Sample records for airships

  1. Army Airships (United States)


    contains some type of internal support structure such as a keel. A rigid airship has a full skeleton, such as the Zeppelin model from the mid 1900‟s...the World War One, the Germans used zeppelins with limited success to attack the United Kingdom (UK) in a “strategic bomber” role. The US used...similar objectives.21 The Army initiated CPR‟s on every acquisition program to identify redundancies and create efficiencies. CPR‟s have led to more

  2. Nonlinear airship aeroelasticity (United States)

    Bessert, N.; Frederich, O.


    The aeroelastic derivatives for today's aircraft are calculated in the concept phase using a standard procedure. This scheme has to be extended for large airships, due to various nonlinearities in structural and aerodynamic behaviour. In general, the structural model of an airship is physically as well as geometrically nonlinear. The main sources of nonlinearity are large deformations and the nonlinear material behaviour of membranes. The aerodynamic solution is also included in the nonlinear problem, because the deformed airship influences the surrounding flow. Due to these nonlinearities, the aeroelastic problem for airships can only be solved by an iterative procedure. As one possibility, the coupled aerodynamic and structural dynamic problem was handled using linked standard solvers. On the structural side, the Finite-Element program package ABAQUS was extended with an interface to the aerodynamic solver VSAERO. VSAERO is based on the aerodynamic panel method using potential flow theory. The equilibrium of the internal structural and the external aerodynamic forces leads to the structural response and a trimmed flight state for the specified flight conditions (e.g. speed, altitude). The application of small perturbations around a trimmed state produces reaction forces and moments. These constraint forces are then transferred into translational and rotational acceleration fields by performing an inertia relief analysis of the disturbed structural model. The change between the trimmed flight state and the disturbed one yields the respective aeroelastic derivatives. By including the calculated derivatives in the linearised equation of motion system, it is possible to judge the stability and controllability of the investigated airship.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong


    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  4. New Worlds Airship (United States)

    Harness, Anthony; Cash, Webster; Shipley, Ann; Glassman, Tiffany; Warwick, Steve


    We review the progress on the New Worlds Airship project, which has the eventual goal of suborbitally mapping the Alpha Centauri planetary system into the Habitable Zone. This project consists of a telescope viewing a star that is occulted by a starshade suspended from an airship. The starshade suppresses the starlight such that fainter planetary objects near the star are revealed. A visual sensor is used to determine the position of the starshade and keep the telescope within the starshade's shadow. In the first attempt to demonstrate starshades through astronomical observations, we have built a precision line of sight position indicator and flew it on a Zeppelin in October (2012). Since the airship provider went out of business we have been redesigning the project to use Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing rockets instead. These Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles will serve as a starshade platform and test bed for further development of the visual sensor. We have completed ground tests of starshades on dry lakebeds and have shown excellent contrast. We are now attempting to use starshades on hilltops to occult stars and perform high contrast imaging of outer planetary systems such as the debris disk around Fomalhaut.

  5. Airship Renaissance: Considerations for Operational Warfare (United States)


    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare 5a. CONTRACT...Airship Renaissance : Considerations for Operational Warfare by Daniel W. Smith III Major, United States Air Force A paper submitted...resources needed now on the battlefield…to get more intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets into the theatre .” 5 Recognizing budget

  6. Airships: A New Horizon for Science

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rhodes, Jason; Baird, Gil; Blake, Geoffrey; Booth, Jeff; Carlile, David E; Duren, Riley; Edworthy, Frederick G; Freeze, Brent; Friedl, Randall R; Goldsmith, Paul F; Hall, Jeffery L; Hoffman, Scott E; Hovarter, Scott E; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M; Jones, Ross M; Kauffmann, Jens; Kiessling, Alina; King, Oliver G; Konidaris, Nick; Lachenmeier, Timothy L; Lord, Steven D; Neu, Jessica; Quetin, Gregory R; Ram, Alan; Sander, Stanley; Simard, Marc; Smith, Mike; Smith, Steve; Smoot, Sara; Susca, Sara; Swann, Abigail; Young, Eliot F; Zambrano, Thomas


    The "Airships: A New Horizon for Science" study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies investigated the potential of a variety of airships currently operable or under development to serve as observatories and science instrumentation platforms for a range of space, atmospheric, and Earth science. The participants represent a diverse cross-section of the aerospace sector, NASA, and academia. Over the last two decades, there has been wide interest in developing a high altitude, stratospheric lighter-than-air (LTA) airship that could maneuver and remain in a desired geographic position (i.e., "station-keeping") for weeks, months or even years. Our study found considerable scientific value in both low altitude ( 60 kft) airships across a wide spectrum of space, atmospheric, and Earth science programs. Over the course of the study period, we identified stratospheric tethered aerostats as a viable alternative to airships where station-keeping was valued over maneuverability. By opening up the sky and Earth's strato...

  7. Airship dynamics modeling: A literature review (United States)

    Li, Yuwen; Nahon, Meyer; Sharf, Inna


    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities adapted to these lighter-than-air vehicles. However, the modeling techniques for airship dynamics have lagged behind and are less systematic than those for fixed-wing aircraft. A state-of-the-art literature review is presented on airship dynamics modeling, aiming to provide a comprehensive description of the main problems in this area and a useful source of references for researchers and engineers interested in modern airship applications. The references are categorized according to the major topics in this area: aerodynamics, flight dynamics, incorporation of structural flexibility, incorporation of atmospheric turbulence, and effects of ballonets. Relevant analytical, numerical, and semi-empirical techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on how the main differences between lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft have been addressed in the modeling. Directions are suggested for future research on each of these topics.

  8. Heated-Atmosphere Airship for the Titan Environment: Thermal Analysis (United States)

    Heller, R. S.; Landis, G. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Colozza, A. J.


    Future exploration of Saturn's moon Titan can be carried out by airships. Several lighter-than-atmosphere gas airships and passive drifting heated-atmosphere balloon designs have been studied, but a heated-atmosphere airship could combine the best characteristics of both. This work analyses the thermal design of such a heated-atmosphere vehicle, and compares the result with a lighter-than-atmosphere (hydrogen) airship design. A design tool was created to enable iteration through different design parameters of a heated-atmosphere airship (diameter, number of layers, and insulating gas pocket thicknesses) and evaluate the feasibility of the resulting airship. A baseline heated-atmosphere airship was designed to have a diameter of 6 m (outer diameter of 6.2 m), three-layers of material, and an insulating gas pocket thickness of 0.05 m between each layer. The heated-atmosphere airship has a mass of 161.9 kg. A similar mission making use of a hydrogen-filled airship would require a diameter of 4.3 m and a mass of about 200 kg. For a long-duration mission, the heated-atmosphere airship appears better suited. However, for a mission lifetime under 180 days, the less complex hydrogen airship would likely be a better option.

  9. Thermal performance of stratospheric airship with photovoltaic array (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Yang, Yanchu; Cui, Yanxiang; Cai, Jingjing


    The increase of airship applications makes it necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the thermal performance of stratospheric airships. A numerical model was proposed to simulate the thermal performance of a stratospheric airship with photovoltaic array, an analysis code was developed based on the thermal model and was verified by experimental data. A further inspection into the temperature field and flow field distribution of the airship was analyzed in detail. The simulation results suggest that solar radiation can exert great influence on the thermal performance of the airship. The higher temperature Helium was gathered in the upper part inside of the airship, the flow of Helium was regular at nighttime but was chaotic in the middle and upper part of the airship at daytime. The temperature and velocity performance of fin was different from that of the hull and other fins due to the shadow of hull and other fins.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-min; LU Chuan-jing; XUE Lei-ping


    Due to the flexibility of the envelope of large stratosphere airships, the aerodynamic solution of such airship is closely related to its shape and the external aerodynamic forces which lead to the structural deformation. It is essentially one of the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) problems. This article aims at the numerical investigation of nonlinear airship aeroelasticity in consideration of aerodynamics and structure coupling, using an iteration method. The three-dimensional flow around the airship was numerically studied by means of the SIMPLE method based on the finite volume method. Nonlinear finite element analysis was employed for geometrically nonlinear deformation of the airship shape. Comparison of aerodynamic parameters and the pressure distribution between rigid and aeroelastic models was conducted when an airship is in a trimmed flight state in specified flight conditions. The effect of aeroelasticity on the airship aerodynamics was detailed.

  11. The 20-20-20 Airship Challenge (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Diaz, Ernesto; Miller, Sarah; Rhodes, Jason


    A NASA Centennial Challenge; ( is in development to spur innovation in stratospheric airships as a science platform. We anticipate a million dollar class prize for the first organization to fly a powered airship that remains stationary at 20km (65,000 ft) altitude for over 20 hours with a 20kg payload. The design must be scalable to longer flights with more massive payloads.In NASA’s constrained budget environment, there are few opportunities for space missions in astronomy and Earth science, and these have very long lead times. We believe that airships (powered, maneuverable, lighter-than-air vehicles) could offer significant gains in observing time, sky and ground coverage, data downlink capability, and continuity of observations over existing suborbital options at competitive prices. We seek to spur private industry (or non-profit institutions, including FFRDCs and Universities) to demonstrate the capability for sustained airship flights as astronomy and Earth science platforms. This poster will introduce the challenge in development and provide details of who to contact for more information.

  12. Recent Development Efforts for Military Airships (United States)


    first aircraft to see useful ary service. German Navy airships were flying time patrol missions as early as 1914, and the zeppelin bombing raids “persistent” or has led the Air Force to sub- fleet of unmanned aircraft, , and Marine Corps to field lar aircraft to provide intelli...semirigid and nonrigid. Rigid es use an internal frame to keep their shape; ships such as the German zeppelins had velopes. Semirigid envelopes use

  13. The 20-20-20 Airships NASA Centennial Challenge (United States)

    Kiessling, Alina; Diaz, Ernesto; Rhodes, Jason; Ortega, Sam; Eberly, Eric


    A 2013 Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) study examined airships as a possible platform for Earth and space science. Airships, lighter than air, powered, maneuverable vehicles, could offer significant gains in observing time, sky and ground coverage, data downlink capability, and continuity of observations over existing suborbital options at competitive prices. The KISS study recommended three courses of action to spur the development and use of airships as a science platform. One of those recommendations was that a prize competition be developed to demonstrate a stratospheric airship. Consequently, we have been developing a NASA Centennial Challenge; ( to spur innovation in stratospheric airships as a science platform. We anticipate a multi-million dollar class prize for the first organization to fly a powered airship that remains stationary at 20km (65,000 ft) altitude for over 20 hours with a 20kg payload. The design must be scalable to longer flights with more massive payloads. A second prize tier, for a 20km flight lasting 200 hours with a 200kg payload would incentivize a further step toward a scientifically compelling and viable new platform. This technology would also have broad commercial applications including communications, asset tracking, and surveillance. Via the 20-20-20 Centennial Challenge, we are seeking to spur private industry (or non-profit institutions, including Universities) to demonstrate the capability for sustained airship flights as astronomy and Earth science platforms.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zi-li; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng


    Total dynamics of an airship is modeled. The body of an airship is taken as a submerged rigid body with neutral buoyancy, i. e. , buoyancy with value equal to that of gravity, and the coupled dynamics between the body with ballonets and ballast is considered. The total dynamics of the airship is firstly derived by Newton-Euler laws and Kirchhoff's equations. Furthermore, by using Hamiltonian and Lagrangian semidirect product reduction theories, the dynamics is formulated as a Lie-Poisson system,control design using energy-based methods for Hamiltonian or Lagrangian system.

  15. Hybrid Airships in Joint Logistics Over the Shore (JLOTS) (United States)


    moving a large number of containers from ship to shore. Extreme sensitivity to weather and sea conditions was the main disadvantage which led to the...effect on airships. The low pressure in their envelopes is only a little higher than the ambient air on the outside. In World War I German Zeppelins

  16. Observations on the method of determining the velocity of airships (United States)

    Volterra, Vito


    To obtain the absolute velocity of an airship by knowing the speed at which two routes are covered, we have only to determine the geographical direction of the routes which we locate from a map, and the angles of routes as given by the compass, after correcting for the variation (the algebraical sum of the local magnetic declination and the deviation).

  17. 78 FR 38091 - Airworthiness Criteria: Proposed Airship Design Criteria for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Model... (United States)


    ..., to the address specified above. All communications received on or before the closing date for... document ``FAA-P-8110-2, Airship Design Criteria (ADC),'' dated November 2, 1987 with Change 1, dated July... airships in the United States for many years. The ADC is inadequate for an aircraft with the size...

  18. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Atmospheric and Surface Exploration of Titan (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Cataldo, Robert L.


    The feasibility of an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) powered airship for the near surface exploration of Titan was evaluated. The analysis did not consider the complete mission only the operation of the airship within the atmosphere of Titan. The baseline airship utilized two ASRG systems with a total of four general-purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. Hydrogen gas was used to provide lift. The ASRG systems, airship electronics and controls and the science payload were contained in a payload enclosure. This enclosure was separated into two sections, one for the ASRG systems and the other for the electronics and payload. Each section operated at atmospheric pressure but at different temperatures. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the surface of Titan based on the available power from the ASRGs. The atmospheric conditions on Titan were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Titan surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the flight altitude and payload mass and volume.

  19. Stabilization and trajectory tracking of autonomous airship's planar motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan; Qu Weidong; Xi Yugeng; Cai Zili


    The stabilization and trajectory tracking problems of autonomous airship's planar motion are studied.By denning novel configuration error and velocity error,the dynamics of error systems are derived.By applying Lyapunov stability method,the state feedback control laws are designed and the close-loop error systems are proved to be uniformly asymptotically stable by Matrosov theorem.In particular,the controller does not need knowledge on system parameters in the case of set-point stabilization,which makes the controller robust with respect to parameter uncertainty.Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the controller designed.

  20. Structural Performance Evaluation Procedure for Large Flexible Airship of HALE Stratospheric Platform Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wu-jun; XIAO Wei-wei; Bernd Kr(o)plin; Andreas Kunze


    Basic loads applied on the airship envelope were analyzed. The resultant forces, the static bending moment and the dynamic bending moment were formulated. Based on classic linear elastic membrane theory, the procedures to calculate the minimum pressure were proposed for sufficient rigidity evaluation. The limit load capacity was further investigated, and the related formula were developed. Finally, the stress and internal forces analysis was carried out for cylindrical and non-cylindrical approximations of envelope hull of airship. The present research is very valuable to the overall preliminary design of airship and further research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu D


    Full Text Available The Aviation Administration policy prohibits the use of mobile phones in Aircraft during transition for the reason it may harm their communication system due to Electromagnetic interference. In case the user wants to access cellular network at higher altitudes, base station access is a problem. Large number of channels are allocated to a single user moving at high speed by various Base Stations in the vicinity to service the request requiring more resources. Low Altitude Platforms (LAPs are provided in the form of Base stations in the Airships with antennas projected upwards which has direct link with the Ground Station. LAPs using LongEndurance Multi-Intelligence Vehicle (LEMVs equipped with an engine for mobility and stable positioning against rough winds are utilized. This paper proposes a system that allows the passengers to use their mobiles in Aircraft using LAPs as an intermediate system between Aircraft and Ground station. As the Aircraft is dynamic, it has to change its link frequently with the Airships, MANETs using AODV protocol is established in the prototype using NS2 to provide the service and the results are encouraging

  2. Development of the educational Arduino module using the helium gas airship (United States)

    Park, Se-Ho; Kim, Won-Hoe; Seo, Suk-Hyun


    Various educational Arduino modules with its simplicity have been developed since Arduino's release into the market. In this study, the helium gas airship was employed to make an Arduino module by applying Arduino Mini, Bluetooth and Android applications.

  3. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Technology for High-Altitude Airships (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Jae-Woo; Chu, Sang-Hyon


    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various application potential and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology for HAA maneuverability and mission-oriented applications must come from its surroundings, e.g. solar power. The energy harvesting system considered for HAA is based on the advanced thermoelectric (ATE) materials being developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The materials selected for ATE are silicon germanium (SiGe) and bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), in multiple layers. The layered structure of the advanced TE materials is specifically engineered to provide maximum efficiency for the corresponding range of operational temperatures. For three layers of the advanced TE materials that operate at high, medium, and low temperatures, correspondingly in a tandem mode, the cascaded efficiency is estimated to be greater than 60 percent.

  4. Prediction of thermal behavior and trajectory of stratospheric airships during ascent based on simulation (United States)

    Yang, Xixiang


    For designers, operators and users, the ability to accurately predict thermal behavior and trajectory of stratospheric airships is very important. Thermal models and dynamic models of stratospheric airships during ascent are developed, including solar radiation, infrared radiation, convection heat transfer and gas expulsion equation. Based on the model, performance parameters of a stratospheric airship during ascent are obtained, including film temperature, helium gas temperature, air temperature, pressure differential, altitude and ascent velocity, changing regulation for these parameters are discussed, and influence of initial helium gas volume and film radiation properties on thermal behavior is analyzed. Simulation results show that, (1) stratospheric airships experience supercooling during ascent, the maximum value is about 30 K, supercooling causes loss of net buoyancy, and affects ascent velocity and trajectory in the end, (2) stratospheric airships experience superheating at the floating altitude, and the maximum value is about 51 K, (3) initial volume ratio of helium gas and the solar radiation absorptivity of film have important effect on thermal behavior and trajectory during ascent, the larger the initial volume ratio is, the faster the ascent velocity will be, and the bigger the solar radiation absorptivity of film is, the smaller the temperature differential between helium gas and outside atmosphere will be.

  5. Radioisotope Stirling Engine Powered Airship for Low Altitude Operation on Venus (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.


    The feasibility of a Stirling engine powered airship for the near surface exploration of Venus was evaluated. The heat source for the Stirling engine was limited to 10 general purpose heat source (GPHS) blocks. The baseline airship utilized hydrogen as the lifting gas and the electronics and payload were enclosed in a cooled insulated pressure vessel to maintain the internal temperature at 320 K and 1 Bar pressure. The propulsion system consisted of an electric motor driving a propeller. An analysis was set up to size the airship that could operate near the Venus surface based on the available thermal power. The atmospheric conditions on Venus were modeled and used in the analysis. The analysis was an iterative process between sizing the airship to carry a specified payload and the power required to operate the electronics, payload and cooling system as well as provide power to the propulsion system to overcome the drag on the airship. A baseline configuration was determined that could meet the power requirements and operate near the Venus surface. From this baseline design additional trades were made to see how other factors affected the design such as the internal temperature of the payload chamber and the flight altitude. In addition other lifting methods were evaluated such as an evacuated chamber, heated atmospheric gas and augmented heated lifting gas. However none of these methods proved viable.

