrier phase altimetry using Zeppelin based GNSS-R observations and water gauge reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Schön, Steffen; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Beyerle, Georg; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of transmitters in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), like GPS, Galileo, Glonass or Compass, provide observations with an increasing coverage for positioning but also for remote sensing. A space based GNSS remote sensing application is radio occultation, a limb sounding method. Globally distributed vertical profiles of temperature, water vapour and electron density are provided operationally for weather forecast and ionospheric monitoring. Another application is GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) that is currently developed especially for ocean remote sensing. The high reflection coefficient of water is crucial for GNSS-R. This study presents a method that uses GNSS phase observations for lake altimetry with the potential for ocean application. Phase observations are deduced from a GORS (GNSS Occultaction Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver in Master-Slave-Configuration. The Master sampling dedicated for direct signal acquisition is connected to an up-looking antenna with right hand circular polarization (RHCP). Two Slave samplings dedicated for acquisition of the reflected signals are connected to down-looking antennas with right- and left-hand circular polarization (RHCP and LHCP). Based on in-phase and quad-phase (I, Q) sample components, an altimetric phase residual is retrieved. This residual can be related to the height of the reflecting surface. An altimetric challenge arises from the unknown ambiguity of phase residuals that introduces a height bias. The presented study uses ancillary data deduced from water gauges to mitigate the ambiguity bias. Reference tracks are formed by linear surface height interpolation between the water gauge stations. At crossover points of reflection tracks with reference tracks a phase ambiguity estimate is determined for bias mitigation. For this study airborne GNSS measurements were conducted aboard a Zeppelin NT (New Technology) airship with a geodetic receiver for navigation and a GORS receiver for

  17. An innovative methodology for measurement of stress distribution of inflatable membrane structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inflatable membrane structure has been widely used in the fields of civil building, industrial building, airship, super pressure balloon and spacecraft. It is important to measure the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure because it influences the safety of the structural design. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the measurement and determination of the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure under different internal pressures, combining photogrammetry and the force-finding method. The shape of the inflatable membrane structure is maintained by the use of pressurized air, and the internal pressure is controlled and measured by means of an automatic pressure control system. The 3D coordinates of the marking points pasted on the membrane surface are acquired by three photographs captured from three cameras based on photogrammetry. After digitizing the markings on the photographs, the 3D curved surfaces are rebuilt. The continuous membrane surfaces are discretized into quadrilateral mesh and simulated by membrane links to calculate the stress distributions using the force-finding method. The internal pressure is simplified to the external node forces in the normal direction according to the contributory area of the node. Once the geometry x, the external force r and the topology C are obtained, the unknown force densities q in each link can be determined. Therefore, the stress distributions of the inflatable membrane structure can be calculated, combining the linear adjustment theory and the force density method based on the force equilibrium of inflated internal pressure and membrane internal force without considering the mechanical properties of the constitutive material. As the use of the inflatable membrane structure is attractive in the field of civil building, an ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) cushion is used with the measurement model to validate the proposed methodology. The comparisons between the

  18. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Multi-Segment Radius Measurement Using an Absolute Distance Meter Through a Null Assembly; Fiber-Optic Magnetic-Field-Strength Measurement System for Lightning Detection; Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use; Computer Generated Hologram System for Wavefront Measurement System Calibration; Non-Contact Thermal Properties Measurement with Low-Power Laser and IR Camera System; SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor; CMOS Imager Has Better Cross-Talk and Full-Well Performance; High-Performance Wireless Telemetry; Telemetry-Based Ranging; JWST Wavefront Control Toolbox; Java Image I/O for VICAR, PDS, and ISIS; X-Band Acquisition Aid Software; Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water; Range 7 Scanner Integration with PaR Robot Scanning System; Methods of Antimicrobial Coating of Diverse Materials; High-Operating-Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength; A Model of Reduced Kinetics for Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species for N-Heptane; Thermally Conductive Tape Based on Carbon Nanotube Arrays; Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases; Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing; Lightweight, Ultra-High-Temperature, CMC-Lined Carbon/Carbon Structures; Sample Acquisition and Handling System from a Remote Platform; Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode; High-Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement; Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer; Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor; Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Technology for High-Altitude Airships; Combustor Computations for CO2-Neutral Aviation; Use of Dynamic Distortion to Predict and Alleviate Loss of Control; Cycle Time Reduction in Trapped Mercury Ion Atomic Frequency Standards; and A (201)Hg+ Comagnetometer for (199)Hg+ Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks.

  19. 临近空间平台动力系统技术和环境影响分析%Power System Technology of Near-space Platforms and Environmental Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珉

    2013-01-01

    Characters of two kinds of power and propulsion system technology, including low-speed and high-speed near-space platforms, were discussed. Low-speed near-space platforms, such as stratospheric airship uses solar energy as power, electric motors and propellers as propulsion. The power and propulsion systems of high-speed near-space platforms mainly include supersonic combustion ramjets types and combined cycle types. The possible effects of thin atmosphere, UV radiation, ozone, and temperature on the power and propulsion systems were analyzed and the corresponding solutions were put forward.%从临近空间平台所采用的动力系统出发,探讨了低速和高速两类临近空间飞行器动力系统的技术特点。以平流层飞艇为代表的低速临近空间平台动力系统主要采用太阳能、电动机和螺旋桨的推进方式,高速临近空间平台动力系统目前主要有超燃冲压动力型和组合循环动力型。分析了临近空间稀薄大气、太阳紫外辐射和臭氧以及温度等环境对平台动力系统产生的可能影响,并提出了相应的解决措施。

  20. Singular vector based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-08-01

    Measurements of the large dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has been proved effective for targeted observations in numerical weather predication, is implemented into the chemical transport model EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. Since the considered cases are restricted in terms of considered chemical compounds and selected areas, they allow for a retracing of the results and a confirmation of their correctness. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determine the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimisation with growing

