Sample records for airport surface traffic control

  1. Optimal Airport Surface Traffic Planning Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Roling


    Full Text Available We describe an ongoing research effort pertaining to the development of a surface traffic automation system that will help controllers to better coordinate surface traffic movements related to arrival and departure traffic. More specifically, we describe the concept for a taxi-planning support tool that aims to optimize the routing and scheduling of airport surface traffic in such a way as to deconflict the taxi plans while optimizing delay, total taxi-time, or some other airport efficiency metric. Certain input parameters related to resource demand, such as the expected landing times and the expected pushback times, are rather difficult to predict accurately. Due to uncertainty in the input data driving the taxi-planning process, the taxi-planning tool is designed such that it produces solutions that are robust to uncertainty. The taxi-planning concept presented herein, which is based on mixed-integer linear programming, is designed such that it is able to adapt to perturbations in these input conditions, as well as to account for failure in the actual execution of surface trajectories. The capabilities of the tool are illustrated in a simple hypothetical airport.

  2. Optimal Airport Surface Traffic Planning Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roling, P.C.; Visser, H.G.


    We describe an ongoing research effort pertaining to the development of a surface traffic automation system that will help controllers to better coordinate surface traffic movements related to arrival and departure traffic. More specifically, we describe the concept for a taxi-planning support tool

  3. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee


    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  4. Systemic Approach to Traffic Evaluation of Mostar Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldo Raguž


    Full Text Available The attempt of this work is to systematically find solutionsfor Mostar Airport development through technical and technologicalharmonization of traffic processes undertaken in twoseparate organizations - airport and air traffic control and coordinationbetween other traffic branches. The work uses theindicators of traffic flows and tourist trends in the region, andtogether with the mentioned simulations it attempts to evaluatethe traffic potentials in the region by affecting the change in thecurrent negative traffic flows at Mostar Airport.

  5. Traffic Control Under Complex Weather Conditions in Suining Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Complex weather conditions is meaning thunderstorm freezing turbulence wind-shear low visibility weather affect the flight safety. When confronted with complex weather conditions,the controllers should know the weather condition and trend weather,and notify the aircraft under your control zone.The controllers provide the required services to the pilots,help the pilots to avoid the complex weather.In this paper, through different complex weathers under different control command,get the different methods of control.

  6. Traffic Management System on Airport Manoeuvring Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Borković


    Full Text Available In the last twenty years the number of flights at the busiestairports in the world has doubled, which, in the meantime hasled to a situation in which runways and taxi ways (manoeuvringareas cannot follow such substantial increase. As the result,many airports could not use their capacities in the full range interms of handling passengers and cargo. As a consequence,there were delays and traffic congestion, fuel was unnecessarilywasted, all of which caused negative impact on the environment.Traffic capacity increase on the ground cannot be consideredwithout the development and implementation of thesystem infrastructure that would optimize traffic flows and itsdistribution on the airport itself In these terms, and for positivesolution of these problems, a new system for surveillance andcontrol of aircraft on the airport manoeuvring areas is necessary,one which could be implemented fairly quickly, would becomplementary with the existing international standards andwould be upgraded to the existing and available technology andinfrastructure. With the implementation of the Advanced SurfaceMonitoring and Control System (A-SMGCS the aircrafttaxiing time could be significantly shortened and could be determinedmore accurately, which would have positive impacton the flight schedule. The unnecessary aircraft braking actionscould be also avoided, and this would reduce the fuel consumption,as well as noise and environmental pollution.

  7. Fluctuations in airport arrival and departure traffic: A network analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shan-Mei; Xu Xiao-Hao; Meng Ling-Hang


    Air traffic is a typical complex system,in which movements of traffic components (pilots,controllers,equipment,and environment),especially airport arrival and departure traffic,form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics.The fluctuations of airport arrival and departure traffic are studied from the point of view of networks as the special correlation between different airports.Our collected flow volume data on the time-dependent activity of US airport arrival and departure traffic indicate that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation of an individual airport obeys a certain scaling law with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1.These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the airport internal dynamics (e.g.queuing at airports,a ground delay program and following flying traffic) and a change in the external (network-wide) traffic demand ( increase in traffic during peak hours every day),allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the collective behaviour of the transportation system.We separate internal dynamics from external fluctuations using a scaling law which is helpful for us to systematically determine the origin of fluctuations in airport arrival and departure traffic,uncovering the collective dynamics.Hot spot features are observed in airport traffic data as the dynamical inhomogeneity in the fluxes of individual airports.The intrinsic characteristics of airport arrival and departure traffic under severe weather is discussed as well.

  8. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  9. Input-Output Modeling and Control of the Departure Process of Congested Airports (United States)

    Pujet, Nicolas; Delcaire, Bertrand; Feron, Eric


    A simple queueing model of busy airport departure operations is proposed. This model is calibrated and validated using available runway configuration and traffic data. The model is then used to evaluate preliminary control schemes aimed at alleviating departure traffic congestion on the airport surface. The potential impact of these control strategies on direct operating costs, environmental costs and overall delay is quantified and discussed.

  10. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 5. ATCT/TCCC (airport Traffic Control Tower/Tower Control Computer Complex) Tower Controllers (United States)



  11. Z Specification of Gate and Apron Control Management at Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar


    Full Text Available Modelling of an air traffic control (ATC system is an open issue and has become a challenging problem due to its complexity and increase of traffic at airports and in airspace. Consequently, automated ATC systems are suggested to improve efficiency ensuring the safety standards. It is reported that the number of collisions that occurred at airports surface is three times larger than in airspace. Further, it is observed that gates and aprons congestions cause significant delays at airports; hence, effective monitoring and guidance mechanisms are required to control ground air traffic. In this paper, formal procedure of managing air traffic from gate to enter in the active area of airport for taxiing is provided using Z notation. An integration of gate and apron controllers is described to manipulate the information for correct decision making and flow management. Graph theory is used for representation of airport topology and appropriate routs. In static part of the model, safety properties are described in terms of invariants over the critical data types. In dynamic model, the state space is updated by defining pre- and postconditions ensuring the safety. Formal specification is analysed using Z/Eves tool.

  12. The FAA Plans and Programs for the Future Airport and Air Traffic control System. (United States)


    have been effectively resolved through minor software design changes, contrary to self-serving charges by the controllers’ union, the number of...improvements can be achieved. You will hear more later on about the computer and display replacement program. (VU-GRAPH -- ETABS ) o Other work in advanced...tabular weather uata t,’ the controllers, the Electronic Tabular Display Subsystem ( ETABS ) and the Terminal Information Display System (TIDS) will be used

  13. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul


    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  14. 76 FR 27743 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control... (United States)


    ... visibility and improve safety of airport movement areas, have the capability to meet existing and future...-day public comment period at the following libraries: Champaign Public Library, 200 W Green...

  15. A Fast-Time Simulation Tool for Analysis of Airport Arrival Traffic (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Meyn, Larry A.; Neuman, Frank


    The basic objective of arrival sequencing in air traffic control automation is to match traffic demand and airport capacity while minimizing delays. The performance of an automated arrival scheduling system, such as the Traffic Management Advisor developed by NASA for the FAA, can be studied by a fast-time simulation that does not involve running expensive and time-consuming real-time simulations. The fast-time simulation models runway configurations, the characteristics of arrival traffic, deviations from predicted arrival times, as well as the arrival sequencing and scheduling algorithm. This report reviews the development of the fast-time simulation method used originally by NASA in the design of the sequencing and scheduling algorithm for the Traffic Management Advisor. The utility of this method of simulation is demonstrated by examining the effect on delays of altering arrival schedules at a hub airport.

  16. Research of Off-Nominal Airport Traffic Management using a Surface Management System-Based Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is complimentary and directly beneficial to NASA's Safe and Efficient Surface Operations (SESO) research. NASA has previously developed a...

  17. Airport Surface Access and Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martin-Domingo


    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport Surface Access faces two main opposite issues: (1 cars, being the main transport mode, contribute to the increasing level of congestion and pollution of cities; and (2 simultaneously, parking fees are one important source of airports commercial revenue, creating a dilemma for airports when facing the problem. Following the recent trend of air passengers travelling with Smartphone (78% in 2013, the purpose of this paper is to monitor the adoption of mobile Applications (Apps by airports and to analyze if the information and functions provided in those Apps can help to overcome the above two issues. Design/methodology/approach: 31 iPhone App of some of the largest European airports were evaluated in the lab using the evaluation model of Destinations Mobile Applications (Scolari and Fernández-Cavia 2014 adapted for for the Airport Surface Access on Airport Apps Findings and Originality/value: The Apps evaluated provided a very limited functionality to help passengers to plan and book their trips to/from the airports on public transports and gave high priority to parking information and services. Originality/value: Although Airport Surface Access has been a widely researched, the originality of this paper is the analysis of airport mobile Apps as a potential tool for airports to deal with the surface airport access problems.Access, Airports, Mobile Internet, Commercial Revenues

  18. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Zhang


    Full Text Available We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential factors of the three characteristic parameters as traffic flux, density, and velocity are presented. Then according to such models, the macro emergence of traffic flow evolution is emulated with the NetLogo simulation platform, and the correlativity of basic traffic flow parameters is deduced and verified by means of sensitivity analysis. The results suggest that there are remarkable relations among the three characteristic parameters of the air traffic flow in terminal area. Moreover, such relationships evolve distinctly with the flight procedures, control separations, and ATC strategies.

  19. An Algorithm for Managing Aircraft Movement on an Airport Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maresca


    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the development of an algorithm for safely and optimally managing the routing of aircraft on an airport surface in future airport operations. This tool is intended to support air traffic controllers’ decision-making in selecting the paths of all aircraft and the engine startup approval time for departing ones. Optimal routes are sought for minimizing the time both arriving and departing aircraft spend on an airport surface with engines on, with benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and costs. The proposed algorithm first computes a standalone, shortest path solution from runway to apron or vice versa, depending on the aircraft being inbound or outbound, respectively. For taking into account the constraints due to other traffic on an airport surface, this solution is amended by a conflict detection and resolution task that attempts to reduce and possibly nullify the number of conflicts generated in the first phase. An example application on a simple Italian airport exemplifies how the algorithm can be applied to true-world applications. Emphasis is given on how to model an airport surface as a weighted and directed graph with non-negative weights, as required for the input to the algorithm.

  20. NASA Research on an Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam


    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. There have been attempts to address the resulting inefficiencies with both strategic and tactical tools for metering departure aircraft. This presentation gives an overview of Spot And Runway Departure Advisor with Collaborative Decision Making (SARDA-CDM): an integrated strategic and tactical system for improving surface operations by metering departure aircraft. SARDA-CDM is the augmentation of ground and local controller advisories through sharing of flight movement and related operations information between airport operators, flight operators and air traffic control at the airport. The goal is to enhance the efficiency of airport surface operations by exchanging information between air traffic control and airline operators, while minimizing adverse effects on stakeholders and passengers. The presentation motivates the need for departure metering, and provides a brief background on the previous work on SARDA. Then, the concept of operations for SARDA-CDM is described. Then the preliminary results from testing the concept in a real-time automated simulation environment are described. Results indicate benefits such as reduction in taxiing delay and fuel consumption. Further, the preliminary implementation of SARDA-CDM seems robust for two minutes delay in gate push-back times.

  1. Wireless Channel Characterization: Modeling the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Future Airport Surface Communications (United States)

    Matolak, D. W.; Apaza, Rafael; Foore, Lawrence R.


    We describe a recently completed wideband wireless channel characterization project for the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System (MLS) extension band, for airport surface areas. This work included mobile measurements at large and small airports, and fixed point-to-point measurements. Mobile measurements were made via transmission from the air traffic control tower (ATCT), or from an airport field site (AFS), to a receiving ground vehicle on the airport surface. The point-to-point measurements were between ATCT and AFSs. Detailed statistical channel models were developed from all these measurements. Measured quantities include propagation path loss and power delay profiles, from which we obtain delay spreads, frequency domain correlation (coherence bandwidths), fading amplitude statistics, and channel parameter correlations. In this paper we review the project motivation, measurement coordination, and illustrate measurement results. Example channel modeling results for several propagation conditions are also provided, highlighting new findings.

  2. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael


    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  3. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although a number of airportal surface models exist and have been successfully used for analysis of airportal operations, only recently has it become possible to...

  4. Monte Carlo Analysis of Airport Throughput and Traffic Delays Using Self Separation Procedures (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Sturdy, James L.


    This paper presents the results of three simulation studies of throughput and delay times of arrival and departure operations performed at non-towered, non-radar airports using self-separation procedures. The studies were conducted as part of the validation process of the Small Aircraft Transportation Systems Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept and include an analysis of the predicted airport capacity using with different traffic conditions and system constraints under increasing levels of demand. Results show that SATS HVO procedures can dramatically increase capacity at non-towered, non-radar airports and that the concept offers the potential for increasing capacity of the overall air transportation system.

  5. Airport Surface Management Tools for NAS Users Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Decision support tools that make use of surface surveillance technologies data can potentially make it possible to increase airport throughput, better accommodate...

  6. Conducting Safe and Efficient Airport Surface Operations in a NextGen Environment (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Barnes, James R.


    The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) vision proposes many revolutionary operational concepts, such as surface trajectory-based operations (STBO) and technologies, including display of traffic information and movements, airport moving maps (AMM), and proactive alerts of runway incursions and surface traffic conflicts, to deliver an overall increase in system capacity and safety. A piloted simulation study was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center to evaluate the ability of a flight crew to conduct safe and efficient airport surface operations while utilizing an AMM. Position accuracy of traffic was varied, and the effect of traffic position accuracy on airport conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) capability was measured. Another goal was to evaluate the crew's ability to safely conduct STBO by assessing the impact of providing traffic intent information, CD&R system capability, and the display of STBO guidance to the flight crew on both head-down and head-up displays (HUD). Nominal scenarios and off-nominal conflict scenarios were conducted using 12 airline crews operating in a simulated Memphis International Airport terminal environment. The data suggest that all traffic should be shown on the airport moving map, whether qualified or unqualified, and conflict detection and resolution technologies provide significant safety benefits. Despite the presence of traffic information on the map, collisions or near-collisions still occurred; when indications or alerts were generated in these same scenarios, the incidents were averted. During the STBO testing, the flight crews met their required time-of-arrival at route end within 10 seconds on 98 percent of the trials, well within the acceptable performance bounds of 15 seconds. Traffic intent information was found to be useful in determining the intent of conflicting traffic, with graphical presentation preferred. The CD&R system was only

  7. 77 FR 19076 - High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of Determination Regarding Low Demand Periods at Ronald... (United States)


    ...\\ 33 FR 17896 (Dec. 3, 1968). In 1985, the FAA issued part 93 subpart S (the ``Buy/Sell Rule'').\\2\\ As... the 0600 hour is not a low demand period.\\3\\ \\2\\ 50 FR 52195 (Dec. 20, 1985). \\3\\ 76 FR 58393 (Sept... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 93 High Density Traffic Airports; Notice of...

  8. Analysis of airport traffic in the context of environmental throughput

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Increased air transport volumes force carriers to make more frequent flights as well as airport operations. Unfortunately, such progress has some negative effects which the main is environment nuisances. Due to its reach, aircraft noise is one of the most important and unpleasant effects of airport operations. The problem of protecting the environment against noise is becoming increasingly more important on the international market. A lot is being done here by the European Union, which urges or obliges Member States to comply with certain rules, laws and standards aimed at preventing too much interference of socio-economic development with nature 19]. Considering how air transport is growing, it is necessary to conduct studies into airport throughput including throughput environment. This throughput is determined by Restricted Use Area and it is defined as acceptable daily number of performed air operations resulting from the noise limit at airport. There are the following noise level limits classification: noise level limits per flight which is measured at monitoring points, with special attention paid to those measures specific to night-time and noise volume limits over a time-period, particularly at night-time.

  9. Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System (United States)

    Brooker, Peter

    It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.

  10. Chaotic Control of Network Traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tan; CUI Yi-Dong; JIN Yue-Hui; CHENG Shi-Duan


    A method of chaotic control on network traffic is presented.By this method,the chaotic network traffic can be controlled to a pre-assigned equilibrium point according to chaotic prediction and the largest Lyapunov exponent of the traffic on congested link is reduced,thereby the probability of traffic burst and network congestion can be reduced.Numerical examples show that this method is effective.

  11. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  12. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The complexity and interdependence of operations on the airport surface motivate the need for a comprehensive and detailed, yet flexible and validated analysis and...

  13. Impact of air traffic emissions on airport air quality. Multi-scale modeling, test bed and field measurements (United States)

    Ramaroson, R.; Vuillot, F.; Durand, Y.; Courbet, B.; Janin, F.; Copalle, A.; Guin, C.; Paux, E.; Vannier, F.; Talbaut, M.; Weill, M.


    Air traffic emissions are playing a significant role in airport air quality. Engine emissions contribute to the ozone and PM formation. There is an emergence of a need to develop advanced numerical tools and airport emission databases for air pollution studies. Field monitoring at airports necessary to support model assessment is still limited in time and space. The French ONERA AIRPUR project has focused on three objectives: emission inventories; dispersion models; field measurements. Results are presented and discussed in this paper. The ground spatial distribution of LTO emissions using realistic aircraft trajectories, aircraft-engine classification by ICAO, fuel flow methodology and diurnal variations of fleet number, is presented and discussed. Exhaust species time evolution is simulated using a chemical-dispersion model. Results show high emissions of NOx during LTO, and a maximum of CO and Hydrocarbons during taxi. Depending on seasons, the NOx lifetime is varying differently; lower concentration is calculated far away from LTO emissions. Longer-lived pollutants such as ozone are formed downstream and require the use of advanced dispersion models. For this reason, two interactive models coupling the micro and the regional scales are developed and used in this work. A 3D CFD model (CEDRE) simulates the flow characteristics around buildings and the dispersion of emissions. CEDRE boundary conditions are provided by the 3D nested dispersion model MEDIUM/MM5, which includes a surface boundary layer chemistry and calculates the concentration of pollutants from the local to the airport vicinities. The CFD results show a tracer accumulation calculated downstream beside terminals, consistent with observations at some mega-airports. Sensibility studies are conducted to highlight the impact of emissions on ozone formation with MEDIUM. Results show that longer-lived species are produced downstream, their concentration depending on NOx, aromatics and VOC released by

  14. Computer-Aided Air-Traffic Control In The Terminal Area (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz


    Developmental computer-aided system for automated management and control of arrival traffic at large airport includes three integrated subsystems. One subsystem, called Traffic Management Advisor, another subsystem, called Descent Advisor, and third subsystem, called Final Approach Spacing Tool. Data base that includes current wind measurements and mathematical models of performances of types of aircraft contributes to effective operation of system.

  15. Distributed Air Traffic Control : A Human Safety Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nikumbh, Sarvesh; Vartak, Rahul


    The issues in air traffic control have so far been addressed with the intent to improve resource utilization and achieve an optimized solution with respect to fuel comsumption of aircrafts, efficient usage of the available airspace with minimal congestion related losses under various dynamic constraints. So the focus has almost always been more on smarter management of traffic to increase profits while human safety, though achieved in the process, we believe, has remained less seriously attended. This has become all the more important given that we have overburdened and overstressed air traffic controllers managing hundreds of airports and thousands of aircrafts per day. We propose a multiagent system based distributed approach to handle air traffic ensuring complete human (passenger) safety without removing any humans (ground controllers) from the loop thereby also retaining the earlier advantages in the new solution. The detailed design of the agent system, which will be easily interfacable with the existin...

  16. Traffic Light Controller Using Fpga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The traffic light sequence works on the specific switching of Red, Green and Yellow lights in a particular way with stipulated time form. The normal function of traffic lights requires sophisticated control and coordination to ensure that traffic moves as smoothly and safely as possible and that pedestrians are protected when they cross the roads [1] .This Traffic Light sequence is generated using a specific switching mechanism which will help to control a traffic light system on a road in a specified sequence. This paper focuses on the fact that the traffic lights can be varied in the day and night mode depending on the intensity of the traffic. It plays a vital role in supervising and running the metropolitan traffic and evade the possibilities of any unfortunate mishaps happening in and around the cities. It is a sequential machine to be scrutinized as per the requirements and programmed through a multistep development process. The methods that are used in this project are proposing the circuit, write a code, simulate, synthesis and implement on the hardware [8] . In this project, XILINX Software was chosen to devise a schematic using schematic edit, write a code using Verilog HDL (Hardware Description Language text editor and implements the circuit on Programmable Logic Device [PLD].The system has been successfully tested and implemented in hardware using Nexys 2 Digilent FPGA.

  17. Airport Configuration Prediction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Airport configuration is a primary factor in various airport characteristics such as arrival and departure capacities and terminal area traffic patterns. These...

  18. Traffic jams: dynamics and control. (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Wilson, R Eddie; Stépán, Gábor


    This introductory paper reviews the current state-of-the-art scientific methods used for modelling, analysing and controlling the dynamics of vehicular traffic. Possible mechanisms underlying traffic jam formation and propagation are presented from a dynamical viewpoint. Stable and unstable motions are described that may give the skeleton of traffic dynamics, and the effects of driver behaviour are emphasized in determining the emergent state in a vehicular system. At appropriate points, references are provided to the papers published in the corresponding Theme Issue.

  19. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport (United States)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon


    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5 percent per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM (Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being

  20. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer


    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage...... of heterogeneous performance of the drivers in time as well as individually. This opens the possibility for the construction of technical tools to control traffic jam formation....

  1. Multi-modal cockpit interface for improved airport surface operations (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor)


    A system for multi-modal cockpit interface during surface operation of an aircraft comprises a head tracking device, a processing element, and a full-color head worn display. The processing element is configured to receive head position information from the head tracking device, to receive current location information of the aircraft, and to render a virtual airport scene corresponding to the head position information and the current aircraft location. The full-color head worn display is configured to receive the virtual airport scene from the processing element and to display the virtual airport scene. The current location information may be received from one of a global positioning system or an inertial navigation system.

  2. Building the Brain's "Air Traffic Control" System: How Early Experiences Shape the Development of Executive Function. Working Paper 11 (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2011


    Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive functioning, a group of skills that…

  3. The employment of a spoken language computer applied to an air traffic control task. (United States)

    Laveson, J. I.; Silver, C. A.


    Assessment of the merits of a limited spoken language (56 words) computer in a simulated air traffic control (ATC) task. An airport zone approximately 60 miles in diameter with a traffic flow simulation ranging from single-engine to commercial jet aircraft provided the workload for the controllers. This research determined that, under the circumstances of the experiments carried out, the use of a spoken-language computer would not improve the controller performance.

  4. Spatio-temporal Estimates of CO2 Emissions in the Los Angeles Basin from On-road and Airport Traffic (United States)

    Rao, P.; Song, Y.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Eldering, A.; O'Keeffe, D.; Miller, C. E.; Duren, R. M.


    Characterizing the spatio-temporal distribution of fossil fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions in urban landscapes is challenging. We use Hestia, an innovative "bottom up" approach for estimating FFCO2 emissions in the Los Angeles (LA) megacity and Southern California Air Basin (SCAB) which account for ~53% of the FFCO2 emissions in California. Hestia-LA, in coordination with "top down" atmospheric CO2 measurements, will provide baseline FFCO2 emissions, help monitor changes in emissions, and develop emissions mitigation policies. Hestia-LA characterizes FFCO2 emissions at the building/street spatial scale (10-100 m) and at hourly time steps in the basin by combining data on residential and commercial building emissions, industrial processes, electricity production, and different transportation sectors. We report here on the construction of the spatial and temporal structure in two key transportation sectors within the SCAB: on-road vehicle (46%) and aircraft (2%) emissions. We quantified on-road traffic emissions by merging traffic data from Southern California Association of Governments, California Freeway Performance Measurement System and modeled motor vehicle emissions from EPA's NMIM model. Preliminary analysis shows that (1) LA and Orange counties dominate the annual FFCO2 emissions from urban freeways and arterials, and (2) LA county has a wider peak traffic period during weekdays (2-6pm) than the other four counties (4-5pm). We characterized airport emissions by integrating information from Federal Aviation Administration, Los Angeles World Airports, and Airnav LLC for the temporal structure of aircraft arrivals and departures, and the National Emissions Inventory for total annual aircraft emissions. We categorized the 47 airports in LA basin based on the volume and type (commercial, general aviation and military) of aircraft traffic, and then assigned appropriate hour-of-day and day-of-week traffic volume-specific CO2 emission patterns to each airport. We found

  5. Development of the Surface Management System Integrated with CTAS Arrival Tools (United States)

    Jung, Yoon C.; Jara, Dave


    The Surface Management System (SMS) developed by NASA Ames Research Center in coordination with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is a decision support tool to help tower traffic coordinators and Ground/Local controllers in managing and controlling airport surface traffic in order to increase capacity, efficiency, and flexibility. SMS provides common situation awareness to personnel at various air traffic control facilities such as airport traffic control towers (ATCT s), airline ramp towers, Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON), and Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). SMS also provides a traffic management tool to assist ATCT traffic management coordinators (TMCs) in making decisions such as airport configuration and runway load balancing. The Build 1 of the SMS tool was installed and successfully tested at Memphis International Airport (MEM) and received high acceptance scores from ATCT controllers and coordinators, as well as airline ramp controllers. NASA Ames Research Center continues to develop SMS under NASA s Strategic Airspace Usage (SAU) project in order to improve its prediction accuracy and robustness under various modeling uncertainties. This paper reports the recent development effort performed by the NASA Ames Research Center: 1) integration of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) capability with SMS and 2) an alternative approach to obtain airline gate information through a publicly available website. The preliminary analysis results performed on the air/surface traffic data at the DFW airport have shown significant improvement in predicting airport arrival demand and IN time at the gate. This paper concludes with recommendations for future research and development.

  6. Improving the airport operation and environmental quality at small airports in indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Adji Adisasmita


    Full Text Available The study purpose is to strengthen the policy and supervision of airport operation and improve the airport environmental quality to face Green Airport in the near future. The data used are primary and secondary data. The primary data is based on field survey, interview and questionnaires, while secondary data is based on data collected from various agencies. In general, the conclusions are as follows: i the study results show that the airport operator has given enough attention to the environmental management. With good environmental management, airport operator will find comfort in operating the airport such that airports could improve the operation and environmental quality control system; ii the concept of green airport can be a reference to the the airport operator such that the airport activities does not negatively impact to the environment; and iii the implementation of Green Airport concept will improve the quality of environment; and iv the application of green airport concept will reduce the costs of environmental management. The recommendations are i improve strategy and airport development in facing the green airport for the future challenges; and ii airport development plan should noticed since the beginning of airport planned/developed so as to facilitate for the availability airport land expansion, permits, changes in traffic patterns, aircraft technology and implementation of environmental management aspect.

  7. Interaction Between Strategic and Local Traffic Flow Controls (United States)

    Grabbe, Son; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit; Morando, Alexander


    The loosely coordinated sets of traffic flow management initiatives that are operationally implemented at the national- and local-levels have the potential to under, over, and inconsistently control flights. This study is designed to explore these interactions through fast-time simulations with an emphasis on identifying inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays. Two operationally derived scenarios were considered in which flights arriving into the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport were first controlled at the national-level, either with a Ground Delay Program or a playbook reroute. These flights were subsequently controlled at the local level. The Traffic Management Advisor assigned them arrival scheduling delays. For the Ground Delay Program scenarios, between 51% and 53% of all arrivals experience both pre-departure delays from the Ground Delay Program and arrival scheduling delays from the Traffic Management Advisor. Of the subset of flights that received multiple delays, between 5.7% and 6.4% of the internal departures were first assigned a pre-departure delay by the Ground Delay Program, followed by a second pre-departure delay as a result of the arrival scheduling. For the playbook reroute scenario, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport arrivals were first assigned pre-departure reroutes based on the MW_2_DALLAS playbook plan, and were subsequently assigned arrival scheduling delays by the Traffic Management Advisor. Since the airport was operating well below capacity when the playbook reroute was in effect, only 7% of the arrivals were observed to receive both rerouting and arrival scheduling delays. Findings from these initial experiments confirm field observations that Ground Delay Programs operated in conjunction with arrival scheduling can result in inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays.

  8. Automated Traffic Management System and Method (United States)

    Glass, Brian J. (Inventor); Spirkovska, Liljana (Inventor); McDermott, William J. (Inventor); Reisman, Ronald J. (Inventor); Gibson, James (Inventor); Iverson, David L. (Inventor)


    A data management system and method that enables acquisition, integration, and management of real-time data generated at different rates, by multiple heterogeneous incompatible data sources. The system achieves this functionality by using an expert system to fuse data from a variety of airline, airport operations, ramp control, and air traffic control tower sources, to establish and update reference data values for every aircraft surface operation. The system may be configured as a real-time airport surface traffic management system (TMS) that electronically interconnects air traffic control, airline data, and airport operations data to facilitate information sharing and improve taxi queuing. In the TMS operational mode, empirical data shows substantial benefits in ramp operations for airlines, reducing departure taxi times by about one minute per aircraft in operational use, translating as $12 to $15 million per year savings to airlines at the Atlanta, Georgia airport. The data management system and method may also be used for scheduling the movement of multiple vehicles in other applications, such as marine vessels in harbors and ports, trucks or railroad cars in ports or shipping yards, and railroad cars in switching yards. Finally, the data management system and method may be used for managing containers at a shipping dock, stock on a factory floor or in a warehouse, or as a training tool for improving situational awareness of FAA tower controllers, ramp and airport operators, or commercial airline personnel in airfield surface operations.

  9. Enhanced Airport Surface Detection Equipment Applications, (United States)


    determined by the approach controller in the IFR room. The local controller must fit...specifically departures and arrivals under Instrument Flight Rule ( IFR ) or Special Visual Flight Rule (SVFR) conditions, and whether ASDE-3 could be utilized


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  11. Bits of Internet traffic control


    Vojnovic, Milan; Le Boudec, Jean Yves


    In this work, we consider four problems in the context of Internet traffic control. The first problem is to understand when and why a sender that implements an equation-based rate control would be TCP-friendly, or not—a sender is said to be TCP-friendly if, under the same operating conditions, its long-term average send rate does not exceed that of a TCP sender. It is an established axiom that some senders in the Internet would need to be TCP-friendly. An equation-based rate control sender pl...

  12. Bits of Internet Traffic Control


    Vojnovic, Milan


    In this work, we consider four problems in the context of Internet traffic control. The first problem is to understand when and why a sender that implements an equation-based rate control would be TCP-friendly, or not—a sender is said to be TCP-friendly if, under the same operating conditions, its long-term average send rate does not exceed that of a TCP sender. It is an established axiom that some senders in the Internet would need to be TCP-friendly. An equation-based rate control sender pl...

  13. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  14. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  15. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ...: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twenty-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea VAS


    Full Text Available The concept of remote and mobile Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC TWR and its development has started in Europe, Australia and also in the USA, in order to improve the efficiency of Air Traffic Management (ATM systems in terms of air transportation safety. These new technologies are applicable in many countries in peace time, but on mobility reasons these are promoted to achieve commitments in the operational area. This article describes the devices and range of equipment of mobile and remote tower, and their specifications, which can even serve a medium sized airport, furthermore examines, whether how can those provide the air traffic services at an operational airfield.