  6. Deformation Evaluation Due to Poisson's Ratio Variation of Coated Fabric for Airship Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen


    Full Text Available To target to evaluate the deformation due to only Poisson’s ratio variation of coated fabric for airship envelop, series biaxial extension tests were carried out for a particular envelop Uretek3216 and the mechanical property parameters were calculated accordingly from the plain composite theory. On the basis of elastic engineering theory, three typical cases of tension ratio 1:1, 1:2 and 1:1~1:2 were proposed for evaluation on Poisson’s ratio variation, which is cruciform specimen, inflatable fabric beam and streamline airship. Parametric analysis was carried out for each case through numerical simulation. And the geometry dimension effect was also investigated with scaled model. The significant deformation variation of airship is found from only Poisson’s ratio variation, Poisson ratio variation is necessary to be considered for accurate deformation predication of large flexible airship. The presented work is valuable to numerical analysis and engineering design for non-rigid airship structures.

  7. Lighter than Air Robots Guidance and Control of Autonomous Airships

    CERN Document Server

    Bestaoui Sebbane, Yasmina


    An aerial robot is a system capable of sustained flight with no direct human control and able to perform a specific task. A lighter than air robot is an aerial robot that relies on the static lift to balance its own weight. It can also be defined as a lighter than air unmanned aerial vehicle or an unmanned airship with sufficient autonomy. Lighter than air systems are particularly appealing since the energy to keep them airborne is small. They are increasingly considered for various tasks such as monitoring, surveillance, advertising, freight carrier, transportation. This book familiarizes readers with a hierarchical decoupled planning and control strategy that has been proven efficient through research. It is made up of a hierarchy of modules with well defined functions operating at a variety of rates, linked together from top to bottom. The outer loop, closed periodically, consists of a discrete search that produces a set of waypoints leading to the goal while avoiding obstacles and weighed regions. The sec...

  8. Human fatigue and the crash of the airship Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Bendrick


    Full Text Available The airship Italia, commanded by General Umberto Nobile, crashed during its return flight from the North Pole in 1928. The cause of the accident was never satisfactorily explained. We present evidence that the crash may have been fatigue-related. Nobile's memoirs indicate that at the time of the crash he had been awake for at least 72 h. Sleep deprivation impairs multiple aspects of cognitive functioning necessary for exploration missions. Just prior to the crash, Nobile made three command errors, all of which are of types associated with inadequate sleep. First, he ordered a release of lift gas when he should have restarted engines (an example of incorrect data synthesis, with deterioration of divergent thinking; second, he inappropriately ordered the ship above the cloud layer (a deficiency in the assessment of relative risks; and third, he remained above the cloud layer for a prolonged period of time (examples of attention to secondary problems, and calculation problems. We argue that as a result of these three errors, which would not be expected from such an experienced commander, there was no longer enough static lift to maintain level flight when the ship went below the cloud layer. Applying Circadian Performance Simulation Software to the sleep–wake patterns described by Nobile in his memoirs, we found that the predicted performance for someone awake as long as he had been is extremely low. This supports the historical evidence that human fatigue contributed to the crash of the Italia.

  9. Modeling and Simulation Tools for Heavy Lift Airships (United States)

    Hochstetler, Ron; Chachad, Girish; Hardy, Gordon; Blanken, Matthew; Melton, John


    For conventional fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft a variety of modeling and simulation tools have been developed to provide designers the means to thoroughly investigate proposed designs and operational concepts. However, lighter-than-air (LTA) airships, hybrid air vehicles, and aerostats have some important aspects that are different from heavier-than-air (HTA) vehicles. In order to account for these differences, modifications are required to the standard design tools to fully characterize the LTA vehicle design and performance parameters.. To address these LTA design and operational factors, LTA development organizations have created unique proprietary modeling tools, often at their own expense. An expansion of this limited LTA tool set could be accomplished by leveraging existing modeling and simulation capabilities available in the National laboratories and public research centers. Development of an expanded set of publicly available LTA modeling and simulation tools for LTA developers would mitigate the reliance on proprietary LTA design tools in use today. A set of well researched, open source, high fidelity LTA design modeling and simulation tools would advance LTA vehicle development and also provide the analytical basis for accurate LTA operational cost assessments. This paper will present the modeling and analysis tool capabilities required for LTA vehicle design, analysis of operations, and full life-cycle support. A survey of the tools currently available will be assessed to identify the gaps between their capabilities and the LTA industry's needs. Options for development of new modeling and analysis capabilities to supplement contemporary tools will also be presented.

  10. Modelling of Airship Flight Mechanics by the Projection Equivalent Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Jelenciak


    Full Text Available This article describes the projection equivalent method (PEM as a specific and relatively simple approach for the modelling of aircraft dynamics. By the PEM it is possible to obtain a mathematic al model of the aerodynamic forces and momentums acting on different kinds of aircraft during flight. For the PEM, it is a characteristic of it that - in principle - it provides an acceptable regression model of aerodynamic forces and momentums which exhibits reasonable and plausible behaviour from a dynamics viewpoint. The principle of this method is based on applying Newton's mechanics, which are then combined with a specific form of the finite element method to cover additional effects. The main advantage of the PEM is that it is not necessary to carry out measurements in a wind tunnel for the identification of the model’s parameters. The plausible dynamical behaviour of the model can be achieved by specific correction parameters, which can be determined on the basis of experimental data obtained during the flight of the aircraft. In this article, we present the PEM as applied to an airship as well as a comparison of the data calculated by the PEM and experimental flight data.

  11. Design of robust stability augmentation system for an airship using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Jin; QU Wei-dong; XI Yu-geng


    This paper presents the design of stability augmentation system (SAS) for the airship, which is robust with respect to parametric plant uncertainties. A robust pole placement approach is adopted in the design,which uses genetic algorithm (GA) as the optimization tool to derive the most robust solution of the state-feedback gain matrix K. The method can guarantee the resulting closed-loop poles to remain in a specified allocation region despite plant parameter uncertainty. Thus, the longitudinal stability of the airship is augmented by robustly assigning the closed-loop poles in a prescribed region of the left half s-plane.

  12. Optimization design of the stratospheric airship's power system based on the methodology of orthogonal experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LIU; Quan-bao WANG; Hai-tao ZHAO; Ji-an CHEN; Ye QIU; Deng-ping DUAN


    The optimization design of the power system is essential for stratospheric airships with paradoxical requirements of high reliability and low weight.The methodology of orthogonal experiment is presented to deal with the problem of the optimization design of the airship's power system.Mathematical models of the solar array,regenerative fuel cell,and power management subsystem (PMS) are presented.The basic theory of the method of orthogonal experiment is discussed,and the selection of factors and levels of the experiment and the choice of the evaluation function are also revealed.The proposed methodology is validated in the optimization design of the power system of the ZhiYuan-2 stratospheric airship.Results show that the optimal configuration is easily obtained through this methodology.Furthermore,the optimal configuration and three sub-optimal configurations are in the Pareto frontier of the design space.Sensitivity analyses for the weight and reliability of the airship's power system are presented.

  13. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chuan


    Full Text Available The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA. Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible.

  14. Guidance, Navigation and Control of Unmanned Airships under Time-Varying Wind for Extended Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Atmeh


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of lighter-than-air vehicles, more specifically the design of an integrated guidance, navigation and control (GNC scheme that is capable of navigating an airship through a series of constant-altitude, planar waypoints. Two guidance schemes are introduced, a track-specific guidance law and a proportional navigation guidance law, that provide the required signals to the corresponding controllers based on the airship position relative to a target waypoint. A novel implementation of the extended Kalman filter, namely the scheduled extended Kalman filter, estimates the required states and wind speed to enhance the performance of the track-specific guidance law in the presence of time-varying wind. The performance of the GNC system is tested using a high fidelity nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variety of flying conditions. Representative results illustrate the performance of the integrated system for chosen flight conditions.

  15. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik


    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  16. The first aeromagnetic survey in the Arctic: results of the Graf Zeppelin airship flight of 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Raspopov


    Full Text Available In July of 1931, on the eve of International Polar Year II, an Arctic flight of the Graf Zeppelin rigid airship was organized. This flight was a realization of the idea of F. Nansen, who advocated the use of airships for the scientific exploration of the Arctic territories, which were poorly studied and hardly accessible at that time. The route of the airship flight was Berlin – Leningrad – Arkhangelsk – Franz Josef Land – Severnaya Zemlya – the Taimyr Peninsula – Novaya Zemlya – Arkhangelsk – Berlin. One of scientific goals of the expedition was to measure the H and D geomagnetic field components. Actually, the first aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Arctic during the flight. After the expedition, only preliminary results of the geomagnetic measurements, in which an anomalous behavior of magnetic declination in the high-latitude part of the route was noted, were published. Our paper is concerned with the first aeromagnetic measurements in the Arctic and their analysis based on archival and modern data on the magnetic field in the Barents and Kara sea regions. It is shown that the magnetic field along the flight route had a complicated structure, which was not reflected in the magnetic charts of those times. The flight was very important for future development of aero- and ground-based magnetic surveys in the Arctic, showing new methods in such surveys.

  17. Yaw controller design of stratospheric airship based on phase plane method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jinggang


    Full Text Available Recently, stratospheric airships prefer to employ a vectored tail rotor or differential main propellers for the yaw control, rather than the control surfaces like common low-altitude airship. The load capacity of vectored mechanism and propellers are always limited by the weight and strength, which bring challenges for the attitude controller. In this paper, the yaw channel of airship dynamics is firstly rewritten as a simplified two-order dynamics equation and the dynamic characteristics is analyzed with a phase plane method. Analysis shows that when ignoring damping, the yaw control channel is available to the minimum principle of Pontryagin for optimal control, which can obtain a Bang–Bang controller. But under this controller, the control output could be bouncing around the theoretical switch curve due to the presence of disturbance and damping, which makes adverse effects for the servo structure. Considering the structure requirements of actuators, a phase plane method controller is employed, with a dead zone surrounded by several phase switch curve. Thus, the controller outputs are limited to finite values. Finally, through the numerical simulation and actual flight experiment, the method is proved to be effective.

  18. Method for simulation of the nonlinear aerodynamics of airship configurations; Verfahren zur Simulation der nichtlinearen Aerodynamik von Luftschiffkonfigurationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, A.


    Air flow around airship configurations is highly complex and is governed by 3D aerodynamic effects. Detailed knowledge of this nonlinear aerodynamics is important especially in airship design. The author describes the relevant physical effects governing flow and shows how they are taken account of in the method of calculation he presents. A panel boundary layer method is described in detail which calculates frictionless external flow in a 3D panel method coupled with a 3D integral method for laminar or turbulent boundary layers. The method calculates the tensor of the virtual mass of any given airship takes account of desplacement by the boundary layer, and simulates the effects of propellers. The modelling of free vortex layers in the context of potential theory is described in detail, and the results are discussed. A new panel with two-dimensional vortex distribution is derived. (orig.)

  19. High altitude airship configuration and power technology and method for operation of same (United States)

    Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor)


    A new High Altitude Airship (HAA) capable of various extended applications and mission scenarios utilizing inventive onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The power technology comprises an advanced thermoelectric (ATE) thermal energy conversion system. The high efficiency of multiple stages of ATE materials in a tandem mode, each suited for best performance within a particular temperature range, permits the ATE system to generate a high quantity of harvested energy for the extended mission scenarios. When the figure of merit 5 is considered, the cascaded efficiency of the three-stage ATE system approaches an efficiency greater than 60 percent.

  20. Heavy hauler : a new dirigible airship may introduce a paradigm shift to heavy-lift capability in the oil patch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.


    This article discussed an extreme heavy lift dirigible airship designed by SkyHook International Inc. The JHL-40 Heavy Lifter is a new commercial rotorcraft designed to transport equipment and materials to remote regions. As a helium-filled dirigible, the SkyHook floats its own weight as well as the weight of its 4 rotors, which means that the dirigible's 20,000 horsepower can be used to lift up to 40 tonne loads. The craft also has significantly better fuel economy, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and lower capital costs than heavy lift helicopters. Fully loaded helicopters consume the same amounts of energy as unloaded helicopters. However, the JHL-40 is capable of shutting down its lift engines for the return journey. It is expected that costs to build the airships will be 50 per cent lower than costs to build a large helicopter. An early prototype of the airship will be developed by 2010, and production of the airships may start by 2012. The article noted that helicopter usage in Canada's northern regions is increasing. 2 figs.

  1. A Concept GEO-SPS & Airship Multi-Megawatt Power Relay System (United States)

    Dickinson, R.

    An SPS power relay system for delivering multi-megawatts of grid electric power from GEO via a stratospheric airship platform is presented. A solar powered laser is proposed to beam power to InGaN band-gap matched PV located in a station- kept platform, where the received DC power is converted to 2.45 GHz microwave beams for relay to the surface using a phased array. To complete the power transmission link, spatially diverse, 260-m diameter rectennas provide the interfaces to the electric utility power grid. Unique requirements include that it is to be an all-weather electric delivery system, to be purposely designed to preclude its use as a power beam weapon at the Earth's surface, and to be delivered to orbit in a single launch vehicle. Estimates are presented for the airship design assumptions, expected performance parameters and the various power conversion and power transfer efficiencies and the cost of the parts of the system, along with the suggested alternate revenue sources for making the high altitude platform more cost effective. Unfortunately, the cost to orbit dominates. The sunlight-to-grid power collection, conversion and transfer efficiency of order 8.2% is double that of ground based PV systems given their day-night, atmosphere and weather handicaps.

  2. A large array of high-performance artificial stars using airship-supported small mirrors (United States)

    Content, Robert; Foxwell, Mark; Murray, Graham J.


    We propose a practical system that can provide a large number of high performance artificial stars, of the order of a few hundred, using an array of small mirrors on an airship supported platform illuminated from the ground by a laser. Our concept offers several advantages over other guide star schemes: Airborne mirror arrays can furnish tip-tilt information; they also permit a considerable reduction in the total ground-laser power required; high intensity guide stars with very small angular image size are possible; and finally they offer very low scattered parasite laser light. More basic & simpler launch-laser & AO technologies can therefore be employed, with potentially huge cost savings, with potentially significant improvement in the quality of the AO correction. The general platform scheme and suitable lift technologies are also discussed. A novel concept for achieving precise positioning is presented whereby the platform & the lifting vehicle are linked by a tether, the platform having a degree of independent control. Our proposal would employ as the lift vehicle an autonomous high altitude airship of the type currently under widespread development in the commercial sector, for use as hubs for telecommunication networks, mobile telephone relay stations, etc.

  3. 无人飞艇的基于计算机视觉导航和预设航线跟踪控制%Computer Vision-based Navigation and Predefined Track Following Control of a Small Robotic Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢少荣; 罗均; 饶进军; 龚振邦


    For small robotic airships, it is required that the airship should be capable of following a predefined track. In this paper,computer vision-based navigation and optimal fuzzy control strategies for the robotic airship are proposed. Firstly, visual navigation based on natural landmarks of the environment is introduced. For example, when the airship is flying over a city, buildings can be used as visual beacons whose geometrical properties are known from the digital map or a geographical information system (GIS).Then a geometrical methodology is adopted to extract information about the orientation and position of the airship. In order to keep the airship on a predefined track, a fuzzy flight control system is designed, which uses those data as its input. And genetic algorithms (GAs), a general-purpose global optimization method, are utilized to optimize the membership functions of the fuzzy controller. Finally, the navigation and control strategies are validated.

  4. Multisensor fusion for an experimental airship based on strong tracking filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Jin Zhihua; Tian Weifeng


    To improve the independent ability of attitude determination and positioning for an unmanned experimental airship platform, a micro inertial measurement system (MIMS) is expected to integrate with the existing system, which incorporates a digital magnetic compass and a differential pseudorange GPS receiver. The navigation error of the low-precision MIMS will be calibrated using nondrift DGPS receiver and magnetic compass. This paper proposes an adaptive strong tracking filter to perform multisensor fusion to assure state-error estimation of convergence under some uncertain conditions. These uncertainties include model simplification, unknown microsensor stochastic characteristics, a large-scale initial filtering parameter variation, and state sudden change. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the filter has strong robustness to all the uncertainties mentioned above. By this filtering approach, the navigation errors of MIMS are limited to a certain range. Accordingly, the whole integrated measurement system will respond to dynamics, and its automotive navigation ability is also enhanced.

  5. 一种翼艇式飞行器方案研究%Exploring Effective Configuration Design of a Winged Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海峰; 宋笔锋; 钟小平


    Aim. The introduction of the full paper discusses existing problems and then proposes our exploration,which is explained in sections 1, 2 and 3. To solve two critical problems for the flight of a winged airship in near space at low speed, section 1 uses rarefied air to produce the lift of a winged airship and balance its weight and the limited solar energy to produce the power needed by the winged airship for long-time flight. Section 2 designs the configuration of the winged airship; its core consists of: ( 1 ) the lift and buoyancy integration mode and the daynight energy saving mode are used for the winged airship; (2) we use the iteration method to calculate the design parameters of the winged airship, the iteration flow chart being given in the block diagram shown in Fig. 3. Section 3 designs the optimal parameters of the winged airship; its core is that we use the NSGA( non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm) to perform the multi-objective optimization of the winged airship; the design results, given in Tables 2 and 3 and Fig. 4, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the total weight of lithium batteries used at night is much smaller; (2) the volume of winged airship is much smaller; (3) its flight velocity is much greater than that of the airship in near space. Section 4 draws the preliminary conclusions that: ( 1 ) the winged airship is suitable for the payload of Doppler effect such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR); (2) the size of the airship in near space which is obtained by using our design method is close to that of the high-altitude airship published by Lockheed Martin Inc, indicating that our design method for the winged airship is effective.%文章提出了一种翼艇式飞行器方案,较好地解决了以低速在临近空间飞行的两个关键问题:①如何利用临近空间稀薄空气产生升力克服飞行器重量;②如何有效利用有限太阳能产生飞行器长时间飞行的动力.该飞行器采用了升浮一

  6. Airship Sparse Array Antenna Radar Real Aperture Imaging Based on Compressed Sensing and Sparsity in Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liechen


    Full Text Available A conformal sparse array based on combined Barker code is designed for airship platform. The performance of the designed array such as signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed. Using the hovering characteristics of the airship, interferometry operation can be applied on the real aperture imaging results of two pulses, which can eliminate the random backscatter phase and make the image sparse in the transform domain. Building the relationship between echo and transform coefficients, the Compressed Sensing (CS theory can be introduced to solve the formula and achieving imaging. The image quality of the proposed method can reach the image formed by the full array imaging. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Experiment and numerical simulation on the characteristics of fluid–structure interactions of non-rigid airships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wu


    Full Text Available Fluid–structure interaction is an important issue for non-rigid airships with inflated envelopes. In this study, a wind tunnel test is conducted, and a loosely coupled procedure is correspondingly established for numerical simulation based on computational fluid dynamics and nonlinear finite element analysis methods. The typical results of the numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment, including the overall lift and deformation, are in good agreement with each other. The results obtained indicate that the effect of fluid–structure interaction is noticeable and should be considered for non-rigid airships. Flow-induced deformation can further intensify the upward lift force and pitching moment, which can lead to a large deformation. Under a wind speed of 15 m/s, the lift force of the non-rigid model is increased to approximately 60% compared with that of the rigid model under a high angle of attack.