  1. New varieties selecting and mutagenesis mechanism of upland cotton (G. hirsutum L.) by space mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton space breeding was a newly breeding method. At the first, the seeds were taken into the space by the recoverable satellite, altitude air balloon, and airship, where synthetically physical factors (cosmic rays, microgravity, high vacuum, ebb magnetic field and so on.) of the space were applied to create great genetic variation. The seeds were sent by Shenzhou 4 in 2002, and by the Eighteen science and technology satellite in 2003. There were the long season cotton varieties (Lu9154, Zhong9708, S2498) and the short season cotton varieties (Zhong205806, Zhong206573, SGK Zhong-394, and Zhong108619). Every sample had corresponding ground check.Three generations(SP1,SP2 and SP3) were investigated. The cotton buds were damaged in SP1, and the induced effect was bigger in the short season cottons. The height had big changed, the leaves and bolls had increased, the function areas, small bolls and opened bolls had positive and negative changes in SP1,SP2 and SP3. The seed cotton yields, the lint yields, the boll weight and the lint percentage had positive and negative changes in SP1 and SP2. The induced action to specific strength, elongation and MIC was bigger than to fibre length, uniformity. Molecular polymorphism was existed by SSR in DNA level. There are thirty-five SSR primers pairs amplified marker loci. The polymorphism percentage was 19.4%, There are thirty-seven RAPD primer pairs amplified marker loci. The polymorphism percentage was 25.8%. It was primary approved that the mutations changed from DNA level. Zhongmiansuo50 and Zhongmiansuo24 was released from space mutation offspring. (author)

  2. Development of high-speed high-performance engines in Friedrichshafen. Vols. 1 and 2. Die Entwicklung schnellaufender Hochleistungsmotoren in Friedrichshafen. Bd. 1 und 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, S.

    1984-01-01

    The publication abstracted traces and analyzes the development of high-performance combustion engines in Friedrichshafen over a period of 70 years. By way of introduction the author points out the peculiarity of combustion engines to be consisting in its quasi-negligible development and changes since its early days. Part one describes the chronological development of airplane engines, airship engines, motor vehicle and commercial vehicle engines, diesel engines and high-performance engines. The description is followed by a discussion of the requirements to be met by high-performance engines and a description of their development. The publication points out the design and construction of airplane engines as well as first operational results, increased performance, adaptability to operational conditions and the standardization of types. Moreover the author discusses the development of individual parts and functional components as well as the characteristics and features of the state of development. Part one of the thesis concludes with a discussion of general aspects of engine development. Volume 2 of the thesis presents a comprehensive set of diagrams, tables and graphs illustrating and elucidating the different sections contained in volume 1. The diagrams and tables refer to relevant technical publications dealing with the chronology of engine development, the nomenclature of Maybach-Motorenbau (MM) engines, Maybach-Mercedes-Benz (MMB) engines and Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen (MTU) engines as well as production and employment data. Descriptions may be found of the major MM, MMB and MTU engines together with detailed sectional drawings, photographs, specifications and operational diagrams. Different sources may be referred to for engine performance data. Comprehensive references (journals, industrial reports) are annexed. (HWJ).

  3. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  4. Exploration of CIGAS Alloy System for Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Novel Lightweight and Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Lawrence M.; Kalla, Ajay; Ribelin, Rosine

    2007-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) on lightweight and flexible substrates offer the potential for very high solar array specific power (W/kg). ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) is developing flexible TFPV blanket technology that has potential for specific power greater than 2000 W/kg (including space coatings) that could result in solar array specific power between 150 and 500 W/kg, depending on array size, when mated with mechanical support structures specifically designed to take advantage of the lightweight and flexible substrates.(1) This level of specific power would far exceed the current state of the art for spacecraft PV power generation, and meet the needs for future spacecraft missions.(2) Furthermore the high specific power would also enable unmanned aircraft applications and balloon or high-altitude airship (HAA) applications, in addition to modular and quick deploying tents for surface assets or lunar base power, as a result of the high power density (W/sq m) and ability to be integrated into the balloon, HAA or tent fabric. ITN plans to achieve the high specific power by developing single-junction and two-terminal monolithic tandem-junction PV cells using thin-films of high-efficiency and radiation resistant CuInSe2 (CIS) partnered with bandgap-tunable CIS-alloys with Ga (CIGS) or Al (CIAS) on novel lightweight and flexible substrates. Of the various thin-film technologies, single-junction and radiation resistant CIS and associated alloys with gallium, aluminum and sulfur have achieved the highest levels of TFPV device performance, with the best efficiency reaching 19.5% under AM1.5 illumination conditions and on thick glass substrates.(3) Thus, it is anticipated that single- and tandem-junction devices with flexible substrates and based on CIS and related alloys will achieve the highest levels of thin-film space and HAA solar array performance.

  5. The Impact of Ship-Produced Aerosols on the Microstructure and Albedo of Warm Marine Stratocumulus Clouds: A Test of MAST Hypotheses 1i and 1ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, P. A.; Noone, K. J.; Ferek, R. J.; Johnson, D. W.; Taylor, J. P.; Garrett, T. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hudson, J. G.; Bretherton, C. S.; Innis, G.; Frick, G. M.; Hoppel, W. A.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Russell, L. M.; Gasparovic, R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Tessmer, S. A.; Öström, E.;  Osborne, S. R.;  Flagan, R. C.;  Seinfeld, J. H.;  Rand, H.