  17. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis


    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Model Predictive Control for Integrating Traffic Control Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegyi, A.


    Dynamic traffic control measures, such as ramp metering and dynamic speed limits, can be used to better utilize the available road capacity. Due to the increasing traffic volumes and the increasing number of traffic jams the interaction between the control measures has increased such that local cont

  19. Using Automated Planning for Traffic Signals Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gulić


    Full Text Available Solving traffic congestions represents a high priority issue in many big cities. Traditional traffic control systems are mainly based on pre-programmed, reactive and local techniques. This paper presents an autonomic system that uses automated planning techniques instead. These techniques are easily configurable and modified, and can reason about the future implications of actions that change the default traffic lights behaviour. The proposed implemented system includes some autonomic properties, since it monitors the current traffic state, detects if the system is degrading its performance, sets up new sets of goals to be achieved by the planner, triggers the planner that generates plans with control actions, and executes the selected courses of actions. The obtained results in several artificial and real world data-based simulation scenarios show that the proposed system can efficiently solve traffic congestion.

  20. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic (United States)

    Chiu, Stephen


    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  1. Human-Centered Design of Adaptive Planning Tools for Airport Surface Management Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two critical requirements for an effective airport surface management system are: ? The need to adapt plans both strategically and tactically because of time-varying...

  2. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong


    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  3. Controlling Disorder in Traffic Flow by Perturbation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIKe-Ping; GAOZi-You; CHENTian-Lun


    We propose a new technique for controlling disorder in traffic system. A kind of control signal which can be considered as a perturbation has been designated at a given site (perturbation point) of the single-lane highway. When a vehicle passes the perturbation point at a time, the velocity of the vehicle will be changed at the next time by the perturbation. This technique is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic system can be transited from the disorder states to the order states, such as fixed-point, periodic motion, etc.

  4. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.


    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  5. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  6. 76 FR 59481 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  7. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20,...

  8. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13,...

  9. 77 FR 15448 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of meeting RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held April 5, 2012, from 10...

  10. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  11. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10,...

  12. 76 FR 50811 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control...

  13. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28,...

  14. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. (United States)


    ... Access Control Systems. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  15. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15,...

  16. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21,...

  17. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10...

  18. Mapping of permafrost surface using ground-penetrating radar at Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Andreasen, Frank


    Kangerlussuaq Airport is located at 67°N and 51°W in the zone of continuous permafrost in western Greenland. Its proximity to the Greenlandic ice sheet results in a dry sub-arctic climate with a mean annual temperature of −5.7 °C. The airport is built on a river terrace mostly consisting of fluvial...... deposits overlying fine-grained marine melt-water sediments and bedrock. A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey was performed to study the frozen surface beneath the airfield. The measurements were carried out in late July 2005 on the southern parking area in Kangerlussuaq Airport. Five years earlier...

  19. Traffic control: nursing practice calendar. (United States)

    Rus, Linda; Cheesebro, Kathy; Nagra, Erica; Neff, Alaina


    Educating nurses on the multitude of new and updated best practices, changes in regulatory standards, new equipment, and enhanced technology creates an "information traffic jam." Multiple practice changes occurring simultaneously pose challenges for nurses to retain information to practice safely and effectively. An absence of coordination between various nursing and allied health teaching initiatives compounds this problem. A nursing practice calendar was developed to facilitate the prioritization, communication, and education of hospital-wide initiatives affecting nursing practice.

  20. FAA Air Traffic Control Operations Concepts. Volume 7. ATCT (Airport Traffic Control Towers) Tower Controllers (United States)


    INFORM PILOT/ OPERATOR V V tF SIIUATION, RETLIJIEU TO NCRMAL j I1.2.4.7 RECEIVE REPORT OF V C [V I; P V 0 ARRl /VEHICLE I AI•NIRMAL I I Y ()o1/I AA/ AI’-8...OBSERVATIONS 2-16 FDA 2- 270- 01 a. At facilities where AT personnel take 2-16 weotner/ visibility observations, use the Federal Meteorological Handbook ...with the ATE Handbook 7110.65. Appendix C. Standard Operuting Practice (SOP) for the Transfer of ... (See 7210.3). FDA 2- 222-- 02 (1) The specialist

  1. 76 FR 9632 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B): Agenda March 10, 2011 Welcome/Introductions/Administrative... Federal Aviation Administration Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  2. 75 FR 61819 - First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Control Systems (Update to DO-230B): November 2, 2010 Welcome/Introductions/Administrative Remarks Agenda... Federal Aviation Administration First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  3. 76 FR 16470 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Control Systems (Update to DO-230B): Agenda April 13, 2011 Welcome/Introductions/Administrative Remarks... Federal Aviation Administration Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  4. 75 FR 80886 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this... Control Systems (Update to DO-230B): Agenda January 13, 2011 Welcome/Introductions/Administrative Remarks... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access...

  5. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.


    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  6. Traffic Monitoring and Control Using RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Thakur


    Full Text Available Traffic congestion and tidal flow management were recognized as major problems in modern urban areas, which have caused much frustration and loss of man hours. The operation of standard traffic lights which are currently deployed in many junctions, are based on predetermined timing schemes, which are fixed during the installation and remain until further resetting. The timing is no more than a default setup to control what may be considered as normal traffic. Although every road junction by necessity requires different traffic light timing setup, many existing systems operate with a default sequence. To design an intelligent and efficient traffic control system, a number of parameters that represent the status of the road conditions must be identified and taken into consideration. Approach: In order to solve the problem an intelligent RFID traffic control has been developed. This project is based on monitoring the traffic density at the signal using RFID Reader. RFID tags which is placed (instead of number plate at each vehicle will serve as the unique number of vehicle .Reader will count the number of tags at the signal and take decision of increasing or decreasing the signal time .This reader is also use to find the violation(VIN of violator of the signal. Each passive tag will have certain number of bytes information will be different for different vehicles. Whenever any tag will approach any signal, reader will take that bytes of information and simultaneously will also increment the number of vehicles for making decision to change the signal timing. Each tag of data will be stored in main memory (database.This unique data will also help in determining the violator of the signal .Thus it will save human efforts and resources to a greater extent and reduce waiting of the people at the signal. After implementation of this project, now all people waiting at the signal will get proper time (green light according to the traffic density

  7. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems


    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto


    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  8. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.


    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  9. Discharge of surface water from Billund Airport (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetlesen, Kåre Wessel; Møller, Jens; Bastholm, Lars


    It has been found that Billund Airport does not cause any environmental strain on Billund Stream that it can not handle by itself. Thought it has been assessed that in combination with extreme weather the strain can exceed a critical limit. Such situation can cause great damage to the flora...

  10. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  11. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  12. Sustainable Development and Airport Surface Access: The Role of Technological Innovation and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Qazi


    Full Text Available Sustainable development reflects an underlying tension to achieve economic growth whilst addressing environmental challenges, and this is particularly the case for the aviation sector. Although much of the aviation-related focus has fallen on reducing aircraft emissions, airports have also been under increasing pressure to support the vision of a low carbon energy future. One of the main sources of airport-related emissions is passenger journeys to and from airports (the surface access component of air travel, which is the focus of this paper. Two aspects associated with the relationship between sustainable development and airport surface access are considered. Firstly, there is an evaluation of three technological innovation options that will enable sustainable transport solutions for surface access journeys: telepresence systems to reduce drop-off/pick-up trips, techniques to improve public transport and options to encourage the sharing of rides. Secondly, the role of behavioral change for surface access journeys from a theoretical perspective, using empirical data from Manchester airport, is evaluated. Finally, the contribution of technology and behavioral intervention measures to improvements in sustainable development are discussed.

  13. Discussion on the cohesion of airport iandside traffic and terminal%谈机场陆侧交通与航站楼的衔接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对机场主要的陆侧交通方式——公路交通和轨道交通作了介绍,就陆侧交通方式与航站楼的衔接进行了探讨,并提到了地面交通中心给旅客带来的便利,为航站楼的设计提供了指导。%The essay introduces the main airport landside traffic methods highway traffic and rail transit, explores the cohesion of landside traffic method and terminal, and points out that ground traffic center provides convenience for passengers, which has provided guidance for the design of terminals.

  14. Interrelation of the Problems of the Aircraft Fleet Development and the Improvement of the Air Traffic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Yurevich Smurov


    Full Text Available In the article the problems of air transport have been identified. Among these problems, the congestion of airports and airspace and the need for development and modernization of the airport network are of particular importance. In this regard, the authors consider the improvement of the air traffic control system (ATC system by integrating existing ATC systems into a single global system with the use of unified international standards, rules and procedures. The article also specifies the main indicators characterizing the dynamics of the development of the air transport industry in Russia and abroad.

  15. Take control of your 802.11n airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, Glenn


    Make your 802.11n-based AirPort network fast, reliable, and secure! Find real-world advice from Wi-Fi wizard Glenn Fleishman on setting up the 802.11n models of Apple's AirPort Express, AirPort Extreme, and Time Capsule, with full information about the simultaneous dual-band models introduced in early 2009. You'll get help with all the special networking details, such as how to set the best band and channel for your network, use pre-802.11n base stations and clients without hurting performance, set up complex Int

  16. Situational Leadership in Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Arvidsson, Marcus; Johansson, Curt R.; Ek, Asa; Akselsson, Roland


    In high-risk environments such as air traffic control, leadership on different levels plays a certain role in establishing, promoting, and maintaining a good safety culture. The current study aimed to investigate how leadership styles, leadership style adaptability, and over and under task leadership behavior differed across situations, operative conditions, leadership structures, and working tasks in an air traffic control setting. Study locations were two air traffic control centers in Sweden with different operational conditions and leadership structures, and an administrative air traffic management unit. Leadership was measured with a questionnaire based on Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD; Blanchard, Zigarmi & Zigarmi, 2003; Hersey & Blanchard, 1988). The results showed that the situation had strong impact on the leadership in which the leadership behavior was more relationship oriented in Success and Group situations than in Hardship and Individual situations. The leadership adaptability was further superior in Success and Individual situations compared with Hardship and Group situations. Operational conditions, leadership structures and working tasks were, on the other hand, not associated with leadership behavior.

  17. Traffic Monitor (United States)


    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  18. MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller for Multilane Isolated Intersection



    This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy traffic controller for controlling traffic flow at multilane isolated signalized intersection. The controller is developed based on the waiting time and vehicles queue length at current green phase, and vehicles queue lengths at the other phases. For control strategy, the controllercontrols the traffic light timings and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time, queue length and delay time. In this research, the ...

  19. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon


    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  20. Human Factors in Air Traffic Control (United States)


    leaves him in a central role but provides some automated facilitiee to help him to do his 3ob. 7he concepto therefore have different emotional...which engender favourable attitudes towards them. Considering the amount of effort which goes into marketing commercial products, air traffic control environments. Safety standards are clear and gentrally enforced, and the equipment currently marketed does not have emissions

  1. Validation of Air Traffic Controller Workload Models (United States)


    SAR) tapes dtirinq the data reduc- tion phase of the project. Kentron International Limited provided the software support for the oroject. This included... ETABS ) or to revised traffic control procedures. The models also can be used to verify productivity benefits after new configurations have been...col- lected and processed manually. A preliminary compari- son has been made between standard NAS Stage A and ETABS operations at Miami. 1.2

  2. Chaos control in traffic flow models

    CERN Document Server

    Shahverdiev, E M; Shahverdiev, Elman Mohammed; Tadaki, Shin-ichi


    Chaos control in some of the one- and two-dimensional traffic flow dynamical models in the mean field theory is studied.One dimensional model is investigated taking into account the effect of random delay. Two dimensional model takes into account the effects of overpasses, symmetric distribution of cars and blockages of cars moving in the same direction. Chaos synchronization is performed within both replica and nonreplica approaches, and using parameter perturbation method.

  3. Self-Organized Control of Irregular or Perturbed Network Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, D; Lebacque, J P; Helbing, Dirk; L\\"ammer, Stefan; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick


    We present a fluid-dynamic model for the simulation of urban traffic networks with road sections of different lengths and capacities. The model allows one to efficiently simulate the transitions between free and congested traffic, taking into account congestion-responsive traffic assignment and adaptive traffic control. We observe dynamic traffic patterns which significantly depend on the respective network topology. Synchronization is only one interesting example and implies the emergence of green waves. In this connection, we will discuss adaptive strategies of traffic light control which can considerably improve throughputs and travel times, using self-organization principles based on local interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Similar adaptive control principles can be applied to other queueing networks such as production systems. In fact, we suggest to turn push operation of traffic systems into pull operation: By removing vehicles as fast as possible from the network, queuing effects can be ...

  4. Modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the large-scale disruptive event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.


    This paper deals with modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the largescale disruptive event. These events affecting the airport's operations individually or in combination can be bad weather, failures of particular crucial aiiport and ATC (Air Traffic Control) component

  5. Modelling, Simulation, and Analysis of HAL BangaloreInternational Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lathasree


    Full Text Available Air traffic density in India and the world at large is growing fast and posing challengingproblems. The problems encountered can be parameterized as flight delay, workload of air trafficcontrollers and noise levels in and around aerodromes. Prediction and quantification of theseparameters aid in developing strategies for efficient air traffic management. In this study, themethod used for quantifying is by simulation and analysis of the selected aerodrome and airspace. This paper presents the results of simulation of HAL Bangalore International Airport,which is used by civil as well as military aircraft. With the test flying of unscheduled militaryaircraft and the increase in the civil air traffic, this airport is hitting the limit of acceptable delay.The workload on air traffic controllers is pushed to high during peak times. The noise contourprediction, especially for the test flying military aircraft is sounding a wake up call to thecommunities living in the vicinity of the Airport.

  6. 76 FR 38742 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is... Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held July 15, 2011, from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m....

  7. 76 FR 3931 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224 Meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is... Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 8, 2011, from 10 a.m. to 5...

  8. 75 FR 71790 - Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224: Airport Security Access Control Systems (United States)


    ... Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224 meeting: Airport Security Access Control Systems (Update to DO-230B). SUMMARY: The FAA is... Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 9, 2010, from 10 a.m. to 5...

  9. MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller for Multilane Isolated Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azura Che Soh/Lai Guan Rhung


    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB simulation of fuzzy traffic controller for controlling traffic flow at multilane isolated signalized intersection. The controller is developed based on the waiting time and vehicles queue length at current green phase, and vehicles queue lengths at the other phases. For control strategy, the controllercontrols the traffic light timings and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time, queue length and delay time. In this research, the isolated intersection model used consists of two lanes in each approach. Each approach has two different values of vehicles queue length and waiting time, respectively, at the intersection. The maximum values of vehicles queue length and waiting times are selected as the inputs to controller for optimized control of traffic flows at the intersection. A traffic model and fuzzy traffic controller are developed to evaluate the performance of traffic controllers underdifferent conditions. In the end, by comparing the experimental result obtained by the vehicle-actuated controller (VAC and fuzzy traffic controller (FTC which improves significant performance for intersections, we confirmed the efficiency of our intelligent controller based fuzzy inference system.

  10. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.


    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  11. Measurement and control system for a fuel supply plant at an airport; Kuko kyuyu plant no keisoku seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Air transportation demand is increasing internationally both for passengers and cargoes. A number of Asian countries intend to have a hub airport for Asia, and moving forward building new airports and expanding the existing airports. In the area of airport fuel supply, Fuji Electric has received an order from the Inchon International Airport Public Corporation of Korea a measurement and control system, and is making adjustments at site now. This system is a high-reliability open system which links the controller (ICS-2000), FOCUS, and a UNIX computer by the information LAN and the control LAN according to Ethernet, and duplicates the control LAN. On the other hand, the system has such functions as control of aircraft fuel from receiving from a pipeline to filling it into a storage tank, control of rotation speed of delivery pumps and control of the number thereof for operation, thus attempting automation of fuel supply to aircraft. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Tri-level programming model for combined urban traffic signal control and traffic flow guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙智源; 陆化普; 屈闻聪


    In order to balance the temporal-spatial distribution of urban traffic flow, a model is established for combined urban traffic signal control and traffic flow guidance. With consideration of the wide use of fixed signal control at intersections, traffic assignment under traffic flow guidance, and dynamic characteristics of urban traffic management, a tri-level programming model is presented. To reflect the impact of intersection delay on traffic assignment, the lower level model is set as a modified user equilibrium model. The middle level model, which contains several definitional constraints for different phase modes, is built for the traffic signal control optimization. To solve the problem of tide lane management, the upper level model is built up based on nonlinear 0-1 integer programming. A heuristic iterative optimization algorithm (HIOA) is set up to solve the tri-level programming model. The lower level model is solved by method of successive averages (MSA), the middle level model is solved by non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), and the upper level model is solved by genetic algorithm (GA). A case study is raised to show the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modelling and computing method.

  13. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang


    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  14. 49 CFR 236.828 - System, traffic control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, traffic control. 236.828 Section 236.828..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.828 System, traffic control. A block signal system under which train movements are authorized by...

  15. Research on an Urban Traffic Control System Based on DGPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦; 张姝慧; 曹继红


    The basic principles of GPS (Global Positioning System) and DGPS (Differential GPS) are described. The principle and structure of vehicle navigation systems, and its application to the urban traffic flow guidance are analyzed. Then, an area-coordinated adaptive control system based on DGPS and a traffic flow guidance information system based on DGPS are put forward, and their working principles and functions are researched. This is to provides a new way for the development of urban road traffic control systems.

  16. Visual Features Involving Motion Seen from Airport Control Towers (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Liston, Dorion


    Visual motion cues are used by tower controllers to support both visual and anticipated separation. Some of these cues are tabulated as part of the overall set of visual features used in towers to separate aircraft. An initial analyses of one motion cue, landing deceleration, is provided as a basis for evaluating how controllers detect and use it for spacing aircraft on or near the surface. Understanding cues like it will help determine if they can be safely used in a remote/virtual tower in which their presentation may be visually degraded.

  17. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields. (United States)


    ... birds within gun range. (8) Airports and military airfields exercising the privileges granted by this... rails or their habitats; and (v) In California, any control activities of resident Canada geese in areas... avoiding adverse effects to the species or its critical habitat: (A) Birds: Light-footed clapper...

  18. Selective data collection in vehicular networks for traffic control applications

    CERN Document Server

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej


    Vehicular sensor network (VSN) is an emerging technology, which combines wireless communication offered by vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) with sensing devices installed in vehicles. VSN creates a huge opportunity to extend the road-side sensor infrastructure of existing traffic control systems. The efficient use of the wireless communication medium is one of the basic issues in VSN applications development. This paper introduces a novel method of selective data collection for traffic control applications, which provides a significant reduction in data amounts transmitted through VSN. The underlying idea is to detect the necessity of data transfers on the basis of uncertainty determination of the traffic control decisions. According to the proposed approach, sensor data are transmitted from vehicles to the control node only at selected time moments. Data collected in VSN are processed using on-line traffic simulation technique, which enables traffic flow prediction, performance evaluation of control strateg...

  19. 国外控制机场飞机噪声影响的措施%Noise Impact Control Measures of Aircrafts in Foreign Airports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建坤; 赵仁兴; 田瑞丽; 马丽霞


    介绍了国外机场控制飞机噪声影响的主要做法。国际民航组织发行的《飞机噪声管理的平衡做法指导》主要是从减少噪声源,土地使用规划和管理,减噪运行程序和运行限制等方面控制噪声污染。美国采取的控制措施主要有做好航空规划和城市规划的协调发展,根据机场周边敏感点情况设计影响居民较少的飞行程序,并给出了机场噪声控制措施汇总。欧盟采取的控制措施是建立安静的空中交通系统,技术上需要有安静的飞机,低噪声程序和社会影响管理等。举例说明了目前国外几个机场采取的降噪措施。结合国外机场飞机噪声控制措施,提出了适合我国的飞机噪声控制措施建议。%The main approaches to control the impact of aircraft noise in foreign airports were introduced. The“Bal-ance approach guidance for aircraft noise management”by ICAO has provided the approaches for noise pollution control in the aspects of noise source reduction, land-use planning and management, noise abatement operational procedures and opera-tion restrictions, etc. In the United States, the main control measures are the balancing between aviation development plan-ning and urban development planning, designing the flight procedures with less affect on residents according to the distribu-tion of sensitive points around the airport, and summarizing the airport noise control measures. Control measure by the EU is to establish a quiet air traffic system, including the use of technically quiet aircrafts, low-noise flight procedures and social impact management. The noise reduction measures currently used by several foreign airports were illustrated. Summarizing the aircraft noise control measures in foreign airports, some aircraft noise control measures for domestic airports were sug-gested.

  20. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tao; LI Ke-Ping


    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation.In the proposed CA model,the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules.The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow.A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced,but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.

  1. Autonomous Traffic Signal Control Model with Neural Network Analogy

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, T


    We propose here an autonomous traffic signal control model based on analogy with neural networks. In this model, the length of cycle time period of traffic lights at each signal is autonomously adapted. We find a self-organizing collective behavior of such a model through simulation on a one-dimensional lattice model road: traffic congestion is greatly diffused when traffic signals have such autonomous adaptability with suitably tuned parameters. We also find that effectiveness of the system emerges through interactions between units and shows a threshold transition as a function of proportion of adaptive signals in the model.

  2. Traffic noise and vehicle movement at a controlled intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.


    Traffic noise at an intersection controlled by traffic lights shows noise level variations due to the alternating green and red lights for the different trafficstreams. Noise peaks caused by automobiles pulling up or passing by at highspeed may be quite annoying for people living near the intersecti

  3. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona


    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a…

  4. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications (United States)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.


    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  5. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun


    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...

  6. 面向冲突避免的航空器场面滑行引导方法%Conflict Avoidance Oriented Airport Surface Aircraft Taxiing Guidance Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤新民; 安宏锋; 王翀


    为避免大型高密度机场航空器之间可能发生的冲突,提出了一种基于混杂系统结构的滑行引导方案.建立了航空器滑行连续动力学模型和航空器在滑行道直线段、交叉口运行的离散事件动态系统模型,通过场面运行观测器建立了连续状态到离散状态的映射.采用禁止状态线性不等式约束和禁止状态逻辑互斥约束,描述场面运行模型应遵循的控制规范,并给出满足控制规范的离散控制器设计方法.最后建立了运行模型中可控变迁的使能状态到场面冲突控制策略的映射.通过助航灯光沙盘控制系统的验证表明,该滑行引导方法能及时对可能冲突的航空器采取恰当的控制策略,并实时生成航空器滑行操纵指令,能有效避免航空器滑行冲突.%To avoid confliction troubles between aircrafts at high density airports, an aircraft taxiing guidance framework based on hybrid system is proposed. Firstly, an aircraft taxiing dynamic model in continuous space and discrete event dynamic system models for the taxiing operation on straightaway and intersection are built, and a surface operation observer that maps the continuous dynamic state into discrete observation is proposed. Secondly, the forbidden state avoidance-based regulations described by linear inequality constraints and logical mutex constraints are introduced to express surface traffic control rules, and the discrete controller design method are proposed. Finally, the mapping from the enabling state of controllable transition in the straightaway and intersection operation models to control strategies is built. The validation by control system of an airfield lighting sand table shows that the taxiing guidance method can issue feasible control strategies in time and generate taxi manoeuvring instructions for aircrafts to avoid potential taxiing conflicts effectively.

  7. Operating the railway traffic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton PEPEVNIK


    Full Text Available Due to the valid traffic policy and development strategy of the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovenian Railways have to consider the developmental and strategic aims of European railways. The perspective of progress is basically determined by skimming the European system development, by taking over the European system and managing the railway traffic in the connection with the European railway system.Technology and organization of the railway traffic system present the sum of all technological and organizational elements and processes that takes part in providing aims of the system. The aims are defined as solving transport problems in railway system. The term system is defined, from the formal mathematical viewpoint, as a whole that is usually complicated or even very much complicated. Therefore, the railway system is complex as well, and that is why it has to be managed precisely. In the narrow sense of meaning, technology and work organization both comprises a variety of means and procedures to realize basic activity that can be seen as a perfect unit, and that can be the process of passengers and freight transport in a transport system.Because of the prompt development of microelectronics and computer engineering, a new generation of electronic signal-safety devices appeared.All these changes from the past few years that have been introduced into railway technology, enable railway to become attractive and competitive to other means of traffic. Therefore, the Slovenian Railways have to follow novelties in traffic technology development and gradually modernize its railway network.

  8. Unattended vehicle detection for automatic traffic light control (United States)

    Abdel Hady, Aya Salama; Moustafa, Mohamed


    Machine vision based traffic light control depends mainly on measuring traffic statistics at cross roads. Most of the previous studies have not taken unattended vehicles into consideration when calculating either the traffic density or the traffic flow. In this paper, we propose incorporating unattended vehicles into a new metric for measuring the traffic congestion. In addition to the vehicle motion analysis, opening the driver's side door is an important indicator that this vehicle is going to be unattended. Therefore, we focus in this paper on presenting how to detect this event for stationary vehicles from a live camera or a video feed. Through a set of experiments, we have found out that a Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature-descriptor with a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was able to successfully classify open-door vehicles from closed-door ones in 96.7% of our test dataset.

  9. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu


    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  10. Air Traffic Control automation: for humans or people?


    Brooker, Peter


    Are air traffic controllers humans or people? At first sight, this seems a very odd question, given that ‘humans’ and ‘people’ are near-synonyms in the dictionary and everyday usage. However, in research on air traffic control (ATC) automation the phrase ‘human-centred’ is used to mean particular aspects of people: for example, it does not usually address their motivations for embracing change or cover organisational behaviour issues. The objective here is to try to understa...

  11. Road Traffic Control Based on Genetic Algorithm for Reducing Traffic Congestion (United States)

    Shigehiro, Yuji; Miyakawa, Takuya; Masuda, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a road traffic control method for reducing traffic congestion with genetic algorithm. In the not too distant future, the system which controls the routes of all vehicles in a certain area must be realized. The system should optimize the routes of all vehicles, however the solution space of this problem is enormous. Therefore we apply the genetic algorithm to this problem, by encoding the route of all vehicles to a fixed length chromosome. To improve the search performance, a new genetic operator called “path shortening” is also designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by the experiment.

  12. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad


    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  13. Lighting and shading control studies at P.E. Trudeau Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzempelikos, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering; Athienitis, A.K.; O' Neill, B.; Kapsis, K. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering


    This paper reported on the use of shading and lighting control algorithms at the P.E. Trudeau airport in Montreal. The airport has several perimeter zones with large glazed facades that receive excessive solar gains throughout the year. These facades were shaded by motorized shades operated manually by the airport personnel. As such, the building did not have efficient solar protection and extra air-conditioning was needed. Several light sensors were placed in strategic positions for monitoring the daylighting performance during variable weather conditions. Control algorithms for efficient shading and lighting operation were then developed using correlations between illuminance sensor signals. The sensors were used to monitor interior daylight levels under different sky conditions and shade positions. Reliable correlations were derived between ceiling and work plane illuminance, which were used to develop control schemes for shading and lighting operation. This paper also included simulation results for the potential energy savings due to reduced lighting and cooling energy demand. It was concluded that the shades close and prevent glare while still providing some view to the outdoors. The lighting energy savings will be significant because of the large glass areas and solar exposure throughout the day for all seasons. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Microscopic Traffic Flow in Multi-airport Terminal Airspace%多机场终端区微观交通流建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪海; 胡勇; 杨磊; 许炎


    In order to study the microscopic spatial and temporal characteristics and evolution law of air traffic flow in multi-airport terminal airspace,considering the operation characteristic of single, converging,and crossed traffic flow flying to the target point,a local sorting model,a aircraft-following model,and a maneuverable model for air traffic flow were established using the first-come-first-service principle and the stimulus-response aircraft-following theory. A multi-agent simulation platform based on the above models was then set up with NetLogo to simulate the traffic flow. The correlativity and sensitivity of basic traffic flow parameters as well as the interaction between arrival and departure traffic flow were analyzed through simulation experiments. The result indicates that notable phase transitions and hysteresis characteristic exist in the evolution process of the arrival traffic flow. The fundamental phase states can be divided into free,unconstrained,pseudo-congestion,and synchronization phases. There is a linear relationship between the traffic flow rate and the product of velocity and density. The control interval has a great influence on the traffic flow. There is an optimal control interval,and its value at the arrival intersection point is 8 km.%为研究多机场终端区交通流微观时空特性与演变规律,考虑终端区内单股、汇聚和交叉交通流具有基于目标点运行的基本特征,依据先到先服务原则,利用刺激-反射跟驰理论,建立了空中交通流局域排序模型、跟驰模型和机动模型.在此基础上,采用多智能体仿真工具NetLogo,构建了多机场终端区交通流仿真平台,仿真分析了进场交通流特征参数之间的关系和灵敏性,以及进离场交通流之间的相互影响.研究结果表明:多机场终端区进场交通流存在明显的相变与迟滞特征,形成自由相、畅行相、伪拥塞相和同步拥塞相等基本相态;流

  15. Virtual Airport Simulation Technology: Perceptions of Airport Operations Initial Training Program Variables and Effectiveness for Airside Professional Competence (United States)

    DeCarlo, Jeffrey


    Air travel is expected to grow by a factor of 2 to 3 times by 2025 and people working in the aviation system, including airport personnel, pilots, and air traffic controllers, must be able to safely and efficiently operate in this arena ("NextGen"). In response to the personnel training and education requirements concomitant with "NextGen,"…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design and implement traffic control system. The system developed is able to sense the presence of vehicles within certain range by setting the appropriate duration for the traffic signals to react accordingly. By employing logical functions to calculate the appropriate timing for the signals toilluminate, the system can help to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The use of FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays is an interesting new phenomenon in VLSI development. FPGAs offer all of thefeatures needed to implement most complex designs. Hardware simulation tests were successfully performed on the algorithm implemented into a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The main object of the paper is to design a Real Time Traffic Light Controller (RTTLC using VHDL and implement the RTTLC in XILINX SPARTAN - 3 FPGA.

  17. Joint optimization traffic signal control for an urban arterial road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin-fei; CHEN Shu-ping


    This paper considers the optimal traffic signal setting for an urban arterial road. By introducing the concepts of synchronization rate and non-synchronization degree, a mathematical model is constructed and an optimization problem is posed. Then, a new iterative algorithm is developed to solve this optimal traffic control signal setting problem. Convergence properties for this iterative algorithm are established. Finally, a numerical example is solved to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Optimizing urban traffic control using a rational agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper is devoted to developing and evaluating a set of technologies with the objective of designing a method-ology for the implementation of sophisticated traffic lights by means of rational agents. These devices would be capable of op-timizing the behavior of a junction with multiple traffic signals, reaching a higher level of autonomy without losing reliability, accuracy, or efficiency in the offered services. In particular, each rational agent in a traffic signal will be able to analyze the requirements and constraints of the road, in order to know its level of demand. With such information, the rational agent will adapt its light cycles with the view of accomplishing more fluid traffic patterns and minimizing the pollutant environmental emissions produced by vehicles while they are stopped at a red light, through using a case-based reasoning (CBR) adaptation. This paper also integrates a microscopic simulator developed to run a set of tests in order to compare the presented methodology with traditional traffic control methods. Two study cases are shown to demonstrate the efficiency of the introduced approach, increasing vehicular mobility and reducing harmful activity for the environment. For instance, in the first scenario, taking into account the studied traffic volumes, our approach increases mobility by 23%and reduces emissions by 35%. When the roads are managed by sophisticated traffic lights, a better level of service and considerable environmental benefits are achieved, demon-strating the utility of the presented approach.