  8. Exploiting Attitude Sensing in Vision-Based Navigation for an Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G. B. Mirisola


    Full Text Available An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS is used to compensate for rotational motion, facilitating vision-based navigation above smooth terrain by generating virtual images to simulate pure translation movement. The AHRS combines inertial and earth field magnetic sensors to provide absolute orientation measurements, and our recently developed calibration routine determines the rotation between the frames of reference of the AHRS and the monocular camera. In this way, the rotation is compensated, and the remaining translational motion is recovered by directly finding a rigid transformation to register corresponding scene coordinates. With a horizontal ground plane, the pure translation model performs more accurately than image-only approaches, and this is evidenced by recovering the trajectory of our airship UAV and comparing with GPS data. Visual odometry is also fused with the GPS, and ground plane maps are generated from the estimated vehicle poses and used to evaluate the results. Finally, loop closure is detected by looking for a previous image of the same area, and an open source SLAM package based in 3D graph optimization is employed to correct the visual odometry drift. The accuracy of the height estimation is also evaluated against ground truth in a controlled environment.

  9. Characteristics of the nocturnal boundary layer inferred from ozone measurements onboard a Zeppelin airship (United States)

    Rohrer, Franz; Li, Xin; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Ehlers, Christian; Holland, Frank; Klemp, Dieter; Lu, Keding; Mentel, Thomas F.; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Wahner, Andreas


    The nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) is a sublayer within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) which evolves above solid land each day in the late afternoon due to radiation cooling of the surface. It is a region of several hundred meters thickness which inhibits vertical mixing. A residual and a surface layer remain above and below the NBL. Inside the surface layer, almost all direct emissions of atmospheric constituents take place during this time. This stratification lasts until the next morning after sunrise. Then, the heating of the surface generates a new convectionally mixed layer which successively eats up the NBL from below. This process lasts until shortly before noon when the NBL disappears completely and the PBL is mixed convectionally. Ozone measurements onboard a Zeppelin airship in The Netherlands, in Italy, and in Finland are used to analyse this behaviour with respect to atmospheric constituents and consequences for the diurnal cycles observed in the surface layer, the nocturnal boundary layer, and the residual layer are discussed.

  10. An experimental study of visual flight trajectory tracking and pose prediction for the automatic computer control of a miniature airship (United States)

    Haecker, Jens; Kroeplin, Bernd H.


    This paper describes our current work in developing a vision-based tracking and trajectory prediction system for an aerial robot based on low-cost digital cameras, image processing techniques, and a filtering and prediction algorithm. The system determines the pose (location and orientation) of a miniature airship, online during indoor flight, and will be used in a development framework for a future autonomous flight control system. Object localization is achieved by tracking an infra-red target array mounted to a model airship. Its pose in three-dimensional space can be computed from corresponding points in the images of two cameras which are calibrated in a global coordinate system. The calibration procedure and the localization, as well as some aspects of the measurement accuracy achieved, are discussed. Real-world applications provide an uncertain static or dynamic environment which complicates the tracking of a target. To overcome problems due to noisy data or even failed target detection in image frames, a filtering procedure is applied for estimating the airship's pose. In a first step, points in the two-dimensional image planes are directly tracked and propagated forward to the vehicle pose. In a second step, an adaptive noise Kalman filter is applied for estimating and predicting the flight trajectory. Its state is propagated back to points in the image planes to guide the detection algorithm by defining regions of confidence. Both approaches are combined in a tracking algorithm. In-flight measurements are used to validate the parameters of the adaption procedure. Some experimental results are shown.

  11. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang


    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  12. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis Model Development and Application Study Comparing Solar Powered Airplane and Airship Station-Keeping Capabilities (United States)

    Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.


    There have been ongoing efforts in the Aeronautics Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center to develop a suite of integrated physics-based computational utilities suitable for modeling and analyzing extended-duration missions carried out using solar powered aircraft. From these efforts, SolFlyte has emerged as a state-of-the-art vehicle analysis and mission simulation tool capable of modeling both heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicle concepts. This study compares solar powered airplane and airship station-keeping capability during a variety of high altitude missions, using SolFlyte as the primary analysis component. Three Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) concepts were designed for this study: an airplane (Operating Empty Weight (OEW) = 3285 kilograms, span = 127 meters, array area = 450 square meters), a small airship (OEW = 3790 kilograms, length = 115 meters, array area = 570 square meters), and a large airship (OEW = 6250 kilograms, length = 135 meters, array area = 1080 square meters). All the vehicles were sized for payload weight and power requirements of 454 kilograms and 5 kilowatts, respectively. Seven mission sites distributed throughout the United States were selected to provide a basis for assessing the vehicle energy budgets and site-persistent operational availability. Seasonal, 30-day duration missions were simulated at each of the sites during March, June, September, and December; one-year duration missions were simulated at three of the sites. Atmospheric conditions during the simulated missions were correlated to National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) historical data measurements at each mission site, at four flight levels. Unique features of the SolFlyte model are described, including methods for calculating recoverable and energy-optimal flight trajectories and the effects of shadows on solar energy collection. Results of this study indicate that: 1) the airplane concept attained longer periods of on

  13. 径向变体飞艇总体参数估算方法%Parameters estimation method of radial transformable airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖治垣; 郦正能


    To break the crucial technical difficulties of controllable aerostat in near space,and make it possible of controlling aerostat going and returning between ground and near space,the conception of solar powered radial transformable airship was raised,and it’s parameters estimation method was given.The method was based on Archimedes theory and Li-style transformable airship theory.The self-adapting and controllable-transformation of sectional area was actualized by radial transformation of structure,net lift was changed by controlling the volume of airship.Controllable aerodynamic configuration was consistently kept through the change of volume,thereby the controls for ascending,descending and staying of airship were actualized.Size of inside ballonet and outside ballonet were accounted by designing transformation project,length of airship was accounted by analyzing dynamics balance and energy balance.Based on study out design parameter,an overall design project for solar powered radial transformable airship was given,feasibility and practicality of the method was validated by example.%为突破临近空间可操纵浮空器的关键技术难点,使可操纵浮空器往返地面至临近空间成为可能,提出了一种径向变体飞艇的总体参数估算方法,该方法基于阿基米德浮力定律和李式变体飞艇原理(Li-Style Transformable Airship Theory),通过艇体结构的径向变形来实现艇体截面积的自适与可控变化,控制飞艇容积变化以改变净升力大小,并使飞艇在容积变化中始终保持可操纵的气动外形,从而实现飞艇的升、降与驻空和飞行等控制.通过设计变形方案估算内气囊与外气囊尺寸,分析力学平衡与能源平衡估算飞艇长度.在拟定设计参数的基础上,给出了一种太阳能径向变体飞艇的总体设计方案,并通过设计实例验证了此方法的可行性与实用性.

  14. Modeling and Analysis of a Buoyancy-Ballast Driven Airship%一类“浮力-压块”驱动飞艇建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬依林; 刘屿


    In view of a new kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship, the model and dynamics of a kind of buoyancy-ballast driven airship are studied. Based on Kirchhoff equations and Newton-Euler laws, we developed the six degree of freedom nonlinear dynamic model for an airship equipped with independent ballonets and moveable ballast by analysis its movement and stress. On the condition of little perturbation, the nonlinear dynamic model is divided into three group equations by restricting airship motion in longitudinal, lateral and e2-e3 planes respectively. Then the characteristics of mode and respond to input of airship are studied using linearization model and its related parameter. The results of simulation verify the correctness of established model and rationality of theoretical analysis on this kind of stratospheric airship, thus making itself a theoretical basis for the design of its control strategy.%针对一类新型“浮力-压块”驱动的自治飞艇,研究了该类飞艇的动力学建模和动力学特性.在Kirchhoff方程和Newton-Euler理论基础上,通过对飞艇运动及受力分析,建立了包括独立气囊和可运动压块的飞艇六自由度非线性动力学模型,并采用小扰动线性化方法,将飞艇运动分别限制在纵向、横侧向和e2-e3平面内,得到与之对应的三组飞艇线性化方程,其后基于飞艇相关参数和线性化模型,利用Matlab软件平台对飞艇运动模态和输入响应特性进行了分析研究.仿真结果验证了谊类飞艇模型的正确性和理论分析的合理性,为其后控制策略设计提供理论依据.

  15. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhimeng


    Full Text Available Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship’s cruising speed based on the distribution of task’s deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible.

  16. Application of the Airship in the emergency rescue system%飞艇在应急救援系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭平; 陈云


      Analysis of the drawbacks of the current domestic aviation emergency rescue vector, combined with the airship has a high efficiency, low consumption, safe, reliable and without airport a number of adv-antages. Airship used in aviation emergency rescue carrier emergency means of feasibility and practicality.%  分析目前国内在航空应急救援载体上存在的弊端,结合飞艇具有高效、低耗、安全可靠和无需机场起飞等一系列优势。提出了将飞艇运用于航空应急救援载体的应急手段,具有一定的可行性和实用性。

  17. Design and Implementation of Ground Monitoring System in Low - altitude Airship%低空飞艇地面监控系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹芬; 侯中峰; 谢利理


    The background of this paper is a project of an experimental low - altitude airship. The ground monitoring system in low - altitude airship based on LabWindows/CVI is developed, and some key questions in software design are illustrated in detail, such as low - level communication program design of serial port, joystick programming and airship real -time database design. After a long run, the system software works well, and meets the requirements of the practical needs, as well as being valuable in engineering application.%以某低空实验飞艇项目为背景,基于LabWindows/CVI设计并实现了低空飞艇地面监控系统的上层软件,对底层串口通信程序、飞艇遥控操纵杆程序以及飞艇实时状态数据库连接等几个关键问题进行了详细设计.该地面监控系统经过长期运行表明该监控软件运行稳定,功能完备实用,具有较高的工程应用价值.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李智斌; 吴雷; 张景瑞; 李勇


    本文简要介绍了飞艇的发展沿革和研究现状.通过同传统的航空器、航天器、潜艇和低空飞艇进行比较,阐述了平流层飞艇的飞行原理.从基本运动模型和复杂受力情况的角度,系统地讨论了飞艇动力学研究进展,包括空气动力学研究、静力分析、热力学分析、柔性体动力学及流固耦合研究.然后综述了飞艇控制方法研究进展,包括小扰动线性化控制、输入输出反馈线性化控制、基于Lyapunov非线性稳定性的控制及其他控制方法.最后展望了在平流层飞艇动力学与控制领域需要从6个方面加强研究.%The developmental history and research status of airship are briefly presented. Compared with the traditional aircraft, spacecraft, submarines and low altitude airship, the flight principle of stratospheric airships is elaborated. From the point of view of basic motion model and the complex force condition, progresses in dynamics research are discussed systematically, including aerodynamics research, static analysis, thermodynamic analysis, flexible body dynamics and the study of fluid-solid coupling. Then the progress in airship control methods is reviewed, including the small disturbance linearization control, input output feedback linearization control, the Lyapunov nonlinear stability based control and other control method. Finally, it is proposed to reinforce research efforts in six directions in the field of stratospheric airship dynamics and control.

  19. Research on High-Altitude Airship Heat-Resistance Ability%关于高空飞艇抗热能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The average temperature of helium in the airship is obviously affected by the solar radiation and the low temperature of the stratospheric environment during the fight of day/night alternation.The change of the differential pressure between in and out of the hull of the airship will be caused by this change of average temperature of helium,and will be the basic index for the design of the hull material and structure of the airship at the stage of general design.According to HAA heat-resistance ability simulation calculation and analysis,to fundamentally increase the ability of heat-resistance of the HAA,the premise is improving the strength of the membrane material of the hull;while enlarging the volume of hull/ballonet does not obviously help the increase ofheat-resistance ability,but will result in airship weight increase.%高空飞艇在平流层高度昼夜工作过程中,作为浮升气体的艇体内氦气受太阳能辐射以及艇外低温环境的影响,其平均温度变化范围较大。艇体内氦气平均温度的变化将导致飞艇艇体内外压差的变化,而艇体内外压差的变化是高空飞艇总体设计阶段对囊体材料选取时必须考虑的重要设计依据之一。通过高空飞艇抗热能力仿真计算与分析,指出高空飞艇的抗热能力必须在提高囊体强度的前提下才可以得到根本的提升,而加大副气囊体积对抗热能力影响不大反而将导致飞艇重量的增加。

  20. Trajectory tracking control for a stratospheric airship%平流层飞艇轨迹跟踪控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑泽伟; 霍伟


    基于轨迹线性化控制(TLC)理论提出了一种全驱动平流层飞艇轨迹跟踪控制设计的新方法.该方法由期望姿态生成、运动学控制和动力学控制3部分组成.首先利用期望轨迹的Frenet标架构造期望的艇体坐标系,导出期望姿态的计算公式;然后将系统运动学部分按照移动和转动分解,动力学部分按纵向与横向分解,将整个系统划分为4个回路,并分别用TLC理论进行控制设计,避免了设计时对全系统求逆的困难;最后给出了控制方法的计算步骤和平流层飞艇跟踪典型轨迹的仿真结果,结果验证了所提出方法的可行性.%A new design method of trajectory tracking controller for fully-actuated stratospheric airship based on the trajectory linearization control(TLC) strategy is presented,which consists of desired attitude calculation,kinematics controllers and dynamics controllers.Firstly,based on the desired trajectory,the Frenet frame is established to construct the desired airship-fixed frame.Then the system kinematics is divided to position and attitude kinematics,the system dynamics is split to longitudinal and lateral dynamics,such that corresponding four controllers can be designed separately,which avoids the difficulty of inverting the system dynamics with six degree of freedom.Finally,the control algorithm is described,and the simulation results for airship to track the typical trajectory show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. Study on Fluid-Structure Coupled Computational Method for Stratosphere Airship%平流层飞艇流固耦合分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓亮; 单雪雄; 陈丽


    The stratosphere airships need a larger volume for the purpose of obtaining the buoyancy. Because of the inflated large membrane structure, the fluid-structure coupled characteristics are very important. Based on the Computational Fluid Dynamica ( CFD) software FLUENT and Computation Struccure Dynamics ( CSD) software ABAQUS, a fluid-structure coupled computational meihod is proposed. To verify the validity of this method, the comparison between experimental and computational results of inflated sphere and NACA65A006 wing are done. It will be seen that from the comparison of results that this method is valid for the analysis of aero-elastic characteristics of aerostats. Thus, an efficient analysis tool is proposed for the study of fluid-structure coupled characteristics of stratosphere airship. The structure response of a certain stratosphere airship is analyzed under the condition of gust, and some conclusions are obtained.%平流层飞艇为了在平流层环境下获得足够的浮力,要求其体积庞大,由于跨度较大的充气柔性气囊结构容易发生变形,使得流固耦合特性非常显著.针对该类飞行器的流固耦合方法的研究是对其流固耦合特性分析的首要条件.本文基于流体动力学计算软件FLUENT和结构动力学分析软件ABAQUS,形成了分析平流层飞艇这类大型柔性充气结构流固耦合特性的非线性动态流体-结构交错积分耦合法.通过充气的圆球薄膜的解析解和NACA65A006机翼颤振特性的实验结果与计算结果的比较对该方法的有效性进行了分析.这为平流层飞艇流固耦合问题的研究提供了一种有效的分析工具,并对某平流层飞艇的突风干扰响应特性进行了分析,得出其流固耦合特性的变化规律.

  2. A Method of Calculating Airship Dynamic Derivative Based on CFD Dynamic Mesh Technique%基于CFD动网格技术的飞艇动导数计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄龙太; 王红伟; 姜琬


    由于飞艇和飞机这两种飞行器在飞行原理、气动外形等方面都存在较大的差别,因此现有的飞机动导数工程估算公式和经验数据并不适用于飞艇动导数求解。为了解决上述问题,提出了一种新的基于CFD动网格技术的飞艇动导数计算方法。通过非结构化动网格技术,建立飞艇在流场中的强迫振动模型,采用有限体积法对N-S方程求解,研究飞艇在强迫振动中的气动特性变化规律,并基于数值计算结果求解飞艇的动导数。研究发现,得到的计算结果与风洞试验结果基本一致,表明基于CFD动网格技术进行飞艇的动导数求解是有效可行的。%There are many differences between airship and aircraft vehicle in flight theory , aerodynamic configuration etc ,which leads to a result that the aircraft dynamic derivative calculating equations and da-ta are not applicable to the airship .To solve this problem , a new dynamic derivative calculating method applied to airship on the basis of CFD dynamic mesh technique is presented .First,forced vibration model of the airship in the atmosphere is set up based on unstructured dynamic mesh method .Then, the finite volume method is adopted to solve N-S equations.Finally,the airship dynamic derivatives are figured out on the basis of numeric computing results .The study indicates that the results obtained from the new method has a good accordance with the wind tunnel test ,which confirms that the airship dynamic deriva-tive calculating method on the basis of CFD dynamic mesh technique is effective and feasible .