    2000-08-01

    Anomalously high reflectivity tracks in stratus and stratocumulus sheets associated with ships (known as ship tracks) are commonly seen in visible and near-infrared satellite imagery. Until now there have been only a limited number of in situ measurements made in ship tracks. The Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiment, which was conducted off the coast of California in June 1994, provided a substantial dataset on ship emissions and their effects on boundary layer clouds. Several platforms, including the University of Washington C-131A aircraft, the Meteorological Research Flight C-130 aircraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 aircraft, the Naval Research Laboratory airship, the Research Vessel Glorita, and dedicated U.S. Navy ships, participated in MAST in order to study processes governing the formation and maintenance of ship tracks.This paper tests the hypotheses that the cloud microphysical changes that produce ship tracks are due to (a) particulate emission from the ship's stack and/or (b) sea-salt particles from the ship's wake. It was found that ships powered by diesel propulsion units that emitted high concentrations of aerosols in the accumulation mode produced ship tracks. Ships that produced few particles (such as nuclear ships), or ships that produced high concentrations of particles but at sizes too small to be activated as cloud drops in typical stratocumulus (such as gas turbine and some steam-powered ships), did not produce ship tracks. Statistics and case studies, combined with model simulations, show that provided a cloud layer is susceptible to an aerosol perturbation, and the atmospheric stability enables aerosol to be mixed throughout the boundary layer, the direct emissions of cloud condensation nuclei from the stack of a diesel-powered ship is the most likely, if not the only, cause of the formation of ship tracks. There was no evidence that salt particles from ship wakes cause ship tracks.

  6. Feasibility Study of Space Based Solar Power to Tethered Aerostat Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Stephen J.; Leete, Stephen J.; Jaffe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of two-stage Space-Based Solar Power to Tethered Aerostat to Earth (SSP-TA) system architectures that offer significant advantages over conventional single stage space-to-earth architectures is being studied. There have been many proposals for the transmission of solar power collected in space to the surface of the earth so that solar energy could provide a major part of the electric power requirements on earth. There are, however, serious difficulties in implementing the single stage space-based solar power systems that have been previously studied. These difficulties arise due to: i) the cost of transporting the components needed for the extremely large microwave transmit beaming aperture into space orbit, ii) the even larger collection apertures required on earth, iii) the potential radiation hazard to personnel and equipment on earth, and iv) a lack of flexibility in location of the collection station on the earth. Two candidate system architectures are described here to overcome these difficulties. In both cases a two-stage space to tethered aerostat to earth transmission system (SSP-TA) is proposed. The use of high altitude tethered aerostats (or powered airships) avoids the effects of attenuation of EM energy propagating through the earth s lower atmosphere. This allows the use of beaming frequencies to be chosen from the range of high millimeter (THz) to near-infra-red (NIR) to the visible. This has the potential for: i) greatly reduced transportation costs to space, ii) much smaller receiver collection apertures and ground stations, iii) elimination of the potential radiation hazard to personnel and equipment on earth, and iv) ease in transportation and flexibility in location of the collection station on the earth. A preliminary comparison of system performance and efficiencies is presented.

  7. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  8. Earth – Mars Similarity Criteria for Martian Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian TRIFU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper. These similarity criteria, as non dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such a kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. “Mars Rover” has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter, is substantial higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration it seems to be a machine using the in-situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  9. An innovative methodology for measurement of stress distribution of inflatable membrane structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Chen, Wujun; Hu, Jianhui; Chen, Jianwen; Qiu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Jinyu; Gao, Chengjun

    2016-02-01

    The inflatable membrane structure has been widely used in the fields of civil building, industrial building, airship, super pressure balloon and spacecraft. It is important to measure the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure because it influences the safety of the structural design. This paper presents an innovative methodology for the measurement and determination of the stress distribution of the inflatable membrane structure under different internal pressures, combining photogrammetry and the force-finding method. The shape of the inflatable membrane structure is maintained by the use of pressurized air, and the internal pressure is controlled and measured by means of an automatic pressure control system. The 3D coordinates of the marking points pasted on the membrane surface are acquired by three photographs captured from three cameras based on photogrammetry. After digitizing the markings on the photographs, the 3D curved surfaces are rebuilt. The continuous membrane surfaces are discretized into quadrilateral mesh and simulated by membrane links to calculate the stress distributions using the force-finding method. The internal pressure is simplified to the external node forces in the normal direction according to the contributory area of the node. Once the geometry x, the external force r and the topology C are obtained, the unknown force densities q in each link can be determined. Therefore, the stress distributions of the inflatable membrane structure can be calculated, combining the linear adjustment theory and the force density method based on the force equilibrium of inflated internal pressure and membrane internal force without considering the mechanical properties of the constitutive material. As the use of the inflatable membrane structure is attractive in the field of civil building, an ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) cushion is used with the measurement model to validate the proposed methodology. The comparisons between the

  10. Comparison of vertical aerosol extinction coefficients from in-situ and LIDAR measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rosati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ~ 50–800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a LIDAR system provided aerosol extinction coefficients for a vertically resolved comparison between in-situ and remote sensing results. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20% was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 to 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ~ 10 local time before the mixed layer (ML was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ~ 12 local time the ML was fully developed, resulting in constant extinction coefficients at all altitudes measured on the Zeppelin NT. LIDAR results captured these dynamic features well and good agreement was found for the extinction coefficients compared to the in-situ results, using fixed LIDAR ratios (LR between 30 and 70 sr for the altitudes probed with the

  11. Overall design of imaging spectrometer on-board light aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhongqi, H.; Zhengkui, C.; Changhua, C.