  19. Measurement of Temporal Awareness in Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Rantanen, E.M.


    Temporal awareness, or level 3 situation awareness, is critical to successful control of air traffic, yet the construct remains ill-defined and difficult to measure. This research sought evidence for air traffic controllers awareness of temporal characteristics of their tasks in data from a high-fidelity system evaluation simulation. Five teams of controllers worked on four scenarios with different traffic load. Several temporal parameters were defined for each task controllers performed during a simulation run and their actions on the tasks were timed relative to them. Controllers showed a strong tendency to prioritize tasks according to a first come, first served principle. This trend persisted as task load increased. Also evident was awareness of the urgency of tasks, as tasks with impending closing of a window of opportunity were performed before tasks that had longer time available before closing of the window.

  20. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.


    in the nonmodulated case, while it is a decreasing function in the opposite case. In other words, the safety distance time modulation facilitates car propagation in the case when the mean distance between cars in the congestive traffic is less than h and hinders it when the neighboring cars in the flow are well......The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case....... This region shrinks when the speed-up of cars does not exceed some critical value and expands in the opposite case. The flux of the time-modulated flow is an increasing function of the amplitude of the modulation for traffic flows whose density is larger than 1/h where h is the safety distance...

  1. Flight delay performance at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Yablonsky


    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the annual cyclical flight delays at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then using other data such as annual precipitation, passenger and aircraft traffic volumes and other factors, we attempted to correlate these factors with overall delays. These data could assist airport management in predicting periods of flight delay.Design/methodology/approach: Data were taken and analyzed from the data base “Research and Innovation Technology Administration” (RITA for the years 2005-2011 for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The data included 2.8 million flights originating and departing from this airport. Data were also gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA showing precipitation. Additional data were gathered from the FAA regarding delay causes, number and types of delays and changes to the infrastructure of ATL airportFindings: There is a repeatable annual pattern of delays at ATL that can be modeled using delay data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. This pattern appears to be caused primarily by the frequency and amount of precipitation that falls at ATL and by the amount of flights that arrive and depart at ATL.Originality/value: This information could assist airport operations personnel, FAA air traffic controllers and airlines in anticipating and mitigating delays at specific times of the year.




    Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala L...

  3. A semi-decentralized control strategy for urban traffic


    Farhi, Nadir; Nguyen Van Phu, Cyril; AMIR, Mouna; Haj Salem, Habib; LEBACQUE, Jean Patrick


    EWGT - Euro Working Group on Transportation, Delft, PAYS-BAS, 14-/07/2015 - 16/07/2015; We present in this article a semi-decentralized approach for urban traffic control, based on the TUC (Traffic responsive Urban Control) strategy. We assume that the control is centralized as in the TUC strategy, but we introduce a contention time window inside the cycle time, where antagonistic stages alternate a priority rule. The priority rule is set by applying green colours for given stages and yellow ...

  4. Traffic Adaptive Distributed Backoff Control Mechanism for Cluster-Based IEEE802.15.4 WSNs with Traffic Fluctuations (United States)

    Mori, Kazuo; Naito, Katsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hideo

    The traffic adaptive 2-level active period control has been proposed as a traffic adaptation mechanism to handle temporal and spatial (geographical) traffic fluctuations in cluster-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) employing IEEE802.15.4 medium access control (MAC). This paper proposes a traffic adaptive distributed backoff control mechanism for cluster-based WSNs with the traffic adaptive 2-level active period control to enhance the system performance, especially transmission performance. The proposed mechanism autonomously adjusts the starting time of the backoff procedure for channel accesses in the contention access period (CAP) specified by the IEEE802.15.4 MAC, and then distributes the channel access timing over a wide range within the CAP, which can mitigate channel access congestion. The results of computer simulations show that the proposed mechanism can improve the transmission delay performance while keeping the enhancement in throughput and energy consumption at the cluster-based WSNs under non-uniform traffic environments.

  5. Traffic jams reduce hydrolytic efficiency of cellulase on cellulose surface. (United States)

    Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Koivula, Anu; Wada, Masahisa; Kimura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Penttilä, Merja; Ando, Toshio; Samejima, Masahiro


    A deeper mechanistic understanding of the saccharification of cellulosic biomass could enhance the efficiency of biofuels development. We report here the real-time visualization of crystalline cellulose degradation by individual cellulase enzymes through use of an advanced version of high-speed atomic force microscopy. Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (TrCel7A) molecules were observed to slide unidirectionally along the crystalline cellulose surface but at one point exhibited collective halting analogous to a traffic jam. Changing the crystalline polymorphic form of cellulose by means of an ammonia treatment increased the apparent number of accessible lanes on the crystalline surface and consequently the number of moving cellulase molecules. Treatment of this bulky crystalline cellulose simultaneously or separately with T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II (TrCel6A) resulted in a remarkable increase in the proportion of mobile enzyme molecules on the surface. Cellulose was completely degraded by the synergistic action between the two enzymes.

  6. Fatigue Minimization Work Shift Scheduling for Air Traffic Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Chung Wang


    Full Text Available It is common for Air Traffic Controllers to control air traffic during the night and to experience fatigue. Although fatigue is not the direct cause of aviation accidents, 21 percent of accidents are fatigue-related. Therefore countries and companies have tried to regulate work hours to avoid extreme fatigue, thus decreasing human error resulting from fatigue. However, these regulations may not reflect that actual fatigue variation and fatigue levels can be decreased still more by scheduling appropriately. This paper focuses on optimal work shift scheduling to reduce air traffic controller fatigue. First, a mathematical model is established to describe fatigue levels. The objective function is to reduce the fatigue peak produced by work shifts as much as possible. Various constraints, such as holidays and manpower requirements are considered. The optimization problem is then solved using integer programming. We take a sample schedule and draw conclusions by comparing our results with the original fatigue levels.

  7. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks (United States)

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver


    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  8. Data requirements for traffic control on a macroscopic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    With current techniques, traffic monitoring and control is a data intensive process. Network control on a higher level, using high level variables, can make this process less data demanding. The macroscopic fundamental diagram relates accumulation, i.e. the number of vehicles in an area, to the netw

  9. Deadlock-free traffic control with geometrical critical sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, Albert L.; Bouwens, Peter J.; Backer, E.


    Traffic control of vehicles on pre-planned paths may be based on critical sections where vehicles have to control their velocity mutually in order to avoid collisions. By analysing the geometry of critical sections carefully deadlock situations can be recognised and situations where vehicles may sha

  10. Model-Based Traffic Control for Sustainable Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegeye, S.K.


    Computationally efficient dynamic fuel consumption, emissions, and dispersion of emissions models are developed. Fast and practically feasible model-based controller is proposed. Using the developed models, the controller steers the traffic flow in such a way that a balanced trade-off between the t

  11. Traffic behavior of mixed traffic flow with two kinds of different self-stabilizing control vehicles (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Li, Wenzhong; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing; Sun, Jian


    In this paper, we propose a heterogeneous car following model in terms of an extension to the original optimal velocity model characterizing two classes of different self-stabilizing control vehicles. Linear stability analysis method is utilized to the extended model, for purpose to explore how the varying percentages of the vehicles with short-duration self-stabilizing control influence the stability of the heterogeneous traffic flow. We obtain the neutral stability lines for different percentages of two classes of vehicles, with finding that the traffic flow trends to stable with the decrease of the percentage for short-duration self-stabilizing control vehicles. Moreover, we explore a special case that the same numbers of two different classes of vehicles with self-stabilizing control. We theoretically derive the stability condition of the special case, and conclude the effect of the average value and the standard deviation of two time gaps, on the heterogeneous traffic stability. At last, direct simulations are conducted to verify the conclusion of theoretical analysis.

  12. 78 FR 36132 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for... (United States)


    ... books would cause unnecessary confusion because users would have to determine how to correctly apply the... experience the same fate as the Traffic Engineering Manual, which was developed to supplement the 1978...

  13. FL-FN-MOGA Based Traffic Signal Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏武; 张毅


    In this paper, a traffic signal control method based on fuzzy logic (FL), fuzzy-neuro (FN) and multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGA) for an isolated four-approach intersection with through and left-turning movements is presented. This method has an adaptive signal timing ability, and can make adjustments to signal timing in response to observed changes. The "urgency degree" term, which can describe the different user's demand for green time is used in decision-making by which strategy of signal timing can be determined. Using a fuzzy logic controller, we can determine whether to extend or terminate the current signal phase and select the sequences of phases. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy-neuro can be used to predict traffic parameters used in fuzzy logic controller. The feasibility of using a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to find a group of optimizing sets of parameters for fuzzy logic controller depending on different objects is also demonstrated. Simulation results show that the proposed methed is effecfive to adjust the signal timing in response to changing traffic conditions on a real-time basis, and the controller can produce lower vehicle delays and percentage of stopped vehicles than a traffic-actuated controller.

  14. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhou


    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  15. Controls on permafrost thaw in a coupled groundwater-flow and heat-transport system: Iqaluit Airport, Nunavut, Canada (United States)

    Shojae Ghias, Masoumeh; Therrien, René; Molson, John; Lemieux, Jean-Michel


    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and heat transport are used to provide insight into the interaction between shallow groundwater flow and thermal dynamics related to permafrost thaw and thaw settlement at the Iqaluit Airport taxiway, Nunavut, Canada. A conceptual model is first developed for the site and a corresponding two-dimensional numerical model is calibrated to the observed ground temperatures. Future climate-warming impacts on the thermal regime and flow system are then simulated based on climate scenarios proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Under climate warming, surface snow cover is identified as the leading factor affecting permafrost degradation, including its role in increasing the sensitivity of permafrost degradation to changes in various hydrogeological factors. In this case, advective heat transport plays a relatively minor, but non-negligible, role compared to conductive heat transport, due to the significant extent of low-permeability soil close to surface. Conductive heat transport, which is strongly affected by the surface snow layer, controls the release of unfrozen water and the depth of the active layer as well as the magnitude of thaw settlement and frost heave. Under the warmest climate-warming scenario with an average annual temperature increase of 3.23 °C for the period of 2011-2100, the simulations suggest that the maximum depth of the active layer will increase from 2 m in 2012 to 8.8 m in 2100 and, over the same time period, thaw settlement along the airport taxiway will increase from 0.11 m to at least 0.17 m.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Control System for Regional Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McLin


    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a worsening problem in metropolitan areas which will require integrated regional traffic control systems to improve traffic conditions. This paper presents a regional traffic control system which can detect incident conditions and provide integrated traffic management during nonrecurrent congestion events. The system combines advanced artificial intelligence techniques with a traffic performance model based on HCM equations. Preliminary evaluation of the control system using traffic microsimulation demonstrates that it has the potential to improve system conditions during traffic incidents. In addition, several enhancements were identified which will make the system more robust in a real traffic control setting. An assessment of the control system elements indicates that there are no substantial technical barriers in implementing this system in a large traffic network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There have always been conflicts among airports and local communities due to the aeronautical noise generated by airport operations. In fact, this is a factor that - if not properly managed - could severely cut down the growth of air traffic in an airport with direct effects on the economic and territorial system. Beside this, in the last decade the critical issues related to the impact of aeronautical noise on airport operations have greatly reduced, thanks to technological improvements in aircraft design. Nevertheless, the reduction of noise emissions during a single aircraft operation does not make the issue of the airports’ location less important. This is the case of regional airports in EU, which have recently experimented a large traffic increase due to the development of low-cost traffic. It is now clear that the problem cannot be reduced to its mere technological aspect, but it ought to be dealt with the involvement of the various stakeholders in order to mitigate the emissions and adequately compensate the impacts to local communities. Typically, there are two possible countermeasures to mitigate the effects of aircraft noise: operational measures, based on the application of technological and organizational devices and market-based measures. The application of noise taxes, aiming at compensating the negative externalities generated by airport operations is becoming increasingly widespread in EU. In this paper, a methodology for the application of noise taxes based on the actual noise of aircraft operating into an airport is discussed and implemented in a test case.

  18. Stability analysis of traffic flow with extended CACC control models (United States)

    Ya-Zhou, Zheng; Rong-Jun, Cheng; Siu-Ming, Lo; Hong-Xia, Ge


    To further investigate car-following behaviors in the cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) strategy, a comprehensive control system which can handle three traffic conditions to guarantee driving efficiency and safety is designed by using three CACC models. In this control system, some vital comprehensive information, such as multiple preceding cars’ speed differences and headway, variable safety distance (VSD) and time-delay effect on the traffic current and the jamming transition have been investigated via analytical or numerical methods. Local and string stability criterion for the velocity control (VC) model and gap control (GC) model are derived via linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the performance of the simulated traffic flow. The simulation results show that the VC model and GC model can improve driving efficiency and suppress traffic congestion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71571107 and 11302110). The Scientific Research Fund of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant Nos. LY15A020007, LY15E080013, and LY16G010003). The Natural Science Foundation of Ningbo City (Grant Nos. 2014A610030 and 2015A610299), the Fund from the Government of the Hong Kong Administrative Region, China (Grant No. CityU11209614), and the K C Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  19. Pilot and Controller Workload and Situation Awareness with Three Traffic Management Concept (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Kraut, Joshua; Bacon, Paige; Minakata, Katsumi; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter


    This paper reports on workload and situation awareness of pilots and controllers participating in a human-in-the-loop simulation using three different distributed air-ground traffic management concepts. Eight experimental pilots started the scenario in an en-route phase of flight and were asked to avoid convective weather while performing spacing and merging tasks along with a continuous descent approach (CDA) into Louisville Standiford Airport (SDF). Two controllers managed the sectors through which the pilots flew, with one managing a sector that included the Top of Descent, and the other managing a sector that included the merge point for arrival into SDF. At 3-minute intervals in the scenario, pilots and controllers were probed on their workload or situation awareness. We employed one of three concepts of operation that distributed separation responsibility across human controllers, pilots, and automation to measure changes in operator situation awareness and workload. We found that when pilots were responsible for separation, they had higher levels of awareness, but not necessarily higher levels of workload. When controllers are responsible and actively engaged, they showed higher workload levels compared to pilots and changes in awareness that were dependent on sector characteristics.

  20. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan


    With the rapid development of economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays more and more critical role in today's world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN remains steady during the past several years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which changes the relative relevance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic keeps growing in an exponential form and it has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.

  1. High Resolution Digital Surface Model For Production Of Airport Obstruction Charts Using Spaceborne SAR Sensors (United States)

    Oliveira, Henrique; Rodrigues, Marco; Radius, Andrea


    Airport Obstruction Charts (AOCs) are graphical representations of natural or man-made obstructions (its locations and heights) around airfields, according to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annexes 4, 14 and 15. One of the most important types of data used in AOCs production/update tasks is a Digital Surface Model (first reflective surface) of the surveyed area. The development of advanced remote sensing technologies provide the available tools for obstruction data acquisition, while Geographic Information Systems (GIS) present the perfect platform for storing and analyzing this type of data, enabling the production of digital ACOs, greatly contributing to the increase of the situational awareness of pilots and enhancing the air navigation safety level [1]. Data acquisition corresponding to the first reflective surface can be obtained through the use of Airborne Laser-Scanning and Light Detection and Ranging (ALS/LIDAR) or Spaceborne SAR Systems. The need of surveying broad areas, like the entire territory of a state, shows that Spaceborne SAR systems are the most adequate in economic and feasibility terms of the process, to perform the monitoring and producing a high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM). The high resolution DSM generation depends on many factors: the available data set, the used technique and the setting parameters. To increase the precision and obtain high resolution products, two techniques are available using a stack of data: the PS (Permanent Scatterers) technique [2], that uses large stack of data to identify many stable and coherent targets through multi- temporal analysis, removing the atmospheric contribution and to minimize the estimation errors, and the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique ([3],[4]), that relies on the use of small baseline SAR interferograms and on the application of the so called singular value decomposition (SVD) method, in order to link independent SAR acquisition data sets, separated by large

  2. Dynamic one-way traffic control in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, M; van der Zee, DJ


    In a project on underground freight transportation using Automated Guided Vehicles, single lanes for traffic in two directions are constructed to reduce infrastructure investment. Intelligent control rules are required to manage vehicle flows such, that collision is avoided and waiting times are min

  3. Model based monitoring for industrial and traffic noise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Binnerts, B.; Graafland, F.


    Noise control starts by understanding the actual noise situation. Especially for situations where the distance between industrial and traffic noise sources and a local community is in the order of one kilometer or more, it may not be clear what sources are the main contributors to annoyance. Then a

  4. Integration of Predictive Routing Information with Dynamic Traffic Signal Control (United States)


    vehicles without the on-board guidance aid (Harris, S., Rabone , A.,, 1992). The simulation developed was called ROute GUidance Simulation (ROGUS...Florida. Harris, S., Rabone , A., 1992. ROGUS: A Simulation of Dynamic Route Guidance Systems. Traffic Engineering and Control(33)327-329

  5. Trainer Interventions as Instructional Strategies in Air Traffic Control Training (United States)

    Koskela, Inka; Palukka, Hannele


    Purpose: This paper aims to identify methods of guidance and supervision used in air traffic control training. It also aims to show how these methods facilitate trainee participation in core work activities. Design/methodology/approach: The paper applies the tools of conversation analysis and ethnomethodology to explore the ways in which trainers…

  6. Automatic speed control of highway traffic (United States)

    Klingman, E. E.


    Vehicle control system monitors all vehicles in its range, and automatically slows down speeding vehicles by activating governor in vehicle. System determines only maximum speed; speeds below maximum are controlled by vehicle operator. Loss of transmitted signal or activation of emergency over-ride will open fuel line and return control to operator.

  7. Heavy traffic on a controlled motorway

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, F P


    Unlimited access to a motorway network can, in overloaded conditions, cause a loss of capacity. Ramp metering (signals on slip roads to control access to the motorway) can help avoid this loss of capacity. The design of ramp metering strategies has several features in common with the design of access control mechanisms in communication networks. Inspired by models and rate control mechanisms developed for Internet congestion control, we propose a Brownian network model as an approximate model for a controlled motorway and consider it operating under a proportionally fair ramp metering policy.We present an analysis of the performance of this model.

  8. Constrained optimal steady-state control for isolated traffic intersections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The steady-state or cyclic control problem for a simplified isolated traffic intersection is considered. The optimization problem for the green-red switching sequence is formulated with the help of a discrete-event max-plus model. Two steady-state control problems are formulated: optimal steady-state with green duration constraints, and optimal steady-state control with lost time. In the case when the criterion is a strictly increasing, linear function of the queue lengths, the steady-state control problems can be solved analytically. The structure of constrained optimal steady-state traffic control is revealed, and the effect of the lost time on the optimal solution is illustrated.

  9. Urban Intersection Traffic Signal Control Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏武; 张毅; 张佐; 宋靖雁


    This paper presents a fuzzy logic adaptive traffic signal control method for an isolated four-approach intersection with through and left-turning movements. In the proposed method, the fuzzy logic controller can make adjustments to signal timing in response to observed changes. The "urgency degree" term that can describe different user's demands for a green light is used in the fuzzy logic decision-making. In addition, a three-level fuzzy controller model decides whether to extend or terminate the current signal phase and the sequence of phases. Simulation results show that the fuzzy controller can adjust its signal timing in response to changing traffic conditions on a real-time basis and that the proposed fuzzy logic controller leads to less vehicle delays and a lower percentage of stopped vehicles.

  10. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic


    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  11. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic


    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  12. Traffic Congestion Evaluation and Signal Control Optimization Based on Wireless Sensor Networks: Model and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents the model and algorithms for traffic flow data monitoring and optimal traffic light control based on wireless sensor networks. Given the scenario that sensor nodes are sparsely deployed along the segments between signalized intersections, an analytical model is built using continuum traffic equation and develops the method to estimate traffic parameter with the scattered sensor data. Based on the traffic data and principle of traffic congestion formation, we introduce the congestion factor which can be used to evaluate the real-time traffic congestion status along the segment and to predict the subcritical state of traffic jams. The result is expected to support the timing phase optimization of traffic light control for the purpose of avoiding traffic congestion before its formation. We simulate the traffic monitoring based on the Mobile Century dataset and analyze the performance of traffic light control on VISSIM platform when congestion factor is introduced into the signal timing optimization model. The simulation result shows that this method can improve the spatial-temporal resolution of traffic data monitoring and evaluate traffic congestion status with high precision. It is helpful to remarkably alleviate urban traffic congestion and decrease the average traffic delays and maximum queue length.

  13. A New Approach to an Automated Air Traffic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patchev Dragoljub


    This paper identifies areas of improvements of the air traffic control system and proposes modification of the concept of automation by using available technologies. With the proposed modification, the current Europe wide en route network structure can be modified in order to make routes more optimal. For this new route network structure, a new concept of automation will be used to manage with the air traffic. The first identified area of improvement is implementation of automation process that will enable decentralization of the air traffic control functionality to each individual aircraft and this will be achieved through automated routing of the aircrafts and CD&R (conflict detection and resolution). The FMS (flight management system) at the aircraft will make decisions for the optimal flight route based on the sensor inputs, information on selection of the routes, next hope points and flight levels, all received by ADS-B (automatic dependant surveillance-broadcast). The second area is processing the information about the deviation from the optimal route as in flight plan due to a traffic management (vectoring, level change) and taking it into consideration when further actions are undertaken. For each action, a cost factor will be calculated from the fuel burned for that action. This factor will be used to select conflict resolution protocol. The proposed concept shall increase the capacity of the network, and enable the air traff~c more efficient and more environmentally friendly while maintaining safe separation.

  14. 75 FR 74128 - Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Compliance Dates AGENCY... control devices to comply with certain requirements established in the Manual on Uniform Traffic...

  15. Learning styles: The learning methods of air traffic control students (United States)

    Jackson, Dontae L.

    In the world of aviation, air traffic controllers are an integral part in the overall level of safety that is provided. With a number of controllers reaching retirement age, the Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) was created to provide a stronger candidate pool. However, AT-CTI Instructors have found that a number of AT-CTI students are unable to memorize types of aircraft effectively. This study focused on the basic learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) of students and created a teaching method to try to increase memorization in AT-CTI students. The participants were asked to take a questionnaire to determine their learning style. Upon knowing their learning styles, participants attended two classroom sessions. The participants were given a presentation in the first class, and divided into a control and experimental group for the second class. The control group was given the same presentation from the first classroom session while the experimental group had a group discussion and utilized Middle Tennessee State University's Air Traffic Control simulator to learn the aircraft types. Participants took a quiz and filled out a survey, which tested the new teaching method. An appropriate statistical analysis was applied to determine if there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The results showed that even though the participants felt that the method increased their learning, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

  16. TAF7: traffic controller in transcription initiation. (United States)

    Gegonne, Anne; Devaiah, Ballachanda N; Singer, Dinah S


    TAF7, a component of the TFIID complex, controls the first steps of transcription. It interacts with and regulates the enzymatic activities of transcription factors that regulate RNA polymerase II progression. Its diverse functions in transcription initiation are consistent with its essential role in cell proliferation.

  17. A Control Method for Congested Traffic in the Car-Following Model (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Yu, Jian; Lo, Siu-Ming


    A simple control method to suppress traffic congestion is proposed for the car-following model. The stability conditions are derived by using the control method, and the feedback signals, which act on our traffic system, are extended to the car-following model. The control signals will play an effect only if the traffic is congested. The corresponding numerical simulation results agree well with our theoretical analysis, and our control method can successfully suppress traffic jams.

  18. Urban Traffic Signal System Control Structural Optimization Based on Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang


    Full Text Available Advanced urban traffic signal control systems such as SCOOT and SCATS normally coordinate traffic network using multilevel hierarchical control mechanism. In this mechanism, several key intersections will be selected from traffic signal network and the network will be divided into different control subareas. Traditionally, key intersection selection and control subareas division are executed according to dynamic traffic counts and link length between intersections, which largely rely on traffic engineers’ experience. However, it omits important inherent characteristics of traffic network topology. In this paper, we will apply network analysis approach into these two aspects for traffic system control structure optimization. Firstly, the modified C-means clustering algorithm will be proposed to assess the importance of intersections in traffic network and furthermore determine the key intersections based on three indexes instead of merely on traffic counts in traditional methods. Secondly, the improved network community discovery method will be used to give more reasonable evidence in traffic control subarea division. Finally, to test the effectiveness of network analysis approach, a hardware-in-loop simulation environment composed of regional traffic control system, microsimulation software and signal controller hardware, will be built. Both traditional method and proposed approach will be implemented on simulation test bed to evaluate traffic operation performance indexes, for example, travel time, stop times, delay and average vehicle speed. Simulation results show that the proposed network analysis approach can improve the traffic control system operation performance effectively.

  19. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance (United States)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.; Kawamoto, A.; Shiga, T.; Christiansen, P. L.; Sørensen, M. P.; Starke, J.


    The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case. This region shrinks when the speed-up of cars does not exceed some critical value and expands in the opposite case. The flux of the time-modulated flow is an increasing function of the amplitude of the modulation for traffic flows whose density is larger than 1/h where h is the safety distance in the nonmodulated case, while it is a decreasing function in the opposite case. In other words, the safety distance time modulation facilitates car propagation in the case when the mean distance between cars in the congestive traffic is less than h and hinders it when the neighboring cars in the flow are well separated. A link between a microscopic description and the macroscopic fundamental diagram is established.

  20. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury. (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos


    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics.

  1. Fuzzy Logic in Traffic Engineering: A Review on Signal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Koukol


    Full Text Available Since 1965 when the fuzzy logic and fuzzy algebra were introduced by Lotfi Zadeh, the fuzzy theory successfully found its applications in the wide range of subject fields. This is mainly due to its ability to process various data, including vague or uncertain data, and provide results that are suitable for the decision making. This paper aims to provide comprehensive overview of literature on fuzzy control systems used for the management of the road traffic flow at road junctions. Several theoretical approaches from basic fuzzy models from the late 1970s to most recent combinations of real-time data with fuzzy inference system and genetic algorithms are mentioned and discussed throughout the paper. In most cases, fuzzy logic controllers provide considerable improvements in the efficiency of traffic junctions’ management.

  2. Occupational stress and stress prevention in air traffic control


    Costa, Giovanni


    The paper indicates a number of preventive measures targeted to the elimination of the causes of stress, rather than the treatment of its effects, and how these measures can become an integral part of the necessary organizational development and eventually pay for themselves. The paper has seven chapters. 1. Introduction - What is stress? - The sources of stress in air traffic control - The consequences on health and well-being 2. How to prevent stress at work 3. Intervention on the external ...

  3. An Intelligent Traffic Flow Control System Based on Radio Frequency Identification and Wireless Sensor Networks


    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chen, Pi-Yun


    This study primarily focuses on the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) as a form of traffic flow detection, which transmits collected information related to traffic flow directly to a control system through an RS232 interface. At the same time, the sensor analyzes and judges the information using an extension algorithm designed to achieve the objective of controlling the flow of traffic. In addition, the traffic flow situation is also transmitted to a remote monitoring control syste...

  4. TCP/IP Communication System for Controlling a Vehicular Traffic Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza-Martínez Luis Fernando


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a prototype of a vehicular traffic controller, whose system of communication is based on the TCP/IP protocol, in order to re- motely monitor and control the operation of traffic lights for a vehicular intersection. The results show the times of communication between the central and the traffic controller. The conclusions highlight the importance of using the TCP/IP protocol in traffic light systems.