  3. Experiment teaching of unmanned airship low-altitude photogrammetry technology%无人飞艇低空摄影测量技术实验教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬; 刘凤英; 王志勇


    In the paper, some analysis on the photogrammetry experiment teaching of the current domestic universities and the employment needs of some mapping production units were given. In order to respond the policies of National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation for promoting the unmanned aerial vehicle system, and with the situation of our school's photogrammetry teaching and the laboratory's equipments such as the unmanned airship low-altitude photogrammetry system, some teaching reforms for photogrammetry experiment and the characteristic teaching projects of domestic universities based on the unmanned airship low-altitude photogrammetry system were done. By designing the reasonable experimental content and methods, the students could be interested in profession and exercise their practical ability. Then the teaching quality of photogrammetry could be improved .%本文分析了目前国内高校摄影测量实验教学情况和一些测绘生产单位的用人需求,积极响应国家测绘地理信息局对无人飞行器航测系统的推广政策,结合我校无人飞艇低空摄影测量系统等实验室现有的仪器设备和摄影测量教学现状,积极进行摄影测量实验教学改革,以无人飞艇航测系统为基础建立国内高校摄影测量特色实验教学项目,通过设计合理的实验教学内容和方法,培养学生对专业的兴趣,锻练学生的实践动手能力,提升摄影测量学教学质量.

  4. 飞艇电动舵机的研究与仿真分析%Research and Simulation Analysis of Electromechanical Actuator in Airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远平; 王生


    A new type of electromechanical proportional control actuation system for airship is presented in this paper. This paper is based on the engineering practice of an airship project. According to the specifications of the actuator system, this paper chooses brushless DC motor as the electric power component, and potentiometer as the feedback component. Based on the analysis of the system, a complete model is established and simulated in this paper.The sliding - mode control theory is adopted so as not to be disturbed by the outside. The simulation of the model is built and the model is simulated with Matlab/Simulink. And the artificial experiment waveforms of the position servo system by simulation are presented. The result of computer simulation indicates that this model used in the paper is adoptable, and the response is correspond to the characteristics of electromechanical actuator. The presented model is feasible and it can be used as a model of electromechanical actuator.%研究飞艇电动舵机稳定性控制问题,针对飞艇研制工程可靠性的需求,为保证飞艇空中按轨迹稳定飞行,提出采用飞艇电动舵机方案.根据电动舵机系统的指标和负载情况,选择直流无刷电机和光电编码器作为电动舵机的功率元件和位置传感器,建立了完整的电动舵机系统.为了不受外部扰动影响,采用了滑模控制理论,并利用Matlab平台对滑模控制系统进行了计算机建模仿真.结果证明给出了位置伺服系统在各种情况下稳态工作波形.仿真结果说明建立的舵机研究模型是可信的,响应完全符合电动舵机的特性,可以作为飞艇电动舵机的系统设计提供依据.

  5. La instrumentación virtual aplicada a un banco experimental de centraje de aeronaves. // Virtual instrumentation applied to an experimental bank for centering diameter of airships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso


    Full Text Available En el artículo se analizan los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas basados en macros abiertos de trabajo, para larealización de mediciones del centro de gravedad de aeronaves utilizando herramientas virtuales de análisis yprocesamientos a través de un sistema de adquisición de datos. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados unaidea global del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como lametodología seguida para medir el centro de gravedad de aeronaves. Estos métodos pueden ser adaptados y extendidos aotras ramas dentro de la mecánica, si se poseen los medios tecnológicos para el diseño experimental de medición, con elobjetivo de medir no-solo el centro de gravedad, sino elementos como los momentos de inercia de los cuerpos nohomogéneos, las deformaciones elásticas de determinados cuerpos, etc. También se expone aspectos generales del soportede software utilizado para el desarrollo del instrumento virtual diseñado al efecto, los cuales proveen a científicos eingenieros de herramientas para satisfacer necesidades propias de instrumentación y automatización.Palabras claves: Diámetro central de aeronaves, instrumento virtual, centro de gravedad, centro de masas,medición experimental.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In this paper the methods for the elaboration of systems based on open macros and the realization of mensurations of center ofgravity of airships by using virtual tools of analysis and prosecutions through a system of data acquisition. The different topicsapproached give the interested parties a global idea of the development of this computacional technology and their application tobranches of mechanics, as well as the followed methodology to measure the center of gravity of airships. These methods can beadapted and extended to other branches inside the mechanics, if the technological means are

  6. Conceptual design optimization of stratosphere airship based on improved CO-RS%基于改进CO-RS的平流层飞艇总体设计与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁浩全; 祝明; 姜光泰; 武哲


    为改进响应面协同优化(CO-RS,Collaborative Optimization based on Response Surface)方法的工程实用性,提出改进的CO-RS方法.在响应面建立中应用广义乘子法和信赖域法,取消响应面更新对梯度的依赖性.针对平流层飞艇的总体设计与优化问题,基于改进的CO-RS框架,进行了系统任务分析和学科耦合分析.对气动与推进子系统、结构子系统和能源子系统进行了学科分析,以最小化平流层飞艇的质量为目标,建立基于改进CO-RS框架的多学科设计优化(MDO,Multidisciplinary Design Optimization)模型和相应的学科分析模型.利用iSIGHT软件搭建求解平台,采用改进的CO-RS算法进行仿真计算,并得到合理结果,验证了所建立的MDO模型的合理性和改进的CO-RS算法在平流层飞艇总体设计优化中的有效性.%An improved collaborative optimization based on response surface( CO-RS) methodology was developed to be well applied to the engineering design. The response surface was constructed independent on gradient by augmented Lagrange and trust region optimization methods. System mission requirements and disciplinary coupling relations of stratosphere airship were analyzed in the framework of improved CO-RS. multidis-ciplinary design optimization( MDO) model coupled with dynamics and propulsion subsystem, structure subsystem , and energy subsystem analysis models was established with total mass as the objective for stratosphere airship conceptual design. Using the iSIGHT software to construct the solving architecture, the MDO model and analysis models were simulated and calculated with the improved CO-RS methodology. The results prove the rationality of the MDO model and the effectiveness of the improved CO-RS methodology in stratosphere airship conceptual design optimization.

  7. Maritime Patrol Airship Concept Study (United States)


    study additional applications of the company’s ACV technology, the Navy and the Commerce Department’s Maritime Ad- I. r . r lands abn,’ ,--r- t• LA... Voyageur , were proviug the potential of versatile, Patdeck ACVs for a wide range of future .k,, applications. By 1975, Voyageurs w-re at work with in Canada’s Ministry of Transport, explained that the Voyageur was traveling at abott 15 knots over hard, unbroken ice when the crew noticed

  8. 基于低空飞艇的突发事件应急监测系统%Research on emergency response monitoring system basee on low-flying airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毛磊; 陈建国; 季学伟; 陈涛; 杨锐


    Steady and highly efficient high spot monitoring has a significant effect during the emergency response progress when emergency happens. This paper presents a real-time emergency response monitoring system based on a low-flying airship to realize real-time supervision under complex circumstance. The system is composed by three main parts:video pre-processing and target tracking, target aiming and location, remote sensor monitoring system.Pre-processing method based on video stabilization and target tracking technology has been implanted to the system to enhance the monitoring and tracking functions. Harris corner detector method has been employed to estimate motions between two consecutive frames in order to stabilize the video; motion filtering algorithm based on Kalman-average filter has been implemented to separate the intentional and unintentional motion with the help of GPS track path; while target tracking algorithm based on Mean Shift method has been implemented to track the target. At the same time, a 3-dimension platform with airship mounted GPS system and compass system have been used to aim the target by adjusting the angles of videography platform. Little airdrop sensors have been implemented to solve the remote detecting and monitoring. The emergency monitoring system using airship as platform introduced in this paper provides a new real-time emergency monitoring solution, and will strongly support emergency response.%稳定高效的高点监控对应急处置有非常重要的作用.该文提出了一种基于低空飞艇的突发事件应急监测系统,实现在复杂环境下应急现场的实时监测.系统包含三个部分:视频预处理和目标追踪;目标的自动照准和定位;远程探测监测.利用稳像和跟踪技术实现视频预处理和目标跟踪,应用基于Harris角点的帧间运动估计稳定视频,使用基于GPS航迹信息的Kalman-平均滤波方法分离主观运动和非主观运动,使用基于Mean Shift方法跟

  9. Collaborative earth-observing task assignment of multi-airships in emergency%面向应急对地观测任务的多飞艇协同分配方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建清; 朱晓敏; 伍国华; 贺川; 吴朝波


    应急条件下多飞艇协同任务分配是一个重要而极具前景的研究课题,对提高飞艇观测效能起着至关重要的作用.针对多飞艇协同任务分配问题,设计了一种基于Agent双向招标的改进合同网协同机制,详细解释了双向招标的方法和标值计算的启发式规则.针对应急观测任务的高时效性特点,建立了一个多目标约束满足优化模型,并提出一种针对批量动态任务的快速分配算法——动态自适应协同任务分配算法(dynamical flexible collaborative algorithm,DFCA).大量模拟实验结果表明,该算法能够在很短的时间内获得较好的任务分配方案,具有较高的任务完成率和权值收益率.%The collaborative task assignment of multi-airships in emergency is an important and promising problem which is crucial to improve the observing efficiency of airships. In order to solve the issue, an improved contract net mechanism based on the Agent bidirectional auction is proposed. Then the bidirectional auction method and heuristic rule are explained clearly. A multiple objective constraint satisfaction and optimization model is constructed to meet the real-time requirements of emergent observing tasks. Meanwhile, a fast assign-ment algorithm named dynamical flexible collaborative algorithm (DFCA) is proposed, which aims at the abun-dantly dynamical tasks. The result of extensive simulation experiments indicates that DFCA can produce a high-quality task assignment decision in short time and provide high schedulability as well as priority benefit.

  10. Design and Realization of Embedded Precision Testing System for Air-ship Missile Fire Control System%空舰导弹火控系统嵌入式精度测试仪的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向玲; 赵安兴; 蔡虎


    Precision test for air-ship missile fire control system is one of the important content for the missile weapon system capability test, which defined the precision of the missile mostly.The precision testing device can keep flying security; improve training level and maintenance quality.The advanced embedded system including ARM hardware and LINUX operating system were used.As recorded data bus standard, ARINC429 formation was followed to realize the precision testing device.The recorded data was transferred through the Ethernet communication interface and was analysis on the ground to judge whether it satisfied the precision or not.%空舰导弹火控系统的精度测试是导弹武器系统测试的重要内容之一,在很大程度上决定了导弹的命中精度,精度测试仪对于保障飞行安全,提高飞行训练水平和机务维护质量都具有十分重要的作用.采用先进的嵌人式系统设计方法,以嵌入式硬件ARM和LINUX嵌入式操作系统为基础,以ARINC429为录取数据总线标准,对精度测试仪进行了设计与实现.利用网络通信,对录取的数据在地面进行分析,并对其是否满足精度指标进行判定,完全满足了航空机载设备的要求.

  11. Some Trends in Airship Technology Developments (United States)


    10. Author’s/Editor’s Address Istituto di Tecnologia Aerospaziale Universita degh Studi di Roma Via Eudossiana, 16, 00184 Rome Italy 11.Pages 12...Crema and A.Castellani Istituto di Tecnologia Aerospaziale Universita degli Studi di Roma Via Eudossiana, 16 00184 Rome Italy Paper presented at the...Istituto di Tecnologia Aerospaziale Via Eudossiana, 16 - 00184 Roma - Italy Presented at Ad Hoc Group T. 107 MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES FOR

  12. Successful test flight of an airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Researchers with the Balloon Aircraft Research Center (BARC) of the Academy of Opto-electronics, CAS, succeeded in their first test flight of an aeroboat with a flight altitude up to 1,000 meters and an effective payload of 20 kilograms in Shandong on 25 December, 2007.

  13. NASA planning to explore Venus in manned solarpowered airship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan; Whitwam


    NASA’s focus for human spaceflight seems to change every few years as we learn something new about what it will take to keep human beings alive out there.However,NASA usually picks one of a few targets.Will we go to Mars next,maybe back to the Moon,or perhaps an asteroid is a better option?NASA’s Langley Research Center has put forward an interesting proposal—instead of the traditional choices,

  14. Propulsion Options for the HI SPOT Long Endurance Drone Airship (United States)


    program. These weights represent current iron-copper motor technology; advanced concepts such as samarium- cobalt , electronic commutation, etc., have...bonded Lu a [ti.m of alumin ized mylar is assumed f!or the hull structure. For simplicity, a uniform scrim, based on the strength required at the maximum...of aluminized mylar gas harrier and adhesive, multiplied by the wetted area of the hull, to determine the hull weight, and multiplied again by 122% to

  15. Metalclad Airship Hull Study. Volume 1 and Volume 2 (United States)


    section, with an upward gust "Mm t g " LsTM Ls lt t,rPAT .47.5202 - 4.4442t7)_D 0) 6 (]29sr 16424 (3.l4l59)(, 24)(12233932.’• T 16424 4577 11,847 lb/in 2...10) 4 LSTM 1.5937 + 5068 - 21,005 lb/in2 cTST Maximum longitudinal stress in the skin on the bottom of the hull, immediately aft of the maximum...Mg LSTM -- °LsT " tTR2, (35.6385 - 3.02802)(10) 6(12?a L 16425 - 3. D-4T9-T -6-7(-0w 12Ŕ-2UT- LSTm 1 3.913258(10)0 LT1 16425 .6S0-1-C l0)T4- .LSTN

  16. The transport of nuclear power plant components. [via airships (United States)

    Keating, S. J., Jr.


    The problems of transporting nuclear power plant components to landlocked sites where the usual mode of transport by barge cannot be used are considered. Existing methods of ground-based overland transport are discussed and their costs presented. Components are described and traffic density projections made to the year 2000. Plots of units transported versus distance transported are provided for units booked in 1973 and booked and proposed in 1974. It is shown that, for these cases, overland transport requirements for the industry will be over 5,000,000 ton-miles/year while a projection based on increasing energy demands shows that this figure will increase significantly by the year 2000. The payload size, distances, and costs of existing overland modes are significant enough to consider development of a lighter than air (LTA) mode for transporting NSSS components.

  17. Hybrid Airships: Intratheater Operations Cost-Benefit Analysis (United States)


    water can weigh up to 10 tons, while one filled with food and other dry goods might only measure 6 tons (Montonye, 2010). Since HA/DR cargo does not...Commercial Industry Jointly Developing a New Large Cargo Aircraft C-NXT. MS thesis, AFIT/ GMO /ENS/01E-14. School of Engineering and Management, Air

  18. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships (United States)

    Verduzio, R


    Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

  19. POBAL-S, The Analysis and Design of a High Altitude Airship (United States)


    support lines with cutters contain- ing two .Dupont S-68’,’ four grain squibs which are energized independently. By energizing the sec6nd stuib.,shortly...paper study contract which resulted in a final report describing a preliminary design for a system having a four month operating duration at an...been con- structed from polyester film laminates. The purpose of lam- ination is to prevent helium leakage due to pin holing, while the polyester film

  20. Effect of Advance Ratio and Blade Planform on the Propeller Performance of a High Altitude Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchen Liu


    Full Text Available Experimental investigations on the influences of Reynolds number, blade planform and advance ratio on the aerodynamic performance are carried. Different from conventional aircraft propellers, the HAA propellers are characterized by low Reynolds number, large thrust requirement and low advance ratio. At the moment, the theoretical guidance and industrial experience in designing such propellers are still lacked. In the present study, the influence of Reynolds number is firstly studied via tests of a propeller at different rotational speeds. It is found that, for the propeller with airfoil S1223, the influence of Reynolds number is negligible as Re0.7 > 1.2 × 105 ( . The tests regarding the influences of blade planform and advance ratio on propeller performance are carried in the condition of Re0.7 ≥ 1.5 × 105. The results show that, when advance ratio is below 0.8, the blade with narrow tip is favorable to the propulsive efficiency. Hence, it is suggested that the blade with narrow tip should be adopted by the large thrust and small advance ratio HAA propellers. For HAA propellers with advance ratio greater than 0.8, the propulsive efficiency can be benefitted by increasing the blade tip width. Hence, the blade with wide tip is more suitable in this application.

  1. Autonomous Dirigible Airships: A Comparative Analysis and Operational Efficiency Evaluation for Logistical Use in Complex Environments (United States)



  2. The Lifeblood of Seabasing: Sustainment Through Rapid Strategic Airlift (United States)


    meet future national objectives. These concepts included transatmospheric, hypersonic , and supersonic vehicles, airships, WIG effect, very large...redefined. Some examples are aerial refueling and gliders ; more specific to this research is the airship. Airships proved most successful at strategic

  3. Bombs from On-High: Weaponized Stratospheric Airships for Close Air Support and Time-Sensitive-Target Missions (United States)


    battlefield surveillance. In World War I, balloons evolved into weapons platforms with zeppelins dropping AU/ACSC/MASSIE/AY09 2 bombs on London...immediately kill observed targets have led to the arming of UAVs. The USAF armed the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper with Hellfire missiles and 500-pound...carriage by weight-limited aircraft such as UAVs. Their small size quickly led to other benefits such as increased standoff range and precision

  4. Effect of Accelerated Xenon Lamp Aging on the Mechanical Properties and Structure of Thermoplastic Polyurethane for Stratospheric Airship Envelope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuyan; LIU Yuxi; LIU Shaozhu; TAN Huifeng


    This study aimed to investigate the effect of artificial weathering test on the photoaging behavior of TPU films. Changes in mechanical properties, morphology and chemical structures are studied by tensile test, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the photoaging negatively affects the initial modulus and stress at break values of TPU films. The surface of the specimen that is exposed to irradiation becomes rough, and some visible micro-defects such as blisters and voids can be detected. The morphology of the fracture surfaces illustrates that irradiation reduces the plasticity but increases the brittleness of the TPU films. The chemical structure analyses of the accelerated aged films prove that chemical structural changes in TPU films occur. The irradiation may break the long molecular chains on the surface of the specimens and form the low-molecular weight oxygen-containing groups. The number of chain scissions increases with the increase in exposure time.

  5. 14 CFR 91.113 - Right-of-way rules: Except water operations. (United States)


    ... airship, powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft. (3) An airship has the right-of-way over a powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft....