    1996-11-01

    Aerial remote sensing is the earliest remote sensing technical system and has gotten rapid development in recent years. The development of aerial remote sensing was dominated by high to medium altitude platform in the past, and now it is characterized by the diversity platform including planes of high-medium-low flying altitude, helicopter, airship, remotely controlled airplane, glider, and balloon. The widely used and rapidly developed platform recently is light aircraft. Early in the close of 1970s, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology began aerial photography and geophysical survey using light aircraft, and put forward the overall design scheme of light aircraft imaging spectral application system (LAISAS) in 19905. LAISAS is comprised of four subsystem. They are called measuring platform, data acquiring subsystem, ground testing and data processing subsystem respectively. The principal instruments of LAISAS include measuring platform controlled by inertia gyroscope, aerial spectrometer with high spectral resolution, imaging spectrometer, 3-channel scanner, 128-channel imaging spectrometer, GPS, illuminance-meter, and devices for atmospheric parameters measuring, ground testing, data correction and processing. LAISAS has the features of integrity from data acquisition to data processing and to application; of stability which guarantees the image quality and is comprised of measuring, ground testing device, and in-door data correction system; of exemplariness of integrated the technology of GIS, GPS, and Image Processing System; of practicality which embodied LAISAS with flexibility and high ratio of performance to cost. So, it can be used in the fields of fundamental research of Remote Sensing and large-scale mapping for resource exploration, environmental monitoring, calamity prediction, and military purpose.

  12. Comparison of Square and Radial Geometries for High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Fast, Brian R.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.; Jalics, Andrew K.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to further advance a realizable form of wireless power transmission (WPT), high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) has been developed for both space and terrestrial applications. Unique optical-to-electrical receivers are employed with near infrared (IR-A) continuous-wave (CW) semiconductor lasers to experimentally investigate the HILPB system. In this paper, parasitic feedback, uneven illumination and the implications of receiver array geometries are considered and experimental hardware results for HILPB are presented. The TEM00 Gaussian energy profile of the laser beam presents a challenge to the effectiveness of the receiver to perform efficient photoelectric conversion, due to the resulting non-uniform illumination of the photovoltaic cell arrays. In this investigation, the geometry of the receiver is considered as a technique to tailor the receiver design to accommodate the Gaussian beam profile, and in doing so it is demonstrated that such a methodology is successful in generating bulk receiver output power levels reaching 25 W from 7.2 sq cm of photovoltaic cells. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers to achieve a 1.0 sq m receiver capable of generating over 30 kW of electrical power. This type of system would enable long range optical "refueling" of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion. In addition, a smaller HILPB receiver aperture size could be utilized to establish a robust optical communications link within environments containing high levels of background radiance, to achieve high signal to noise ratios.

  13. Expanding the Capabilities of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster for In-Space and Atmospheric Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian Kronheim

    Of all in-space propulsion systems to date, the Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) is unique in its simplicity and wide range of operational parameters. This study examined multiple uses of the thruster for in-space and atmospheric propulsion, as well as the creation of a CubeSat satellite and atmospheric airship as test beds for the thruster. The PPT was tested as a solid-propellant feed source for the High Power Helicon Thruster, a compact plasma source capable of generating order of magnitude higher plasma densities than comparable power level systems. Replacing the gaseous feed system reduced the thruster size and complexity, as well as allowing for extremely discrete discharges, minimizing the influence of wall effects. Teflon (C2F4) has been the traditional propellant for PPTs due to a high exhaust velocity and ability to ablate without surface modification over long durations. A number of alternative propellants, including minerals and metallics commonly found on asteroids, were tested for use with the PPT. Compounds with significant fractions of sulfur showed the highest performance increase, with specific thrusts double that of Teflon. A PPT with sulfur propellant designed for CubeSat operation, as well as the subsystems necessary for autonomous operation, was built and tested in the laboratory. The PPT was modified for use at atmospheric pressures where the impulse was well defined as a function of the discharge chamber volume, capacitor energy, and background pressure. To demonstrate that the air-breathing PPT was a viable concept the device was launched on two atmospheric balloon flights.

  14. Cal Tech's Program in Meteorology: 1933-1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) established a course of study in meteorology in 1933. It was intimately tied to the upsurge of activity in commercial and military aviation that occurred in the period between the world wars. The tragic crash of the airship U.S.S. Akron provided the stimulus for including meteorology as a subprogram in the aeronautics department at Cal Tech. Thoodore von K´rm´n, head of the department and director of the school's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory, masterminded the design of the program and geared it toward the solution of practical problems using the principles of dynamic meteorology. One of his doctoral students, Irving Krick, was groomed to develop the program.Robert Millikan, head of the institute, fostered an approach to science that encouraged the faculty to consuit and work with industry. In this environment, Krick established links with aviation, motion picture studios, and public utilities that would set the stage for the research thrust in meteorology. The program was primarily designed for training at the master' degree level, and a significant number of the graduates became entrepreneurs in meteorology. Based on letters of reminiscence and oral histories from some of these consulting meteorologists, it has been concluded that the Millikan/von K´rm´n philosophy of science played an important part in directing the meteorologists into the private sector.Following World War II, Lee DuBridge replaced Millikan as head of the institute. DuBridge's efforts were directed toward making the small elite school scientifically competitive in the changed conditions of a postwar world. In this climate, the merging of private business with academic work fell into disfavor. Without champions such as Millikan and von K´rm´n,the meteorology program was unable to survive.

  15. Total Column Methane Retrievals Using the Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer Over Sunglint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, N.; Kumer, J.; Rairden, R.; Jablonski, K.

    2012-07-01

    Because it is a greenhouse gas, the detection of methane concentrations is a global issue. Additionally, the presence of methane is indicative of potential valuable petroleum and natural gas deposits. Therefore methane seep detection is useful for petroleum exploration around the world. The detection of methane, and other absorbing gases, over water is an issue for passive systems because one is seeking to detect an absorbing gas over an absorbing surface. The solution to this dilemma is to use the sun/sensor geometry for sun glint off of water to measure the absorbing gas over a reflecting surface, and therefore significantly increase the signal to noise of the measurement being taken. In September of 2010 Lockheed Martin performed a proof of concept by demonstrating from an airship over San Francisco Bay the capability of the Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer's (TIMS) hyper spectral sensor to passively measure methane, CO, and water vapor over sunglint water. The Lockheed Martin prototype TIMS sensor system is a hyper spectral grating spectrometer instrument that operates in the 2.3 micron spectral region at 0.25 cm-1 resolution. The Lockheed Martin retrieval algorithm developed applies the kCARTA (kCompressed Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Algorithm) with Jacobians, with the HITRAN 2008 lineshape parameters, to retrieve the total column amount of atmospheric species along with the calibrated TIMS sensors radiometric input. A cell with known amount of methane was placed into the input to the TIMS to simulate atmospheric enhancements near the water surface. The amount in the cell was retrieved well within the uncertainty of 1% of the amount in the cell. Multi frame retrievals on data in which the cell was not placed into the input beam demonstrated 1% precision. In addition, in situ surface measurements were done over a landfill park, where measurements of methane were taken over known hotspots. This research allows for the future development of a system