  5. Cooperative Traffic Control based on the Artificial Bee Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjian Li


    Full Text Available This paper studies the traffic control problem in an isolated intersection without traffic lights and phase, because the right-of-way is distributed to each vehicle individually based on connection of the Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I, and the compatible streams are dynamically combined according to the arrival vehicles in each traffic flows. The control objective in the proposed algorithm is to minimize the time delay, which is defined as the difference between the travel time in real state and that in free flow state. In order to realize this target, a cooperative control structure with a two-way communications is proposed. First of all, once the vehicle enters the communication zone, it sends its information to the intersection. Then the passing sequence is optimized in the intersection with the heuristic algorithm of the Artificial Bee Colony, based on the arrival interval of the vehicles. At last, each vehicle plans its speed profile to meet the received passing sequence by V2I. The simulation results show that each vehicle can finish the entire travel trip with a near free flow speed in the proposed method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. LAI


    Full Text Available Many controllers have applied the Adaptive Neural-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS concept for optimizing the controller performance. However, there are less traffic signal controllers developed using the ANFIS concept. ANFIS traffic signal controller with its fuzzy rule base and its ability to learn from a set of sample data could improve the performance of Existing traffic signal controlling system to reduce traffic congestions at most of the busy traffic intersections in city such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to develop an ANFIS traffic signals controller for multilane-isolated four approaches intersections in order to ease traffic congestions at traffic intersections. The new concept to generate sample data for ANFIS training is introduced in this research. The sample data is generated based on fuzzy rules and can be analysed using tree diagram. This controller is simulated on multilane-isolated traffic intersection model developed using M/M/1 queuing theory and its performance in terms of average waiting time, queue length and delay time are compared with traditional controllers and fuzzy controller. Simulation result shows that the average waiting time, queue length, and delay time of ANFIS traffic signal controller are the lowest as compared to the other three controllers. In conclusion, the efficiency and performance of ANFIS controller are much better than that of fuzzy and traditional controllers in different traffic volumes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Madzhd


    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account that the airport "Kyiv" is located in one of the central districts of Kyiv and does not have clearly established sanitary protection zones, the problem of environmental pollution is topical and requires monitoring and research. In order to improve environmental compliance we made assessment of superficial and ground water quality in airport zone. Methods: Water quality was estimated by the biotesting method, hydrochemical analysis, and by oil products detection method. Results We performed analysis of wastewaters of airport “Kyiv” and superficial waters of river Nyvka. The samples took place: above the airport drainage, in the drainage place and below drainage place. We conducted assessment of ground waters, which are sources of water supply, on different distance from an airport (20 m, 500 m, 1000 m, 1500 min. Results of hydrochemical investigations of river indicated excess of nitrogen compounds content compare to regulatory discharge. Thus, it was defined excess of ammonia nitrogen in wastewaters in three times and in place of dispersion – in ten times; the content of nitrite nitrogen in the river sample after discharge exceeds in 22 times norm. Analysis of drinking water in airport zone has showed extremely high level of pollution by nitrite nitrogen exceeding norm in 7-17 times. After analysis it was defined high level of river pollution by oil products (in 26-32 times higher than MPC, and ground water in 1, 5-2 times. Results of biotesting confirmed data of hydrochemical investigations of superficial water state (acute toxicity was observed in drainage area and in place of drainage dispersion. Discussion: Increased content of nitrite indicates the strengthening of decomposition process of organic matter in conditions of slower oxidation of NO into NO. This parameter is major sanitary indicator which indicates pollution of water body. High content of such specific pollutant for aviation transport

  8. Magnetic properties of urban soil profile and their significance for traffic pollution-Case,study of the capital airport expressway in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjie SHEN; Shouyun HU; Uli.BLAHA; Haitao YAN; Wolfgang.R(O)SLER; Ewin.APPEL; Viktor.HOFFMANN


    An expressway-side soil profile 22 cm long was sampled from the grassland of the expressway linking Beijing and the Capital International Airport. Magnetic measurements, geochemical and multivariate statistic ana-lyses were performed on the soil samples. The results reveal that the soil profile can be divided into two parts with significant difference in magnetic proxies and heavy metal concentration. The uppermost soil horizon (0-8 cm) repre-sents the pollution-rich layer with higher concentration of ferrimagnetic phases and metallic elements. The values of X are very high with an average of 141.60 × 10-8 in the layer. We explain that the anthropogenic dust input from traffic is the predominant cause for strong signals of magnetic phases and heavy metals. Below the profile depth of 8 cm, there is minor pollution in the soil with lower concentration of magnetic minerals and heavy metals compared to the natural background values. X remains quite stable and relatively low with an average of depth, and it changes from 0.93 in the 0-8 cm layer to 0.87 below the depth of 8 cm. It indicates that the soil samples are overwhelmingly predominated by ferrimagnetic miner-als in the upper part soil, while the contribution of imper-fect antiferromagnetic components is stronger in the lower part. Rock magnetic experiments show MD magnetite as the main magnetic carrier both in the upper and lower parts. The magnetic grain size in the upper part is, however, a bit coarser than that in the lower part. Cluster analysis shows a positive correlation between magnetic properties (X, ARM, SIRM) and heavy metal pollutants of Pb, Zn, Cu. Fuzzy C-means cluster analysis can clearly help divide the soil profile into two different layers and distinguish their characteristics. It can be concluded that these mag-netic concentration-related parameters can be used as proxies for pollution investigation in a fast, sensitive, low-cost and highly efficient approach to screening heavy metal

  9. Controlled stochastic networks in heavy traffic: Convergence of value functions

    CERN Document Server

    Budhiraja, Amarjit; 10.1214/11-AAP784


    Scheduling control problems for a family of unitary networks under heavy traffic with general interarrival and service times, probabilistic routing and an infinite horizon discounted linear holding cost are studied. Diffusion control problems, that have been proposed as approximate models for the study of these critically loaded controlled stochastic networks, can be regarded as formal scaling limits of such stochastic systems. However, to date, a rigorous limit theory that justifies the use of such approximations for a general family of controlled networks has been lacking. It is shown that, under broad conditions, the value function of the suitably scaled network control problem converges to that of the associated diffusion control problem. This scaling limit result, in addition to giving a precise mathematical basis for the above approximation approach, suggests a general strategy for constructing near optimal controls for the physical stochastic networks by solving the associated diffusion control problem...

  10. The Use of the Dynamic Solution Space to Assess Air Traffic Controller Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Engelbronner, J.G.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.; De Stigter, S.; Huisman, H.


    Air traffic capacity is mainly bound by air traffic controller workload. In order to effectively find solutions for this problem, off-line pre-experimental workload assessment methods are desirable. In order to better understand the workload associated with air traffic control, previous research int

  11. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.


    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  12. 针对跑道侵入开展空管系统抵御%Against the runway intrusion to carry out air traffic control system to resist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Along with the prosperity and development of the social economy,air traffic was also people make full use of and global civil aviation transportation is more and more frequent,resulting in airport ground traffic becomes congested.The runway incursion is becoming increasingly serious,the slightest mistake will cause the plane crash tragedy.This paper introduces the definition and types of the intrusion runway, analyzes the reasons of the intrusion of the runway,and puts forward the technology leading of the air traffic control system to prevent runway intrusion and improve the safety operation level of airport runway..%随着社会经济的繁荣发展,空中交通也被人们充分地利用,全球民航业的运输交通也越来越频繁,造成机场的地面交通也随之拥挤不堪。跑道侵入的现象日益严重,稍有不慎就会会造成机毁人亡的悲剧。本文介绍侵入跑道的定义及种类,分析侵入跑道产生的原因,提出空管系统对预防跑道侵入的技术主导,改善机场跑道的安全运行水平。

  13. Traffic Control Plan : DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge, DeSoto Visitor Center (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Traffic Control Plan for DeSoto NWR outlines objectives for solving the traffic problems on the Refuge by implementing a patrol schedule, restricting visitor...

  14. A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Valentin


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.

  15. Air traffic control by distributed management in a MLS environment (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Parkin, L.; Hart, S.


    The microwave landing system (MLS) is a technically feasible means for increasing runway capacity since it could support curved approaches to a short final. The shorter the final segment of the approach, the wider the variety of speed mixes possible so that theoretically, capacity would ultimately be limited by runway occupance time only. An experiment contrasted air traffic control in a MLS environment under a centralized form of management and under distributed management which was supported by a traffic situation display in each of the 3 piloted simulators. Objective flight data, verbal communication and subjective responses were recorded on 18 trial runs lasting about 20 minutes each. The results were in general agreement with previous distributed management research. In particular, distributed management permitted a smaller spread of intercrossing times and both pilots and controllers perceived distributed management as the more 'ideal' system in this task. It is concluded from this and previous research that distributed management offers a viable alternative to centralized management with definite potential for dealing with dense traffic in a safe, orderly and expeditious manner.

  16. Efficient Traffic Control of VoD System

    CERN Document Server

    Kanrar, Soumen


    It has been a challenging issue to provide digital quality multimedia data stream to the remote user through the distributed system. The main aspects to design the real distributed system, which reduce the cost of the network by means of reduce packet loss and enhanced over all system performance. Since the number of user increased rapidly in the network it posed heavy load to the video servers. The requested clients, servers are all distributed in nature and the data stream delivered to the user without error. In this work I have presented the performance of the video on demand server by efficient traffic control at real time with respect to incoming multirate traffic pattern . In this work, I present how the overall system performance gradually decreases when the client population sized in the clusters increase. This work indicated the load balancing required for the on demand video distributed system to provide efficient cost effective service to the local or remote clients.

  17. Airport Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Airports are areas of transit, places of in-between-ness where mobility is key; airports function not just as transfer points where people are moved from one place to another, but also as areas where mobile technology is critically important to make sure that travellers can stay connected....... The airport serves as a node in the network of flows that is air travel. Airports orchestrate social life into distinct movements and behaviors. The ontology of the airport is peculiarly split between a sense of placelessness, while at the same time being a place of material organization and social complexity....... It is a system of interconnected material worlds, and thus a heterotopia; a blending space of overlapping ontologies. Ursula Le Guin playfully examines this concept of overlapping ontologies in her short story collection Changing Planes, where airport travellers can shift realities due to the unpleasantries...

  18. [Airport related air pollution and health effects]. (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco


    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  19. Effects of traffic control on the soil physical quality and the cultivation of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza


    Full Text Available The cultivation of sugarcane with intensive use of machinery, especially for harvest, induces soil compaction, affecting the crop development. The control of agricultural traffic is an alternative of management in the sector, with a view to preserve the soil physical quality, resulting in increased sugarcane root growth, productivity and technological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of an Oxisol with and without control traffic and the resulting effects on sugarcane root development, productivity and technological quality. The following managements were tested: no traffic control (NTC, traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and sugarcane trailer (TC1 and traffic control consisting of an adjustment of the track width of the tractor and trailer and use of an autopilot (TC2. Soil samples were collected (layers 0.00-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m in the plant rows, inter-row center and seedbed region, 0.30 m away from the plant row. The productivity was measured with a specific weighing scale. The technological variables of sugarcane were measured in each plot. Soil cores were collected to analyze the root system. In TC2, the soil bulk density and compaction degree were lowest and total porosity and macroporosity highest in the plant row. Soil penetration resistance in the plant row, was less than 2 MPa in TC1 and TC2. Soil aggregation and total organic carbon did not differ between the management systems. The root surface and volume were increased in TC1 and TC2, with higher productivity and sugar yield than under NTC. The sugarcane variables did not differ between the managements. The soil physical quality in the plant row was preserved under management TC1 and TC2, with an improved root development and increases of 18.72 and 20.29 % in productivity and sugar yield, respectively.

  20. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing


    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  1. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes


    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  2. A Study of Airports - Design, Art and Architecture (United States)


    area. Large sweeps of blue,parking lots, and other facilities. yellow, and red wildflowers de- Airtrans is a completely auto- signed by artist Chapman...airport, there are large masses of vegetation, strong earth forms, and broad areas of grass and wildflowers . Because of high speed traffic and the large... California 93727 duce confusion to the traveler Two of the exterior walls dis- monitored and have not caused Tower Chief by establishing strict controls

  3. Performance Evaluation of Road Traffic Control Using a Fuzzy Cellular Model

    CERN Document Server

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej


    In this paper a method is proposed for performance evaluation of road traffic control systems. The method is designed to be implemented in an on-line simulation environment, which enables optimisation of adaptive traffic control strategies. Performance measures are computed using a fuzzy cellular traffic model, formulated as a hybrid system combining cellular automata and fuzzy calculus. Experimental results show that the introduced method allows the performance to be evaluated using imprecise traffic measurements. Moreover, the fuzzy definitions of performance measures are convenient for uncertainty determination in traffic control decisions.

  4. High-resolution wind and temperature observations from aircraft tracked by Mode-S air traffic control radar (United States)

    de Haan, S.


    Wind, temperature, and humidity observations from radiosonde and aircraft are the main sources of upper air information for meteorology. For mesoscale meteorology, the horizontal coverage of radiosondes is too sparse. Aircraft observations through Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) sample an atmospheric profile in the vicinity of airports. However, not all aircraft are equipped with AMDAR or have the system activated. Observations inferred from an enhanced tracking and ranging (TAR) air traffic control radar can fill this gap. These radars follows all aircraft in the airspace visible to the radar for air traffic management. The TAR radar at Schiphol airport in Netherlands has a range of 270 km. This Mode-S radar contacts each aircraft every 4 s on which the transponder in the aircraft responds with a message that contains information on flight level, direction, and speed. Combined with the ground track of an aircraft, meteorological information on temperature and wind can be inferred from this information. Because all aircraft are required to respond to the TAR radar, the data volume is extremely large, being around 1.5 million observations per day. Note that there are no extra costs for this data link. The quality of these observations is assessed by comparison to numerical weather prediction (NWP) model information, AMDAR observations, and radiosonde observations. A preprocessing step is applied to enhance the quality of wind and temperature observations, albeit with a reduced time frequency of one observation of horizontal wind vector and temperature per aircraft per minute. Nevertheless, the number of observations per day is still very large. In this paper it is shown that temperature observations from Mode-S, even after corrections, are not very good; an RMS which is twice as large as AMDAR is observed when compared to NWP. In contrast to the temperature observations, the quality found for wind after correction and calibration is good; it is comparable

  5. Traffic Signals Control with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Urban Road Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; FAN Xiao-ping


    An adaptive fuzzy logic controller (AFC) is presented for the signal control of the urban traffic network.The AFC is composed of the signal control system-oriented control level and the signal controller-oriented fuzzy rules regulation level.The control level decides the signal tunings in an intersection with a fuzzy logic controller.The regulation level optimizes the fuzzy rules by the Adaptive Rule Module in AFC according to both the system performance index in current control period and the traffic flows in the last one.Consequently the system performances are improved.A weight coefficient controller (WCC) is also developed to describe the interactions of traffic flow among the adjacent intersections.So the AFC combined with the WCC can be applied in a road network for signal timings.Simulations of the AFC on a real traffic scenario have been conducted.Simulation results indicate that the adaptive controller for traffic control shows better performance than the actuated one.

  6. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard


    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems...

  7. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system (United States)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle


    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  8. An augmented reality binocular system (ARBS) for air traffic controllers (United States)

    Fulbrook, Jim E.; Ruffner, John W.; Labbe, Roger


    The primary means by which air traffic tower controllers obtain information is through direct out-thewindow viewing, although a considerable amount of time is spent looking at electronic displays and other information sources inside the tower cab. The Air Force Research Laboratory sponsored the development of a prototype Augmented Reality Binocular System (ARBS) that enhances tower controller performance, situation awareness, and safety. The ARBS is composed of a virtual binocular (VB) that displays real-time imagery from high resolution telephoto cameras and sensors mounted on pan/tilt units (PTUs). The selected PTU tracks to the movement of the VB, which has an inertial heading and elevation sensor. Relevant airfield situation text and graphic depictions that identify airfield features are overlaid on the imagery. In addition, the display is capable of labeling and tracking vehicles on which an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) system has been installed. The ARBS provides air traffic controllers and airfield security forces with the capability to orient toward, observe, and conduct continuous airfield operations and surveillance/security missions from any number of viewing aspects in limited visibility conditions. In this paper, we describe the ARBS in detail, discuss the results of a Usability Test of the prototype ARBS, and discuss ideas for follow-on efforts to develop the ARBS to a fieldable level.

  9. Admission control with long-range dependence traffic input

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Yun-hua; ZOU Xue-cheng


    The admission control scheme is investigated for a FIFO self-similar queuing system with Quality of Service (QoS) performance guarantees. Since the self-similar queuing system performance analysis is often carried out under the condition of infinite buffer, it is difficult to deduce the upper boundary of buffer overflow probability. To overcome this shortcoming, a simple overflow condition is proposed, which defines a buffer overflow occurrence whenever the arrival rate exceeds the service rate. The analytic formula for the buffer overflow probability upper boundary is easily obtained under this condition. The required bandwidth upper boundary with long-range dependence input and determined overflow probability is then derived from this formula. Based on the above analytic formulas, the upper boundaries of the admission control regions for homogeneous and heterogeneous long-range dependence traffic sources are separately obtained. Finally, an effective admission control scheme for long-range dependence input is proposed. Simulation studies with real traffic have confirmed the validity of these results.

  10. Cellular Automaton Models of Highway Traffic Flow Considering Lane-Control and Speed-Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱勇生; 李文俊; 曾俊伟; 王敏; 杜加伟; 广晓平


    As two kinds of management modes of highway tramc control, lane-control, and speed-control produce different effect under different conditions. In this paper, traffic flow cellular automaton models for four-lane highway system with two opposing directions under the above two modes are established considering car and truck mixed running. Through computer numerical simulating, the fundamental diagrams with different parameters are obtained, and after the analysis of density-flux diagrams, the variation discipline of flux with traffic density under different control models is gained. The results indicate that, compared with lane-control, utilization ratio of road can be further improved with speed-control when the truck number increases. The research result is of great significance for reasonable providing theoretical guidance for highway traffic control.

  11. Background noise analysis in urban airport surroundings of Brazilian cities, Congonhas Airport, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Scatolini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. METHODS Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL. Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. RESULTS Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. CONCLUSIONS All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures.

  12. A Cooperative Traffic Control of Vehicle–Intersection (CTCVI) for the Reduction of Traffic Delays and Fuel Consumption (United States)

    Li, Jinjian; Dridi, Mahjoub; El-Moudni, Abdellah


    The problem of reducing traffic delays and decreasing fuel consumption simultaneously in a network of intersections without traffic lights is solved by a cooperative traffic control algorithm, where the cooperation is executed based on the connection of Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I). This resolution of the problem contains two main steps. The first step concerns the itinerary of which intersections are chosen by vehicles to arrive at their destination from their starting point. Based on the principle of minimal travel distance, each vehicle chooses its itinerary dynamically based on the traffic loads in the adjacent intersections. The second step is related to the following proposed cooperative procedures to allow vehicles to pass through each intersection rapidly and economically: on one hand, according to the real-time information sent by vehicles via V2I in the edge of the communication zone, each intersection applies Dynamic Programming (DP) to cooperatively optimize the vehicle passing sequence with minimal traffic delays so that the vehicles may rapidly pass the intersection under the relevant safety constraints; on the other hand, after receiving this sequence, each vehicle finds the optimal speed profiles with the minimal fuel consumption by an exhaustive search. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce both travel delays and fuel consumption compared with other papers under different traffic volumes. PMID:27999333

  13. Measures related to traffic planning for air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, J.; Reuter, U. [Office of Environmental Protection, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. for Climatology


    The immense increase of motor traffic, in the future reinforced by the European market and the opening of boarders to the east countries, requires new efforts in traffic policy. In the city agglomerations the motor traffic is nearly collapsing. The increase of motor traffic is the reason for a considerable degradation of environment, especially by noise and air pollution. For the region of Stuttgart the problems and possibilities of counter-measures are discussed. (author)

  14. Traffic management and control in intelligent vehicle highway systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.


    Traffic congestion is a problem experienced daily by most of us. Among various traffic management schemes, efficient utilisation of the existing roadside infrastructure combined with in-vehicle technologies offers a promising solution to address traffic congestion and related problems. This approach


    Ramaroson, R.


    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  16. Airport Logistics : Modeling and Optimizing the Turn-Around Process


    Norin, Anna


    The focus of this licentiate thesis is air transportation and especially the logistics at an airport. The concept of airport logistics is investigated based on the following definition: Airport logistics is the planning and control of all resources and information that create a value for the customers utilizing the airport. As a part of the investigation, indicators for airport performance are considered. One of the most complex airport processes is the turn-around process. The turn-around is...

  17. Step-coordination Algorithm of Traffic Control Based on Multi-agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Zhang; Fang Yu; Wen Li


    Aiming at the deficiency of conventional traffic control method, this paper proposes a new method based on multi-agent technology for traffic control. Different from many existing methods, this paper distinguishes traffic control on the basis of the agent technology from conventional traffic control method. The composition and structure of a multi-agent system (MAS) is first discussed. Then, the step-coordination strategies of intersection-agent, segment-agent, and area-agent are put forward. The advantages of the algorithm are demonstrated by a simulation study.

  18. Lattice hydrodynamic model based traffic control: A transportation cyber-physical system approach (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Sun, Dihua; Liu, Weining


    Lattice hydrodynamic model is a typical continuum traffic flow model, which describes the jamming transition of traffic flow properly. Previous studies in lattice hydrodynamic model have shown that the use of control method has the potential to improve traffic conditions. In this paper, a new control method is applied in lattice hydrodynamic model from a transportation cyber-physical system approach, in which only one lattice site needs to be controlled in this control scheme. The simulation verifies the feasibility and validity of this method, which can ensure the efficient and smooth operation of the traffic flow.

  19. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with the TEB model (United States)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.


    Snowfall forecasts help winter maintenance of road networks, ensure better coordination between services, cost control, and a reduction in environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icers. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavements, forecasting the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Weather outstations are used along these networks to identify changes in pavement status, and to make forecasts by analyzing the data they provide. Physical numerical models provide such forecasts, and require an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with two approaches to evaluate traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the effect of traffic on RST increase with respect to non-circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with the forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  20. Public Airports (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  1. Urban Traffic Control Using Adjusted Reinforcement Learning in a Multi-agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Helali Moghadam


    Full Text Available Dynamism, continuous changes of states and the necessity to respond quickly are the specific characteristics of the environment in a traffic control system. Proposing an appropriate and flexible strategy to meet the existing requirements is always an important issue in traffic control. This study presents an adaptive approach to control urban traffic using multi-agent systems and a reinforcement learning augmented by an adjusting pre-learning stage. In this approach, the agent primarily uses some statistical traffic data and then uses traffic engineering theories for computing appropriate values of the traffic parameters. Having these primary values, the agents start the reinforcement learning based on the basic calculated information. The proposed approach, at first finds the approximate optimal zone for traffic parameters based on traffic engineering theories. Then using an appropriate reinforcement learning, it tries to exploit the best point according to different conditions. This approach was implemented on a network in traffic simulator software. The network was composed of six four phased intersections and 17 two lane streets. In the simulation, pedestrians were not considered in the system. The load of the network is defined in terms of Origin-Destination matrices whose entries represent the number of trips from an origin to a destination as a function of time. The simulation ran for five hours and an average traffic volume was used. According to the simulation results, the proposed approach behaved adaptively in different conditions and had better performance than the theory-based fixed-time control.

  2. Flight management concepts compatible with air traffic control (United States)

    Morello, S. A.


    With the advent of airline deregulation and increased competition, the need for cost efficient airline operations is critical. This paper summarizes past research efforts and planned research thrusts toward the development of compatible flight management and air traffic control systems that promise increased operational effectiveness and efficiency. Potential capacity improvements resulting from a time-based ATC simulation (fast-time) are presented. Advanced display concepts with time guidance and velocity vector information to allow the flight crew to play an important role in the future ATC environment are discussed. Results of parametric sensitivity analyses are also presented that quantify the fuel/cost penalties for idle-thrust mismodeling and wind-modeling errors.

  3. Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks (United States)

    Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk


    Based on fluid-dynamic and many-particle (car-following) simulations of traffic flows in (urban) networks, we study the problem of coordinating incompatible traffic flows at intersections. Inspired by the observation of self-organized oscillations of pedestrian flows at bottlenecks, we propose a self-organization approach to traffic light control. The problem can be treated as a multi-agent problem with interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Specifically, our approach assumes a priority-based control of traffic lights by the vehicle flows themselves, taking into account short-sighted anticipation of vehicle flows and platoons. The considered local interactions lead to emergent coordination patterns such as 'green waves' and achieve an efficient, decentralized traffic light control. While the proposed self-control adapts flexibly to local flow conditions and often leads to non-cyclical switching patterns with changing service sequences of different traffic flows, an almost periodic service may evolve under certain conditions and suggests the existence of a spontaneous synchronization of traffic lights despite the varying delays due to variable vehicle queues and travel times. The self-organized traffic light control is based on an optimization and a stabilization rule, each of which performs poorly at high utilizations of the road network, while their proper combination reaches a superior performance. The result is a considerable reduction not only in the average travel times, but also of their variation. Similar control approaches could be applied to the coordination of logistic and production processes.

  4. The Conception Approach to the Traffic Control in Czech Cities - Examples from Prague (United States)

    Tichý, Tomáš; Krajčír, Dušan

    Modern and economic development of contemporary towns is without question highly dependent upon traffic infrastructure progress. Automobile transport intensity is dramatically rising in large towns and other Czech and European cities. At the same time number of traffic congestions and accidents is increasing, standing times are becoming longer and ecological stress is also escalated. To solve this situation seems to be the most effective solution to design intelligent traffic light intersection control system, variable message signs, preference of public transportation, road line traffic control and next telematics subsystems. This control system and subsystems should improve permeability of traffic road network with a respect for all demands on recent trends of traffic development in towns and regions.

  5. Comprehensive Optimization of Emergency Evacuation Route and Departure Time under Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li


    Full Text Available With the frequent occurrence of major emergencies, emergency management gets high attention from all around the world. This paper investigates the comprehensive optimization of major emergency evacuation route and departure time, in which case the evacuation propagation mechanism is considered under traffic control. Given the practical assumptions, we first establish a comprehensive optimization model based on the simulation of evacuation route and departure time. Furthermore, we explore the reasonable description method of evacuation traffic flow propagation under traffic control, including the establishment of traffic flow propagation model and the design of the simulation mudule that can simulate the evacuation traffic flow. Finally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of this comprehensive model. In case analysis, we take some areas in Beijing as the evaluation sources to verify the reliability of our model. A series of constructive suggestions for Beijing's emergency evacuation are proposed, which can be applied to the actual situation under traffic control.

  6. Mobile Phone Based RIMS for Traffic Control a Case Study of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-Aida Karugila Runyoro


    Full Text Available Vehicles saturation in transportation infrastructure causes traffic congestion, accidents, transportation delays and environment pollution. This problem can be resolved with proper management of traffic flow. Existing traffic management systems are challenged on capturing and processing real-time road data from wide area road networks. The main purpose of this study is to address the gap by implementing a mobile phone based Road Information Management System. The proposed system integrates three modules for data collection, storage and information dissemination. The modules works together to enable real-time traffic control. Disseminated information from the system, enables road users to adjust their travelling habit, also it allows the traffic lights to control the traffic in relation to the real-time situation occurring on the road. In this paper the system implementation and testing was performed. The results indicated that there is a possibility to track traffic data using Global Positioning System enabled mobile phones, and after processing the collected data, real-time traffic status was displayed on web interface. This enabled road users to know in advance the situation occurring on the roads and hence make proper travelling decision. Further research should consider adjusting the traffic lights control system to understand the disseminated real-time traffic information.

  7. Traffic Accident Propagation Properties and Control Measures for Urban Links Based on Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-sheng Li


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transport and the sharp increase in vehicle population, traffic accidents form one of the most important causes of urban traffic congestion other than the imbalance between traffic supply and demand. Traffic congestion causes severe problems, such as environment contamination and energy dissipation. Therefore, it would be useful to analyze the congestion propagation characteristics after traffic accidents. Numerical analysis and computer simulation were two of the typical methods used at present to study the traffic congestion propagation properties. The latter was more widespread as it is more consistent with the actual traffic flow and more visual than the former. In this paper, an improved cellular automata (CA model was presented to analyze traffic congestion propagation properties and to evaluate control strategies. In order to apply them to urban traffic flow simulation, the CA models have been improved and expanded on. Computer simulations were built for congestion not only extending to the upstream intersection, but also the upstream intersection and the entire road network, respectively. Congestion propagation characteristics after road traffic accidents were obtained, and controls of different severities and durations were analyzed. The results provide the theoretical foundation and practical means for the control of congestion.

  8. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design (United States)

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.


    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  9. Analysis of learning curves in the on-the-job training of air traffic controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Bruggraaff, E.; Roe, R.


    This chapter describes a competence-based assessment system, called CBAS, for air traffic control (ATC) simulator and on-the-job training (OJT), developed at Air Traffic Control The Netherlands (LVNL). In contrast with simulator training, learning processes in OJT are difficult to assess, because th

  10. Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air Traffic Controller Performance (United States)


    Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air Traffic Controller Performance THESIS...and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-13-M-24 Effects of Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air... Stereoscopic 3D Digital Radar Displays on Air Traffic Controller Performance Jason G. Russi Technical Sergeant, USAF Approved

  11. Effects of speed bottleneck on traffic flow with feedback control signal (United States)

    Zhu, Kangli; Bi, Jiantao; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Shubin


    Various car-following models (CMs) have been developed to capture the complex characteristics of microscopic traffic flow, among which the coupled map CM can better reveal and reflect various phenomena of practical traffic flow. Capacity change at bottleneck contributes to high-density traffic flow upstream the bottleneck and contains very complex dynamic behavior. In this paper, we analyze the effect of speed bottleneck on the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of traffic flow, and propose a method to reduce traffic congestion with the feedback control signal based on CM. Simulation results highlight the potential of using the feedback signal to control the stop-and-go wave and furthermore to alleviate the traffic congestion effectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a traffic signal optimisation model to improve real-time operations of traffic control systems. Advanced computer algorithms and traffic optimisation techniques can provide benefits over existing systems by reducing delays, improving travel times and reducing environmental emissions. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by interfacing the traffic signal optimisation model to a microscopic traffic simulation tool, which enabled the evaluation of the benefits of the algorithm using computers in a controlled environment without disrupting traffic conditions. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is its ability to detect dynamic changes in traffic flow conditions by using short-term historical demand data obtained from upstream vehicle loop detectors. The experimental results for under-saturated traffic conditions showed that the algorithm's performance was superior to optimal fixed time control. The results also confirmed that as traffic volumes reach saturated conditions, the performance of the algorithm decreased but remained better than what can be achieved by fixed time control systems.

  13. A Survey of Modern Air Traffic Control. Volume 2 (United States)


    oceanic traffic would use combined hyperbolic-inertial navigation systems. System I could be implemented to meet the demanda for air traffic services...of Aviation c/o Flugrad Reykjavik ITALY Aeronautica Militare Ufficio del Delegato Nationale all’AGARD 3, Piazzale Adenauer Roma /EUR

  14. Vehicle-class Specific Control of Freeway Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.


    The increase of mobility of the past decades has led to substantial congestion on the freeways. Traffic jams emerge both on a daily basis at the same location, as well as during accidents when a part of the freeways is temporarily blocked. In those cases, traffic management centers intervene into tr

  15. Traffic Flow at Sags: Theory, Modeling and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goni-Ros, B.


    Sag vertical curves (sags) are roadway sections along which the gradient increases gradually in the direction of traffic. Empirical observations show that, on freeways, traffic congestion often occurs at sags; actually, in some countries (e.g., Japan), sags are one of the most common types of freewa

  16. Traffic control and intelligent vehicle highway systems: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskar, L.D.; Schutter, B. de; Hellendoorn, J.; Papp, Z.


    Traffic congestion in highway networks is one of the main issues to be addressed by today's traffic management schemes. Automation combined with the increasing market penetration of on-line communication, navigation and advanced driver assistance systems will ultimately result in intelligent vehicle

  17. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 1: Concepts of Use, Initial System Requirements, Architecture, and AeroMACS Design Considerations (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Henriksen, Steve; Zelkin, Natalie


    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I (this document) is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  18. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development. Phase II Final Report. Volume 2: Test Bed Performance Evaluation and Final AeroMACS Recommendations (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Magner, James


    This report is provided as part of ITT s NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: New ATM Requirements-Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development and was based on direction provided by FAA project-level agreements for New ATM Requirements-Future Communications. Task 7 included two subtasks. Subtask 7-1 addressed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface data communications standards development, systems engineering, test bed and prototype development, and tests and demonstrations to establish operational capability for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). Subtask 7-2 focused on systems engineering and development support of the L-band digital aeronautical communications system (L-DACS). Subtask 7-1 consisted of two phases. Phase I included development of AeroMACS concepts of use, requirements, architecture, and initial high-level safety risk assessment. Phase II builds on Phase I results and is presented in two volumes. Volume I is devoted to concepts of use, system requirements, and architecture, including AeroMACS design considerations. Volume II (this document) describes an AeroMACS prototype evaluation and presents final AeroMACS recommendations. This report also describes airport categorization and channelization methodologies. The purposes of the airport categorization task were (1) to facilitate initial AeroMACS architecture designs and enable budgetary projections by creating a set of airport categories based on common airport characteristics and design objectives, and (2) to offer high-level guidance to potential AeroMACS technology and policy development sponsors and service providers. A channelization plan methodology was developed because a common global methodology is needed to assure seamless interoperability among diverse AeroMACS services potentially supplied by multiple service providers.