  6. Trade-Offs in a 1 Tbps Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output (MIMO) Communication System Between an Airship and Ground Receive Antennas (United States)


    system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2. 4QAM decision boundaries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3. Multipath in SIMO system...11 2.4. SISO antenna model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.5. SIMO antenna model...12 SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 SIMO Single-Input and Multiple-Output

  7. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Tactical Satellites, High-Altitude Long-Endurance Airships, and High and Medium Altitude Unmanned Aerial Systems for ISR and Communication Missions (United States)


    Accountability Office, 2008) 158, WorldCat . 17 Predator, the Sky Warrior carries multiple payloads and has wing hard points to carry... WorldCat . 20 communications and surveillance capabilities that will considerably improve force performance in the theater...Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate." U.S. Govt. Accountability Office. WorldCat . August 26, 2008. "GPS III / GPS Block III

  8. Lighter-Than-Air Vehicles (United States)


    retrieval sight. The PRV is operated as a UAS glider on its return flight. Balloons capable of operating in near space (upper stratosphere) come in two...airship is at first a flaccid balloon when it takes off. Then, once at a proper altitude, it becomes an airship with a hanging SRV (Figure 63) hanging

  9. The return of airships - report 2. Study on wind power expansion in Sweden with focus on transport and logistics issues; Luftskeppens aaterkomst - rapport 2. Studie om vindkraftens utbyggnad i Sverige med fokus paa transport och logistikfraagor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, Matts; Svensson, Ulf


    This study deals with the efforts carried out in Sweden in the wind power area as part of the adjustment process of the Swedish energy system. An effort which is important for achieving parliamentary climate goals and other objectives of the energy policy. The purpose of the study is to find attractive solutions to the transportation and logistics issues. If handled in a less advantageous way it can be costly for the society, the businesses, local residents, the natural systems and for the climate. The emphasis and main focus of the study is on transport- and logistics-related issues. First, we compared conventional transport solutions with the option to also use lighter-than-air technology, where the focus has been on comparisons of application and cost standpoint. Secondly, we have put the issues into a broader development framework as the expansion of wind power generates transports affecting use of existing infrastructure, building of new infrastructure and various ecosystem services as well as land use in general

  10. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave. // Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of the profile of the airship wing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una funciónanalítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodoscomputacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelosmatemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseñosasistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una ideaglobal del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodologíaseguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la funciónAUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Palabras claves: perfil de alas, modelos matemáticos, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, medición experimental.__________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analyticfunction of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration ofsystem of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used todeveloping the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interestedparties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanicalspecialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposedof the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.Key words: Wing profiles, mathematical models, AutoCAD, AutoLISP, experimental measurement.

  11. O espetáculo cultural na rede social: a abordagem midiática do coletivo dirigível de teatro no facebook = The cultural spectacle in digital social network: the media approach of airship theatre collective on facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Filho, Otacílio


    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa formas de apropriação e usos do Facebook, enquanto condição midiática e mediadora para a divulgação de Espetáculos Culturais. Para a realização desta pesquisa, optou-se pela escolha de um espetáculo cultural teatral intitulado O pequeno Grande Aviador e o Planeta do Invisível, do grupo de teatro paraense Dirigível Coletivo de Teatro. A metodologia utilizada nesta pesquisa é composta por três métodos que se completam e auxiliam: o modelo tripartite, proposto por Sodré (2007; a netnografia e o estudo de análise de redes sociais (ARS, proposto por Fragoso; Recuero e Amaral (2009. Entre os dias 10 e 19 de novembro de 2012, foram realizados o levantamento descritivo e a análise da utilização do perfil do grupo na rede social digital Facebook

  12. Frequency Based Continuation Training (FBCT): A Concept for use in the Mobility Air Forces (MAF) (United States)


    weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR only if: (1) Use of an airplane, powered-lift, helicopter , or airship for maintaining...and iterations in an airplane, powered-lift, helicopter , or airship, as appropriate, for the instrument rating privileges to be maintained in actual...P190 Landing 60 60 60 1, 2 M+R P192 Night Landing 90 90 90 1, 2 M+R NV47 NVG Takeoff 90 120 150 1, 2, 9 M+R NV48 NVG Landing 90 120 150 1, 2, 9 M

  13. History and status of beamed power technology and applications at 2.45 Gigahertz (United States)

    Brown, William C.


    Various applications of beamed power technology are discussed. An experimental microwave powered helicopter, rectenna technology, the use of the Solar Power Satellite to beam energy to Earth via microwaves, the use of cyclotron resonance devices, microwave powered airships, and electric propulsion are discussed.

  14. 14 CFR 61.5 - Certificates and ratings issued under this part. (United States)


    ...-control aircraft. (2) Airplane class ratings— (i) Single-engine land. (ii) Multiengine land. (iii) Single...) Lighter-than-air class ratings— (i) Airship. (ii) Balloon. (5) Weight-shift-control aircraft class ratings— (i) Weight-shift-control aircraft land. (ii) Weight-shift-control aircraft sea. (6) Powered...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft ground and flight risk. 1852.228-70 Section 1852.228-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND..., vertical take-off aircraft, lighter-than-air airships, or other nonconventional types of aircraft,...

  16. 14 CFR 61.129 - Aeronautical experience. (United States)


    ... 2-hour cross country flight in a multiengine airplane in daytime conditions that consists of a total...-hour cross country flight in a multiengine airplane in nighttime conditions that consists of a total... point of departure; and (iii) One hour cross country flight in an airship in nighttime conditions...

  17. Travel with hydrogen (United States)

    Hermans, L. J. F. Jo


    In the field of transportation, hydrogen does not have a particularly glorious history. Just think of the dozens of hydrogen airships destroyed by fire over the years, with the Hindenburg disaster in 1937 as the most famous example. Now H2 is trying a comeback on the road, often in combination with a fuel cell and an electric motor to power the car.

  18. Trajectory Generation and Path Planning for Autonomous Aerobots (United States)

    Sharma, Shivanjli; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Elfes, Alberto


    This paper presents global path planning algorithms for the Titan aerobot based on user defined waypoints in 2D and 3D space. The algorithms were implemented using information obtained through a planner user interface. The trajectory planning algorithms were designed to accurately represent the aerobot's characteristics, such as minimum turning radius. Additionally, trajectory planning techniques were implemented to allow for surveying of a planar area based solely on camera fields of view, airship altitude, and the location of the planar area's perimeter. The developed paths allow for planar navigation and three-dimensional path planning. These calculated trajectories are optimized to produce the shortest possible path while still remaining within realistic bounds of airship dynamics.

  19. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials (United States)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  20. Military Airlift: C-17 Aircraft Program (United States)


    out such a mission led Congress to ask DOD to conduct a study of the entire long- For more information on MRS-05, see CRS Report RS20915 . 22 Jonathan...many should be retired. Rising maintenance costs have led some to argue that more C-5s should be retired sooner, and the savings be applied to...34lighter-than-air" aircraft . Also known as airships, blimps, dirigibles, or zeppelins , these potentially large, helium-filled balloons offer many

  1. The Value of an Independent Royal Air Force - Breaking the Oscar Wilde Paradigm in British Defence (United States)


    exist. As with any major incident of this kind, the public demand for answers resulted in Government- led security reviews. Along with inputs from many...month and commenced their attack. These aircraft were less vulnerable to fighters and anti-aircraft artillery than the Zeppelin airships previously...and Lorsch‟s studies led to the hypothesis that integration between highly differentiated sub-units is often more essential, but it is harder to

  2. Missions and Vehicle Concepts for Modern, Propelled, Lighter-than-Air Vehicles (United States)


    or geodesic frame construction. Materials would be modern aluminum alloys or filamentary composite materials. A good candidate for wire bracing, If...Industries ’of the United Kingdiom. It is a nonrigid airship of 181,000 ft volume and has many advanced design features such As composite material...operational s~hortcomings of the original concept, Winglets with aerodynamic control systems are , * ~fitted to allow eneration of large lateral-control

  3. Lipids differentially degraded during tissue freezing and thawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Plants cope with freezing and thawing by altering the lipid composition of their cell membranes. Such cellular responses go through three phases Successful test flight of an airship Researchers with the Balloon Aircraft Research Center (BARC) of the Academy of Opto-electronics, CAS, succeeded in their first test flight of an aeroboat with a flight altitude up to 1,000 meters and an effective payload of 20 kilograms in Shandong on 25 December, 2007.

  4. Advanced nonlinear control: Robustness and stability with applications to aircraft flight control systems (United States)

    Frye, Michael Takaichi

    This dissertation examines the problem of global decentralized control by output feedback for large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems whose subsystems are interconnected not only by their outputs but also by their unmeasurable states. Several innovative techniques will be developed to create decentralized output feedback controllers rendering the closed-loop systems globally asymptotically stable. This is accomplished by extending an output feedback domination design that requires only limited information about the nonlinear system. We will apply our design to lower, upper, and non-triangular nonlinear systems. A time-varying output feedback controller is also constructed for use with large-scale systems that have unknown parameters. Furthermore, a mixed large-scale system consisting of both lower and upper triangular systems is shown to be stabilizable by employing a combined high and low gain domination technique. The significance of our results is that we do not need to have prior information about the nonlinearities of the system. In addition, a new design technique was developed using homogeneous system theory, which allows for the design of nonsmooth controllers and observers to stabilize a class of feedforward system with uncontrollable and unobservable linearization. An example of a large-scale system is a group of autonomous airships performing the function of a temporary mobile cell phone network. An airship mobile cell phone network is a novel solution to the problem of maintaining communication during the advent of extensive damage to the communication infrastructure; be it from a flood, earthquake, hurricane, or terrorist attack. A first principle force-based dynamic model for the Tri-Turbofan Airship was developed and will be discussed in detail. The mathematical model was based on actual flight test data that has been collected at the Gait Analysis and Innovative Technologies Laboratory. This model was developed to research autonomous airship

  5. Airborne observations of regional variation in fluorescent aerosol across the United States



    Airborne observations of fluorescent aerosol were made aboard an airship during CloudLab, a series of flights that took place in September and October of 2013 and covered a wideband of longitude across the continental U.S. between Florida and California and between 28 and 37-N latitudes. Sampling occurred from near the surface to 1000-m above the ground. A Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) measured average concentrations of supermicron fluorescent particles aloft (1-μm to 10-μm),...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haque


    Full Text Available An analytical approach is essential for the estimation of the requirements of aerodynamic and aerostatic lift for a hybrid buoyant aircraft. Such aircrafts have two different modules to balance the weight of aircraft; aerostatic module and aerodynamic module. Both these modules are to be treated separately for estimation of the mass budget of propulsion systems and required power. In the present work, existing relationships of aircraft and airship are reviewed for its further application for these modules. Limitations of such relationships are also disussed and it is precieved that it will provide a strating point for better understanding of design anatomy of such aircraft.

  7. Air Warfare (United States)


    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  8. 马鞍山长江公路大桥悬索桥先导索过江施工技术%River-Crossing Construction for Pilot Ropes of Suspension Bridge of Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛; 朱小金


    马鞍山长江公路大桥左汊主桥为主跨2×1080 m的三塔两跨悬索桥,主缆牵引系统采用先导索过江架设,先导索设计总长2600 m ,分2段,每段1300 m。针对桥址江面宽、悬索桥需两跨过江、跨越长江“黄金航道”、安全要求高、工期紧等因素,对先导索过江方案进行比选,确定该桥先导索采用飞艇过江牵引方案架设。采用T C08X‐2.4G型遥控氦气飞艇牵引先导索,选用φ2 mm迪尼玛绳作为一级导索,采用被动放索装置的力矩电机被动放出先导索。首先由北岸向中塔飞行过江,形成北跨初级牵引系统;然后由中塔向南岸飞行,形成南跨初级牵引系统;最后由人工和卷扬机配合完成1~5级先导索替换,完成先导索过江。飞艇牵引过程中,进行飞行控制、先导索垂度控制和安全控制,保证先导索飞艇过江顺利实施。实践表明,在长江江面不封航情况下,采用飞艇过江牵引方案可以实现先导索安全可靠过江。%The left main bridge of the Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge is a three‐tower suspension bridge with two main spans each of 1 080 m. The traction system for the main cables was erected by using pilot ropes which needed threading across the river .The pilot rope had a total design length of 2 600 m ,which was divided into two sections ,each measuring 1 300 m . Given the fact that the river is wide at the bridge site ,the suspension bridge needs two main spans to cross the river ,more critically ,the suspension bridge crosses the golden navigation channel of Changjiang River ,its safety requirements are demanding and construction schedule is tight ,it is determined via scheme comparison and selection that the pilot ropes be erected by using airship to guide the ropes to cross the river .The TC08X‐2 .4G remote‐controlled helium airship was adopted to guide the pilot ropes .Theφ2 mm Dyneema rope was used as the first

  9. Lightweight, Flexible Solar Cells on Stainless Steel Foil and Polymer for Space and Stratospheric Applications (United States)

    Beernink, Kevin; Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Jeff; Banerjee, Arindam; Lord, Ken; DeMaggio, Greg; Liu, Frank; Pietka, Ginger; Johnson, Todd; Reinhout, Melanie; Younan, Kais; Wolf, David


    The availability of low-cost, lightweight and reliable photovoltaic (PV) modules is an important component in reducing the cost of satellites and spacecraft. In addition, future high-power spacecraft will require lightweight PV arrays with reduced stowage volume. In terms of the requirements for low mass, reduced stowage volume, and the harsh space environment, thin film amorphous silicon (a-Si) alloy cells have several advantages over other material technologies (1). The deposition process is relatively simple, inexpensive, and applicable to large area, lightweight, flexible substrates. The temperature coefficient has been found to be between -0.2 and -0.3 %/degC for high-efficiency triple-junction a-Si alloy cells, which is superior for high temperature operation compared to crystalline Si and triple-junction GaAs/InGaP/Ge devices at 0.53 %/degC and 0.45 %/degC, respectively (2). As a result, the reduction in efficiency at high temperature typical in space conditions is less for a-Si alloy cells than for their crystalline counterparts. Additionally, the a-Si alloy cells are relatively insensitive to electron and proton bombardment. We have shown that defects that are created by electrons with energies between 0.2 to 2 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 15) e/sq cm and by protons with energy in the range 0.3 MeV to 5 MeV with fluence up to 1x10(exp 13) p/sq cm can be annealed out at 70 C in less than 50 hours (1). Further, modules incorporating United Solar s a-Si alloy cells have been tested on the MIR space station for 19 months with only minimal degradation (3). For stratospheric applications, such as the high altitude airship, the required PV arrays are typically of considerably higher power than current space arrays. Airships typically have a large area available for the PV, but weight is of critical importance. As a result, low cost and high specific power (W/kg) are key factors for airship PV arrays. Again, thin-film a-Si alloy solar cell technology is well

  10. Aerosol Distribution in The Planetary Boundary Layer Aloft a Residential Area (United States)

    Hovorka, Jan; Leoni, Cecilia; Dočekalová, Veronika; Ondráček, Jakub; Zíková, Naděžda


    Atmospheric aerosol is an omnipresent component of the Earth atmosphere. Aerosol particle of diameters 1 μm defines ultrafine or coarse aerosol particles, respectively. Aerosol particle concentrations within the planetary boundary layer - PBL are measured at the ground level while their vertical profiles in the PBL are usually estimated by modelling. The aim of this study was to construct vertical concentration profiles of ultrafine and coarse aerosol particles from airborne and ground measurements conducted in an urban airshed. Airborne measurements were done by an unmanned airship, remotely controlled with GPS 10 Hz position tracking, and electrically powered with propulsion vectoring, which allows average cruising speed of 6 m.s-1. The airship carried three aerosol monitors and a temperature sensor. The monitors acquired 1 Hz data on mass concentration of coarse and number concentration of ultrafine particles. Four flight sequences were conducted on the 2nd of March 2014 above Plesna village, up-wind suburb of Ostrava in the Moravian-Silesian region of the Czech Republic. The region is a European air pollution hot-spot. Repeated flights were carried out in several height levels up to 570 m above ground level - a.g.l. Early morning flight revealed a temperature inversion in the PBL up to 70 m a.g.l. This lead to coarse particle concentrations of 50 μgm-3 below the inversion layer and 10 μgm-3 above it. Concurrently, air masses at 90-120 m a.g.l. were enriched with ultrafine particles up to 2.5x104 cm-3, which may indicate a fanning plume from a distant emission source with high emission height. During the course of the day, concentrations of ultrafine and coarse particle gradually decreased. Nevertheless, a sudden increase of ultrafine particle concentrations up to 3.7x104 cm-3 was registered at 400 m a.g.l. at noon and also after a lag of 20 min at the ground. This may indicate formation of new aerosol particles at higher altitudes, which are then transported


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Pan


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a compact LIDAR system designed to inspect overhead transmission line for maintenance purposes. This LIDAR system is carried by a small unmanned helium airship, which is guided by GPS and laser ranging to fly automatically along the power-line over a limited distance. The 3D coordinates of the power line, power tower and power line channel features are gathered by LIDAR. Test have been accomplished using this blimp-based compact LIDAR power-line inspection system. Its inspections of a 500kV power lines also shows the high efficient inspection, less risk to personnel and more inspections per day compared with manual inspection.

  12. Power generation on a solar photovoltaic modules integrated Lighter-than-Air Platform at a low altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Kuntal; Duttagupta, Siddharth P


    Use of lighter than air platforms (aerostats and airships) for reconnaissance and surveillance over long periods can be facilitated by generation of power on-board through solar photovoltaic arrays. Attempts to integrate solar photovoltaic modules on such contoured surfaces leads to multiple challenges ranging from the choice of solar modules, determination of best method of their integration with the lighter than air platform, and design of the array layout in order to optimize the loss of power due to non-uniform illumination. This paper describes the method of designing such a system and suggests strategies for overcoming these challenges. The issue of non-uniform illumination has been tackled by maximum power point tracking using the scanning window technique for maximizing power generation and an algorithm of distributed maximum power point tracking has been suggested for further improvement. The procedure described in this paper can be used for obtaining the optimum power generation capability of a sola...

  13. High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Architecture for Space and Terrestrial Missions (United States)

    Nayfeh, Taysir; Fast, Brian; Raible, Daniel; Dinca, Dragos; Tollis, Nick; Jalics, Andrew


    High Intensity Laser Power Beaming (HILPB) has been developed as a technique to achieve Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) for both space and terrestrial applications. In this paper, the system architecture and hardware results for a terrestrial application of HILPB are presented. These results demonstrate continuous conversion of high intensity optical energy at near-IR wavelengths directly to electrical energy at output power levels as high as 6.24 W from the single cell 0.8 cm2 aperture receiver. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers. This type of system would enable long range optical refueling of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion.

  14. Structure variations of pumpkin balloon (United States)

    Yajima, N.; Izutsu, N.; Honda, H.