  16. Investigations of power supply and propulsion for a lighter-than-air high altitude platform; Untersuchungen zu Energieversorgung und Antrieb einer Leichter-als-Luft-Hoehenplattform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulla, Michael

    2008-06-20

    High altitude platforms are one alternative to replace ground-bounded relay stations for telecommunication purposes. Already in service are such concepts like tethered balloons or stratospheric airplanes in the field of surveillance, for example to patrol borders. Disadvantages of those concepts are either to disturb the airspace by the wire or to be constricted in terms of mission endurance. Thus, untethered high altitude airships with long mission endurance are currently in the focus of research. One basic requirement for telecommunication platforms is to remain in a fix positioning frame over ground. Therefore wind speed has to be compensated by the propulsion system of the airship. The scope of this work is to investigate the drive and power generation system of a multiple-unit airship. The reduced rigidness of the hull and the resulting lower structural weight yield a higher load capacity and hence increase the mission length by larger fuel reserves. The drawbacks of this configuration are higher stabilization demands and distributed drive units. This leads to a rather complex propulsion system for which a real-time simulation model is provided. Besides electrical driven propellers, the system involves gas turbines and generators to work as power plants, back-up batteries, power-electronics and distribution. Those power plants reflect the state of the art and are thus rather conservative compared to other propulsion concepts for high altitude platforms. The advantage of splitting up the power generation into multiple units is to run only as much power plants as currently required and for this reason, to save energy. In addition, an involvement of the back-up battery reduces the ineffective operation of a power plant in part load. Another reason to employ a battery system is that highly dynamic power requirements, caused for example by a gust of wind, cannot be covered immediately by the power plants. The maximum discharge power of the back-up battery is at

  17. Lighter-Than-Air UAV with slam capabilities for mapping applications and atmpsphere analysys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombatti, G.; Aboudan, A.; La Gloria, N.; Debei, S.; Flamini, E.

    Exploration of the planets and the moons of the Solar System has, up to now, been performed by remote sensing from Earth, fly-by probes, orbiters, landers and rovers. It must be outlined that remote sensing probes and orbiters can only provide non-contact, limited resolution imagery over a small number of spectral bands; on the other hand, landers provide high-resolution imagery and in-situ data collection and analysis capabilities, but only for a single site; while rovers allow imagery collection and in-situ science across their path. These characteristics of the described means highlight how mobility is a key requirement for planetary exploration missions. Autonomous Lighter-Than-Air systems can be used to explore unknown environments without obstacle avoidance problems, mapping large areas to different resolutions and perform a wide variety of measurements and experiments while traveling in the atmosphere. Sensor fusion between Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and vision systems can be used to support vehicle navigation and variable resolution surface mapping. In this work a minimal sensor suite composed by a navigation-grade IMU and stereo camera pair has been studied. At altitudes below 100 m stereo vision techniques can provide range, bearing and elevation measurements of a set of scattered points on the planetary surface. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) extended Kalman filter algorithm has been adapted to deal with stereo camera observations. Sensor fusion with IMU measurements is used to track rapid vehicle movements and to maintain the vehicle position and attitude estimation also if, for a limited period of time, no vision measurements are available. Moreover the SLAM algorithm produces a scattered points map of the complete traveled area. In this work we analyse the dynamics of the airship in response of the encountered environment of Titan moon. Possible trajectories for an extended survey are investigated; this allows to have a precise

  18. Analysis of the Motion Control Methods for Stratospheric Balloon-Borne Gondola Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, gondola platform is one of the stratospheric balloon-borne platforms being in research focus at home and overseas. Comparing to other stratospheric balloon-borne platforms, such as airship platform, gondola platform has advantages of higher stability, rapid in motion regulation and lower energy cost but disadvantages of less supporting capacity and be incapable of fixation. While all platforms have the same goal of keeping them at accurate angle and right pose for the requirements of instruments and objects installed in the platforms, when platforms rotate round the ground level perpendicular. That is accomplishing motion control. But, platform control system has factors of low damper, excessive and uncertain disturbances by the reason of its being hung over balloon in the air, it is hard to achieve the desired control precision because platform is ease to deviate its benchmark motion. Thus, in the controlling procedure in order to get higher precision, it is crucial to perceive the platform's swing synchronously and rapidly, and restrain the influence of disturbances effectively, keep the platform's pose steadily. Furthermore, while the platform in the air regard control center in the ground as reference object, it is ultimate to select a appropriate reference frame and work out the coordinates and implement the adjustment by the PC104 controller. This paper introduces the methods of the motion control based on stratospheric balloon-borne gondola platform. Firstly, this paper compares the characteristic of the flywheel and CMG and specifies the key methods of obtaining two significant states which are 'orientation stability' state and 'orientation tracking' state for platform motion control procedure using CMG as the control actuator. These two states reduce the deviation amplitude of rotation and swing of gondola's motion relative to original motion due to stratospheric intense atmosphere disturbance. We define it as the first procedure. In next

  19. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una función analítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodos computacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelos matemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseños asistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una idea global del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodología seguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la función AUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Title: Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of an airship wing profile.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analytic function of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration of system of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used to developing the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interested parties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanical specialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposed of the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.