  19. Automation and Systems Issues in Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the study and analysis of a successfully designed control system in ATM. The aircraft's motion is affected by other factors, besides the pilot controls in the form of external disturbances, such as wind, and internal errors, due to unmodelled dynamics, tracking error and system noise. Navigation equipment tracks the exact real-time location of the aircraft in 4D space and provides feedback to both the pilot in the cockpit and ATC via ADS-B. ATM was expressed as a large, decentralized, dynamic, variable size, infinite horizon, multi-parameter, constrained, nonlinear, non-causal, non-convex, multi-objective, high-dimensionality, hybrid (continuous and combinatorial, optimal control problem. Rapidly increasing growth and demand in CNS/ATM, the advanced scheme for ATM, ADS-B system which is based on digital communication is being implemented in the field of surveillance. ADS-B is a radically new technology that is redefining the paradigm of CNS in ATM today. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B is the next generation air surveillance system which supplants and complements the limitations of conventional radar, since conventional ATM radar systems will reach their limits soon due to the increases in air traffic.

  20. Control of Future Air Traffic Systems via Complexity Bound Management (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia


    The complexity of the present system for managing air traffic has led to "discreteness" in approaches to creating new concepts: new concepts are created as point designs, based on experience, expertise, and creativity of the proposer. Discrete point designs may be highly successful but they are difficult to substantiate in the face of equally strong substantiation of competing concepts, as well as the state of the art in concept evaluation via simulations. Hybrid concepts may present a compromise - the golden middle. Yet a hybrid of sometimes in principle incompatible concepts forms another point design that faces the challenge of substantiation and validation. We are faced with the need to re-design the air transportation system ab initio. This is a daunting task, especially considering the problem of transitioning from the present system to any fundamentally new system. However, design from scratch is also an opportunity to reconsider approaches to new concept development. In this position paper we propose an approach, Optimized Parametric Functional Design, for systematic development of concepts for management and control of airspace systems, based on optimization formulations in terms of required system functions and states. This reasoning framework, realizable in the context of ab initio system design, offers an approach to deriving substantiated airspace management and control concepts. With growing computational power, we hope that the approach will also yield a methodology for actual dynamic control of airspace

  1. Soil, crop and emission responses to seasonal-controlled traffic in organic vegetable farming on loam soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera Losada, J.


    Some organic arable and vegetable farms in the Netherlands use cm-precise guidance of machinery to restrict wheel traffic to fixed traffic lanes and to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimized soil structure in between the lanes. Contrary to controlled traffic farming (CTF) the traffic l


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan Durmaz


    Full Text Available Air transportation industry is a globally growing industry. As an inseparable part of this industry, airport management is also becoming more crucial issue to be dealt with. Airports offer economic and social benefits to the society, but also environmental impacts of airport operations are increasing due to high traffic growth. While airport capacity is increasing, airport operators are being responsible for mitigating environmental constraints. Today to implement airport environmental management system is seen as a critical way of solution. To ensure effective implementation of this system, an organizational change with definite roles, responsibilities and structure are needed. This study illustrates a way of organizational response to market forces and national regulations guiding the achievement of sustainable airports by determining the structure and the roles in an airport organization.

  3. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis (United States)

    Parker, L. C.


    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  4. Design and Construction of Intelligent Traffic Light Control System Using Fuzzy Logic (United States)

    Lin, Htin; Aye, Khin Muyar; Tun, Hla Myo; Theingi, Naing, Zaw Min


    Vehicular travel is increasing throughout the world, particularly in large urban areas. Therefore the need arises for simulation and optimizing traffic control algorithms to better accommodate this increasing demand. This paper presents a microcontroller simulation of intelligent traffic light controller using fuzzy logic that is used to change the traffic signal cycles adaptively at a two-way intersection. This paper is an attempt to design an intelligent traffic light control systems using microcontrollers such as PIC 16F84A and PIC 16F877A. And then traffic signal can be controlled depending upon the densities of cars behind green and red lights of the two-way intersection by using sensors and detectors circuits.

  5. TASAR Flight Trial 2: Assessment of Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of TASAR Requests (United States)

    Idris, Husni; Enea, Gabriele


    In support of the Flight Trial (FT-2) of NASA's prototype of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept, observations were conducted at the air traffic facilities to identify and assess the main factors that affect the acceptability of pilot requests by air traffic controllers. Two observers shadowed air traffic controllers at the Atlanta (ZTL) and Jacksonville (ZJX) air traffic control centers as the test flight pilot made pre-scripted requests to invoke acceptability issues and then they interviewed the observed and other controllers voluntarily. Fifty controllers were interviewed with experience ranging from one to thirty-five years. All interviewed controllers were enthusiastic about the technology and accounting for sector boundaries in pilot requests, particularly if pilots can be made aware of high workload situations. All interviewed controllers accept more than fifty percent of pilot requests; forty percent of them reject less than ten percent of requests. The most common reason for rejecting requests is conflicting with traffic followed by violating letters of agreement (LOAs) and negatively impacting neighboring sector workload, major arrival and departure flows and flow restrictions. Thirty-six requests were made during the test, eight of which were rejected due to: the aircraft already handed off to another sector, violating LOA, opposing traffic, intruding into an active special use airspace (SUA), intruding into another center, weather, and unfamiliarity with the requested waypoint. Nine requests were accepted with delay mostly because the controller needed to locate unfamiliar waypoints or to coordinate with other controllers.

  6. Feedback control scheme of traffic jams based on the coupled map car-following model (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Li, Hua-Min


    Based on the pioneering work of Konishi et al. [Phys. Rev. E (1999) 60 4000], a new feedback control scheme is presented to suppress traffic jams based on the coupled map car-following model under the open boundary condition. The effect of the safe headway on the traffic system is considered. According to the control theory, the condition under which traffic jams can be suppressed is analyzed. The results are compared with the previous results concerning congestion control. The simulations show that the suppression performance of our scheme on traffic jams is better than those of the previous schemes, although all the schemes can suppress traffic jams. The simulation results are consistent with theoretical analyses.

  7. Potential of controlled traffic farming with automatic guidance on an organic farm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera, J.; Wel, van der C.; Klooster, van der A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.


    Some organic farms in the Netherlands use RTK-DGPS guidance of machinery over fixed traffic lanes to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimum soil structure. These lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. The potential of such a seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF)

  8. Traffic flow impacts of adaptive cruise control deactivation and (Re)activation with cooperative driver behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.; Li, M.; Minderhoud, M.


    In 2006 in the Netherlands, a field operational test was carried out to study the effect of adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane departure warning on driver behavior and traffic flow in real traffic. To estimate the effect for larger penetration rates, simulations were needed. For a reliable impac

  9. Solution Space-based Approach to Assess Sector Complexity in Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Rahman, S.M.B.


    Various methods have been introduced in the past in efforts to optimize airspace sector design and the allocation of air traffic controllers. This is done with the aim to accommodate growth, increase productivity and most importantly to ensure safety of air traffic. To accomplish this, a more compre

  10. Heraklion Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    Heraklion City is located on Crete Island, Grece with a population of 150000. In the project for extension of the airport at Heraklion, part of the runway is placed in the sea. The runway must be designed to resist attack from the waves. the observed wave and wind data in the period of 1949...

  11. Scheduling with conflicts, and applications to traffic signal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irani, S.; Leung, V. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    In this paper, we consider the scheduling of jobs that may be competing for mutually exclusive resources. We model the conflicts between jobs with a conflict graph, so that all concurrently running jobs must form an independent set in the graph. We believe that this model is natural and general enough to have applications in a variety of settings; however, we are motivated by the following two specific applications: traffic intersection control and session scheduling in high speed local area networks with spatial reuse. In both of these applications, guaranteeing the best turnaround time to any job entering the system is important. Our results focus on two special classes of graphs motivated by our applications: bipartite graphs and interval graphs. Although the algorithms for bipartite and intervals graphs are quite different, the bounds they achieve are the same: we prove that for any sequence of jobs in which the maximum completion time of a job in the optimal schedule is bounded by A, the algorithm can complete every job in time O(n{sup 3} A{sup 2}). n is the number of nodes in the conflict graph. We also show that the best competitive ratio achievable by any online algorithm for the maximum completion time on interval or bipartite graphs is {Omega}(n).

  12. The influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller behaviour with a Speed And Route Advisory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, K. van de; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Plaat, A. van der; Erikson, F.


    The aim of this paper is to describe the influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller performance, workload and Situation Awareness (SA). Controllers handle traffic through means of tactical control involving heading, speed and altitude instructions. Future Air Traffic Management (ATM)

  13. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz


    Full Text Available Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnaire is created and distributed via various channels including e-mail, and online forums. After the basic structure of the questionnaire had been defined, the questions were developed in cooperation with employees form the environmental department of VIE, who had a sustainable influence on the questions’ order and formulation. As the survey was supposed to be answered by residents around VIE. Findings: Results of the online study show that only parts of the participants are affected by air traffic noise at VIE. Even less experienced a significant change over the last five years. About one third of the participants stated that they are affected by air traffic noise in one way or another. The majority of these people live in Lower Austria, the federal state in which the airport is located. The participants obviously judge air traffic noise during day time more importantly than air traffic noise at night. Research limitations/implications: Due to the low number of returns, no statistically relevant conclusions can be drawn, the results of the survey can be used to make some general statements. Originality/value: Economic growth and deregulation lead to growing aircraft operations. Vienna International Airport with its approximately 260,000 flight movements per year is the biggest airport in Austria and a major hub in Europe. The combination of constantly growing air transport and the resulting noise exposure, as well as the steadily increasing

  14. Virtual and remote control tower research, design, development and validation

    CERN Document Server


    The interdisciplinary research and development work carried out in the last ten years which is presented in this book aimed at replacing the conventional airport control tower by a new “remote tower operation” work environment (RTO) which should enhance work efficiency and safety and reduce costs. This revolutionary human–system interface allows for remote aerodrome traffic control without a physical tower building and enables the establishment of remote airport traffic control centers (RTC) of which each may serve several airports from a central location.

  15. Evidence of traffic-related pollutant control in soil-based sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). (United States)

    Napier, F; Jefferies, C; Heal, K V; Fogg, P; Arcy, B J D; Clarke, R


    SUDS are being increasingly employed to control highway runoff and have the potential to protect groundwater and surface water quality by minimising the risks of both point and diffuse sources of pollution. While these systems are effective at retaining polluted solids by filtration and sedimentation processes, less is known of the detail of pollutant behaviour within SUDS structures. This paper reports on investigations carried out as part of a co-ordinated programme of controlled studies and field measurements at soft-engineered SUDS undertaken in the UK, observing the accumulation and behaviour of traffic-related heavy metals, oil and PAHs. The field data presented were collected from two extended detention basins serving the M74 motorway in the south-west of Scotland. Additional data were supplied from an experimental lysimeter soil core leaching study. Results show that basin design influences pollutant accumulation and behaviour in the basins. Management and/or control strategies are discussed for reducing the impact of traffic-related pollutants on the aqueous environment.

  16. A Traffic Forecasting Method with Function to Control Residual Error Distribution for IP Access Networks (United States)

    Kitahara, Takeshi; Furuya, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hajime

    Since traffic in IP access networks is less aggregated than in backbone networks, its variance could be significant and its distribution may be long-tailed rather than Gaussian in nature. Such characteristics make it difficult to forecast traffic volume in IP access networks for appropriate capacity planning. This paper proposes a traffic forecasting method that includes a function to control residual error distribution in IP access networks. The objective of the proposed method is to grasp the statistical characteristics of peak traffic variations, while conventional methods focus on average rather than peak values. In the proposed method, a neural network model is built recursively while weighting residual errors around the peaks. This enables network operators to control the trade-off between underestimation and overestimation errors according to their planning policy. Evaluation with a total of 136 daily traffic volume data sequences measured in actual IP access networks demonstrates the performance of the proposed method.

  17. A New Intelligent Airplane Landing Planning Method in Congested Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dastgerdi


    Full Text Available Nowadays considering many advantages of air traveling, we notice that traffic congestion has significantly increased in airspace of countries, and it is expected that this growth rate, increases even more in the forthcoming years.This growth rate and different limitations posed on developing some airports led to the problem of landing airplanes to become one of the most important issues formed in the field of aviation. In this paper, in the form of a new approach based on CPSO algorithm for intelligent landing planning, determining optimal landing times, optimal allocation of runways, and at last the order of successive landings of planes has been done in a way that appropriately fulfills the main goal of the problem (minimizing the total flights delays; thus helping significantly to controlling air traffic congestion in airports approaches. The simulation results show that compared to the last presented methods, including methods based on genetic algorithms, GLS and Bionomic, has decreased the total amounts of flight delays considerably. Getting zero for total amount of flight delays for the two problems with real data of DFW airport in Texas, United States, confirms the more capability of CPSO algorithm compared to the other intelligent methods for obtaining optimal solutions to the problem.

  18. 76 FR 54156 - National Standards for Traffic Control Devices; the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for... (United States)


    ... contain collection information requirements for purposes of the PRA. Executive Order 12988 (Civil Justice..., Civil Justice Reform, to minimize litigation, eliminate ambiguity, and reduce burden. Executive Order... roads, Incorporation by reference, Signs, Traffic regulations. Issued on: August 23, 2011. Victor...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandramohan


    Full Text Available To increase the road safety and secure communication among the vehicles in the network environment, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC is followed. Nowadays, research over DSRC is dramatically increased for enhancing the road safety applications. The main task of DSRC is to protect the vehicles by communicating the warning message regarding the vehicle changing conditions, traffic occurrence and dangers over the road in the network. So, it is necessary to maintain the accurate communication timely with high reliability by implementing the appropriate protocol. In the literature there are several methods which provided specifications defined in the physical layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC layer. In those methods, current IEEE 802.11p MAC is not able to provide predictable Quality of Service (QoS for high-priority safety services. Motivated by the fact that the existing work provided three levels of safety-related broadcast services, but did not focus on current traffic load conditions, in this study, we plan to present Traffic Controlled DSRC (TC-DSRC model to analyze and categorize the traffic patterns in the vehicular communication for safety related application. A new algorithm is presented to evaluate the process of traffic controlled DSRC model for secure communication in VANET. The dedicated short range communication broadcast of messages is sent to all the vehicles at a specific instance for defined radius on the traffic zone. Multiple traffic load conditions are categorically stated to handle the vehicular safety with quick response time. Integrating these two performance metrics (i.e., quick response time and security, by using the proposed algorithm, the traffic patterns are categorized for communication between vehicles to provide the safety measure. In addition, our proposed scheme with the categorization using traffic patterns improves the network performance by deriving a specific pattern. Compared with the recent

  20. The Impact of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty on Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability (United States)

    Mercer, Joey S.; Bienert, Nancy; Gomez, Ashley; Hunt, Sarah; Kraut, Joshua; Martin, Lynne; Morey, Susan; Green, Steven M.; Prevot, Thomas; Wu, Minghong G.


    A Human-In-The-Loop air traffic control simulation investigated the impact of uncertainties in trajectory predictions on NextGen Trajectory-Based Operations concepts, seeking to understand when the automation would become unacceptable to controllers or when performance targets could no longer be met. Retired air traffic controllers staffed two en route transition sectors, delivering arrival traffic to the northwest corner-post of Atlanta approach control under time-based metering operations. Using trajectory-based decision-support tools, the participants worked the traffic under varying levels of wind forecast error and aircraft performance model error, impacting the ground automations ability to make accurate predictions. Results suggest that the controllers were able to maintain high levels of performance, despite even the highest levels of trajectory prediction errors.

  1. Seasonal controlled traffic farming im ökologischen Gemüseanbau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hefner, Margita; Nørremark, Michael; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    Problems of machinery induced soil compaction are evident in organic vegetable production, resulting in stunted root growth and reduced yield. Controlled traffic farming (CTF) provides a possibility to restrict soil compaction to wheel tracks and create traffic-free vegetable beds with improved...... soil structure. A field experiment was established at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Denmark to investigate the effect of CTF on the growth of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Random traffic farming (RTF) served as the control. Preliminary...

  2. Optimal traffic light control method for a single intersection based on hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈阳舟; 崔平远


    A single intersection of two phases is selected as a model to put forward a new optimal time-planning scheme for traffic light based on the model of hybrid automata for single intersection. A method of optimization is proposed for hybrid systems, and the average queue length over all queues is used as an objective function to find an optimal switching scheme for traffic light. It is illustrated that traffic light control for single intersection is a typical hybrid system, and the optimal planning-time scheme can be obtained using the optimal hybrid systems control based on the two stages method.

  3. Overcoming the Pigou-Downs Paradox Using Advanced Traffic Signal Control (United States)

    Fowdur, S. C.; Rughooputh, S. D. D. V.


    Expansion of a road network has often been observed to cause more congestion and has led researchers to the formulation of traffic paradoxes such as the Pigou-Downs and the Braess paradoxes. In this paper, we present an application of advanced traffic signal control (ATSC) to overcome the Pigou-Downs paradox. Port Louis, the capital city of Mauritius is used to investigate the effect of using a harbor bridge to by-pass the city center. Using traffic cellular automata (TCA) simulations it has been shown how, if traffic is only gradually deviated along the by-pass, an overall longer travel time and decreased flux would result. By making use of ATSC, which involves traffic lights that sense the number of vehicles accumulated in the queue, better travel times and fluxes are achieved.

  4. Improving air traffic control: Proving new tools or approving the joint human-machine system? (United States)

    Gaillard, Irene; Leroux, Marcel


    From the description of a field problem (i.e., designing decision aids for air traffic controllers), this paper points out how a cognitive engineering approach provides the milestones for the evaluation of future joint human-machine systems.

  5. Visual Problem Solving and Self‐regulation in Training Air Traffic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwen van, Ludo


    Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  6. Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo


    Van Meeuwen, L. W. (2013). Visual problem solving and self-regulation in training air traffic control (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open Universiteit, Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  7. Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salden, Ron; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen


    Salden, R.J.C.M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2006). Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 16, 350-362

  8. Multilevel Control & Optimization of Future Air Traffic Systems via Managem Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Controlling air traffic on all temporal and spatial scales – from a single aircraft to the entire airspace – can be formally stated as a dynamic,...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Lagerev


    Full Text Available Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queuing traffic flow on main road the “turbulence” component can result in formation of an impact blow in the main traffic flow. It has been proved that an impact of the ramp traffic flow on congestion probability is higher in comparison with main road traffic flow. The paper makes it possible to establish that some transport facilities moving along a high-way simul taneously occupy two lanes in the merging traffic zones and they reduce capacity of the used road section. It is necessary to take into account this specific feature and it is necessary to pay attention to it in the zones of “turbulence” effect formation. The paper presents main approaches, methodology, principles and stages required for access control of high-class roads which are directed on higher quality of their operation including improvement of road traffic safety. The paper proposes a methodоlogy that allows to evaluate and optimize ramp control in the context of a transport queue length minimization at adjoining ramps for the purposes of probability reduction in transport congestion.

  10. APC-MAC/TA: Adaptive Power Controlled MAC Protocol with Traffic Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)

    Woo, Seok; Kim, Kiseon

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive power controlled MAC protocol with a traffic-aware scheme specifically designed to reduce both energy and latency in wireless sensor networks. Typically, existing MAC protocols for sensor networks sacrifice latency performance for node energy efficiency. However, some sensor applications for emergencies require rather fast transmissions of sensed data, where we need to consider both energy and latency together. The proposed MAC protocol includes two novel ideas: one is a transmission power control scheme for improving latency in high traffic loads, and the other is a traffic-aware scheme to save more energy in low traffic loads. The transmission power control scheme increases channel utilization by mitigating interference between nodes, and the traffic-aware scheme allows nodes to sleep to reduce idle energy consumption when there are no traffic loads in a network. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the latency as well as the energy consumption compared to the S-MAC protocol specifically for a large transmission power of nodes and low network traffic.

  11. Vulnerability analysis for airport networks based on fuzzy soft sets: From the structural and functional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanmei


    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructure. In air traffic systems, the vulnerability analysis for airport networks can be used to guide air traffic administrations in their prioritization of the maintenance and repair of airports, as well as to avoid unnecessary disturbances in the planning of flight schedules. In this paper, the evaluation methods of airport importance and network efficiency are established. Firstly, the evaluation indices of airport importance are proposed from both the topological and functional perspectives. The topological characteristics come from the structure of airport network and the functional features stem from the traffic flow distribution taking place inside the network. Secondly, an integrated evaluation method based on fuzzy soft set theory is proposed to identify the key airports, which can fuse together importance indices over different time intervals. Thirdly, an airport network efficiency method is established for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of the evaluation method. Finally, empirical studies using real traffic data of US and China’s airport networks show that the evaluation method proposed in this paper is the most accurate. The vulnerability of US and China’s airport networks is compared. The similarities and differences between airport geography distribution and airport importance distribution are discussed here and the dynamics of airport importance is studied as well.

  12. 42 CFR 71.47 - Special provisions relating to airports: Office and isolation facilities. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special provisions relating to airports: Office and.... Ports: Sanitary Inspection § 71.47 Special provisions relating to airports: Office and isolation facilities. Each U.S. airport which receives international traffic shall provide without cost to...

  13. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types (United States)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.


    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  14. Airports Geographic Information System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  15. Real-time routing control design for traffic networks with multi-route choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉华; 葛颖恩; 陈继红; 张方伟


    This work considers those road networks in which there are multi-route choices for bifurcation-destination (or origin-destination) pairs, and designs a real-time variable message sign (VMS)-based routing control strategy in the model predictive control (MPC) framework. The VMS route recommendation provided by the traffic management authority is directly considered as the control variable, and the routing control model is established, in which a multi-dimensional control vector is introduced to describe the influence of route recommendations on flow distribution. In the MPC framework, a system optimum routing strategy with the constraints regarding drivers’ acceptability with recommended routes is designed, which can not only meet the traffic management authority’s control requirement but also improve drivers’ satisfaction with the route guidance system. The simulation carried out shows that the proposed routing control can effectively mitigate traffic congestion, reduces followers’ time delay, and improves drivers’ satisfaction with routing control in road networks.

  16. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA


    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  17. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment (United States)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.


    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  18. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU


    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  19. 76 FR 72996 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications (United States)


    ... Chap 8--Physical Layer--Updates per WiMAX Forum Chap 5--Service Specific CS Chap 6--Media Access Control December 7, 2011 MOPS WG Breakout Session Discussion of Security Sub-layer--Honeywell Review...

  20. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher


    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  1. Development of control strategy of variable speed limits for improving traffic operations at freeway bottlenecks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 刘攀; 王炜; 徐铖铖


    A control strategy of variable speed limits (VSL) was developed to reduce the travel time at freeway recurrent bottleneck areas. The proposed control strategy particularly focused on preventing the capacity drop and increasing the discharge flow. A cell transmission model (CTM) was developed to evaluate the effects of the proposed VSL control strategy on the traffic operations. The results show that the total travel time is reduced by 25.5% and the delay is reduced by 56.1%. The average travel speed is increased by 34.3% and the queue length is reduced by 31.0%. The traffic operation is improved by the proposed VSL control strategy. The way to use the proposed VSL control strategy in different types of freeway bottlenecks was also discussed by considering different traffic flow characteristics. It is concluded that the VSL control strategy is effective for merge bottlenecks but is less effective for diverge bottlenecks.

  2. New control strategy for the lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow (United States)

    Zhu, Chenqiang; Zhong, Shiquan; Li, Guangyu; Ma, Shoufeng


    The new delayed-feedback control strategy is applied for lattice hydrodynamic model of traffic flow by considering the control signal of the variation rate of the optimal velocity. The linear stability condition is derived in the frequency-domain with control theory. Then, different feedback gains under the periodic boundary scenery and on-ramp scenery are simulated. The periodic boundary scenery provides an initial small disturbance situation on the circle road, while the on-ramp scenery reproduces the disturbance triggered by the on-ramp on the open road. Both the theoretical analysis and simulations show that this new control signal has a positive effect to suppress traffic jams.

  3. A Seminar On Shanghai Airport Airspace Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A seminar on Shanghai airport airspace, sponsored by the airport’s second-phase project headquarters and East China Air Traffic Administration, was held in Shanghai between March 21 and 23.Present at the seminar were Shanghai Vice-Mayor

  4. Adaptive Airport Strategic Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Walker, W.E.; Marchau, V.A.W.J.


    Airport Strategic Planning (ASP) focuses on the development of plans for the long-term development of an airport. The dominant approach for ASP is Airport Master Planning (AMP). The goal of AMP is to provide a detailed blueprint for how the airport should look in the future, and how it can get there

  5. Airport Project Goes Smoothly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The Shanghai Airport Group Company has set up a headquarters to command a project to refurbish Pudong and Hongqiao airports. Construction on Pudong Airport will be completed by the end of 2007, while that on Hongqiao Airport will be finished by the end of 2009.

  6. From Cellular Attractor Selection to Adaptive Signal Control for Traffic Networks (United States)

    Tian, Daxin; Zhou, Jianshan; Sheng, Zhengguo; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Jianming


    The management of varying traffic flows essentially depends on signal controls at intersections. However, design an optimal control that considers the dynamic nature of a traffic network and coordinates all intersections simultaneously in a centralized manner is computationally challenging. Inspired by the stable gene expressions of Escherichia coli in response to environmental changes, we explore the robustness and adaptability performance of signalized intersections by incorporating a biological mechanism in their control policies, specifically, the evolution of each intersection is induced by the dynamics governing an adaptive attractor selection in cells. We employ a mathematical model to capture such biological attractor selection and derive a generic, adaptive and distributed control algorithm which is capable of dynamically adapting signal operations for the entire dynamical traffic network. We show that the proposed scheme based on attractor selection can not only promote the balance of traffic loads on each link of the network but also allows the global network to accommodate dynamical traffic demands. Our work demonstrates the potential of bio-inspired intelligence emerging from cells and provides a deep understanding of adaptive attractor selection-based control formation that is useful to support the designs of adaptive optimization and control in other domains.

  7. Airport technology international 1993 (United States)

    Papagiorcopulo, George

    The present survey of developments in airport technologies and their management discusses airport extensions and upgradings, airport developments in China, polluter penalization, airport effects on environments, European ground-handling methods, ATC in Europe, EC duty-free sales at airports, and the privatization of airport security. Also discussed are airport advertising, new alternatives in air-cargo handling, ATC training, taxi-guidance systems, and the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions on the ground. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  8. Traffic flow collection wireless sensor network node for intersection light control (United States)

    Li, Xu; Li, Xue


    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is expected to be deployed in intersection to monitor the traffic flow continuously, and the monitoring datum can be used as the foundation of traffic light control. In this paper, a WSN based on ZigBee protocol for monitoring traffic flow is proposed. Structure, hardware and work flow of WSN nodes are designed. CC2431 from Texas Instrument is chosen as the main computational and transmission unit, and CC2591 as the amplification unit. The stability experiment and the actual environment experiment are carried out in the last of the paper. The results of experiments show that WSN has the ability to collect traffic flow information quickly and transmit the datum to the processing center in real time.

  9. Breakdown minimization principle versus Wardrop's equilibria for dynamic traffic assignment and control in traffic and transportation networks: A critical mini-review (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.


    We review physical results of applications of the breakdown minimization (BM) principle versus applications of the classical Wardrop's equilibria (Wardrop's user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO)) for dynamic traffic assignment and control in traffic and transportation networks. It is shown that depending on the total network inflow rate there are two different applications of the BM principle: (i) The network throughput maximization approach that maximizes the network throughput ensuring free flow conditions in the network. (ii) The minimization of the network breakdown probability at relatively large network inflow rates. Probabilistic features of the application of the BM principle are studied. We have found that when the application of the BM principle cannot prevent traffic breakdown in the network, nevertheless, a combination of the application of the BM principle with dynamic control of traffic breakdown at network bottlenecks can lead to the dissolution of traffic congestion. We show that applications of the classical Wardrop's equilibria for dynamic traffic assignment deteriorate basically the traffic system in networks.

  10. Improving Performance in Dense Wireless Spaces by Controlling Bulk Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Zhanikeev


    Full Text Available The growing number of wireless devices nowadays often results in congestion of wireless channels. In research, this topic is referred to as networking in dense wireless spaces. The literature on the topic shows that the biggest problem is the high number of concurrent sessions to a wireless access point. The obvious solution is to reduce the number of concurrent sessions. This paper proposes a simple method called Bulk-n-Pick which minimizes the number of prolonged concurrent sessions by separating bulk from sync traffic. Aiming at educational applications, under the proposed design, web applications would distribute the main bulk of content once at the beginning of a class and then rely on small messages for real time sync traffic during the class. For realistic performance analysis, this paper first performs real-life experiments with various counts of wireless devices, bulk sizes, and levels of sync intensity. Based on the experiments, this paper shows that the proposed Bulk-n-Pick method outperforms the traditional design even when only two concurrent bulk sessions are allowed. The experiment shows that up to 10 concurrent bulk sessions are feasible in practice. Based on these results, a method for online performance optimization is proposed and validated in a trace-based emulation.

  11. Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles? (United States)

    Mladenovic, Milos N; McPherson, Tristram


    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central focus is on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design. We explain the limitations of conventional traffic control in meeting these desiderata, and sketch a preliminary vision for a next-generation traffic control tailored to address better the demands of social justice. One component of this vision is cooperative, hierarchically distributed self-organization among vehicles. Another component of this vision is a priority system enabling selection of priority levels by the user for each vehicle trip in the network, based on the supporting structure of non-monetary credits.

  12. The Study of Reinforcement Learning for Traffic Self-Adaptive Control under Multiagent Markov Game Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Hui Xu


    Full Text Available Urban traffic self-adaptive control problem is dynamic and uncertain, so the states of traffic environment are hard to be observed. Efficient agent which controls a single intersection can be discovered automatically via multiagent reinforcement learning. However, in the majority of the previous works on this approach, each agent needed perfect observed information when interacting with the environment and learned individually with less efficient coordination. This study casts traffic self-adaptive control as a multiagent Markov game problem. The design employs traffic signal control agent (TSCA for each signalized intersection that coordinates with neighboring TSCAs. A mathematical model for TSCAs’ interaction is built based on nonzero-sum markov game which has been applied to let TSCAs learn how to cooperate. A multiagent Markov game reinforcement learning approach is constructed on the basis of single-agent Q-learning. This method lets each TSCA learn to update its Q-values under the joint actions and imperfect information. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically. The simulation results show that the proposed method is convergent and effective in realistic traffic self-adaptive control setting.