    A lobed pumpkin balloon by 3-D gore design concept is recognized as a basic form for a super-pressure balloon. This paper deals with extensions of this design concept for other large pressurized membrane structures, such as a stratospheric airship and a balloon of which volume is controllable. The structural modifications are performed by means of additional ropes, belts or a strut. When the original pumpkin shape is modified by these systems, the superior characteristics of the 3-D gore design, incorporating large bulges with a small local radius and unidirectional film tension, should be maintained. Improved design methods which are adequate for the above subjects will be discussed in detail. Application for ground structures are also mentioned.

  15. Measurements of pollution in the lower layers of the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Sylvestre-Baron, M.; Pleyber, G.; Perilhon, P.; Faivre- Pierret, R.; Closson, A.; Nicotra, C.


    The measurement of the meteorological parameters and the sampling of pollutants in the lower levels of the atmosphere were made by the use of captive balloons. A 550 m/sup 3/ airship filled with hydrogen was used with apparatus distributed along the anchor cable up to a height of 1,200 m. The meteorological probes used to measure the pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity and to transmit them to the ground are described. The apparatus for air sampling and the chemical analytical methods are described. The results obtained are reported. This experiment made it possible to prove the relations existing between temperature inversion regions and pollution levels. The results show that under the temperature emission layers the profiles for the diffusion of SO/sub 2/, Cl/ sub 2/, and organic pollutants are sharply different. (tr-auth)

  16. Development and application of a new mobile LOPAP instrument for the measurement of HONO altitude profiles in the planetary boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Häseler


    Full Text Available The LOPAP (long path absorption technique has been shown to be very sensitive for the detection of nitrous acid (HONO in the atmosphere. However, current instruments were mainly built for ground based applications. Therefore, we designed a new LOPAP instrument to be more versatile for mobile measurements and to meet the requirements for airborne application. The detection limit of the new instrument is below 1 ppt at a time resolution of 5 to 7 min. As a first test, the instrument was successfully employed during the ZEPTER-1 campaign in July 2007 on board of the Zeppelin NT airship. During 15 flights on six days we measured HONO concentration profiles over southwest Germany, predominantly in the range between 100 m and 650 m above ground level. On average, a mixing ratio of 34 ppt was observed, almost independently of height. Within a econd campaign, ZEPTER-2 in fall 2008, higher HONO mixing ratios were observed in the Lake Constance area.

  17. An empirical model for estimating the atmospheric transmittance of upward infrared radiation at different altitudes (United States)

    Dai, Qiumin; Fang, Xiande; Zhao, Yingjie; Xing, Daoming


    The upward infrared (IR) radiation is one of the most important factors that affect the thermal characteristics of light-than-air (LTA) vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to propose an accurate model to evaluate the upward atmospheric transmittance. The upward IR atmospheric transmittances of 6 different atmospheric models at the altitude from sea level to 30 km are obtained from the MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer code. Based on the data, a new upward IR atmospheric transmittance correlation related to pressure and vertical water column is proposed by regression analysis. It has excellent prediction accuracy with the coefficient of determination of 0.928, the root mean square error of 0.028, and the mean absolute percentage error of 2.68% for the database. Based on the new correlation, the thermal characteristics of a stratospheric airship located in tropics in midsummer are numerical studied and discussed.

  18. A New Type of Captive Balloon for Vertical Meteorological Observation in Urban Area (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Sakai, S.; Ono, K.


    Many meteorological observations in urban area have been made in recent years in order to investigate the mechanism of heat island. However, there are few data of cooling process in urban area. For this purpose, high density observations in both space and time are required. Generally vertical meteorological observations can be made by towers, radars, balloons. These methods are limited by urban area conditions. Among these methods, a captive balloon is mainly used to about a hundred meter from ground in a vertical meteorological observation. Small airships called kytoons or advertising balloons, for example. Conventional balloons are, however, influenced by the wind and difficult to keep the specified position. Moreover, it can be dangerous to conduct such observations in the highly build-up area. To overcome these difficulties, we are developing a new type of captive balloon. It has a wing form to gain lift and keep its position. It is also designed small to be kept in a carport. It is made of aluminum film and polyester cloth in order to attain lightweight solution. We have tried floating a balloon like NACA4424 for several years. It was difficult to keep a wing form floating up over 100 meters from ground because internal pressure was decreased by different temperature. The design is changed in this year. The balloon that has wing form NACA4415 is similar in composition to an airplane. It has a big gasbag with airship form and two wing form. It is able to keep form of a wing by high internal pressure. We will report a plan for the balloon and instances of some observations.

  19. Statistical wind analysis for near-space applications (United States)

    Roney, Jason A.


    Statistical wind models were developed based on the existing observational wind data for near-space altitudes between 60 000 and 100 000 ft (18 30 km) above ground level (AGL) at two locations, Akon, OH, USA, and White Sands, NM, USA. These two sites are envisioned as playing a crucial role in the first flights of high-altitude airships. The analysis shown in this paper has not been previously applied to this region of the stratosphere for such an application. Standard statistics were compiled for these data such as mean, median, maximum wind speed, and standard deviation, and the data were modeled with Weibull distributions. These statistics indicated, on a yearly average, there is a lull or a “knee” in the wind between 65 000 and 72 000 ft AGL (20 22 km). From the standard statistics, trends at both locations indicated substantial seasonal variation in the mean wind speed at these heights. The yearly and monthly statistical modeling indicated that Weibull distributions were a reasonable model for the data. Forecasts and hindcasts were done by using a Weibull model based on 2004 data and comparing the model with the 2003 and 2005 data. The 2004 distribution was also a reasonable model for these years. Lastly, the Weibull distribution and cumulative function were used to predict the 50%, 95%, and 99% winds, which are directly related to the expected power requirements of a near-space station-keeping airship. These values indicated that using only the standard deviation of the mean may underestimate the operational conditions.

  20. An aerobot for global in situ exploration of Titan (United States)

    Hall, Jeffery L.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Jones, J. A.; White, C. V.; Dudik, B. A.; Plett, G. A.; Menella, J.; Elfes, A.


    This paper describes the design and component testing of an aerobot that would be capable of global in situ exploration of Saturn's moon, Titan, over a 6 to 12 month mission lifetime. The proposed aerobot is a propeller-driven, buoyant vehicle that resembles terrestrial airships. However, the extremely cold Titan environment requires the use of cryogenic materials of construction and careful thermal design for protection of temperature-sensitive payload elements. Multiple candidate balloon materials have been identified based on extensive laboratory testing at 77 K. The most promising materials to date are laminates comprised of polyester fabrics and/or films with areal densities in the range of 40-100 g/m2. The aerobot hull is a streamlined ellipsoid 14 meters in length with a maximum diameter of 3 meters. The enclosed volume of 60 m3 is sufficient to float a mass of 234 kg at a maximum altitude of 8 km at Titan. Forward and aft ballonets are located inside the hull to enable the aerobot to descend to the surface while preserving a fully inflated streamlined shape. Altitude changes are effected primarily through thrust vectoring of the twin main propellers, with pressure modulated buoyancy change via the ballonets available as a slower backup option. A total of 100 W of electrical power is provided to the vehicle by a radioisotope power supply. Up to half of this power is available to the propulsion system to generate a top flight speed in the range of 1-2 m/s. This speed is expected to be greater than the near surface winds at Titan, enabling the aerobot to fly to and hover over targets of interest. A preliminary science payload has been devised for the aerobot to give it the capability for aerial imaging of the surface, atmospheric observations and sampling, and surface sample acquisition and analysis. Targeting, hovering, surface sample acquisition and vehicle health monitoring and automatic safing actions will all require significant on-board autonomy due to

  1. 基于三维超声风速风向仪的高精度数据测量方法%High Precision Data Measurement of Wind Speed and Direction Based on Three-Axis Ultrasonic Anemometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴有恒; 荣海春


    Three‐Axis ultrasonic anemometer is very suitable for the environment monitor demand of teth‐ered aerostat and airship because of its high precision ,fast answer ,perfect function and agile configura‐tion .This paper proposes a detection design about wind speed and direction based on the sensor ,where the course of data collecting and processing is described emphatically.This method has been used successfully in a type of tethered aerostats .%三维超声风速风向仪具有测量精度高,响应速度快,功能全面,配置灵活等特点,非常适合系留气球及飞艇等浮空器对大气环境参数监测的要求。提出了基于该型传感器的风速风向检测系统的设计方法,重点介绍了风速风向数据的采集和处理过程。该方法已在某型系留气球系统中得到成功应用。

  2. NASA Tech Briefs, June 2010 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System; Data Acquisition System for Multi-Frequency Radar Flight Operations Preparation; Mercury Toolset for Spatiotemporal Metadata; Social Tagging of Mission Data; Integrating Radar Image Data with Google Maps; Demonstration of a Submillimeter-Wave HEMT Oscillator Module at 330 GHz; Flexible Peripheral Component Interconnect Input/Output Card; Interface Supports Lightweight Subsystem Routing for Flight Applications; MMIC Amplifiers and Wafer Probes for 350 to 500 GHz; Public Risk Assessment Program; Particle Swarm Optimization Toolbox; Telescience Support Center Data System Software; Update on PISCES; Ground and Space Radar Volume Matching and Comparison Software; Web-Based Interface for Command and Control of Network Sensors; Orbit Determination Toolbox; Distributed Observer Network; Computer-Automated Evolution of Spacecraft X-Band Antennas; Practical Loop-Shaping Design of Feedback Control Systems; Fully Printed High-Frequency Phased-Array Antenna on Flexible Substrate; Formula for the Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Painted Structures; Integrated Solar Concentrator and Shielded Radiator; Water Membrane Evaporator; Modeling of Failure for Analysis of Triaxial Braided Carbon Fiber Composites; Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation; Titanium Hydroxide - a Volatile Species at High Temperature; Selective Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Part II; Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot; Launchable and Retrievable Tetherobot; Hybrid Heat Exchangers; Orbital Winch for High-Strength, Space-Survivable Tethers; Parameterized Linear Longitudinal Airship Model; and Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems.

  3. Mechanical Behaviors and Elastic Parameters of Laminated Fabric URETEK3216LV Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Chen, Wujun; Wang, Mingyang; Ding, Yong; Zhou, Han; Zhao, Bing; Fan, Jin


    A comprehensive experimental study of the laminated fabric URETEK3216LV subjected to mono-uniaxial, uniaxial cyclic and biaxial cyclic loading was performed to expose the detailed mechanical behaviors and determine proper elastic parameters for the laminated fabrics under specific stress states. The elastic modulus-strain curves and elastic parameter response surfaces were used to reveal the mechanical behaviors, and a weighted average method of integrals was proposed to calculate the elastic parameters for different stress states. Results show that typical stress-strain curves consist of three distinct regions during loading: crimp region, nonlinear transition region and yarn extension region, which is consistent with those of the constitutive yarns. The elastic parameters and mechanical behaviors of the laminated fabric are stress-state specific, and they vary noticeably with the experimental protocols, stress ratios and stress levels. The proposed method is feasible to evaluate the elastic parameters no matter what stress states the materials are subjected to, and thus it may offer potential access to obtain accurate design and analysis of the airship structures under different loading conditions.

  4. Introduction (Special Issue on Scientific Balloon Capabilities and Instrumentation) (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.


    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3,000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science.) Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  5. Influencia de la relación velocidad de corte-avance en la calidad superficial de muestras taladradas de fibra de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, M.


    Full Text Available The industrial applications of Carbon Fiber (CF have increased in the last years. Particularly, in the aerospace industry, these materials are usually drilled because of the assembly requirements of the structural elements of airships. However, drilling of CF can be accompanied of troubles such as delaminations, lost of surface quality and quick wear of cutting tool. In this work, a study on the surface quality of CF drilled samples as a function of the cutting parameters has been achieved.

    En los últimos años, la fibra de carbono (FC encuentra, cada vez, más aplicaciones en los distintos sectores industriales. En el caso particular de la industria aeronáutica, este tipo de materiales se somete frecuentemente a operaciones de taladrado formando parte de estructuras híbridas PC/substrato metálico, debido a las necesidades de montaje en los elementos estructurales de una aeronave. Sin embargo, en el taladrado de FC se puede presentar una serie de problemas como las delaminaciones, la pérdida de calidad en el acabado superficial o el desgaste rápido y excesivo de la herramienta de corte. En este trabajo se lleva a cabo un primer estudio de la calidad de acabado superficial obtenida en muestras de FC taladradas en función de las condiciones de corte impuestas.

  6. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP applied in an unmanned airship (UA, by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS®; then, to analyze the system’s kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB® SIMULINK® controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance.

  7. Pressure induced stability: from pneumatic structures to Tensairity(R)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rolf H. Luchsinger; Mauro Pedretti; Andreas Reinhard


    Structural stabilization by a pressurized fluid is very common in nature, however hardly found in technology. Car tires, hot air balloons, airships and airhouses are among the few technical exceptions, which are stabilized by a compressed medium,typically air. Restricted by simple geometries and a very limited load bearing capacity these pneumatic structures could succeed only in very specialized applications. Nevertheless, prospective concepts ag has systematically investigated pneumatic structures during the last few years. As a major result, it was demonstrated that almost any shape can be made with pneumatic structures and that astonishing structures such as the pneumatic airplane Stingray can be realized even with low air pressure. On top of that,Airlight Ltd. in close collaboration with prospective concepts ag has recently developed the fundamental new structural concept Tensairity. The synergetic combination of an inflated structure with conventional structural elements such as cables and struts yields pneumatic light-weight structures with the load bearing capacity of steel girders. Thus, complex forms and high strength open up many new opportunities for pressure induced stability in technology. An overview of these recent developments is presented and the close relationship of pneumatic structures with biology is outlined.

  8. Simplified Analysis of Airspike Heat Flux Into Lightcraft Thermal Management System (United States)

    Head, Dean R.; Seo, Junghwa; Cassenti, Brice N.; Myrabo, Leik N.


    An approximate method is presented for estimating the airspike heat flux into a 9-meter diameter lightcraft, integrated over its flight to low Earth orbit. The super-pressure lightcraft's exotic twin-hull, sandwich structure is assumed to be fabricated from SiC/SiC thin-film ceramic matrix composites of semiconductor grade purity, giving superior structural properties while being transparent to 35-GHz microwave radiation. The vehicle's MHD slipstream accelerator engine is energized by an annular microwave power beam — converted on-board into DC electric power by two concentric, water-cooled microwave rectenna arrays. The vehicle's airspike is created by a central 3-m diameter laser beam that sustains a laser-supported detonation wave at a distance of 10-m ahead of the craft; the LSD wave propagates up the beam with a velocity that matches the lightcraft's flight speed. The simplified analysis, which is based on aerodynamic heating during re-entry, shows that helium flowing at a velocity of 10 m/s through the lightcraft's double-hull is sufficient to keep the outer, 0.13-mm thick SiC skin safely under its maximum service temperature. The interior helium pressurant that maintains the structural integrity of this exotic pressure-airship, increases in temperature by only 25 K during the flight to LEO.

  9. Stable Imaging and Accuracy Issues of Low-Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang


    Full Text Available Stable imaging of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry system is an important issue that affects the data processing and application of the system. Compared with traditional aerial images, the large rotation of roll, pitch, and yaw angles of UAV images decrease image quality and result in image deformation, thereby affecting the ground resolution, overlaps, and the consistency of the stereo models. These factors also cause difficulties in automatic tie point matching, image orientation, and accuracy of aerial triangulation (AT. The issues of large-angle photography of UAV photogrammetry system are discussed and analyzed quantitatively in this paper, and a simple and lightweight three-axis stabilization platform that works with a low-precision integrated inertial navigation system and a three-axis mechanical platform is used to reduce this problem. An experiment was carried out with an airship as the flight platform. Another experimental dataset, which was acquired by the same flight platform without a stabilization platform, was utilized for a comparative test. Experimental results show that the system can effectively isolate the swing of the flying platform. To ensure objective and reliable results, another group of experimental datasets, which were acquired using a fixed-wing UAV platform, was also analyzed. Statistical results of the experimental datasets confirm that stable imaging of a UAV platform can help improve the quality of aerial photography imagery and the accuracy of AT, and potentially improve the application of images acquired by a UAV.

  10. Acoustic properties in the low and middle atmospheres of Mars and Venus. (United States)

    Petculescu, Andi


    Generic predictions for acoustic dispersion and absorption in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are presented. For Mars, Pathfinder and Mars Express ambient data and averaged thermophysical parameters are used as inputs to a preliminary model based on the continuum approximation for Mars' thin atmosphere-the need for Boltzmann-based treatment is discussed in the context of Knudsen numbers. Strong absorption constrains acoustic sensing within the Martian planetary boundary layer. For the dense atmosphere of Venus, the van der Waals equation of state is used. The thermophysical and transport parameters were interpolated at the ambient conditions. Acoustic sensing is discussed at 50 km above Venus' surface, a level where aerostats (e.g., European Space Agency's EVE) and manned airships (e.g., NASA's HAVOC) may be deployed in the future. The salient atmospheric characteristics are described in terms of temperature, pressure, and convective stability profiles, followed by wavenumber predictions, and discussions of low- and high-frequency sensing applications. At low frequencies, emphasis is placed on infrasound. A simple generation mechanism by Martian dust devils is presented, yielding fundamental frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz. High-frequency sensing is exemplified by ultrasonic anemometry. Of the two environments, Venus is notably more dispersive in the ultrasonic range.

  11. Wide-Bandgap CIAS Thin-film Photovoltaics with Transparent Back Contacts for Next-Generation Single and Multijunction Devices (United States)

    Woods, Lawrence M.; Kalla, Ajay; Gonzalez, Damian; Ribelin, Rosine


    Future spacecraft and high-altitude airship (HAA) technologies will require high array specific power (W/kg), which can be met using thin-film photovoltaics (PV) on lightweight and flexible substrates. It has been calculated that the thin-film array technology, including the array support structure, begins to exceed the specific power of crystalline multi-junction arrays when the thin-film device efficiencies begin to exceed 12%. Thin-film PV devices have other advantages in that they are more easily integrated into HAA s, and are projected to be much less costly than their crystalline PV counterparts. Furthermore, it is likely that only thin-film array technology will be able to meet device specific power requirements exceeding 1 kW/kg (photovoltaic and integrated substrate/blanket mass only). Of the various thin-film technologies, single junction and radiation resistant CuInSe2 (CIS) and associated alloys with gallium, aluminum and sulfur have achieved the highest levels of thin-film device performance, with the best efficiency, reaching 19.2% under AM1.5 illumination conditions and on thick glass substrates.(3) Thus, it is anticipated that single- and tandem-junction devices with flexible substrates and based on CIS and related alloys could achieve the highest levels of thin-film space and HAA solar array performance.