  20. Atmospheric trace compounds and their measurement; Atmosphaerische Spurenstoffe und ihre Sondierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, J.; Richter, A. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik und Fernerkundung; Fischer, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung; Technische Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany); Pfeilsticker, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie; Platt, U. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphsyik; Riese, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie und dynamik der Geosphaere; Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften; Stiller, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung; Wagner, T. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany). Forschungsgruppe fuer Satellitenfernerkundung; Kuenzi, K.

    2007-06-15

    Monitoring of the atmosphere is an important challenge in understanding global atmospheric change. In particular, weather forecasting and the ongoing climate change require detailed investigations. This includes the continuous monitoring of the atmosphere for a number of meteorological parameters that drive the prognostic weather models. On the other hand, the natural and anthropogenic atmospheric change is of increasing public concern. Accordingly, reliable forecasting of the consequences of this atmospheric change is crucial for human life. In this respect, sophisticated investigations of the change in atmospheric composition, radiation, energy budget, and dynamics are necessary. Such studies are undertaken in virtually in all atmospheric regions using dedicated in-situ instruments that are deployed at the ground, on airships, aircrafts, high flying balloons and rockets. Of equal importance in atmospheric observation is the remote sensing of the atmosphere. This involves an analysis of the characteristic electromagnetic radiation which is emitted or absorbed by the atmospheric constituent. An special and unprecedented form of remote sensing is that from satellites using optical or UV/VIS/IR/MW spectrally resolved observations. The development of increasingly more sophisticated instruments in combination with different satellite platforms has led to a much increased and improved data base of many atmospheric constituents of global coverage. (orig.) [German] In der Zeit des globalen Wandels stellt die Untersuchung der Erdatmosphaere eine grosse Herausforderung dar. Zum einen werden fuer belastbare Wettervorhersagen staendig meteorologische Parameter benoetigt. Zum anderen ist der durch natuerliche und menschliche Ursachen beschleunigte Wandel der Atmosphaere so besorgniserregend, dass die moeglichen Folgen dieses Wandels fuer die heutige und zukuenftige Zivilisation besser vorhergesagt werden sollten. Hierfuer sind umfangreiche und genaue Untersuchungen der

  1. Nordover med filmkamera - fra Wellman til Nobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Anders Diesen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Heroic Era in Polar Exploration is filled with fascinating stories about interesting men, and the Race for the Poles is richly described in hundreds of books. The Heroic Era in Polar Exploration coincided with the conception of film technology and rise of commercial cinema, and many polar explorers saw potential in utilising this new technology as a research tool. As a result there exists a range of films from the Polar Explorations, but since their making and initial screenings they have received little attention. The story of these films is also an interesting one, although it has not yet been written. A few years after the production of the first film cameras, the explorer Carsten Borchgrevink brought one along on his British Antarctic Expedition in 1898. His main sponsor, a newspaper publisher, wanted to make news films, but the cinematograph, the film reel and the filming skills were not sufficiently developed to capture living images from the polar region. Our record of this first attempt at making a polar film is limited to one scene from when the expedition is leaving London.The first explorer to succeed in filming in the Arctic was Anthony Fiala in 1902, and since his breakthrough the cinematograph became standard scientific equipment on all polar expeditions. The Mechanical Era in Polar Exploration came with the aeroplanes, the airships and the telegraph. Roald Amundsen played a major role here; he claimed his idea about using aeroplanes was as important to the polar exploration as Nansen´s use of skies and dogsledges in the heroic era. This article tells the story about explorers with film camera trying to reach the North Pole from Spitzbergen. Wellman, Amundsen, Byrd and Nobile are the main characters. The story of their fantastic expeditions is told by others; this is the story about their films, and how the films from the Arctic developed from just documenting landscape and animal life until they became proper documentary

  2. Studying the vertical aerosol extinction coefficient by comparing in situ airborne data and elastic backscatter lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Herrmann, Erik; Bucci, Silvia; Fierli, Federico; Cairo, Francesco; Gysel, Martin; Tillmann, Ralf; Größ, Johannes; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Di Liberto, Luca; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Weingartner, Ernest; Virtanen, Annele; Mentel, Thomas F.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol particle optical properties were explored in a case study near the San Pietro Capofiume (SPC) ground station during the PEGASOS Po Valley campaign in the summer of 2012. A Zeppelin NT airship was employed to investigate the effect of the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer at altitudes between ˜ 50 and 800 m above ground. Determined properties included the aerosol particle size distribution, the hygroscopic growth factor, the effective index of refraction and the light absorption coefficient. The first three parameters were used to retrieve the light scattering coefficient. Simultaneously, direct measurements of both the scattering and absorption coefficient were carried out at the SPC ground station. Additionally, a single wavelength polarization diversity elastic lidar system provided estimates of aerosol extinction coefficients using the Klett method to accomplish the inversion of the signal, for a vertically resolved comparison between in situ and remote-sensing results. Note, however, that the comparison was for the most part done in the altitude range where the overlap function is incomplete and accordingly uncertainties are larger. First, the airborne results at low altitudes were validated with the ground measurements. Agreement within approximately ±25 and ±20 % was found for the dry scattering and absorption coefficient, respectively. The single scattering albedo, ranged between 0.83 and 0.95, indicating the importance of the absorbing particles in the Po Valley region. A clear layering of the atmosphere was observed during the beginning of the flight (until ˜ 10:00 LT - local time) before the mixing layer (ML) was fully developed. Highest extinction coefficients were found at low altitudes, in the new ML, while values in the residual layer, which could be probed at the beginning of the flight at elevated altitudes, were lower. At the end of the flight (after ˜ 12:00 LT) the ML was fully developed, resulting in