  13. Aircraft-Based Satellite Navigation Augmentation to Enable Automated Landing and Movement on the Airport Surface (United States)

    Obeidat, Qasem Turki

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) enables a paralyzed user to interact with an external device through brain signals. A BCI measures identifies patterns within these measured signals, translating such patterns into commands. The P300 is a pattern of a scalp potentials elicited by a luminance increment of an attended target rather than a non-target character of an alphanumeric matrix. The Row-Column Paradigm (RCP) can utilize responses to series of illuminations of matrix target and non-target characters to spell out alphanumeric strings of P300-eliciting target characters, yet this popular RCP speller faces three challenges. Theadjacent problem concerns the proximity of neighboring characters, the crowding problem concerns their number. Both adjacent and crowding problems concern how these factors impede BCI performance. The fatigue problem concerns how RCP use is tiring. This dissertation addressed these challenges for both desktop and mobile platforms. A new P300 speller interface, the Zigzag Paradigm (ZP), reduced the adjacent problem by increasing the distance between adjacent characters, as well as the crowding problem, by reducing the number neighboring characters. In desktop study, the classification accuracy was significantly improved 91% with the ZP VS 80.6% with the RCP. Since the ZP is not suitable for mobile P300 spellers with a small screen size, a new P300 speller interface was developed in this study, the Edges Paradigm (EP). The EP reduced the adjacent and crowding problems by adding flashing squares located upon the outer edges of the character matrix in the EP. The classification accuracy of the EP (i.e., 93.3%) was significantly higher than the RCP (i.e., 82.1%). We further compared three speller paradigms (i.e., RCP, ZP, and EP), and the result indicated that the EP produced the highest accuracy and caused less fatigue. Later, the EP is implemented in a simulator of a Samsung galaxy smart phone on the Microsoft Surface Pro 2. The mobile EP was

  14. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study (United States)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.


    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  15. Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of Unmanned Aircraft System Detect-and-Avoid Thresholds (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek


    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.

  16. Autonomous Traffic Control System Using Agent Based Technology

    CERN Document Server

    M, Venkatesh; V, Srinivas


    The way of analyzing, designing and building of real-time projects has been changed due to the rapid growth of internet, mobile technologies and intelligent applications. Most of these applications are intelligent, tiny and distributed components called as agent. Agent works like it takes the input from numerous real-time sources and gives back the real-time response. In this paper how these agents can be implemented in vehicle traffic management especially in large cities and identifying various challenges when there is a rapid growth of population and vehicles. In this paper our proposal gives a solution for using autonomous or agent based technology. These autonomous or intelligent agents have the capability to observe, act and learn from their past experience. This system uses the knowledge flow of precedent signal or data to identify the incoming flow of forthcoming signal. Our architecture involves the video analysis and exploration using some Intelligence learning algorithm to estimate and identify the...

  17. Optimal Control Strategy for Traffic Driven Epidemic Spreading Based on Community Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Shao


    Full Text Available It is shown that community structure has a great impact on traffic transportation and epidemic spreading. The density of infected nodes and the epidemic threshold have been proven to have significant relationship with the node betweenness in traffic driven epidemic spreading method. In this paper, considering the impact of community structure on traffic driven epidemic spreading, an effective and novel strategy to control epidemic spreading in scale-free networks is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that the new control strategy will obviously increase the ratio between the first and the second moments of the node betweenness distribution in scale-free networks. It is also found that the more accurate the community is identified, the stronger community structure the network has and the more efficient the control strategy is. Simulations on both computer-generated and real-world networks have confirmed the theoretical results.

  18. Estimation and Control of Networked Distributed Parameter Systems: Application to Traffic Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward


    The management of large-scale transportation infrastructure is becoming a very complex task for the urban areas of this century which are covering bigger geographic spaces and facing the inclusion of connected and self-controlled vehicles. This new system paradigm can leverage many forms of sensing and interaction, including a high-scale mobile sensing approach. To obtain a high penetration sensing system on urban areas more practical and scalable platforms are needed, combined with estimation algorithms suitable to the computational capabilities of these platforms. The purpose of this work was to develop a transportation framework that is able to handle different kinds of sensing data (e.g., connected vehicles, loop detectors) and optimize the traffic state on a defined traffic network. The framework estimates the traffic on road networks modeled by a family of Lighthill-Whitham-Richards equations. Based on an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton-Jacobi equation and using a semi-analytic formula, I will show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are linear, albeit with unknown integer variables. This general framework solve exactly a variety of problems arising in transportation networks: traffic estimation, traffic control (including robust control), cybersecurity and sensor fault detection, or privacy analysis of users in probe-based traffic monitoring systems. This framework is very flexible, fast, and yields exact results. The recent advances in sensors (GPS, inertial measurement units) and microprocessors enable the development low-cost dedicated devices for traffic sensing in cities, 5 which are highly scalable, providing a feasible solution to cover large urban areas. However, one of the main problems to address is the privacy of the users of the transportation system, the framework presented here is a viable option to guarantee the privacy of the users by design.

  19. Fuzzy Neural Network Based Traffic Prediction and Congestion Control in High-Speed Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费翔; 何小燕; 罗军舟; 吴介一; 顾冠群


    Congestion control is one of the key problems in high-speed networks, such as ATM. In this paper, a kind of traffic prediction and preventive congestion control scheme is proposed using neural network approach. Traditional predictor using BP neural network has suffered from long convergence time and dissatisfying error. Fuzzy neural network developed in this paper can solve these problems satisfactorily. Simulations show the comparison among no-feedback control scheme,reactive control scheme and neural network based control scheme.

  20. 77 FR 68196 - Orders Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and... (United States)


    ... CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 77 FR 30585 (May... Authorizations (slots) at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), LaGuardia Airport (LGA), and Newark... occurred at slot-controlled and non- slot-controlled airports. JFK and EWR were effectively closed...

  1. Airport noise and teratogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, L.D.; Layde, P.M.; Erickson, J.D.


    It has been suggested that exposure to high-noise levels near major airports may cause increased incidence of birth defects in the offspring of parents residing near these airports. Using data gathered in Metropolitan Atlanta during 1970 to 1972, we compared the rates of seventeen categories of defects in high- and low-noise census tracts. No significant differences were observed. However, when we subdivided the category of central nervous system defects into several subcategories of specific defects, we noted a significantly increased incidence of spina bifida without hydrocephalus in the high-noise areas. Because of the small number of cases associated with this finding we did a matched case-control study using all cases of central nervous system defects born during the years 1968 to 1976. No significantly increased risk for residents in the high-noise areas was noted in this study. It is our opinion that noise or other factors associated with residence near airports are unlikely to be important environmental teratogens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan


    Full Text Available In today’s information age, government organizations and business enterprises are heavily relying on interconnected computer systems to manage a variety of public services including energy, transportation, water, etc. While this increased connectivity has many operational advantages benefitting the public, they have also become vulnerable to cyber attacks such as Corporate Security Breaches, Spear Phishing, and Social Media Fraud. The aviation sector is one the critical infrastructure systems that is not only vulnerable to physical threats, but also cyber threats, especially with the increased use of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD at airports. It has been recognized that there is currently no cyber security standards established for airports in the United States as the existing standards have mainly focused on aircraft Control System (CS. This paper summarizes the need, background, ongoing developments and research efforts with respect to the establishment of cyber-security standards and best practices at U.S. airports with special emphasis on cyber security education and literacy.

  3. P2P network traffic control mechanism based on global evaluation values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-long; WANG Ru-chuan


    Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing technology has been widely used on the Internet to exchange data. However, it occupies much network bandwidth, and thus greatly influences traditional business on the Interact. Besides, problems about free-riders and 'tragedy of the commons' in the P2P environment estrange from it P2P users who constantly contribute to the network with quality resources. This article proposes a new P2P network traffic control mechanism based on global evaluation values. It aims to help individual users to avoid peak traffic time as much as possible, ease network congestion and protect traditional business on the Interact, as well as differentiating priority grades of peers according to their contributions and stimulating them to share their valuable resources actively. This article first analyzes the current state of network traffic, and then elaborates on P2P network traffic control policies and proposes the peer's priority level differentiation mechanism based on global evaluation values. Finally,after the testing results and analysis of the proposed P2P network traffic control mechanism are discussed, conclusions are drawn.

  4. Controlled Traffic Farming – From Worldwide Research To Adoption In Europe And Its Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamen Tim


    Full Text Available Controlled traffic farming is a machinery management system that confines all field vehicles to the least possible area of permanent traffic lanes. It has developed in response to research evidence of widespread soil damage from compaction due to field traffic. The history of research on soil compaction is explored and found to be a relatively new phenomenon. Controlled traffic farming as a topic for research did not appear until the 1980s although its principles and benefits were well established before then. Research expanded over the next decades but changed subtly to more reviews on the topic as well as emphasis on environmental deliverables and some economics studies. Few if any researchers attempted to develop on-farm systems using existing machinery until the mid 1990s when a small and dedicated team in Australia encouraged farmers to experiment. This quickly led to rapid expansion across the continent to its present day c. 13% of the cropped area. Despite changes to extension services in northern Europe at around the turn of the century and a move to subsidiarity, this did not alter the model of controlled traffic adoption. This followed a similar pattern to that in Australia involving individuals rather than organizations.

  5. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.


    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  6. An air pollution modeling study using three surface coverings near the New International Airport of Mexico City. (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Arón D; García, Agustín R; Ruiz-Suárez, Luis-Gerardo


    The dry lakebed of what once was the lake of Texcoco is the location selected for the New International Airport of Mexico City. This project will generate an important urban development near the airport with regional implications on air quality. Using a prognostic air quality model, the consequences of photochemical air pollution in the metropolitan area of Mexico City resulting from three possible coverings for the areas of the lakebed that are not occupied by the runway and terminal building are investigated. These coverings are desert, grassland, and water and occupy an area of 63 km2. This study is based on a representative high pollution episode. In addition to reducing the emission of primary natural particles, the water covering generates a land-water breeze capable of maintaining enough ventilation to reduce pollutant concentrations over a localized region of the metropolitan area and may enhance the wind speed on the coasts of the proposed lake.

  7. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin


    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  8. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. (United States)


    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Петращук


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of pedagogy competence of an ATCO-trainer as a constituent of hisoverall professional competency/capacity to provide quality SIMU- training of the air traffic controllers. Thecurrent University curriculum for abinitio controllers does not provide developing of the pedagogicalcompetence. But it is requested very much when an air traffic controller is employed as a controller-trainerfor SIMU-training. It is suggested to include pedagogical science as a course in the University programme


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鼎湘; 李茂军


    随着道路交通流量日益增加,现有交通灯使用的时间固定控制方法并不能很好地满足各种复杂交通情况。针对这一背景,在使用视频图像对车辆跟踪计数实时采集车流量的基础上,提出一种根据各方向车流量控制交通灯时间的算法。该算法根据实时的车流情况更新各方向的绿灯分配时间,自动调节各方向绿灯时间比例,并根据路口总车流量的大小智能调节绿灯时间周期大小。基于 Delphi 平台对算法进行仿真,结果表明:该算法能根据实时车流信息自适应调整各方向绿灯时长,并通过自动调节各方向绿灯时间总和来有效实现交通拥堵或畅通情况下交通灯的智能控制。%The time-fixed control method used by existing traffic lights can not well satisfy various complicated traffic conditions along with the increasingly growth of road traffic flow.Under this background and based on the acquisition of real-time traffic flow by using video images to track and count vehicles,we propose an algorithm of controlling traffic lights time according to the traffic flow from various directions.This algorithm updates the allocated time for green lights in each direction based upon real-time traffic situation and automatically adjusts the time scale of green lights in various directions.It also intelligently regulates the size of the time cycle of green lights according to the total traffic flow on intersections.The algorithm is simulated based on Delphi platform,the results show that the proposed algorithm can adaptively adjust the time length of green lights in each direction based on real-time vehicles traffic information,and effectively realises the intelligent traffic lights control in the circumstances of traffic congestion or in smooth flow by automatically adjusting the total time of green lights in different di-rections.

  11. 机场水泥混凝土道面施工质量控制技术%Quality Control Technology for Airport Cement Concrete Pavement Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军; 贡文献


    针对机场水泥混凝土道面施工中容易出现掉边掉角、表面网状或环状裂纹、板体断裂和蜂窝麻面等质量通病,根据大面积混凝土铺筑施工的特点和环境因素,综合分析其质量通病产生的原因,并提出相应的施工控制措施,在实践中取得了明显效果,可供水泥混凝土道面施工参考.%For the common quality defects on airport cement concrete pavement such as side or corner peeling,surface pattern crack or annular crack, slab fracture, and voids and pits, according to the characteristics of large area concrete pavement construction and environmental factors, the causes of these quality defects are analyzed and the corresponding control measures are put forward, which have achieved significant effect in practical engineering. These measures can be reference for cement concrete pavement construction.

  12. GENERAL: A control method for congested traffic in the coupled map car-following model (United States)

    Shen, Fei-Ying; Ge, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Han-Mei; Lei, Li


    Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al, a new control method is presented to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map (CM) car-following model under an open boundary. A control signal concluding the velocity differences of the two vehicles in front is put forward. The condition under which the traffic jam can be contained is analyzed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al [Phys. Rev. 1999 E 60 4000-4007]. The simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the Konishi's et al. method, although both the methods could suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  13. A control method for congested traffic in the coupled map car-following model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Fei-Ying; Ge Hong-Xia; Zhang Hui; Yu Han-Mei; Lei Li


    Based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al, a new control method is presented to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map (CM) car-following model under an open boundary. A control signal concluding the velocity differences of the two vehicles in front is put forward. The condition under which the traffic jam can be contained is analyzed. The results are compared with that presented by Konishi et al [Phys. Rev. 1999 E 60 4000-4007]. The simulation results show that the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the Konishi's et al. method, although both the methods could suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  14. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus;


    In this study we assess the economic profitability of implementing various precision farming (PF) technologies and controlled traffic farming (CTF) on 4 main crops in Denmark. The study provides insight into technological requirements, and identifies related costs and benefits to farmers and the ...... to politicians since it clearly facilitates aims of environmental policies currently under implementation by the Danish government.......In this study we assess the economic profitability of implementing various precision farming (PF) technologies and controlled traffic farming (CTF) on 4 main crops in Denmark. The study provides insight into technological requirements, and identifies related costs and benefits to farmers....... The obtained results reflect the long term economic effect of implementing new production methods in Denmark where soil fertility increases over time due to reduced traffic increasing yields. Over all, the Danish GDP is estimated to increase by 34 million € due to the implementation of PF and CTF on larger...

  15. Traffic flow model at fixed control signals with discrete service time distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky I. Igbinosun


    Full Text Available Most of the models of road traffic flow at fixed-cycle controlled intersection assume stationary distributions and provide steady state results. The assumption that a constant number of vehicles can leave the system during the green phase is unrealistic in real life situations. A discrete time queuing model was developed to describe the operation of traffic flow at a road intersection with fixed-cycle signalized control and to account for the randomness in the number of vehicles that can leave the system. The results show the expected queue size in the system when the traffic is light and for a busy period, respectively. For the light period, when the traffic intensity is less than one, it takes a shorter green cycle time for vehicles to clear up than during high traffic intensity (the road junction is saturated. Increasing the number of cars that can leave the junction at the turn of the green phase reduces the number of cycle times before the queue is cleared.

  16. Light Rails at Kennedy Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The Port Authority in New Jersey, New York opened a new light rail on December 18, 2003 to link Kennedy Airport to New York city. The rail with an investment of US$1.5 billion runs along the airport’s terminals, taxi stop, shuttle station and parking area to connect with the city’s downtown rail network, subways, railways and coach stations.The light rail is convenient, safe, reliable and fast to free passengers of the worries about traffic jam and the pressure

  17. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N. McClung


    Full Text Available Characterization of air traffic controllers’ (ATCs’ visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1 defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2 developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1 the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs’ linguistic inputs, (2 the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3 increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process.

  18. Towards reducing traffic congestion using cooperative adaptive cruise control on a freeway with a ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Arnaout


    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, the impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems on traffic performance is examined using microscopic agent-based simulation. Using a developed traffic simulation model of a freeway with an on-ramp - created to induce perturbations and to trigger stop-and-go traffic, the CACC system’s effect on the traffic performance is studied. The previously proposed traffic simulation model is extended and validated. By embedding CACC vehicles in different penetration levels, the results show significance and indicate the potential of CACC systems to improve traffic characteristics and therefore can be used to reduce traffic congestion. The study shows that the impact of CACC is positive but is highly dependent on the CACC market penetration. The flow rate of the traffic using CACC is proportional to the market penetration rate of CACC equipped vehicles and the density of the traffic.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses microscopic simulation experiments followed by a quantitative statistical analysis. Simulation enables researchers manipulating the system variables to straightforwardly predict the outcome on the overall system, giving researchers the unique opportunity to interfere and make improvements to performance. Thus with simulation, changes to variables that might require excessive time, or be unfeasible to carry on real systems, are often completed within seconds.Findings: The findings of this paper are summarized as follow:•\tProvide and validate a platform (agent-based microscopic traffic simulator in which any CACC algorithm (current or future may be evaluated.•\tProvide detailed analysis associated with implementation of CACC vehicles on freeways.•\tInvestigate whether embedding CACC vehicles on freeways has a significant positive impact or not.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is that it has been conducted solely in a computer laboratory. Laboratory

  19. The analysis on the restricting factors and countermeasures of airport noise pollution control%机场噪声污染防治制约因素与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜伟; 王亚男; 李冉; 虞朝晖; 孙琪


    With the rapid development of air transport industry, the airport noise problemhas become increasingly prominent.The construction and development of airports wereobstructed byseveral issues, such as imperfect airport noise control standards, unreasonable airport site selection, and unfulfillment of deceasing-noise measuresimplementation. As an important pre management means to control the environmental risks of the airport construction project, environmental impact assessment not only has great influence on controlling the negative effects of airport noise, but also benefit to achieve the connection between the selection and construction of the airport and the local city planning. And this will avoid the old development pattern of“the airport being surrounded by city”, then to achieve the coordinated development of the airport and the city.%随着我国航空运输业的迅速发展,机场噪声问题日益突出。飞机噪声控制标准不完善、机场选址不合理、降噪措施落实不到位等问题,不利于机场的建设和发展。环境影响评价作为控制机场建设项目环境风险重要的前置性的管理手段,对控制机场噪声的不良环境影响具有重要作用,也有利于实现机场选址和建设与当地有关的规划衔接,避免走“城市包围机场”的老路,有利于实现到机场和城市发展的协调。

  20. Airport Pricing Strategies (United States)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.


    downward adjustments in welfare maximizing tolls may well cause the optimal values of these to be negative. Insofar as subsidization is considered unacceptable for whichever reason, our results warn that the most efficient among the non-negative tolls may actually be a zero toll; the pure congestion toll may actually decrease welfare compared to the base case. The model in this paper contains a few simplifying assumptions that may be relaxed in future work. Load factors and aircraft capacity are fixed in this model for simplicity. In a more advanced version of this model, load factors and aircraft capacity can be endogenized. This makes the derivation of the optimality conditions far more complicated, but it should be feasible in a numerical experiment. One can also add a fourth layer to the model, describing the airport's optimization problem. For example, the airport can maximize profits under a cost recovery constraint. The model then deals with interactions between four types of agents. No distinction is made between peak and off-peak traffic in this paper. Finally, the results of the numerical exercise in this paper need to be checked against an asymmetric equilibrium.

  1. 基于车流量的交通灯控制系统设计%Traffic Light Control System Design Based on Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章伟; 张代远


    As traffic congestion rises within urban around the world,the intelligent control of traffic signals within cities is becoming in-creasingly important. Previous research for the area of intelligent traffic signal control has several shortcomings,including a reliance on historical data,fixing timing,not solving complicated and changeable situation. Propose the intelligent traffic lights control system based on traffic flow in this paper. It can get real-time traffic information with the help of video detection technology,and design the time algo-rithm that based on the information measured to adjust the control of the time of green light in all lanes,which can accurately change the time of traffic lights by achieving traffic dynamic adjustment. This solution allows signals to be updated frequently to match current traffic demand. It can alleviate traffic pressure,improve efficiency,save people's time and energy and protect the environment.%随着在世界各地交通拥堵现象日趋严重,城市内的交通信号智能控制变得越来越重要。先前研究的智能交通信号控制领域内有几个缺点,包括:依赖历史数据、固定配时、不能解决现实复杂多变的环境。文中提出的基于车流量的智能交通灯控制系统,利用视频检测技术,测得路口的实时车流信息,并依据所测得的信息设计了时间分配控制算法来调整控制各车道的绿灯时间,实时改变交通灯的时长以实现车流动态调节,该方案允许信号实时被更新以匹配当前的交通需求。运用到实际可达到缓解交通压力、提高通行效率、节省出行时间、节能减排、保护环境的目的。

  2. How Life Experience Shapes Cognitive Control Strategies: The Case of Air Traffic Control Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arbula

    Full Text Available Although human flexible behavior relies on cognitive control, it would be implausible to assume that there is only one, general mode of cognitive control strategy adopted by all individuals. For instance, different reliance on proactive versus reactive control strategies could explain inter-individual variability. In particular, specific life experiences, like a highly demanding training for future Air Traffic Controllers (ATCs, could modulate cognitive control functions. A group of ATC trainees and a matched group of university students were tested longitudinally on task-switching and Stroop paradigms that allowed us to measure indices of cognitive control. The results showed that the ATCs, with respect to the control group, had substantially smaller mixing costs during long cue-target intervals (CTI and a reduced Stroop interference effect. However, this advantage was present also prior to the training phase. Being more capable in managing multiple task sets and less distracted by interfering events suggests a more efficient selection and maintenance of task relevant information as an inherent characteristic of the ATC group, associated with proactive control. Critically, the training that the ATCs underwent improved their accuracy in general and reduced response time switching costs during short CTIs only. These results indicate a training-induced change in reactive control, which is described as a transient process in charge of stimulus-driven task detection and resolution. This experience-based enhancement of reactive control strategy denotes how cognitive control and executive functions in general can be shaped by real-life training and underlines the importance of experience in explaining inter-individual variability in cognitive functioning.

  3. The Application of The Double Queue Asymmetric Gated Service Polling Control Theory in Intelligent Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi Fan


    Full Text Available paper presents a new use of double queues asymmetric gated service polling system in the intelligent traffic light control system.Usually there are more vehicles in main road than minor road,so there are more green light time be needed in the main road.From the computer simulation and theory analysis,we can find that the application of double queues asymmetric gated service polling theory in intelligent traffic system can balance intersections load and set suitable passing time for vehicles to assure the roads open.

  4. Jam-avoiding adaptive cruise control (ACC) and its impact on traffic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kesting, A; Kranke, F; Sch"onhof, M; Treiber, M; Helbing, Dirk; Kesting, Arne; Kranke, Florian; Sch\\"onhof, Martin; Treiber, Martin


    Adaptive-Cruise Control (ACC) automatically accelerates or decelerates a vehicle to maintain a selected time gap, to reach a desired velocity, or to prevent a rear-end collision. To this end, the ACC sensors detect and track the vehicle ahead for measuring the actual distance and speed difference. Together with the own velocity, these input variables are exactly the same as in car-following models. The focus of this contribution is: What will be the impact of a spreading of ACC systems on the traffic dynamics? Do automated driving strategies have the potential to improve the capacity and stability of traffic flow or will they necessarily increase the heterogeneity and instability? How does the result depend on the ACC equipment level? We discuss microscopic modeling aspects for human and automated (ACC) driving. By means of microscopic traffic simulations, we study how a variable percentage of ACC-equipped vehicles influences the stability of traffic flow, the maximum flow under free traffic conditions until ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. SHAFIE


    Full Text Available Traffic signal light can be optimized using vehicle flow statistics obtained by Smart Video Surveillance Software (SVSS. This research focuses on efficient traffic control system by detecting and counting the vehicle numbers at various times and locations. At present, one of the biggest problems in the main city in any country is the traffic jam during office hour and office break hour. Sometimes it can be seen that the traffic signal green light is still ON even though there is no vehicle coming. Similarly, it is also observed that long queues of vehicles are waiting even though the road is empty due to traffic signal light selection without proper investigation on vehicle flow. This can be handled by adjusting the vehicle passing time implementing by our developed SVSS. A number of experiment results of vehicle flows are discussed in this research graphically in order to test the feasibility of the developed system. Finally, adoptive background model is proposed in SVSS in order to successfully detect target objects such as motor bike, car, bus, etc.

  6. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)


    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  7. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.


    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  8. Dynamic traffic grooming in distributed-controlled IP/WDM optical mesh networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jun; Zeng Qingji; Liu Jimin; Xiao Pengcheng; Liu Hua; Xiao Shilin


    In this paper, the study was devoted to the traffic-grooming problem in a distributed-controlled WDM mesh network. We studied the optimization of the maximal number of ports configured at each node in the network. We gave the maximumnumber simulation results in different network environment, which could be taken as a reference for network design.

  9. Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meeuwen, Ludo; Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Bock, Jeano; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen


    Van Meeuwen, L. W., Jarodzka, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., Kirschner, P. A., De Bock, J. J. P. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012, April). Expertise differences in air traffic control: An eye-tracking study. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting 2012, Vancouver,

  10. Blurred controlling of crossroads traffic light%十字路口交通灯的模糊控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    we could control the crossroads traffic light by blur,to solve the situation of crowded traffic in traditional controlling%通过对十字路口交通灯的模糊控制,解决了在传统控制中出现的交通堵塞情况.

  11. Airport Configuration Prediction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is presently poor knowledge throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) of the airport configurations currently in use at each airport. There is even less...

  12. Final Environmental Assessment, Construction and Operation of Air Traffic Control Tower (United States)


    Existing Control Tower Site. Complete demolition of the Control Tower building on the site would produce waste concrete, asphalt , metal, and wood...Construction & Operation of Air Traffic Control Tower 44 May 12, 2008 receptor elements. Workers would wear ear protection, as necessary, for...appear to be achieving their hazardous waste reduction goals. The major areas not meeting goals appear to be abrasive blasting and industrial

  13. Landing-Time-Controlled Management Of Air Traffic (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Tobias, Leonard


    Conceptual system controls aircraft with old and new guidance equipment. Report begins with overview of concept, then reviews controller-interactive simulations. Describes fuel-conservative-trajectory algorithm, based on equations of motion for controlling landing time. Finally, presents results of piloted simulations.

  14. A Teamwork-Oriented Air Traffic Control Simulator (United States)


    capability to train the controller and/or controller team. Neophyte controllers can be given the chance to develop without any attendant fear of the...the increasing use of the shared airspace, especially in Europe where the density of industrialized countries is high and the shared airspace is

  15. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang


    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  16. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor


    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  17. Surface membrane traffic in guinea pig basophils exposed to cationic ferritin. (United States)

    Dvorak, A M; Dvorak, H F; Galli, S J


    Surface membrane traffic patterns can be influenced by a number of factors, including the functional state of the cell. We used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the fate of surface membrane in guinea pig basophils exposed to cationized ferritin (CF) in vitro. CF bound to the plasma membrane and was internalized on the membranes of vesicles and vacuoles, a process that was particularly prominent at the uropod of basophils exhibiting a polarized ('motile') configuration. The vesicles/vacuoles moved to the Golgi area, or, in the case of degranulating basophils, were observed in continuity with the degranulation sac, a structure formed largely by the fusion of individual cytoplasmic granule membranes. However, CF-positive vesicles were never observed to fuse directly with the membranes of intact cytoplasmic granules.

  18. Robust control tools for traffic monitoring in TCP/AQM networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ariba, Yassine; Rahme, Sandy; Labit, Yann


    Several studies have considered control theory tools for traffic control in communication networks, as for example the congestion control issue in IP (Internet Protocol) routers. In this paper, we propose to design a linear observer for time-delay systems to address the traffic monitoring issue in TCP/AQM (Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management) networks. Due to several propagation delays and the queueing delay, the set TCP/AQM is modeled as a multiple delayed system of a particular form. Hence, appropriate robust control tools as quadratic separation are adopted to construct a delay dependent observer for TCP flows estimation. Note that, the developed mechanism enables also the anomaly detection issue for a class of DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. At last, simulations via the network simulator NS-2 and an emulation experiment validate the proposed methodology.

  19. 75 FR 9014 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control... (United States)


    ... libraries: Kalamazoo Public Library, Washington Square Branch, 1244 Portage Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49001. Kalamazoo Public Library, Central Library, 315 S. Rose St., Kalamazoo, MI 49007. Portage District Library, 300 Library Lane, Portage, MI 49002. ] ADDRESSES: The FAA will accept written comments on the...

  20. Airport as city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, M.


    The airport city is a two-fold phenomenon: the areas surrounding the airport develop due to their proximity and accessibility to the terminal complex, and the terminal complex itself develops in to a pseudo-urban centre. This situation is manifest to varying extents in all major airports of the worl

  1. Environmental risk factors contributing to traffic accidents in children: a case-control study. (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Moradi, Ali; Majdzadeh, Reza


    The aim of this study is to identify environmental risk factors related to road accidents in children of Tehran. This case-control study was performed in 2013. The cases were injured pedestrians aged 5-15 who were admitted to major hospitals supervised by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The sample size for the cases was 273 and for the control group was 546. For the completeness of the clusters, 7 extra persons in case (total = 280) and 14 persons (total = 560) in control group were included. The interference of confounding variables assessed through forward conditional logistic regression. Result shows occurrence of traffic accidents was significantly associate with the width of the alleys or (traffic congestion (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 2.6-6.4), traffic speed (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) and existence of pedestrian bridges(OR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.6-6.8). In the light of the important role of environmental factors in the occurrence of child traffic accidents, alleviating structural risk factors in addition to education and enforcement need more systematic efforts and planning by policymakers and urban planners to attain pedestrian safety goals.

  2. Controlled traffic and soil physical quality of an Oxisol under sugarcane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Soares de Souza


    Full Text Available Machinery traffic in sugarcane (Saccharumsp. plantations reduces soil physical quality, and hinders both root development and crop yield. We evaluated the physical quality of an Oxisol and the development of sugarcane roots under controlled traffic. The treatments assessed were: without controlled machinery traffic (WCT, controlled traffic by adjusting the tractor and infield wagons to a 3.0 m track width with the operator guiding the machinery (CT1 and the previous treatment using real time kinematic / global positioning system (RTK / GPS precision auto steer (CT2. Soil samples were collected from the planting rows, seedbed and inter-row center to determine the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil porosity from scanned 2-D images. The root dry mass was sampled from monoliths, separated from the soil by washing through a 2-mm sieve and dried in an oven. A higher LLWR was observed in the planting row under CT1 and CT2 than under WCT. The planting row had a predominance of complex pores with a diameter > 500 µm in the 0.15-0.27 m depth layer under CT1 and CT2. In the planting rows under WCT, the root dry mass was only 44 % of that measured under CT2. Benefits regarding soil physical quality and growth roots were observed when the tractor-wagon track width was adjusted based on the sugarcane spacing using either precision auto steering or manual operation of the machinery.

  3. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.


    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  4. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  5. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning


    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  6. Real-time optical path control method that utilizes multiple support vector machines for traffic prediction (United States)

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi


    An effective solution to the continuous Internet traffic expansion is to offload traffic to lower layers such as the L2 or L1 optical layers. One possible approach is to introduce dynamic optical path operations such as adaptive establishment/tear down according to traffic variation. Path operations cannot be done instantaneously; hence, traffic prediction is essential. Conventional prediction techniques need optimal parameter values to be determined in advance by averaging long-term variations from the past. However, this does not allow adaptation to the ever-changing short-term variations expected to be common in future networks. In this paper, we propose a real-time optical path control method based on a machinelearning technique involving support vector machines (SVMs). A SVM learns the most recent traffic characteristics, and so enables better adaptation to temporal traffic variations than conventional techniques. The difficulty lies in determining how to minimize the time gap between optical path operation and buffer management at the originating points of those paths. The gap makes the required learning data set enormous and the learning process costly. To resolve the problem, we propose the adoption of multiple SVMs running in parallel, trained with non-overlapping subsets of the original data set. The maximum value of the outputs of these SVMs will be the estimated number of necessary paths. Numerical experiments prove that our proposed method outperforms a conventional prediction method, the autoregressive moving average method with optimal parameter values determined by Akaike's information criterion, and reduces the packet-loss ratio by up to 98%.