  12. Airborne Observations of Regional Variations in Fluorescent Aerosol Across the U.S. (United States)

    Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Baumgardner, D.; Hernandez, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Heald, C. L.; Gao, R. S.; Kok, G. L.; McMeeking, G.; McQuaid, J. B.; Fahey, D. W.


    Airborne observations of fluorescent aerosol were made aboard an airship during CloudLab, a series of flights that took place in September and October of 2013 and covered a wide band of longitude across the continental US between Florida and California between 28 and 37N latitude. Sampling occurred from near the surface to 1000 m above the ground. A Wide-band Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) measured concentrations of supermicron fluorescent particles with average regional concentrations ranging from 1.4±0.7 to 6.8±1.4 x 104 particles m-3 and representing up to 24% of total supermicron particle number. We observed distinct variations in size distributions and fluorescent characteristics in different regions, and attribute these to geographically diverse bioaerosol populations. Fluorescent aerosol signatures detected in the east is largely consistent with those of mold spores observed in a laboratory setting. A shift to larger sizes associated with different fluorescent patterns is observed in the west. Loadings in the desert west were nearly as high as those near the Gulf of Mexico, indicating that bioaerosol is a substantial component of supermicron aerosol both of these humid and arid environments. The observations are compared to simulated fungal and bacterial loadings. Good agreement in both particle size and concentrations is observed in the east. In the west the model underestimates observed concentrations by a factor of 2 to 3 and the prescribed particle sizes are smaller than the observed bioaerosol.

  13. Aerodynamic and Electromagnetic Characteristics Research of High-altitude Long-endurance Early Warning Unmanned Aerial Vehicles%高空长航时无人预警机气动及电磁特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任武; 周洲; 王正平


    高空长航时无人预警机具有反应迅速、成本低廉、覆盖范围广等优点,是侦察卫星、高空飞艇等侦察平台的重要补充.基于天线特性,提出两种将柱面天线与高空长航时无人机融合的布局形式,将雷达反射面天线布置于无人机中段,并分析两种布局在气动及电磁特性的差异,为此类特种高空长航时无人预警机的设计提供了一定的理论依据.%The high-altitude long-endurance ( HALE) early warning unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAV) had become an important complementarity of reconnaissance satellite and high-altitude airship as reconnaissance platform, since it was excellence in quick response, low cost, vast coverage area, etc. Based on the character of antenna, two high-altitude long-endurance early warning unmanned aerial vehicles layouts combined with antenna which was set in the middle of the whole plane were put forward. And then analyzed the aerodynamic and electromagnetic character difference between the two layouts. A certain theory evidence is provided for the design of these special high altitude long-endurance early warning aircraft.

  14. The Aerodynamic Plane Table (United States)

    Zahm, A F


    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  15. Wing Warping and Its Impact on Aerodynamic Efficiency (United States)

    Loh, Ben; Jacob, Jamey


    Inflatable wings have been demonstrated in many applications such as UAVs, airships, and missile stabilization surfaces. A major concern presented by the use of an inflatable wing has been the lack of traditional roll control surfaces. This leaves the designer with several options in order to have control about the roll axis. Since inflatable wings have a semi-flexible structure, wing warping is the obvious solution to this problem. The current method is to attach servos and control linkages to external surface of the wing that results in variation of profile chamber and angle of attack from leading edge or trailing edge deflection. Designs using internal muscles will also be discussed. This creates a lift differential between the half-spans, resulting in a roll moment. The trailing edge on the other half-span can also be deflected in the opposite direction to increase the roll moment as well as to reduce roll-yaw coupling. Comparisons show that higher L/D ratios are possible than using traditional control surfaces. An additional benefit is the ability to perform symmetric warping to achieve optimum aerodynamic performance. Via warping alone, an arbitrary span can be warped such that it has the same aerodynamic characteristics as an elliptical planform. Comparisons between lifting line theory and test results will be presented.

  16. Attenuated Realities: Pynchon's Trajectory from V. to Inherent Vice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hume


    Full Text Available Part of what established Pynchon as postmodern was his piling up of multiple realities. Hence, the surprise that 'Inherent Vice' retains only the most attenuated forms of such worlds alternative to our own. In earlier fiction, we find a world served by the Tristero postal system, a world inhabited by angels, by thanatoids and other forms of the dead, by Japanese film monsters, by giant vegetables. In Pynchon’s fictive realities, an airship can sail beneath desert sand or through the center of the globe via Symmes’s Hole, and the photograph of a corpse can be run backward in time to show its murderer. Up through 'Against the Day', Pynchon showered us with alternate realities that reached beyond the material world that most of us accept as 'alles, was der Fall ist'. 'Inherent Vice' departs from this vision. Has Pynchon simply grown up? Or grown old? Or is something else operating here? I will provide a brief taxonomy of Pynchon’s multiple worlds as characterized by paranoia, mysticism, religion, and humor and then analyze what remains of these in 'Inherent Vice'. Among the causes for his changed technique may be his choice of genre. The detective story is epistemological rather than ontological in its questions, so Pynchon concerns himself far more with what Doc Sportello can know than with making him navigate through multiple realities. I argue, however, that 'Inherent Vice' is surprisingly a worst-case scenario for Pynchon.

  17. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability (United States)

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  18. 基于浮空器的新型应急通信监测系统%A Novel Communication and Monitoring System for Emergency Based on Aerostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费东年; 赵攀峰


    介绍了一种新型的机动式空中应急通信监测系统,该系统以机动式系留气球和小型遥控飞艇为空中平台,搭载各种通信、侦察、监测等电子设备,具有快速灵活、机动性强、费用低廉等特点,能够适应复杂环境,面对突发事件时可以快速布置到任何需要的地方.%A novel airborne communication and observation system for emergency is introduced. In the system , the tethered balloon and small airship act as the platform for the carrier of electrical devices for communication, reconnaissance and detection. The system takes the advantage of strong flexibility and low cost, which is able to adapt complex environment and can be placed everywhere rapidly in emergency regarding the requirements.

  19. Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.


    Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air". Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

  20. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.


    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  1. Space Environment Prediction for SZ-4 and SZ-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Siqing; LIU Jing; SHI Liqin; HAN Jianwei; ZANG Zhenqun


    The Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) of the Center for Space Science and Applied Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CSSAR, CAS)took on the mission of offering the space environment parameters which may be of use to the safety of manned spacecraft. In order to complete the space environment safety guarantee mission for SZ-4 and SZ-5, SEPC improved the space environment monitoring system, database system, prediction result display system, prediction implementation system, etc. For guaranteeing the safety of the airship and cosmonaut in the first manned SZ-5, flying experiment mission,SEPC developed the software for analyzing radiation dose and early-warning software for large debris collision with SZ-5. Three months before the flights of SZ-4 and SZ-5, SEPC began to predict the safe launch period in view of the space environment, and offered timely and valid reference opinions for selecting the safety period. Especially during the mission of SZ-5, SEPC analyzed the space high-energy environment in a pre-arranged orbit and abnormal orbit andevaluated the radiation dose which cosmonauts may encounter in space. The evaluation offered an important reference for cosmonaut safety and decisionmaking in the SZ-5 mission. The calculation of the distribution of large debris and the collision risk assessment at different orbit entry times for SZ-5 provided an important base for the superior department to make flight decisions.

  2. First Breakthrough for Future Air-Breathing Magneto-Plasma Propulsion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goksel, Berkant


    A new breakthrough in jet propulsion technology since the invention of the jet engine is achieved. The first critical tests for future air-breathing magneto-plasma propulsion systems have been successfully completed. In this regard, it is also the first time that a pinching dense plasma focus discharge could be ignited at one atmosphere and driven in pulse mode using very fast, nanosecond electrostatic excitations to induce self-organized plasma channels for ignition of the propulsive main discharge. Depending on the capacitor voltage (200-600 V) the energy input at one atmosphere varies from 52-320 J/pulse corresponding to impulse bits from 1.2-8.0 mNs. Such a new pulsed plasma propulsion system driven with one thousand pulses per second would already have thrust-to-area ratios (50-150 kN/m2) of modern jet engines. An array of thrusters could enable future aircrafts and airships to start from ground and reach altitudes up to 50km and beyond. The needed high power could be provided by future compact plasma fu...

  3. Control Parameters Optimization Based on Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System for an UA-Based Two-Axis Inertially Stabilized Platform. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhao, Beilei; Gong, Guohao


    This paper presents a method based on co-simulation of a mechatronic system to optimize the control parameters of a two-axis inertially stabilized platform system (ISP) applied in an unmanned airship (UA), by which high control performance and reliability of the ISP system are achieved. First, a three-dimensional structural model of the ISP is built by using the three-dimensional parametric CAD software SOLIDWORKS(®); then, to analyze the system's kinematic and dynamic characteristics under operating conditions, dynamics modeling is conducted by using the multi-body dynamics software ADAMS™, thus the main dynamic parameters such as displacement, velocity, acceleration and reaction curve are obtained, respectively, through simulation analysis. Then, those dynamic parameters were input into the established MATLAB(®) SIMULINK(®) controller to simulate and test the performance of the control system. By these means, the ISP control parameters are optimized. To verify the methods, experiments were carried out by applying the optimized parameters to the control system of a two-axis ISP. The results show that the co-simulation by using virtual prototyping (VP) is effective to obtain optimized ISP control parameters, eventually leading to high ISP control performance.

  4. Use hyperspectral remote sensing technique to monitoring pine wood nomatode disease preliminary (United States)

    Qin, Lin; Wang, Xianghong; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Xianchang; Ke, Daiyan; Li, Hongqun; Wang, Dingyi


    The pine wilt disease is a devastating disease of pine trees. In China, the first discoveries of the pine wilt disease on 1982 at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing. It occurred an area of 77000 hm2 in 2005, More than 1540000 pine trees deaths in the year. Many districts of Chongqing in Three Gorges Reservoir have different degrees of pine wilt disease occurrence. It is a serious threat to the ecological environment of the reservoir area. Use unmanned airship to carry high spectrum remote sensing monitoring technology to develop the study on pine wood nematode disease early diagnosis and early warning and forecasting in this study. The hyper spectral data and the digital orthophoto map data of Fuling District Yongsheng Forestry had been achieved In September 2015. Using digital image processing technology to deal with the digital orthophoto map, the number of disease tree and its distribution is automatic identified. Hyper spectral remote sensing data is processed by the spectrum comparison algorithm, and the number and distribution of disease pine trees are also obtained. Two results are compared, the distribution area of disease pine trees are basically the same, indicating that using low air remote sensing technology to monitor the pine wood nematode distribution is successful. From the results we can see that the hyper spectral data analysis results more accurate and less affected by environmental factors than digital orthophoto map analysis results, and more environment variable can be extracted, so the hyper spectral data study is future development direction.

  5. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters; Medicion de la dosis a pilotos aviadores usando dosimetros termoluminiscentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [IPN, ESIME Culhuacan (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  6. Earth Mars similarity criteria for exploring martian vehicles (United States)

    Savu, G.


    In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers) and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper). These similarity criteria, as non-dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. “Mars Rover” has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter is substantially higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration seems to be a machine using the in situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  7. Earth-Mars similarity criteria for exploring martian vehicles (United States)

    Savu, G.


    In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers) and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper). These similarity criteria, as non dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such a kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. "Mars Rover" has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter, is substantial higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration it seems to be a machine using the in-situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  8. 雷达天线与柱形气囊共形设计与仿真分析%Simulation and Design of Conformal Antennas to Inflatable Cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵攀峰; 袁军行; 成琴; 王平安; 魏文博


    雷达天线和柱形气囊共形耦合可使雷达具备大视距和全向探测能力,同时实现飞艇平台的轻量化.在分析阵面载荷、囊体内压和囊体刚度三者关系的基础上提出了一种雷达天线与柱形气囊的共形方案,解决了雷达天线和气囊共形的三个关键问题,即气囊褶皱问题、气囊成形问题和连接器的设计问题.仿真分析表明,选择合理充气内压同时对气囊蒙皮施加一定的轴向预张紧力可有效控制气囊径向形变、轴向弯挠以及蒙皮屈曲,该雷达天线与柱形囊体共形设计方案能够满足工程应用要求.%It is realized that radars will have long range and all-round detection capability and the airship platform will be lightened by the way of conforming antennas to inflatable cylinder. An idea of conforming antennas to cylinder is presented on the basis of an analysis of the relationships among load, pressure and stiffness. Three key problems of wrinkles, shape and linker design are resolved. The simulation results show that the combination of suitable pellicle pressure and axial tensile stress can control the radial distortion, axial deflection, and pellicle buckling effectively. The design is able to realize the engineering purpose.

  9. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2011 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Multi-Segment Radius Measurement Using an Absolute Distance Meter Through a Null Assembly; Fiber-Optic Magnetic-Field-Strength Measurement System for Lightning Detection; Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use; Computer Generated Hologram System for Wavefront Measurement System Calibration; Non-Contact Thermal Properties Measurement with Low-Power Laser and IR Camera System; SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor; CMOS Imager Has Better Cross-Talk and Full-Well Performance; High-Performance Wireless Telemetry; Telemetry-Based Ranging; JWST Wavefront Control Toolbox; Java Image I/O for VICAR, PDS, and ISIS; X-Band Acquisition Aid Software; Antimicrobial-Coated Granules for Disinfecting Water; Range 7 Scanner Integration with PaR Robot Scanning System; Methods of Antimicrobial Coating of Diverse Materials; High-Operating-Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength; A Model of Reduced Kinetics for Alkane Oxidation Using Constituents and Species for N-Heptane; Thermally Conductive Tape Based on Carbon Nanotube Arrays; Two Catalysts for Selective Oxidation of Contaminant Gases; Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing; Lightweight, Ultra-High-Temperature, CMC-Lined Carbon/Carbon Structures; Sample Acquisition and Handling System from a Remote Platform; Improved Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode; High-Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement; Cryogenic Scan Mechanism for Fourier Transform Spectrometer; Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor; Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Technology for High-Altitude Airships; Combustor Computations for CO2-Neutral Aviation; Use of Dynamic Distortion to Predict and Alleviate Loss of Control; Cycle Time Reduction in Trapped Mercury Ion Atomic Frequency Standards; and A (201)Hg+ Comagnetometer for (199)Hg+ Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks.

  10. Expanding the Capabilities of the Pulsed Plasma Thruster for In-Space and Atmospheric Operation (United States)

    Johnson, Ian Kronheim

    Of all in-space propulsion systems to date, the Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) is unique in its simplicity and wide range of operational parameters. This study examined multiple uses of the thruster for in-space and atmospheric propulsion, as well as the creation of a CubeSat satellite and atmospheric airship as test beds for the thruster. The PPT was tested as a solid-propellant feed source for the High Power Helicon Thruster, a compact plasma source capable of generating order of magnitude higher plasma densities than comparable power level systems. Replacing the gaseous feed system reduced the thruster size and complexity, as well as allowing for extremely discrete discharges, minimizing the influence of wall effects. Teflon (C2F4) has been the traditional propellant for PPTs due to a high exhaust velocity and ability to ablate without surface modification over long durations. A number of alternative propellants, including minerals and metallics commonly found on asteroids, were tested for use with the PPT. Compounds with significant fractions of sulfur showed the highest performance increase, with specific thrusts double that of Teflon. A PPT with sulfur propellant designed for CubeSat operation, as well as the subsystems necessary for autonomous operation, was built and tested in the laboratory. The PPT was modified for use at atmospheric pressures where the impulse was well defined as a function of the discharge chamber volume, capacitor energy, and background pressure. To demonstrate that the air-breathing PPT was a viable concept the device was launched on two atmospheric balloon flights.

  11. Airborne observations of regional variation in fluorescent aerosol across the United States (United States)

    Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Baumgardner, D.; Hernandez, M. T.; Spracklen, D. V.; Heald, C. L.; Gao, R. S.; Kok, G.; McMeeking, G. R.; McQuaid, J. B.; Fahey, D. W.


    Airborne observations of fluorescent aerosol were made aboard an airship during CloudLab, a series of flights that took place in September and October of 2013 and covered a wideband of longitude across the continental U.S. between Florida and California and between 28 and 37 N latitudes. Sampling occurred from near the surface to 1000 m above the ground. A Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) measured average concentrations of supermicron fluorescent particles aloft (1 µm to 10 µm), revealing number concentrations ranging from 2.1 ± 0.8 to 8.7 ± 2.2 × 104 particles m-3 and representing up to 24% of total supermicron particle number. We observed distinct variations in size distributions and fluorescent characteristics in different regions, and attribute these to geographically diverse bioaerosol. Fluorescent aerosol detected in the east is largely consistent with mold spores observed in a laboratory setting, while a shift to larger sizes associated with different fluorescent patterns is observed in the west. Fluorescent bioaerosol loadings in the desert west were as high as those near the Gulf of Mexico, suggesting that bioaerosol is a substantial component of supermicron aerosol both in humid and arid environments. The observations are compared to model fungal and bacterial loading predictions, and good agreement in both particle size and concentrations is observed in the east. In the west, the model underestimated observed concentrations by a factor between 2 and 4 and the prescribed particle sizes are smaller than the observed fluorescent aerosol. A classification scheme for use with WIBS data is also presented.

  12. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.


    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  13. Comparison of Square and Radial Geometries for High Intensity Laser Power Beaming Receivers (United States)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Fast, Brian R.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.; Jalics, Andrew K.


    In an effort to further advance a realizable form of wireless power transmission (WPT), high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) has been developed for both space and terrestrial applications. Unique optical-to-electrical receivers are employed with near infrared (IR-A) continuous-wave (CW) semiconductor lasers to experimentally investigate the HILPB system. In this paper, parasitic feedback, uneven illumination and the implications of receiver array geometries are considered and experimental hardware results for HILPB are presented. The TEM00 Gaussian energy profile of the laser beam presents a challenge to the effectiveness of the receiver to perform efficient photoelectric conversion, due to the resulting non-uniform illumination of the photovoltaic cell arrays. In this investigation, the geometry of the receiver is considered as a technique to tailor the receiver design to accommodate the Gaussian beam profile, and in doing so it is demonstrated that such a methodology is successful in generating bulk receiver output power levels reaching 25 W from 7.2 sq cm of photovoltaic cells. These results are scalable, and may be realized by implementing receiver arraying and utilizing higher power source lasers to achieve a 1.0 sq m receiver capable of generating over 30 kW of electrical power. This type of system would enable long range optical "refueling" of electric platforms, such as MUAV s, airships, robotic exploration missions and provide power to spacecraft platforms which may utilize it to drive electric means of propulsion. In addition, a smaller HILPB receiver aperture size could be utilized to establish a robust optical communications link within environments containing high levels of background radiance, to achieve high signal to noise ratios.