  3. Singular vector-based targeted observations of chemical constituents: description and first application of the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, N.; Elbern, H.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the large-dimensional chemical state of the atmosphere provide only sparse snapshots of the state of the system due to their typically insufficient temporal and spatial density. In order to optimize the measurement configurations despite those limitations, the present work describes the identification of sensitive states of the chemical system as optimal target areas for adaptive observations. For this purpose, the technique of singular vector analysis (SVA), which has proven effective for targeted observations in numerical weather prediction, is implemented in the EURAD-IM (EURopean Air pollution and Dispersion - Inverse Model) chemical transport model, yielding the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0. Besides initial values, emissions are investigated as critical simulation controlling targeting variables. For both variants, singular vectors are applied to determine the optimal placement for observations and moreover to quantify which chemical compounds have to be observed with preference. Based on measurements of the airship based ZEPTER-2 campaign, the EURAD-IM-SVA v1.0 has been evaluated by conducting a comprehensive set of model runs involving different initial states and simulation lengths. For the sake of brevity, we concentrate our attention on the following chemical compounds, O3, NO, NO2, HCHO, CO, HONO, and OH, and focus on their influence on selected O3 profiles. Our analysis shows that the optimal placement for observations of chemical species is not entirely determined by mere transport and mixing processes. Rather, a combination of initial chemical concentrations, chemical conversions, and meteorological processes determines the influence of chemical compounds and regions. We furthermore demonstrate that the optimal placement of observations of emission strengths is highly dependent on the location of emission sources and that the benefit of including emissions as target variables outperforms the value of initial value optimization with growing

  4. Analysis of the Motion Control Methods for Stratospheric Balloon-Borne Gondola Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H H [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Yuan, Z H [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China); Wu, J [College of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an (China)

    2006-10-15

    At present, gondola platform is one of the stratospheric balloon-borne platforms being in research focus at home and overseas. Comparing to other stratospheric balloon-borne platforms, such as airship platform, gondola platform has advantages of higher stability, rapid in motion regulation and lower energy cost but disadvantages of less supporting capacity and be incapable of fixation. While all platforms have the same goal of keeping them at accurate angle and right pose for the requirements of instruments and objects installed in the platforms, when platforms rotate round the ground level perpendicular. That is accomplishing motion control. But, platform control system has factors of low damper, excessive and uncertain disturbances by the reason of its being hung over balloon in the air, it is hard to achieve the desired control precision because platform is ease to deviate its benchmark motion. Thus, in the controlling procedure in order to get higher precision, it is crucial to perceive the platform's swing synchronously and rapidly, and restrain the influence of disturbances effectively, keep the platform's pose steadily. Furthermore, while the platform in the air regard control center in the ground as reference object, it is ultimate to select a appropriate reference frame and work out the coordinates and implement the adjustment by the PC104 controller. This paper introduces the methods of the motion control based on stratospheric balloon-borne gondola platform. Firstly, this paper compares the characteristic of the flywheel and CMG and specifies the key methods of obtaining two significant states which are 'orientation stability' state and 'orientation tracking' state for platform motion control procedure using CMG as the control actuator. These two states reduce the deviation amplitude of rotation and swing of gondola's motion relative to original motion due to stratospheric intense atmosphere disturbance. We define it as

  5. TOTAL COLUMN METHANE RETRIEVALS USING THE TROPOSPHERIC INFRARED MAPPING SPECTROMETER OVER SUNGLINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Larsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Because it is a greenhouse gas, the detection of methane concentrations is a global issue. Additionally, the presence of methane is indicative of potential valuable petroleum and natural gas deposits. Therefore methane seep detection is useful for petroleum exploration around the world. The detection of methane, and other absorbing gases, over water is an issue for passive systems because one is seeking to detect an absorbing gas over an absorbing surface. The solution to this dilemma is to use the sun/sensor geometry for sun glint off of water to measure the absorbing gas over a reflecting surface, and therefore significantly increase the signal to noise of the measurement being taken. In September of 2010 Lockheed Martin performed a proof of concept by demonstrating from an airship over San Francisco Bay the capability of the Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometer's (TIMS hyper spectral sensor to passively measure methane, CO, and water vapor over sunglint water. The Lockheed Martin prototype TIMS sensor system is a hyper spectral grating spectrometer instrument that operates in the 2.3 micron spectral region at 0.25 cm-1 resolution. The Lockheed Martin retrieval algorithm developed applies the kCARTA (kCompressed Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Algorithm with Jacobians, with the HITRAN 2008 lineshape parameters, to retrieve the total column amount of atmospheric species along with the calibrated TIMS sensors radiometric input. A cell with known amount of methane was placed into the input to the TIMS to simulate atmospheric enhancements near the water surface. The amount in the cell was retrieved well within the uncertainty of 1% of the amount in the cell. Multi frame retrievals on data in which the cell was not placed into the input beam demonstrated 1% precision. In addition, in situ surface measurements were done over a landfill park, where measurements of methane were taken over known hotspots. This research allows for the future

  6. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Bernadette; Gysel, Martin; Rubach, Florian; Mentel, Thomas F.; Goger, Brigitta; Poulain, Laurent; Schlag, Patrick; Miettinen, Pasi; Pajunoja, Aki; Virtanen, Annele; Klein Baltink, Henk; Bas Henzing, J. S.; Größ, Johannes; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Weingartner, Ernest; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-06-01