  7. Illuminating traffic control for cell-division planes. (United States)

    Robatzek, Silke


    When a plant cell divides, four related proteins control the trafficking of vesicles and ensure that cargo that is normally recycled to the plasma membrane is instead re-routed to the plane of cell division.

  8. Splitting of Traffic Flows to Control Congestion in Special Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro D'Apice


    minimized with respect to the same control parameter. The obtained results have been tested by simulations of urban networks. Decongestion effects are also confirmed estimating the time a car needs to cross a fixed route on the network.

  9. Cellular metabolic and autophagic pathways: traffic control by redox signaling. (United States)

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua


    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function.

  10. En Route/Terminal ATC (Air Traffic Control) Operations Concept. (United States)


    been provided It is recognized that for events such as catastro - controllers interface phes, hi-jackings, or sensi- with pilots and control- tive U.S...idetiie .icat " nbokcd Tig ~ l ~ C nttt V. DrONe ~iy n ieto vco Itwddr lc’ PoutionSymbls tne mpced aeadof Wet)O~te w0b9f ,i29 6 Fre tack No ~i~t pln

  11. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in... any airport unless— (a) For airports with an operating control tower: (1) Prior approval has...

  12. Lhasa Airport Gets Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On November 12, Gonggar Airport in Lhasa, capital of southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region, ended its 43-year history of not being able to handle night flights with a passenger jet bound for Chengdu City in neighboring Sichuan Province, taking off at 7:50 p.m.The progress is the result of a $150-million navigation lighting project that the airport completed in June.Gonggar Airport, situated 3,600 meters above sea level, is one of the world’shighest airports. It began operation in March 1956. After an expansion projectin 2001 -03, the airport can now handle 1.1 million passengers every year.

  13. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation (United States)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad


    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  14. Modelling and optimization of computer network traffic controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed


    operation of the controller and evaluate the benefits of using a genetic algorithm approach to speed up the optimization process. Our results show that the use of the genetic algorithm proves particularly useful in reducing the computation time required to optimize the operation of a system consisting of multiple token-bucket-regulated sources.

  15. Detection of Botnet Command and Control Traffic in Enterprise Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, P.


    Botnets play an important role in modern Internet-related cybercrime. A botnet consists of a group of infected computers, referred to as bots. The bots are remotely controlled and deployed in malicious activities, such as DDoS attacks, spam, and espionage. Clever design of the botnet C&C (Command an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryna Kazhan


    Full Text Available Abstract. Forecasting of development of the major airports of Ukraine indicates that further increasingof air traffic and approaching of residential areas close to airports will cause constraints of airportoperational capacity according to ensuring environmental requirements. At present, aircraft noise is themost significant factor among other factors of airport environmental impact. For ensuring sustainabledevelopment of civil airports the model of airport environmental capacity is proposed. The model in longtermconsideration allows determination of optimal (according to reduction of noise levels fleet, choosingthe most profitable aircraft operational regimes in the frames of ICAO Balanced Approach to aircraft noisecontrol. The model is based on entropy optimization method. Using proposed approach needs taking intoaccount additional constraints: operational, environmental (emissions of aircraft engines. Meteorologicaland flight characteristics of aircraft type also should be taken into account.Keywords: aircraft noise, acoustical capacity, environmental capacity, operational restrictions.

  17. Civil aviation impacts on local air quality: A survey inside two international airports in central Italy (United States)

    Vichi, Francesca; Frattoni, Massimiliano; Imperiali, Andrea; Balducci, Catia; Cecinato, Angelo; Perilli, Mattia; Romagnoli, Paola


    The results of air quality monitoring carried out over several years (2008-2012) in two international airports near Rome (labelled as A and B) are reported and discussed. Airport A serves regular flights, airport B operates low-cost flights and, during the period investigated, had about 17% of airport A aircraft traffic load. Diffusive sampling of gaseous species (NO2, SO2, BTX and O3) was performed at several sites inside the airports. During 2012 the investigation was improved by including PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Higher concentrations of NO2 (+18%) and lower of SO2 (-20%) were found at airport B, compared to A, over the whole period investigated. The maximum concentrations of SO2 were measured in 2011 at both airports (13.4 μg/m3 and 10.8 μg/m3 respectively for A and B), despite the decrease of aircraft traffic load recorded. Statistical analysis of PM10 data showed that there was no significant difference between the average concentrations measured at the two airports (25.7 μg/m3 and 27.4 μg/m3 for A and B respectively) and among the sites investigated. The concentration of PAHs at airport B (4.3 ng/m3) was almost twice that of airport A (2.2 ng/m3), though the respective percentages of compounds were similar. Airport B seemed to be negatively influenced by its surroundings, in particular by vehicular traffic flows of two major roads, whereas airport A was positively influenced by the proximity to the seaside. PCA data analysis showed that airport A sites are differently impacted by the LTO flight phases according to their position, whereas at airport B it was impossible to find similar relationships.

  18. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study-2: Effects of Communications Delays and Winds in Simulation (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.


    This study evaluated the effects of Communications Delays and Winds on Air Traffic Controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between UAS and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth East-side airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from self-separation algorithms displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Simulation System. Winds tested did not affect the acceptability ratings. Communications delays tested included 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS.

  19. A control method for congested traffic induced by bottlenecks in the coupled map car-following model (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomei; Gao, Ziyou


    We present a simple control method to suppress the traffic congestion in the coupled map car-following model under open boundary, based on the pioneer work of Konishi et al. [Coupled map car-following model and its delayed-feedback control, Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 4000-4007]. Theoretically, it is proven that the congested traffic in the traffic system could be suppressed by using the method. Comparison between our method and the method of Konishi et al. is carried out. The simulation results show the temporal behavior obtained by our method is better than that by the method of Konishi et al., although both the methods can suppress the traffic jam. The simulation results demonstrate that the traffic system can move into a homogeneous phase and the flux has great increases by the introduction of the control signal. The simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  20. 校园网流量分析与控制%Traffic Analysis and Control of Campus Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锡川; 李志强


    本文提出了一套校园网流量分析系统的基本架构,并探讨了控制校园网流量的可行方法.%This papper presents a traffic analysis system of campus network,and discusses a way to control network traffic.

  1. Potential of low ground pressure for harvesting machinery in a controlled traffic farming system in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Sukkel, W.


    Seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF), i.e. CTF without using the permanent traffic lanes for harvesting and primary soil tillage, leads to improved soil structure, higher crop yields, significant reduction of the emission of nitrous oxide and increased uptake of methane. Improved timeliness of

  2. Machine vision algorithms applied to dynamic traffic light control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Andrés Espinosa Valcárcel


    número de autos presentes en imágenes capturadas por un conjunto de cámaras estratégicamente ubicadas en cada intersección. Usando esta información, el sistema selecciona la secuencia de acciones que optimicen el flujo vehicular dentro de la zona de control, en un escenario simulado. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el sistema disminuye en un 20% los tiempos de retraso para cada vehículo y que además es capaz de adaptarse rápida y eficientemente a los cambios de flujo.

  3. Using light to see and control membrane traffic. (United States)

    Xu, Yingke; Melia, Thomas J; Toomre, Derek K


    Cellular compartmentalization into discrete organelles is maintained by membrane trafficking including vesiculation and tubulation. Recent advances in superresolution imaging have begun to bring these small and dynamic events into focus. Most nanoscopes exploit, and are limited by, switching dyes ON and OFF. Using ground state depletion to switch dyes into long-lived dark states can exploit specific photophysical properties of dyes, such as redox potential or pK(a), and expand the repertoire of nanoscopy probes for multicolor imaging. Seeing is not enough, and new technologies based on homodimerization, heterodimerization and selective release can manipulate membrane trafficking in pulse-chase and light-controlled ways. Herein we highlight the utility and promise of these strategies and discuss their current limitations.

  4. Traffic jam at adjustable tollgates controlled by line length (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi


    We present the stochastic model for the jam formation at the tollgates of which the number is adjusted by synchronizing with the jam's length. We study the jam formation and its fluctuation in front of the adjustable tollgates on a highway. Controlling the number of tollgates has an important effect on the jam formation. The jams are classified into three kinds: (a) localized jam, (b) synchronized jam, and (c) growing jam. The jamming transitions from the localized jam, through the synchronized jam, to the growing jam occur with increasing inflow probability. At an intermediate inflow, the jam fluctuates largely by synchronizing with the number of tollgates. When the inflow probability is higher than the sum of outflow probabilities at tollgates, the jam continues to grow and diverge with time. The dependence of the fluctuating jam on the inflow probability is clarified.

  5. Managing emergencies and abnormal situations in air traffic control (part II): teamwork strategies. (United States)

    Malakis, Stathis; Kontogiannis, Tom; Kirwan, Barry


    Team performance has been studied in many safety-critical organizations including aviation, nuclear power plant, offshore oil platforms and health organizations. This study looks into teamwork strategies that air traffic controllers employ to manage emergencies and abnormal situations. Two field studies were carried out in the form of observations of simulator training in emergency and unusual scenarios of novices and experienced controllers. Teamwork strategies covered aspects of team orientation and coordination, information exchange, change management and error handling. Several performance metrics were used to rate the efficiency of teamwork and test the construct validity of a prototype model of teamwork. This is a companion study to an earlier investigation of taskwork strategies in the same field (part I) and contributes to the development of a generic model for Taskwork and Teamwork strategies in Emergencies in Air traffic Management (T(2)EAM). Suggestions are made on how to use T(2)EAM to develop training programs, assess team performance and improve mishap investigations.

  6. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)


    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Handling Prioritized Heterogeneous Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Hong, Choong Seon


    Heterogeneous applications could be assimilated within the same wireless sensor network with the aid of modern motes that have multiple sensor boards on a single radio board. Different types of data generated from such types of motes might have different transmission characteristics in terms of priority, transmission rate, required bandwidth, tolerable packet loss, delay demands etc. Considering a sensor network consisting of such multi-purpose nodes, in this paper we propose Prioritized Heterogeneous Traffic-oriented Congestion Control Protocol (PHTCCP) which ensures efficient rate control for prioritized heterogeneous traffic. Our protocol uses intra-queue and inter-queue priorities for ensuring feasible transmission rates of heterogeneous data. It also guarantees efficient link utilization by using dynamic transmission rate adjustment. Detailed analysis and simulation results are presented along with the description of our protocol to demonstrate its effectiveness in handling prioritized heterogeneous traf...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK


    Full Text Available The paper attempts to characterize changes occurring in EU transport policy, taking into account innovation of airports and aerodromes. To face challenges like: increase in air traffic, ensuring safety of flight operations, regional development or requirements of passengers it is necessary to determine desired direction network of airports and aerodromes within the aviation policy, which is part of the national and European transport policy. Overview of national and EU studies, strategies and legislative plans enable to specify changes taking place in the EU aviation policy, as well as to create potential scenarios of its development with particular attention to the innovation of aerodromes and airports. Based on the above analysis it should be noted, that aims of the European institutions and agencies are: reduction amount of restrictive rules on general aviation (including GA aerodromes, spread concepts of multimodality and Small Aircraft Transport Systems, enhance competitiveness of the EU aviation sector but also reduction investment funding at airports. Conclusions may be a theoretical inspiration in the process of updating master plans of aerodromes and airports.

  9. Development of a framework for the evaluation of the environmental benefits of controlled traffic farming


    Mouazen, Abdul; Palmqvist, Martin


    Although controlled traffic farming (CTF) is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG), conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser use...



    Мозолевич, Г. Я.; А. В. ТРОЯН


    In this work there were suggested the arrangements for the improvement of mutual relations of drivers and employees of the State motor-car inspection of Dnipropetrovsk city by introduction of electronic account of documents and automation of processes of travelling traffic regulation and controlling a travelling situation on the motor-car ways of city. There has been worked out strategy of introduction and expected cost of project for Dni-propetrovsk city. 

  11. Using Historical Data to Automatically Identify Air-Traffic Control Behavior (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste


    This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Myers-Briggs Personality Types in Air Traffic Controllers (United States)


    designed to look at the role of personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ). The instrument assesses personality on four...investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training...outcomes, and transition to a supervisory or managerial position about 20 years later. METHOD. The 300-item MBTI was administered to 5,588 males (87

  13. A new intelligent approach for air traffic control using gravitational search algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kazem Dastgerdi; Nasser Mehrshad; Mohsen Farshad


    Aircraft landing planning (ALP) is one of the most important challenging problems in the domain of air traffic control (ATC). Solving this NP-hard problem is a valuable aid in organizing air traffic in terminal control area (TCA), which itself leads to a decrease in aircraft fuel consumption, costs of airlines, and workload undertaken by air traffic controllers. In the present paper, the ALP problem is dealt with by applying effective rich knowledge to the optimization process (to remove obvious non-optimal solutions), and the first use of Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) in resolving such a case. In this regard, while the specific regulations for safe separation have been observed, the optimal landing time, the optimal runway, and the order of consecutive landings have been determined so that the main goal (minimizing total flight delays) would be best met. Results of simulations show that this approach, compared to previous ones, which are based on Genetic and Bionomic algorithms, GLS, and Scatter search method, considerably decreases total flight delays. Attaining zero in the total flight delays in three scenarios with real data shows that the suggested intelligent approach is more decisive than others in finding an optimal solution.

  14. Hematological and immunological effects of stress of air traffic controllers in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that stress and emotional reactions can affect immune responses in animals and humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and immunological effects of stress on air traffic controllers. METHODS: Thirty air traffic controllers and 15 aeronautical information service operators were evaluated. The groups were divided as information service operators with 10 years or more of experience (AIS>10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (AIS10 and with less than 10 years in the profession (ATCo10 group presented a significantly lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes at 2:00 p.m. compared to 8:00 a.m. Moreover, the ATCo>10 group presented lower hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelet and leukocyte levels, and increased cortisol concentrations at 8:00 a.m. compared to the other groups. Additionally, this group had lower phagocytosis rate of monocytes, and hemoglobin, platelet, leukocyte, basophils and nitric oxide levels at 2:00 p.m. compared to the other groups. CONCLUSION: Stress seems to greatly affect immune responses of air traffic controllers with more than ten years of experience.

  15. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) (United States)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.


    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Hurski


    Full Text Available A model of the straight course of movement of the mobile machine with a traction electric motor DC. Traffic management controller provides a closed classical scheme with feedback. The mathematical model of the electric DC motor with the energy dissipation in the rotor bearings. Design scheme of mobile machines include speed dial controller, traction electric motor, gearbox, transmission and progressively moving mass on the elastic­dissipative wheel. The results of the simulation of the machine in the form of temporary processes of change control signals, voltage and current in the windings of the motor and traction power developed on the wheel.

  17. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  18. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering


    Uhlig, Steve


    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  19. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri


    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  20. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with TEB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khalifa


    Full Text Available A forecast of the snowfall helps winter coordination operating services, reducing the cost of the maintenance actions, and the environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icing. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavement, the forecast of the road surface temperature (RST is mandatory. Physical numerical models provide such forecast, and do need an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with all the energy interactions, with two approaches to evaluate the traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the traffic effect on RST increase with respect to non circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  1. Admission Control for Multiservices Traffic in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks by Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Shyr Wu


    Full Text Available CAC (Call Admission Control plays a significant role in providing QoS (Quality of Service in mobile wireless networks. In addition to much research that focuses on modified Mobile IP to get better efficient handover performance, CAC should be introduced to Mobile IP-based network to guarantee the QoS for users. In this paper, we propose a CAC scheme which incorporates multiple traffic types and adjusts the admission threshold dynamically using fuzzy control logic to achieve better usage of resources. The method can provide QoS in Mobile IPv6 networks with few modifications on MAP (Mobility Anchor Point functionality and slight change in BU (Binding Update message formats. According to the simulation results, the proposed scheme presents good performance of voice and video traffic at the expenses of poor performance on data traffic. It is evident that these CAC schemes can reduce the probability of the handoff dropping and the cell overload and limit the probability of the new call blocking.

  2. The Sybtraps: control of synaptobrevin traffic by synaptophysin, α-synuclein and AP-180. (United States)

    Gordon, Sarah L; Cousin, Michael A


    Synaptobrevin II (sybII) is a key fusogenic molecule on synaptic vesicles (SVs) therefore the active maintenance of both its conformation and location in sufficient numbers on this organelle is critical in both mediating and sustaining neurotransmitter release. Recently three proteins have been identified having key roles in the presentation, trafficking and retrieval of sybII during the fusion and endocytosis of SVs. The nerve terminal protein α-synuclein catalyses sybII entry into SNARE complexes, whereas the monomeric adaptor protein AP-180 is required for sybII retrieval during SV endocytosis. Overarching these events is the tetraspan SV protein synaptophysin, which is a major sybII interaction partner on the SV. This review will evaluate recent studies to propose working models for the control of sybII traffic by synaptophysin and other Sybtraps (sybII trafficking partners) and suggest how dysfunction in sybII traffic may contribute to human disease.

  3. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  4. Volcanic hazards to airports (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.


    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  5. Airborne Four-Dimensional Flight Management in a Time-based Air Traffic Control Environment (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.


    Advanced Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems are being developed which contain time-based (4D) trajectory predictions of aircraft. Airborne flight management systems (FMS) exist or are being developed with similar 4D trajectory generation capabilities. Differences between the ATC generated profiles and those generated by the airborne 4D FMS may introduce system problems. A simulation experiment was conducted to explore integration of a 4D equipped aircraft into a 4D ATC system. The NASA Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle cockpit simulator was linked in real time to the NASA Ames Descent Advisor ATC simulation for this effort. Candidate procedures for handling 4D equipped aircraft were devised and traffic scenarios established which required time delays absorbed through speed control alone or in combination with path stretching. Dissimilarities in 4D speed strategies between airborne and ATC generated trajectories were tested in these scenarios. The 4D procedures and FMS operation were well received by airline pilot test subjects, who achieved an arrival accuracy at the metering fix of 2.9 seconds standard deviation time error. The amount and nature of the information transmitted during a time clearance were found to be somewhat of a problem using the voice radio communication channel. Dissimilarities between airborne and ATC-generated speed strategies were found to be a problem when the traffic remained on established routes. It was more efficient for 4D equipped aircraft to fly trajectories with similar, though less fuel efficient, speeds which conform to the ATC strategy. Heavy traffic conditions, where time delays forced off-route path stretching, were found to produce a potential operational benefit of the airborne 4D FMS.

  6. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.


    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  7. Quantification of the impact of aircraft traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone over Paris area (United States)

    Pison, Isabelle; Menut, Laurent

    Accurate estimations of the emissions of primary pollutants are crucial for the modeling of photo-oxidants' concentrations. For a majority of chemistry-transport models (CTMs), these emissions are taken into account near the surface only. They are expressed as surface fluxes and represent surface activities such as traffic, industries or biogenic processes. However, in the vicinity of large cities, commercial aircraft emissions represent a nonnegligible source, located both at the surface and at altitude, including landing and take-off of aircraft within the boundary layer. This is the case of Paris where one national airport (Le Bourget) and two international airports (Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle and Orly) are located less than 30 km away from the city center. This study presents the first-model analysis of the impact of aircraft emissions on photo-oxidant concentrations over the Paris area. Using a three-dimensional aircraft emission inventory, we compare ozone surface concentrations obtained with and without these emissions by running the CTM CHIMERE during the second Intensive Observation Period of the ESQUIF project. The simulated differences enable us to estimate the impact of aircraft traffic emissions on ozone surface concentrations in and around the city. The results showed that the maximum impact, which consists in a fast ozone titration by NO near the airports within the surface layer, occurs during the night. In remote areas and at altitude, adding new emissions enhanced photo-chemistry during the afternoon. In order to estimate the impact of the uncertainty of our inventory, aircraft emitted masses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NO x are perturbed. The results showed that NO x air traffic emissions have a more important impact than VOC emissions, particularly during the night and near the sources. Nevertheless, these variations of air traffic emissions do not change previous conclusions.

  8. Localization and recognition of traffic signs for automated vehicle control systems (United States)

    Zadeh, Mahmoud M.; Kasvand, T.; Suen, Ching Y.


    We present a computer vision system for detection and recognition of traffic signs. Such systems are required to assist drivers and for guidance and control of autonomous vehicles on roads and city streets. For experiments we use sequences of digitized photographs and off-line analysis. The system contains four stages. First, region segmentation based on color pixel classification called SRSM. SRSM limits the search to regions of interest in the scene. Second, we use edge tracing to find parts of outer edges of signs which are circular or straight, corresponding to the geometrical shapes of traffic signs. The third step is geometrical analysis of the outer edge and preliminary recognition of each candidate region, which may be a potential traffic sign. The final step in recognition uses color combinations within each region and model matching. This system maybe used for recognition of other types of objects, provided that the geometrical shape and color content remain reasonably constant. The method is reliable, easy to implement, and fast, This differs form the road signs recognition method in the PROMETEUS. The overall structure of the approach is sketched.

  9. An RFID-Based Intelligent Vehicle Speed Controller Using Active Traffic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez


    Full Text Available These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC, which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver’s attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  10. An RFID-based intelligent vehicle speed controller using active traffic signals. (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Seco, Fernando; Milanés, Vicente; Jiménez, Antonio; Díaz, Julio C; de Pedro, Teresa


    These days, mass-produced vehicles benefit from research on Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). One prime example of ITS is vehicle Cruise Control (CC), which allows it to maintain a pre-defined reference speed, to economize on fuel or energy consumption, to avoid speeding fines, or to focus all of the driver's attention on the steering of the vehicle. However, achieving efficient Cruise Control is not easy in roads or urban streets where sudden changes of the speed limit can happen, due to the presence of unexpected obstacles or maintenance work, causing, in inattentive drivers, traffic accidents. In this communication we present a new Infrastructure to Vehicles (I2V) communication and control system for intelligent speed control, which is based upon Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for identification of traffic signals on the road, and high accuracy vehicle speed measurement with a Hall effect-based sensor. A fuzzy logic controller, based on sensor fusion of the information provided by the I2V infrastructure, allows the efficient adaptation of the speed of the vehicle to the circumstances of the road. The performance of the system is checked empirically, with promising results.

  11. Traffic control based on dahlin algorithm and neural network prediction in TAM networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 冯瑞; 邵惠鹤


    The propagation delay in networks has a great adverse effect on rate-based traffic control. This paper proposes the composite control based on Dab lin algorithm feedback control and neural network feedforward predictive compensation online for ABR (available bit rate) communication in ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) networks, which can overcome the adverse effect caused by the delay on the control rapidity and stability better. The theoretical analysis and simulation research show that the scheme can make sources respond to the changes of network status rapidly, avoid the congestion effectively and utilize the bandwidth sufficiently. Compared with PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control, cell loss rate is much lower, link utilization rate is much higher, and required buffer capacity is much smaller.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatm Alkadeki


    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11 backoff algorithm is very important for controlling system throughput over contentionbased wireless networks. For this reason, there are many studies on wireless network performance focus on developing backoff algorithms. However, most existing models are based on saturated traffic loads, which are not a real representation of actual network conditions. In this paper, a dynamic control backoff time algorithm is proposed to enhance both delay and throughput performance of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function. This algorithm considers the distinction between high and low traffic loads in order to deal with unsaturated traffic load conditions. In particular, the equilibrium point analysis model is used to represent the algorithm under various traffic load conditions. Results of extensive simulation experiments illustrate that the proposed algorithm yields better performance throughput and a better average transmission packet delay than related algorithms.

  13. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte


    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  14. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasts for East-Central Florida Airports (United States)

    Crawford, Winfred C.


    The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL, (NWS MLB) identified a need to make more accurate lightning forecasts to help alleviate delays due to thunderstorms in the vicinity of several commercial airports in central Florida at which they are responsible for issuing terminal aerodrome forecasts. Such forecasts would also provide safer ground operations around terminals, and would be of value to Center Weather Service Units serving air traffic controllers in Florida. To improve the forecast, the AMU was tasked to develop an objective lightning probability forecast tool for the airports using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The resulting forecast tool is similar to that developed by the AMU to support space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for use by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in previous tasks (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). The lightning probability forecasts are valid for the time periods and areas needed by the NWS MLB forecasters in the warm season months, defined in this task as May-September.

  15. 日本机场噪声管理经验简介及对我国的启示%Introduction to Japan’ s Experience in Airport Noise Control and its Implications to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢力; 胡笑浒; 周鑫


    机场噪声问题一直是机场环境影响评价工作中的重点内容,也是社会各界关注的焦点。为顺利开展机场声环境影响评价和相关管理工作,理顺机场噪声污染防治工作,系统地从法律、法规、标准、科学研究、资金投入等方面对日本机场噪声管理进行了研究,梳理了我国机场噪声污染防治存在的问题,主要包括缺乏统一管理体系、评价标准不完善、投资不到位等,并结合日本经验和我国实际状况,提出了出台机场噪声管理条例、修订评价标准、建立机场噪声防治专项资金等对策建议。%The noise control is always an important component of airport environmental impact assessment. In order to improve the airport noise assessment in China, Japan’ s experience in airport noise control is introduced in terms of relevant laws and regulations, standards, research and funding. The problems with China’ s airport noise control are then analyzed such as lack of uniform management system, incomplete assessment standards and inadequate funding. Suggestions are raised in terms of establishing airport noise management regulations, revising assessment standards and setting up special fund for airport noise control.

  16. Multiagent Systems: Introduction and Application in Traffic Control and Simulation and Emergency Situations Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAZZAN, A. L. C.


    Full Text Available The area of multiagent systems is new and challenging. From the moment a system includes more than one agent, artificial intelligence techniques become inadequate for they do not consider interactions with other agent, need for coordination and other factors. In this text those aspects are discussed, and an introduction to the area of autonomous agents and multiagent systems is offered. Afterwards, two application of this kind of systems are described, both in the area of transportation and emergency sistuations. In the former we discuss traffic control and simulation and in the latter, we focus on the simulation tool RoboCup Rescue

  17. Impact of Operating Context on the Use of Structure in Air Traffic Controller Cognitive Processes (United States)

    Davison, Hayley J.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Ragnarsdottir, Margret Dora; Major, Laura M.; Hansman, R. John


    This paper investigates the influence of structure on air traffic controllers cognitive processes in the TRACON, En Route, and Oceanic environments. Radar data and voice command analyses were conducted to support hypotheses generated through observations and interviews conducted at the various facilities. Three general types of structure-based abstractions (standard flows, groupings, and critical points) have been identified as being used in each context, though the details of their application varied in accordance with the constraints of the particular operational environment. Projection emerged as a key cognitive process aided by the structure-based abstractions, and there appears to be a significant difference between how time-based versus spatial-based projection is performed by controllers. It is recommended that consideration be given to the value provided by the structure-based abstractions to the controller as well as to maintain consistency between the type (time or spatial) of information support provided to the controller.

  18. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work. (United States)

    Touri, Léa; Marchetti, Hélène; Sari-Minodier, Irène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal


    Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures.

  19. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Touri


    Full Text Available Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures.

  20. Assessment of Load Capacity of the Airport Pavement Structure With the Use of the Acn-Pcn Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesołowski Mariusz


    Full Text Available The structures of the airport pavements are designed for defined operational time, assuming the predicted intensity and structure of the air traffic. The safety of air operations conducted by aircrafts on airport pavements depends mostly on their load capacity and design. Therefore, the load capacity inspections should be performed periodically, as the information about the current operational condition of the airport pavement is the basis for decisions on types of aircrafts allowed for traffic, as well as traffic intensity and dates of renovation or modernization works.

  1. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.


    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [Pcontrol group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  2. Statistical characterization of deviations from planned flight trajectories in air traffic management

    CERN Document Server

    Bongiorno, C; Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N; Miccichè, S


    Understanding the relation between planned and realized flight trajectories and the determinants of flight deviations is of great importance in air traffic management. In this paper we perform an in depth investigation of the statistical properties of planned and realized air traffic on the German airspace during a 28 day periods, corresponding to an AIRAC cycle. We find that realized trajectories are on average shorter than planned ones and this effect is stronger during night-time than daytime. Flights are more frequently deviated close to the departure airport and at a relatively large angle to destination. Moreover, the probability of a deviation is higher in low traffic phases. All these evidences indicate that deviations are mostly used by controllers to give directs to flights when traffic conditions allow it. Finally we introduce a new metric, termed difork, which is able to characterize navigation points according to the likelihood that a deviation occurs there. Difork allows to identify in a statist...

  3. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeily, S.


    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  4. Modeling the effect of night time penalties on commercial and business flights for regional airport noise and economics: Rotterdam Airport case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan Mohamed, W.M.; Curran, R.; Van der Zwan, F.M.; Roling, P.


    Noise is one of the main concerns of airports around the world. Several measures have been taken by regulators to reduce noise at airports. Some of these measures are meant to control noise at major or busy airports; however, certain operational restrictions (quota, curfew, and budget) are also impl

  5. Traffic Adaptive Energy Efficient and Low Latency Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh; Varma, Shirshu; Malaviya, N.


    Medium access control for wireless sensor networks has been a very active research area in the recent years. The traditional wireless medium access control protocol such as IEEE 802.11 is not suitable for the sensor network application because these are battery powered. The recharging of these sensor nodes is expensive and also not possible. The most of the literature in the medium access for the sensor network focuses on the energy efficiency. The proposed MAC protocol solves the energy inefficiency caused by idle listening, control packet overhead and overhearing taking nodes latency into consideration based on the network traffic. Simulation experiments have been performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The validation of the simulation results of the proposed MAC has been done by comparing it with the analytical model. This protocol has been simulated in Network Simulator ns-2.