  14. Method of high speed flow field influence and restrain on laser communication (United States)

    Meng, Li-xin; Wang, Chun-hui; Qian, Cun-zhu; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Li-zhong


    For laser communication performance which carried by airplane or airship, due to high-speed platform movement, the air has two influences in platform and laser communication terminal window. The first influence is that aerodynamic effect causes the deformation of the optical window; the second one is that a shock wave and boundary layer would be generated. For subsonic within the aircraft, the boundary layer is the main influence. The presence of a boundary layer could change the air density and the temperature of the optical window, which causes the light deflection and received beam spot flicker. Ultimately, the energy hunting of the beam spot which reaches receiving side increases, so that the error rate increases. In this paper, aerodynamic theory is used in analyzing the influence of the optical window deformation due to high speed air. Aero-optics theory is used to analyze the influence of the boundary layer in laser communication link. Based on this, we focused on working on exploring in aerodynamic and aero-optical effect suppression method in the perspective of the optical window design. Based on planning experimental aircraft types and equipment installation location, we optimized the design parameters of the shape and thickness of the optical window, the shape and size of air-management kit. Finally, deformation of the optical window and air flow distribution were simulated by fluid simulation software in the different mach and different altitude fly condition. The simulation results showed that the optical window can inhibit the aerodynamic influence after optimization. In addition, the boundary layer is smoothed; the turbulence influence is reduced, which meets the requirements of the airborne laser communication.

  15. Aerobot Autonomy Architecture (United States)

    Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.


    An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

  16. Exploration of CIGAS Alloy System for Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Novel Lightweight and Flexible Substrates (United States)

    Woods, Lawrence M.; Kalla, Ajay; Ribelin, Rosine


    Thin-film photovoltaics (TFPV) on lightweight and flexible substrates offer the potential for very high solar array specific power (W/kg). ITN Energy Systems, Inc. (ITN) is developing flexible TFPV blanket technology that has potential for specific power greater than 2000 W/kg (including space coatings) that could result in solar array specific power between 150 and 500 W/kg, depending on array size, when mated with mechanical support structures specifically designed to take advantage of the lightweight and flexible substrates.(1) This level of specific power would far exceed the current state of the art for spacecraft PV power generation, and meet the needs for future spacecraft missions.(2) Furthermore the high specific power would also enable unmanned aircraft applications and balloon or high-altitude airship (HAA) applications, in addition to modular and quick deploying tents for surface assets or lunar base power, as a result of the high power density (W/sq m) and ability to be integrated into the balloon, HAA or tent fabric. ITN plans to achieve the high specific power by developing single-junction and two-terminal monolithic tandem-junction PV cells using thin-films of high-efficiency and radiation resistant CuInSe2 (CIS) partnered with bandgap-tunable CIS-alloys with Ga (CIGS) or Al (CIAS) on novel lightweight and flexible substrates. Of the various thin-film technologies, single-junction and radiation resistant CIS and associated alloys with gallium, aluminum and sulfur have achieved the highest levels of TFPV device performance, with the best efficiency reaching 19.5% under AM1.5 illumination conditions and on thick glass substrates.(3) Thus, it is anticipated that single- and tandem-junction devices with flexible substrates and based on CIS and related alloys will achieve the highest levels of thin-film space and HAA solar array performance.

  17. Investigations of power supply and propulsion for a lighter-than-air high altitude platform; Untersuchungen zu Energieversorgung und Antrieb einer Leichter-als-Luft-Hoehenplattform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotulla, Michael


    High altitude platforms are one alternative to replace ground-bounded relay stations for telecommunication purposes. Already in service are such concepts like tethered balloons or stratospheric airplanes in the field of surveillance, for example to patrol borders. Disadvantages of those concepts are either to disturb the airspace by the wire or to be constricted in terms of mission endurance. Thus, untethered high altitude airships with long mission endurance are currently in the focus of research. One basic requirement for telecommunication platforms is to remain in a fix positioning frame over ground. Therefore wind speed has to be compensated by the propulsion system of the airship. The scope of this work is to investigate the drive and power generation system of a multiple-unit airship. The reduced rigidness of the hull and the resulting lower structural weight yield a higher load capacity and hence increase the mission length by larger fuel reserves. The drawbacks of this configuration are higher stabilization demands and distributed drive units. This leads to a rather complex propulsion system for which a real-time simulation model is provided. Besides electrical driven propellers, the system involves gas turbines and generators to work as power plants, back-up batteries, power-electronics and distribution. Those power plants reflect the state of the art and are thus rather conservative compared to other propulsion concepts for high altitude platforms. The advantage of splitting up the power generation into multiple units is to run only as much power plants as currently required and for this reason, to save energy. In addition, an involvement of the back-up battery reduces the ineffective operation of a power plant in part load. Another reason to employ a battery system is that highly dynamic power requirements, caused for example by a gust of wind, cannot be covered immediately by the power plants. The maximum discharge power of the back-up battery is at

  18. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una función analítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodos computacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelos matemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseños asistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una idea global del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodología seguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la función AUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Title: Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of an airship wing profile.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analytic function of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration of system of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used to developing the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interested parties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanical specialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposed of the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.

  19. Nordover med filmkamera - fra Wellman til Nobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Anders Diesen


    Full Text Available The Heroic Era in Polar Exploration is filled with fascinating stories about interesting men, and the Race for the Poles is richly described in hundreds of books. The Heroic Era in Polar Exploration coincided with the conception of film technology and rise of commercial cinema, and many polar explorers saw potential in utilising this new technology as a research tool. As a result there exists a range of films from the Polar Explorations, but since their making and initial screenings they have received little attention. The story of these films is also an interesting one, although it has not yet been written. A few years after the production of the first film cameras, the explorer Carsten Borchgrevink brought one along on his British Antarctic Expedition in 1898. His main sponsor, a newspaper publisher, wanted to make news films, but the cinematograph, the film reel and the filming skills were not sufficiently developed to capture living images from the polar region. Our record of this first attempt at making a polar film is limited to one scene from when the expedition is leaving London.The first explorer to succeed in filming in the Arctic was Anthony Fiala in 1902, and since his breakthrough the cinematograph became standard scientific equipment on all polar expeditions. The Mechanical Era in Polar Exploration came with the aeroplanes, the airships and the telegraph. Roald Amundsen played a major role here; he claimed his idea about using aeroplanes was as important to the polar exploration as Nansen´s use of skies and dogsledges in the heroic era. This article tells the story about explorers with film camera trying to reach the North Pole from Spitzbergen. Wellman, Amundsen, Byrd and Nobile are the main characters. The story of their fantastic expeditions is told by others; this is the story about their films, and how the films from the Arctic developed from just documenting landscape and animal life until they became proper documentary

  20. The boundary layer characteristics in the heavy fog formation process over Beijing and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Guangzhi; BIAN; Lingeng; WANG; Jizhi; YANG; Yuanqi


    By utilizing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observational data made available from the project "973" under the auspices of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China - entitled the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX), including the measurements by a wind profiler, captive airships, tower-based boundary layer wind and temperature gradient observational instruments (ultrasonic anemometers and electronic thermometers), air composition samplers, conventional upper-air, surface and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) observations, this paper herewith analyzes, in a comprehensive manner, the occurrence of a heavy fog event over Beijing in February 2001, including its formation, development, persistence, dynamic and thermodynamic features as well as evolving stratification structures within the boundary layer at different stages. The results suggested: (i) as a typical case of urban heavy fog, before the fog onset over Beijing, a temperature inversion existed in the lower atmosphere, the smokes and the pollutants like SO2 and NO2 had been accumulated at a lower level. Proceeding the fog event, with the increase of SO2 and NO2 concentrations, condensability increased sharply. On the contrary, during the fog process, with increasing condensability, SO2 and NO2 concentrations decreased. This indicated that, acting as condensation nucleus, these accumulated pollutants were playing a key role in catalyzing the fog condensation. (ii) By analyzing mean gradient-, pulsation- and turbulence-distribution patterns derived from the wind measurements taken by the aforementioned tower-based instruments, they all indicated that about 10 hours before the fog onset, a signal foretelling potential strong disturbances in the lower boundary layer was detected, and a significant rise of both mean and disturbance kinetic energies was observed, revealing that the low-level wind shear was strengthened before the fog onset

  1. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction (United States)

    Melville, W. K.


    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) " improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  2. R&D Directions and Market Development Trend of Carbon Composite Materials%碳纤维复合材料的研发方向和市场开发动向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The demand of world's PAN-based carbon fiber will reach 50 000 t/a in 2013, which will increase 67% in comparison with 2010, while the demand in 2015 will reach 70 000 t/a, which will expand 2.5 times in comparison with 2010. The patents application amount for carbon fiber composites in 10 years from 2001 up to now will be 1 611, 5 181, 2 510 and 806 respectively for US, Europe, Japan and China mainland. The improvement in formation technologies and development of new products for CFRP were the most active field in this century, while the direction of R&D will surround process improvement in large CRFP wind power blades, the development of serialized parts of electric cars, the improvement of CFRP reinforced technologies and materials for buildings, making varieties for carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics, and developing of light weight structure airships, etc.%2013年世界PAN基碳纤维的需求将达到577t/a,比2010年增长67%,到2015年可望达到7万t/a,比2010年扩大2.3倍。从2001年至今的10年间,碳纤维复合材料的专利申请量美国约有1611件,欧洲5181件,日本2510件,中国大陆806件。信息表明,CFRP成型技术的改进及其新产品的开发一直是本世纪最活跃的研发领域。而近期的研发方向,重点将围绕大型CFRP风电叶片的工艺改进、电动汽车整车配套部件的研发、CFRP建筑补强技术和材料的改进、碳纤维增强热塑性树脂品种的多样化及轻质结构飞行器的

  3. Direct measurement of Lorentz transformation with Doppler effects (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    , r is the unit vector from lamphouse point to counters. Or: L (0) L (pi) =L0 (1+(v/c)) L0 (1 - (v/c)) =L0 2 y2 =L2 Or: L ≡ [L(0)L(pi)]1/2 =L0 y , which y ≡ (1 - (v/c)2 )1/2 is just Fitzgerald-Lorentzian contraction-factor. Also, when a light-wave period p is defined as time unit, from Doppler's frequency-shift the count N with p of one period T of moving-clock is: T(q) = N(q) p = T0 /(1+(v/c) cos q) Or: T ≡ (T(0) T(pi))1/2 = T 0 /y , where T0 is the proper period when v = 0, which is just the moving-clock-slower effect. Let r from clock point to lamp-house ((v/c) symbol reverse), Doppler formula in the usual form is: f (q) = 1/T(q) = f0 (1 - (v/c) cos q). Therefore, Lorentz transformation is the square root average of positive and negative directions twice metrical results of Doppler's frequency-shift, which Doppler's once items ( positive and negative v/c ) are counteract only residual twice item (v/c)2 (relativity-factor). Then Lorentz transformation can be directly measured by Doppler's frequency-shift method. The half-life of moving mu-meson is statistical average of many particles, the usual explanation using relativity-factor y is correct. An airship moving simultaneously along contrary directions is impossible, which makes that the relativity-factor y and the twin-paradox are inexistent in the macroscopical movement. Thereby, in the navigations of airship or satellite only use the measurement of Doppler's frequency-shift but have no use for Lorentz transformation.

  4. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns (United States)

    Rosati, B.; Gysel, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Goger, B.; Poulain, L.; Schlag, P.; Miettinen, P.; Pajunoja, A.; Virtanen, A.; Bialek, J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Henzing, J. S.; Größ, J.; Gobbi, G. P.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U.


    Airborne measurements of the aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties as well as chemical composition were performed in the Netherlands and northern Italy on board of a Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaigns in 2012. The vertical changes in aerosol properties during the development of the mixing layer were studied. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF) at 95% relative humidity were determined using the white-light humidified optical particles spectrometer (WHOPS) for dry diameters of 300 and 500 nm particles. These measurements were supplemented by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and an aethalometer providing information on the aerosol chemical composition. Several vertical profiles between 100 and 700 m a.g. were flown just after sunrise close to the San Pietro Capofiume ground station in the Po Valley, Italy. During the early morning hours the lowest layer (newly developing mixing layer) contained a high nitrate fraction (20%) which was coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth. In the layer above (residual layer) small nitrate fractions of ~ 2% were measured as well as low GFs. After full mixing of the layers, typically around noon and with increased temperature, the nitrate fraction decreased to 2% at all altitudes and led to similar hygroscopicity values as found in the residual layer. These distinct vertical and temporal changes underline the importance of airborne campaigns to study aerosol properties during the development of the mixed layer. The aerosol was externally mixed with 22 and 67% of the 500 nm particles in the range GF 1.5, respectively. Contributors to the non-hygroscopic mode in the observed size range are most likely mineral dust and biological material. Mean hygroscopicity parameters (κ) were 0.34, 0.19 and 0.18 for particles in the newly forming mixing layer, residual layer and fully mixed layer, respectively. These results agree well with those from chemical analysis which found values of κ = 0.27, 0.21 and 0.19 for the

  5. 基于外场场强测量的短波天线辐射效率监测%Monitoring of Short-wave Antenna Radiation Efficiency Based on Outfield Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 陈斌; 杨路刚


    Aiming at the problem of too many difficulties to monitor the radiation efficiency of short-wave antennas on site,a method based on outfield measurement of field strength to monitor the short-wave antennas'radiation efficiency was researched.This method combined technologies of antenna modeling and measurement,solved and analyzed the potential-type dyadic Green's function of medium half space by the domain-transformation method.The RWG Method of Moment (RWG-MoM)was adopted to discrete the Mixed Potential Integral Equation (MPIE)in formulation C of planar multi-lay-ered media,and the relative distribution of short-wave antenna radiation power was obtained.The outfield antenna radiation field strength was measured to get the real density of electromagnetic power,which was made as the sample to estimate the antenna radiation power,and the radiation efficiency was calculated by the ratio of the radiation power and the input power. And then,taking short-wave dipole antenna as example,the measurement of field strength in far field was conducted by air-ship field strength measuring platform,and the normalized radiation patterns obtained in experiments were in good agree-ment with simulation.The radiation efficiency calculated by this method coincided well with published papers',and the moni-toring of short-wave antennas'radiation efficiency was achieved.%针对短波天线辐射效率难以现场监测的问题,研究一种基于外场场强测量的短波天线辐射效率监测方法。该方法结合天线仿真与测量技术,通过域变换法解析介质半空间位型并矢格林函数,采用RWG 矩量法(RWG-MoM)离散平面分层介质 C 类混合位电场积分方程(MPIE),得到天线辐射功率的相对分布。测量天线外场场强,得到场点电磁功率面密度作为样本估计天线辐射功率,由辐射功率与输入功率的比值计算得到天线辐射效率。以短波双极天线为例,基于现有的飞艇场强测量平台,

  6. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.


    devices for microwave ovens are approximately O.O25/W, due to the large manufacturing quantities. Comparable, remanufactured lasers for industrial applications at the 4 kW CW level are of order 25/W. Industrial klystrons cost over 1/W and solid state power amplifiers cost over 3/W. Model tethered helicopters, model airplanes, a smal1 airship and several small rovers have been powered with microwave beams at 2.45, 5.8 and 35 GHz. Smal1 rovers have been powered with laser beams. Two space-to-space microwave power link experiments have been conducted by the Japanese and with Texas A&M assistance in one case. International records for WPT link electric power delivered, range, 1ink efficiency and other salient parameters for both wireless-laser and -microwave power demonstrations win be reviewed. Also, costing models for WPT -system figure- of-merit (FOM) in terms of capital costs, in /MW -km, as a fonction of range and power level are reviewed. Records in Japan. France, Korea, Russia, Canada and the US will be reviewed for various land based WPT demonstrations. SSP applicable elements of technology in fiber and wireless links, cell phones and base stations, aircraft, and spacecraft phased arrays, industrial and scientific klystrons and lasers, military equipment (where information is available in open literature) microwave heating, and other telecommunication activities win be presented, concerning power handling, frequency or wavelength, conversion efficiency, specific mass, specific cost, etc. Previously studied and proposed applications of WPT technology will be presented to show the range of WPT technology being considered for commercial and other applications that will lead to advancing the SOA of WPT technology that win benefit SSP .

  7. Vertical profiling of aerosol hygroscopic properties in the planetary boundary layer during the PEGASOS campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rosati


    Full Text Available Airborne measurements of the aerosol hygroscopic and optical properties as well as chemical composition were performed in the Netherlands and northern Italy on board of a Zeppelin NT airship during the PEGASOS field campaigns in 2012. The vertical changes in aerosol properties during the development of the mixing layer were studied. Hygroscopic growth factors (GF at 95% relative humidity were determined using the white-light humidified optical particles spectrometer (WHOPS for dry diameters of 300 and 500 nm particles. These measurements were supplemented by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and an aethalometer providing information on the aerosol chemical composition. Several vertical profiles between 100 and 700 m a.g. were flown just after sunrise close to the San Pietro Capofiume ground station in the Po Valley, Italy. During the early morning hours the lowest layer (newly developing mixing layer contained a high nitrate fraction (20% which was coupled with enhanced hygroscopic growth. In the layer above (residual layer small nitrate fractions of ~ 2% were measured as well as low GFs. After full mixing of the layers, typically around noon and with increased temperature, the nitrate fraction decreased to 2% at all altitudes and led to similar hygroscopicity values as found in the residual layer. These distinct vertical and temporal changes underline the importance of airborne campaigns to study aerosol properties during the development of the mixed layer. The aerosol was externally mixed with 22 and 67% of the 500 nm particles in the range GF 1.5, respectively. Contributors to the non-hygroscopic mode in the observed size range are most likely mineral dust and biological material. Mean hygroscopicity parameters (κ were 0.34, 0.19 and 0.18 for particles in the newly forming mixing layer, residual layer and fully mixed layer, respectively. These results agree well with those from chemical analysis which found values of κ = 0.27, 0.21 and 0