    Vertical profiles of the aerosol particles hygroscopic properties, their mixing state as well as chemical composition were measured above northern Italy and the Netherlands. An aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS; for chemical composition) and a white-light humidified optical particle spectrometer (WHOPS; for hygroscopic growth) were deployed on a Zeppelin NT airship within the PEGASOS project. This allowed one to investigate the development of the different layers within the planetary boundary layer (PBL), providing a unique in situ data set for airborne aerosol particles properties in the first kilometre of the atmosphere. Profiles measured during the morning hours on 20 June 2012 in the Po Valley, Italy, showed an increased nitrate fraction at ˜ 100 m above ground level (a.g.l.) coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth compared to ˜ 700 m a. g. l. This result was derived from both measurements of the aerosol composition and direct measurements of the hygroscopicity, yielding hygroscopicity parameters (κ) of 0.34 ± 0.12 and 0.19 ± 0.07 for 500 nm particles, at ˜ 100 and ˜ 700 m a. g. l., respectively. The difference is attributed to the structure of the PBL at this time of day which featured several independent sub-layers with different types of aerosols. Later in the day the vertical structures disappeared due to the mixing of the layers and similar aerosol particle properties were found at all probed altitudes (mean κ ≈ 0.18 ± 0.07). The aerosol properties observed at the lowest flight level (100 m a. g. l.) were consistent with parallel measurements at a ground site, both in the morning and afternoon. Overall, the aerosol particles were found to be externally mixed, with a prevailing hygroscopic fraction. The flights near Cabauw in the Netherlands in the fully mixed PBL did not feature altitude-dependent characteristics. Particles were also externally mixed and had an even larger hygroscopic fraction compared to the results in Italy. The mean κ from

  7. Airborne observations of new particle formation events in the boundary layer using a Zeppelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mirme, Sander; Pullinen, Iida; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Ehn, Mikael; Mentel, Thomas F.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a frequent and ubiquitous process in the atmosphere and a major source of newly formed aerosol particles [1]. However, it is still unclear how the aerosol particle distribution evolves in space and time during an NPF. We investigated where in the planetary boundary layer does NPF begin and how does the aerosol number size distribution develop in space and time during it. We measured in Hyytiälä, southern Finland using ground based and airborne measurements. The measurements were part of the PEGASOS project. NPF was studied on six scientific flights during spring 2013 using a Zeppelin NT class airship. Ground based measurements were simultaneously conducted at SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä. The flight profiles over Hyytiälä were flown between sunrise and noon during the growth of the boundary layer. The profiles over Hyytiälä covered vertically a distance of 100-1000 meters reaching the mixed layer, stable (nocturnal) boundary layer and the residual layer. Horizontally the profiles covered approximately a circular area of four kilometers in diameter. The measurements include particle number size distribution by Neutral cluster and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS), Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) [2], meteorological parameters and position (latitude, longitude and altitude) of the Zeppelin. Beginning of NPF was determined from an increase in 1.7-3 nm ion concentration. Height of the mixed layer was estimated from relative humidity measured on-board the Zeppelin. Particle growth rate during NPF was calculated. Spatial inhomogeneities in particle number size distribution during NPF were located and the birthplace of the particles was estimated using the growth rate and trajectories. We observed a regional NPF event that began simultaneously and evolved uniformly inside the mixed layer. In the horizontal direction we observed a long and narrow high concentration plume of

  8. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  9. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rosati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of the aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties as well as chemical composition were performed in the Netherlands and northern Italy on board of a Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaigns in 2012. The vertical changes in aerosol properties during the development of the mixing layer were studied. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF at 95% relative humidity were determined using the white-light humidified optical particles spectrometer (WHOPS for dry diameters of 300 and 500 nm particles. These measurements were supplemented by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and an aethalometer providing information on the aerosol chemical composition. Several vertical profiles between 100 and 700 m a.g. were flown just after sunrise close to the San Pietro Capofiume ground station in the Po Valley, Italy. During the early morning hours the lowest layer (newly developing mixing layer contained a high nitrate fraction (20% which was coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth. In the layer above (residual layer small nitrate fractions of ~ 2% were measured as well as low GFs. After full mixing of the layers, typically around noon and with increased temperature, the nitrate fraction decreased to 2% at all altitudes and led to similar hygroscopicity values as found in the residual layer. These distinct vertical and temporal changes underline the importance of airborne campaigns to study aerosol properties during the development of the mixed layer. The aerosol was externally mixed with 22 and 67% of the 500 nm particles in the range GF 1.5, respectively. Contributors to the non-hygroscopic mode in the observed size range are most likely mineral dust and biological material. Mean hygroscopicity parameters (κ were 0.34, 0.19 and 0.18 for particles in the newly forming mixing layer, residual layer and fully mixed layer, respectively. These results agree well with those from chemical analysis which found values of κ = 0.27, 0.21 and 0

  10. Wireless Power Transmission Technology Development and Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsiek, F.; Weber, K.-H.; Foth, W.-P.; Foth, H. J.; Schäfer, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) technology has been treated to a wide extent in the recent years. A broad variety of applications has been investigated, from earth to orbit, orbit to earth, in-orbit and planetary ones, as for moon and Mars missions. In this course the question to use laser or microwave technology has widely been discussed. Beaming energy to spacecrafts could provide an important space mission-economic potential. It promises significant reduction in the cost of access to space, for scientific and commercial missions, and increases the mission capabilities for in-space systems. For the future enhancement of ISS capabilities and operational efficiency, the use of WPT technology became part of the technology research planning for the ISS. The WPT may have the potential of providing operational benefits, increase of spacecraft systems efficiency for elements like co-orbiting platforms, transfer vehicles or other ISS related in-orbit spacecrafts, and planetary exploration vehicles. The laser technology provides specific technical, operational and economic benefits compared to microwave applications and provides the actual basis for the envisioned wireless power transmission concepts. An outlook in terms of future wireless power perspectives, both for terrestrial as for space-to-space scenarios is given; these applications are part of a technology demonstration roadmap for wireless power transmission key- and supporting technologies, which is characterized by dedicated technology demonstration milestones on ground and in space. The actual technology development philosophy as conceived at EADS-Space Transportation is described and includes main system demonstration missions, as a laboratory test bed employing a small rover system, a scaled airship model demonstration as planned in 2004 and an experiment onboard the International Space Station ISS. These demonstrations represent milestones in terms of technical capability verification on the way to