  6. Performance Evaluation of SARDA: An Individual Aircraft-Based Advisory Concept for Surface Management (United States)

    Jung, Yoon; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard; Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Hayashi, Miwa


    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. NASAs Spot And Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) tool was developed to address these inefficiencies through Air Traffic Control Tower advisories. The SARDA system is being updated to include collaborative gate hold, either tactically or strategically. This paper presents the results of the human-in-the-loop evaluation of the tactical gate hold version of SARDA in a 360 degree simulated tower setting. The simulations were conducted for the east side of the Dallas-Fort Worth airport. The new system provides gate hold, ground controller and local controller advisories based on a single scheduler. Simulations were conducted with SARDA on and off, the off case reflecting current day operations with no gate hold. Scenarios based on medium (1.2x current levels) and heavy (1.5x current levels) traffic were explored. Data collected from the simulation was analyzed for runway usage, delay for departures and arrivals, and fuel consumption. Further, Traffic Management Initiatives were introduced for a subset of the aircraft. Results indicated that runway usage did not change with the use of SARDA, i.e., there was no loss in runway throughput as compared to baseline. Taxiing delay was significantly reduced with the use of advisory by 45 in medium scenarios and 60 in heavy. Arrival delay was unaffected by the use of advisory. Total fuel consumption was also reduced by 23 in medium traffic and 33 in heavy. TMI compliance appeared unaffected by the advisory.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Individual Aircraft Based Advisory Concept for Surface Management (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Tobias, Leonard; Jung, Yoon; Hong, Ty; Hayashi, Miwa


    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. NASA's Spot And Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) tool was developed to address these inefficiencies through Air Traffic Control Tower advisories. The SARDA system is being updated to include collaborative gate hold, either tactically or strategically. This paper presents the results of the human-in-the-loop evaluation of the tactical gate hold version of SARDA in a 360 degree simulated tower setting. The simulations were conducted for the east side of the Dallas/Fort Worth airport. The new system provides gate hold, ground controller and local controller advisories based on a single scheduler. Simulations were conducted with SARDA on and off, the off case reflecting current day operations with no gate hold. Scenarios based on medium (1.2x current levels) and heavy (1.5x current levels) traffic were explored. Data collected from the simulation was analyzed for runway usage, delay for departures and arrivals, and fuel consumption. Further, Traffic Management Initiatives were introduced for a subset of the aircraft. Results indicated that runway usage did not change with the use of SARDA, i.e., there was no loss in runway throughput as compared to baseline. Taxiing delay was significantly reduced with the use of advisory by 45% in medium scenarios and 60% in heavy. Arrival delay was unaffected by the use of advisory. Total fuel consumption was also reduced by 23% in medium traffic and 33% in heavy. TMI compliance appeared unaffected by the advisory

  8. Evaluation of Early Ground Control Station Configurations for Interacting with a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) System (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Martin, Lynne; Mohlenbrink, Christoph; Bienert, Nancy; Wolte, Cynthia; Gomez, Ashley; Claudatos, Lauren; Mercer, Joey


    The purpose of this paper is to report on a human factors evaluation of ground control station design concepts for interacting with an unmanned traffic management system. The data collected for this paper comes from recent field tests for NASA's Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) project, and covers the following topics; workload, situation awareness, as well as flight crew communication, coordination, and procedures. The goal of this evaluation was to determine if the various software implementations for interacting with the UTM system can be described and classified into design concepts to provide guidance for the development of future UTM interfaces. We begin with a brief description of NASA's UTM project, followed by a description of the test range configuration related to a second development phase. We identified (post hoc) two classes in which the ground control stations could be grouped. This grouping was based on level of display integration. The analysis was exploratory and informal. It was conducted to compare ground stations across those two classes and against the aforementioned topics. Herein, we discuss the results.

  9. Investigation of postural edema in the lower extremities of traffic control workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Nunes Pereira Brito


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of postural edema and investigate whether working posture - sitting down or standing up - affect its frequency. METHODS: Sixteen traffic control agents were assessed by water displacement volumetry and the results were analyzed in two groups, depending on working posture. Those who worked standing up for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SU group and those who worked sitting down for more than 4 hours were allocated to the SD group. Each worker was assessed before and after their working shift for three consecutive days. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the test of equality of two proportions. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. The assessment showed that members of both groups had postural edema of the lower extremities (p ≤ 0.001. RESULTS: When the frequency of postural edema was compared across groups, a trend was observed for greater edema formation in the SU group than in the SD group, although without statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that traffic control agents suffer postural edema after 4 hours working in either of the postures investigated although with a predominance of edema formation among those who work standing up.

  10. Manganese concentrations in the air of the Montreal (Canada) subway in relation to surface automobile traffic density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudia, Nacera; Gareau, Lise; Zayed, Joseph [GRIS Interdisciplinary Health Research Group, University of Montreal (Canada); Halley, Renee [Transport Montreal Society (Canada); Kennedy, Greg [Department of Engineering Physics, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Lambert, Jean [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal (Canada)


    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn), used since 1976 in Canadian gasoline as an octane enhancer. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles. Several studies carried out by our research group have established a correlation between atmospheric Mn concentrations and automobile traffic density, suggesting that MMT in gasoline could play a significant role. This study aims to measure Mn concentrations in the air of the underground subway in Montreal (Canada) and to examine the relation with nearby surface automobile traffic density and, by extension, with the use of MMT in gasoline. Three subway stations were chosen for their location in different microenvironments with different traffic densities. Respirable (MnR<5 {mu}m) and total Mn (MnT) were sampled over two weeks, 5 days/week, 12 h/day. For the station located in the lower traffic density area, relatively low levels of MnR and MnT were found, with averages of 0.018 and 0.032 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. These concentrations are within the range of the background levels in Montreal. For the other two stations, the average concentrations of MnR were twice as high and exceeded the US EPA reference concentration of 0.05 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Although there may be several sources of Mn from different components of the subway structure and vehicles, no correlation was found between subway traffic and atmospheric Mn in the subway. Since the air in the underground subway is pumped directly from outside without filtration, our findings strongly suggest that the combustion of MMT in automobiles is an important factor. (author)

  11. Congestion phenomenon analysis and delayed-feedback control in a modified coupled map traffic flow model containing the velocity difference (United States)

    Fang, Ya-Ling; Shi, Zhong-Ke; Cao, Jin-Liang


    Based on the coupled map car-following model which was presented by Konishi et al. (1999), a modified coupled map car-following model is proposed. Specifically, the velocity difference between two successive vehicles is included in the model. The stability condition is given for the change of the speed of the preceding vehicle on the base of the control theory. We derive a condition under which the traffic jam never occurs in our model. Furthermore, in order to suppress traffic jams, we use static and dynamic version of decentralized delayed-feedback control for each vehicle, respectively, and provide a systematic procedure for designing the controller. In addition, the controller of each vehicle does not include any other vehicle information in real traffic flows.

  12. Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Rate Control (ARC for Burst Traffic over ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Many research works have already been done for congestion control and resource management in ATM networks using static and dynamic algorithms. However, no comprehensive scheme has been suggested, which can claim optimized the resource allocations fulfilling the requirements of quality of services (QoS for existing and incoming sources. The paper suggests a new approach, which would make the dynamic allocation of resources by controlling the input rate (l, output/server rate (m and buffer size (c individually or in conjunction. The newly proposed approach with dynamical allocation of resources is much more comprehensive in nature and claims a shorter convergence time than the other previously suggested schemes based on similar dynamic allocation principle. In this paper we describe an Adaptive Rate Control (ARC implemented to improve the performance of high-speed network to handle burst traffic by guaranteeing the cell loss ratio (CLR for all cell streams. First, the cases in which a Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, SACK and Plain schemes are applicable in peak-cell-rate (PCR are discussed. The ARC improves the performance by regulating the increment (up and the decrease (down of window size (flow control. Incoming traffic rate, number of cell drop, preset size of the window and estimated delay time are taken into account for this regulation. Simulations are used to investigate how Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, SACK and Plain can conduct, as congestion existed. Then we compare these results from four schemes to the “Plain” scheme (no flow control application and to the proposed ARC. By altering windows size for the mentioned six schemes, we can obtain the supportive results.

  13. 1998 Harrisburg Airport Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data collected in 1998 to evaluate the ability of lidar to survey airport obstructions in collaboration with NOAA National Geodetic Survey....

  14. Airport Status Web Service (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A web service that allows end-users the ability to query the current known delays in the National Airspace System as well as the current weather from NOAA by airport...

  15. Twelfth Annual Report of Operations under the Airport and Airway Development Act. (United States)


    Expand apron. Rock Island County Quad City Mount Vernon 08 $ 338,670 Apply porous friction surface Mount Vernon Airport R/W 5-23; rehabilitate runway...lights. Authority Mount Vernon -Outland (COMMUTER) Peoria 09 $ 554,390 Construct and light airport entrance Greater Peoria Airport road. Authority...taxiway lighting. Airport Board Owensboro-Daviess County (COMMUTER) Somerset 07 $ 13,500 Replace portion of lighting on R/W 4-22. Somerset -Pulaski County


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhaoyi; Ning Yuxin


    For the issue of flow control for Available Bit Rate (ABR) traffic in ATM network,a new improved Explicit Rate (ER) algorithm named Dynamic Double Threshold Congestion Indication (DDTCI) algorithm is presented based on the Explicit Forward Congestion Indication (EFCI) Current Cell Rate (CCR) algorithm and Relative Rate (RR) algorithm. Different from the early ER algorithm, both the high-level and the low-level threshold is dynamically changing according to the state of the bottleneck node. We determinate the congestion state with the information of the two dynamic threshold, and control the cell rate of the source by feed back mechanism. Except for the well performance in both link utilization and fairness in distribution of available bandwidth, the improved algorithm can alleviate the fluctuation of sending rate dramatically. The mechanism is modeled by a fluid model, and the useful expressions are derived.Simulation results show up our conclusion.

  17. 超薄沥青碎石复合面层工艺在机场跑道中的应用%The application of ultra-thin asphalt gravel composite surface technology in airport runway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭经海; 徐晓光


    Combining with the Girua airport upgrade engineering in Papua New Guinea as an instance,from the basic level process,material preparation,construction technology main points and other aspects,this paper introduced the application of asphalt gravel composite surface in airport runway,compared and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of this technology,provided reference for similar engineering.%结合巴布亚新几内亚Girua机场升级改造工程实例,从基层处理、材料准备、施工技术要点等方面,介绍了沥青碎石复合面层在机场跑道中的应用,比较分析了该工艺的优缺点,以供类似工程参考。

  18. Cumulative Airport Noise Exposure Metrics: An Assessment of Evidence for Time-of-Day Weightings. Revision (United States)


    Yeowart,et sites, Ldn more al., 1977; highly correlated p.135) I for motorway sites 1980 Austral- - nde ? >0,ɚ ? -b- Annoyance index ia 5-airport...Stationery Office, London. Yeowart, N.S.; Wilcox , D.J. and Possal, A.W. 1977, Community Reactions to Noise from Freely Flowing Traffic, Motorway Traffic and

  19. A Simulation-Based Framework for the Cooperation of VMS Travel Guidance and Traffic Signal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li


    Full Text Available Nowadays, both travel guidance systems and traffic signal control systems are quite common for urban traffic management. In order to achieve collaborative effect, different models had been proposed in the last two decades. In recent years, with the development of variable message sign (VMS technology, more and more VMS panels are installed on major arterials to provide highly visible and concise graphs or text messages to drivers, especially in developing countries. To discover drivers’ responses to VMS, we establish a drivers’ en route diversion model according to a stated-preference survey. Basically, we proposed a cooperative mechanism and systematic framework of VMS travel guidance and major arterials signal operations. And then a two-stage nested optimization problem is formulated. To solve this optimization problem, a simulation-based optimization method is adopted to optimize the cooperative strategies with TRANSIMS. The proposed method is applied to the real network of Tianjin City comprising of 30 nodes and 46 links. Simulations show that this new method could well improve the network condition by 26.3%. And analysis reveals that GA with nested dynamic programming is an effective technique to solve the optimization problem.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Yuanyuan; Lu Yanhui; Yang Shouyi


    Call Admission Control (CAC) is one of the key traffic management mechanisms that must be deployed in order to meet the strict requirements for dependability imposed on the services provided by modern wireless networks.In this paper,we develop an executable top-down hierarchical Colored Petri Net (CPN) model for multi-traffic CAC in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) system.By theoretic analysis and CPN simulation,it is demonstrated that the CPN model is isomorphic to Markov Chain (MC) assuming that each data stream follows Poisson distribution and the corresponding arrival time interval is an exponential random variable,and it breaks through MC's explicit limitation,which includes MC's memoryless property and proneness to state space explosion in evaluating CAC process.Moreover,we present four CAC schemes based on CPN model taking into account call-level and packet-level Quality of Service (QoS).The simulation results show that CPN offers significant advantages over MC in modeling CAC strategies and evaluating their performance with less computational complexity in addition to its flexibility and adaptability to different scenarios.

  1. Potential To Increase Productivity And Sustainability In Argentinean Agriculture With Controlled Traffic Farming: A Short Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antille Diogenes L.


    Full Text Available Drivers for and potential barriers against adoption of controlled traffic farming (CTF systems in Argentina are reviewed. Traffic compaction is one of the main factors affecting crop productivity within Argentinean agriculture, and has significant although less quantified impacts on the whole-of-farm system. This suggests that the benefits of no-tillage (NT, which represents the dominant form of cropping in Argentina, are not fully realised. Conservative estimates indicate that crop yields could be improved by at least 15% if NT is used in conjunction with CTF. Cost-benefit analyses of available options for compaction management are required. Despite this, and based on reported evidence internationally, a shift toward increased uptake of CTF within Argentinean agriculture is likely to: (1 improve productivity and farm profitability, (2 enhance environmental performance, and (3 maintain competitiveness of the agricultural sector. Appropriate technical advice and support is a key requirement to drive adoption of CTF. Therefore, the adoption process will benefit from collaboration developed with well-established research and extension organisations in Australia and the United Kingdom, and active engagement of machinery manufacturers.

  2. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management (United States)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Mercer, Joey


    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  3. On orbit surfacing of thermal control surfaces (United States)

    Racette, G. W.


    Substrates to be contaminated and contamination source were prepared. Additional information on paint spray method apparatus was obtained. Silver teflon second surface mirror samples and S 13 GLO paint samples were mounted, photographed under the microscope and measured to establish baseline data. Atomic oxygen cleaning and spray painting are being considered. Electrostatic powder and plasma spray coating systems appear to have serious drawbacks.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of airport noise using computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Maldonado Bentes


    Full Text Available This paper presents the method to analyze the sensitivity of airport noise using computer simulation with the aid of Integrated Noise Model 7.0. The technique serves to support the selection of alternatives to better control aircraft noise, since it helps identify which areas of the noise curves experienced greater variation from changes in aircraft movements at a particular airport.

  5. Optimal Control and Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Urban Traffic Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue J. [Boston University; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Cassandras, Christos G. [Boston University


    We address the problem of coordinating online a continuous flow of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) crossing two adjacent intersections in an urban area. We present a decentralized optimal control framework whose solution yields for each vehicle the optimal acceleration/deceleration at any time in the sense of minimizing fuel consumption. The solu- tion, when it exists, allows the vehicles to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, and it is shown that coordination of CAVs can reduce significantly both fuel consumption and travel time.

  6. The large Maf factor Traffic Jam controls gonad morphogenesis in Drosophila. (United States)

    Li, Michelle A; Alls, Jeffrey D; Avancini, Rita M; Koo, Karen; Godt, Dorothea


    Interactions between somatic and germline cells are critical for the normal development of egg and sperm. Here we show that the gene traffic jam (tj) produces a soma-specific factor that controls gonad morphogenesis and is required for female and male fertility. tj encodes the only large Maf factor in Drosophila melanogaster, an orthologue of the atypical basic Leu zipper transcription factors c-Maf and MafB/Kreisler in vertebrates. Expression of tj occurs in somatic gonadal cells that are in direct contact with germline cells throughout development. In tj mutant gonads, somatic cells fail to inter-mingle and properly envelop germline cells, causing an early block in germ cell differentiation. In addition, tj mutant somatic cells show an increase in the level of expression for several adhesion molecules. We propose that tj is a critical modulator of the adhesive properties of somatic cells, facilitating germline-soma interactions that are essential for germ cell differentiation.

  7. A Novel Algorithm of Quantum Random Walk in Server Traffic Control and Task Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yumin


    Full Text Available A quantum random walk optimization model and algorithm in network cluster server traffic control and task scheduling is proposed. In order to solve the problem of server load balancing, we research and discuss the distribution theory of energy field in quantum mechanics and apply it to data clustering. We introduce the method of random walk and illuminate what the quantum random walk is. Here, we mainly research the standard model of one-dimensional quantum random walk. For the data clustering problem of high dimensional space, we can decompose one m-dimensional quantum random walk into m one-dimensional quantum random walk. In the end of the paper, we compare the quantum random walk optimization method with GA (genetic algorithm, ACO (ant colony optimization, and SAA (simulated annealing algorithm. In the same time, we prove its validity and rationality by the experiment of analog and simulation.

  8. Iterative Learning Control Approach for Signaling Split in Urban Traffic Networks with Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yan


    Full Text Available Recent analysis of field experiments in cities revealed that a macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD relating network outflow and network vehicle accumulation exists in the urban traffic networks. It has been further confirmed that an MFD is well defined if the network has regular network topology and homogeneous spatial distribution of vehicle accumulation. However, many real urban networks have different levels of heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of vehicle accumulation. In order to improve the mobility in heterogeneously congested networks, we propose an iterative learning control approach for signaling split, which aims at distributing the accumulation in the networks as homogeneously as possible and ensuring the networks have a larger outflow. The asymptotic convergence of the proposed approach is proved by rigorous analysis and the effectiveness is further demonstrated by extensive simulations.

  9. Intraframe compression of radar image sequences for ship traffic control applications (United States)

    Andreadis, Alessandro; Benelli, Giuliano; Garzelli, Andrea; Susini, S.


    In this paper, an intraframe scheme for high compression of X-band radar images for ship traffic control is proposed. We used a proprietary radar simulator which generates maritime scenarios as seen by one or more radar sites. We propose a modified adaptive discrete cosine transform (MADCT) scheme which allows us to classify each 8 by 8 image block by means of a threshold criterion based on ac and dc activity. The strategy of transmission of the DCT coefficients, the recovering process of blocks incorrectly discarded, and the bit-allocation phase have been properly designed to fit with the particular application. Accurate experimental results, in terms of PSNR and compression ratio, prove the superiority of the novel scheme with respect to standard coding techniques.

  10. A Cognitive Game Theoretic Analysis of Conflict Alerts in Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Erev, Ido; Gopher, Daniel; Remington, Roger


    The current research was motivated by the recommendation made by a joint Government/Industry committee to introduce a new traffic control system, referred to as the Free Flight. This system is designed to use recent new technology to facilitate efficient and safe air transportation. We addressed one of the major difficulties that arise in the design of this and similar multi-agent systems: the adaptive (and slippery) nature of human agents. To facilitate a safe and efficient design of this multi-agent system, designers have to rely on assessments of the expected behavior of the different agents under various scenarios. Whereas the behavior of the computerized agents is predictable, the behavior of the human agents (including air traffic controllers and pilots) is not. Experimental and empirical observations suggest that human agents are likely to adjust their behavior to the design of the system. To see the difficulty that the adaptive nature of human agents creates assume that a good approximation of the way operators currently behave is available. Given this information an optimal design can be performed. The problem arises as the human operator will learn to adjust their behavior to the new system. Following this adjustment process the assumptions made by the designer concerning the operators behavior will no longer be accurate and the system might reach a suboptimal state. In extreme situations these potential suboptimal states might involve unnecessary risk. That is, the fact that operators learn in an adaptive fashion does not imply that the system will become safer as they gain experience. At least in the context of Safety dilemmas, experience can lead to a pareto deficient risk taking behavior.

  11. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling...

  12. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.


    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Human-factors engineering for smart transport: design support for car drivers and train traffic controllers. (United States)

    Lenior, Dick; Janssen, Wiel; Neerincx, Mark; Schreibers, Kirsten


    The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering human factors in the vehicle ergonomics and train traffic control domain. The examples are representative of an ongoing trend in automation and they show how the human role changes from controller to supervisor. Section 2 focuses on the car driver and systems that support, or sometimes even take over, critical parts of the driving task. Due to the diversity of driver ability, driving context and dependence between driver and context factors, there is a need for personalised, adaptive and integrated support. Systematic research is needed to establish sound systems. Section 3 focuses on the train dispatcher support systems that predict train movements, detect potential conflicts and show the dispatcher the possibilities available to solve the detected problems. Via thorough analysis of both the process to be controlled and the dispatcher's tasks and cognitive needs, support functions were developed as part of an already very complex supervision and control system. The two examples, although from a different field, both show the need for further development in cognitive modelling as well as for the value of sound ergonomics task analysis in design practice.

  14. Perpetual factors involved in performance of air traffic controllers using a microwave landing system (United States)

    Gershzohn, G.


    The task involved the control of two simulated aircraft targets per trial, in a 37.0 -km radius terminal area, by means of conventional radar vectoring and/or speed control. The goal was to insure that the two targets crossed the Missed Approach Point (MAP) at the runway threshold exactly 60 sec apart. The effects on controller performance of the MLS configuration under wind and no-wind conditions were examined. The data for mean separation time between targets at the MAP and the range about that mean were analyzed by appropriate analyses of variance. Significant effects were found for mean separation times as a result of the configuration of the MLS and for interaction between the configuration and wind conditions. The analysis of variance for range indicated significantly poorer performance under the wind condition. These findings are believed to be a result of certain perceptual factors involved in radar air traffic control (ATC) using the MLS with separation of targets in time.

  15. Development and investigation of a pollution control pit for treatment of stormwater from metal roofs and traffic areas. (United States)

    Dierkes, C; Göbel, P; Lohmann, M; Coldewey, W G


    Source control by on-site retention and infiltration of stormwater is a sustainable and proven alternative to classical drainage methods. Unfortunately, sedimentary particles and pollutants from drained surfaces cause clogging and endanger soil and groundwater during long-term operation of infiltration devices. German water authorities recommend the use of infiltration devices, such as swales or swale-trench-systems. Direct infiltration by underground facilities, such as pipes, trenches or sinks, without pretreatment of runoff is generally not permitted. Problems occur with runoff from metal roofs, traffic areas and industrial sites. However, due to site limitations, underground systems are often the only feasible option. To overcome this situation, a pollution control pit was developed with a hydrodynamic separator and a multistage filter made of coated porous concrete. The system treats runoff at source and protects soil, groundwater and receiving waterways. Typically, more than 90% of the pollutants such as sedimentary particles, hydrocarbons and heavy metals can be removed. Filters have been developed to treat even higher polluted stormwater loads from metal roofs and industrial sites. The treatment process is based on sedimentation, filtration, adsorption and chemical precipitation. Sediments are trapped in a special chamber within the pit and can be removed easily. Other pollutants are captured in the concrete filter upstream of the sediment separator chamber. Filters can be easily replaced.

  16. Determining treatment frequency for controlling weeds on traffic islands using chemical and non-chemical weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Larsen, S.U.; Andreasen, Christian;


    Many public authorities rely on the use of non-chemical weed control methods, due to stringent restrictions on herbicide use in urban areas. However, these methods usually require more repeated treatments than chemical weed management, resulting in increased costs of weed management. In order...... to investigate the efficacy of four non-chemical weed control methods and glyphosate treatment, experiments were carried out on traffic islands in the growing seasons 2005 and 2006. Three trial sites were each divided into six treatment areas, which were either treated with glyphosate, flame, steam, hot air....../flame, hot water or left untreated. The treatments were carried out at regular, predetermined intervals throughout the growing season in 2004, whereas in 2005 and 2006 how many treatments that were required to keep weed cover below a predetermined acceptance level of 2% were investigated. Percentage weed...

  17. A Service Oriented Architecture to Integrate Short Message Service (SMS Notification in Road Traffic Volume Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahi Abu Sarhan


    Full Text Available The traffic volume becomes one of the top problems in the world, the volume of traffic spends many time and much money, the traffic volume grows daily, and there is not effective and suitable solutions for grows problem. This paper will present and describe an effective approach to integrate the Service Oriented Architecture with mobile devices and services agents in Traffic Management Systems (TMS. The Traffic Volume Control System (TVCS should enable mobile short message service (SMS notifications. Unfortunately, cellular SMS notification based on services that are not aspect of the TVCS.Developing altered exterior systems and services, to be virtually aspect of TVCS, are one of the most incorporation difficulties. In this paper, a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA approach to includecellular SMS alerts in TVCS is presented. Suggested Structure includes two layers: Service layer and Interface layer. The Service layer includes all the system software. The service layer consists of three sub layers: Orchestration, Application Services, and Agents sub-layers. While the Interface layer interrelates with speed detectors and users via sites, and with exterior organization services via Web services.

  18. Dynamic problem selection in air traffic control training : A comparison between performance, mental effort and mental efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, Gino; Paas, Fred; Rikers, Remy; van Merrienboer, Jeroen


    The differential effects on training and training outcome of four methods of problem selection were investigated in a computer-based training for air traffic control. In one method, training problems were given to the participants in a fixed predetermined sequence, from simple to complex. In the oth

  19. A National Airport Conference Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>A national working conference on civil airport was held at Ramada Pudong Airport Hotel on August 10. At the two-day conference, CAAC Minister Yang Yuanyuan and Shanghai Vice-Mayor Yang Xiong delivered speeches. Yang Guoqing, vice minister of CAAC, gave a working report on upgrading China’s civil airports.Yang Yuanyuan required all the airports to adhere to the

  20. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports. (United States)


    ..., California Southern California Logistics Airport. Waterford, Michigan Oakland County International Airport...-Palomar Airport. Daytona Beach, Florida Daytona Beach International Airport. Decatur, Illinois Decatur Airport. Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey Atlantic City International Airport. Englewood,...

  1. Study on Settlement Control of Intercity Railway Tunnel under-passing Flight Area of Shenzhen Airport%城际铁路隧道下穿机场飞行区沉降控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Aiming at the problem of Pearl River Delta Intercity Railway under passing the airport for the first time,based on a wide range of investigation and fieldwork,combined with the actual situation of the project,a settlement control standard of Guangzhou-Dongguan-Shenzhen intercity railway undercrossing Shenzhen Airport pavement is put forward in the paper. Combined with the environmental conditions and the special settlement control standard of the flight area,3D numerical analysis method is applied to simulate the construction process of shield tunnel,the degree and influence area of the construction process to soil disturbance are obtained and surface subsidence of different buried depths is calculat-ed. According to the analysis result,the revised settlement control standard is proposed. Suggestions on pavement moni-toring during construction process are put forward according to the complex environment in the flight area. The automatic total station is erected in non-pavement area to perform whole cycle prismatic-free automatic scanning on the specified pavement to solve the problems such as difficult admittance of personnel in flight area and no monitoring point embed-ded.%针对珠三角城际铁路首次下穿运营机场的问题,通过广泛的资料调研和实地考察,结合工程实际,提出了穗莞深城际铁路下穿深圳机场道面沉降控制标准。结合飞行区环境条件及特殊的沉降控制标准,采用三维数值分析方法对盾构隧道施工过程进行模拟分析,给出了施工过程对土体扰动的程度及影响范围,计算了不同埋深的地表沉降。根据分析结果提出了穿越过程修正的沉降控制标准。根据飞行区地表复杂的环境提出了施工过程的道面监测建议,即在非道面区架设自动全站仪,对指定道面进行全周期无棱镜自动扫面,以解决飞行区人员准入难、不准埋设监测点等问题。

  2. Integrated Traffic Flow Management Decision Making (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon R.; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit


    A generalized approach is proposed to support integrated traffic flow management decision making studies at both the U.S. national and regional levels. It can consider tradeoffs between alternative optimization and heuristic based models, strategic versus tactical flight controls, and system versus fleet preferences. Preliminary testing was accomplished by implementing thirteen unique traffic flow management models, which included all of the key components of the system and conducting 85, six-hour fast-time simulation experiments. These experiments considered variations in the strategic planning look-ahead times, the replanning intervals, and the types of traffic flow management control strategies. Initial testing indicates that longer strategic planning look-ahead times and re-planning intervals result in steadily decreasing levels of sector congestion for a fixed delay level. This applies when accurate estimates of the air traffic demand, airport capacities and airspace capacities are available. In general, the distribution of the delays amongst the users was found to be most equitable when scheduling flights using a heuristic scheduling algorithm, such as ration-by-distance. On the other hand, equity was the worst when using scheduling algorithms that took into account the number of seats aboard each flight. Though the scheduling algorithms were effective at alleviating sector congestion, the tactical rerouting algorithm was the primary control for avoiding en route weather hazards. Finally, the modeled levels of sector congestion, the number of weather incursions, and the total system delays, were found to be in fair agreement with the values that were operationally observed on both good and bad weather days.

  3. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt


    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  4. [Development of New Mathematical Methodology in Air Traffic Control for the Analysis of Hybrid Systems (United States)

    Hermann, Robert


    The aim of this research is to develop new mathematical methodology for the analysis of hybrid systems of the type involved in Air Traffic Control (ATC) problems. Two directions of investigation were initiated. The first used the methodology of nonlinear generalized functions, whose mathematical foundations were initiated by Colombeau and developed further by Oberguggenberger; it has been extended to apply to ordinary differential. Systems of the type encountered in control in joint work with the PI and M. Oberguggenberger. This involved a 'mixture' of 'continuous' and 'discrete' methodology. ATC clearly involves mixtures of two sorts of mathematical problems: (1) The 'continuous' dynamics of a standard control type described by ordinary differential equations (ODE) of the form: {dx/dt = f(x, u)} and (2) the discrete lattice dynamics involved of cellular automata. Most of the CA literature involves a discretization of a partial differential equation system of the type encountered in physics problems (e.g. fluid and gas problems). Both of these directions requires much thinking and new development of mathematical fundamentals before they may be utilized in the ATC work. Rather than consider CA as 'discretization' of PDE systems, I believe that the ATC applications will require a completely different and new mathematical methodology, a sort of discrete analogue of jet bundles and/or the sheaf-theoretic techniques to topologists. Here too, I have begun work on virtually 'virgin' mathematical ground (at least from an 'applied' point of view) which will require considerable preliminary work.

  5. Investigating the Complexity of Transitioning Separation Assurance Tools into NextGen Air Traffic Control (United States)

    Gomez, Ashley Nicole; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Homola, Jeffrey; Morey, Susan; Cabrall, Christopher; Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas


    In a study, that introduced ground-based separation assurance automation through a series of envisioned transitional phases of concept maturity, it was found that subjective responses to scales of workload, situation awareness, and acceptability in a post run questionnaire revealed as-predicted results for three of the four study conditions but not for the third, Moderate condition. The trend continued for losses of separation (LOS) where the number of LOS events were far greater than expected in the Moderate condition. To offer an account of why the Moderate condition was perceived to be more difficult to manage than predicted, researchers examined the increase in amount and complexity of traffic, increase in communication load, and increased complexities as a result of the simulation's mix of aircraft equipage. Further analysis compared the tools presented through the phases, finding that controllers took advantage of the informational properties of the tools presented but shied away from using their decision support capabilities. Taking into account similar findings from other studies, it is suggested that the Moderate condition represented the first step into a "shared control" environment, which requires the controller to use the automation as a decision making partner rather than just a provider of information. Viewed in this light, the combination of tools offered in the Moderate condition was reviewed and some tradeoffs that may offset the identified complexities were suggested.

  6. p53 as the main traffic controller of the cell signaling network. (United States)

    Sebastian, Sinto; Azzariti, Amalia; Silvestris, Nicola; Porcelli, Letizia; Russo, Antonio; Paradiso, Angelo


    Among different pathological conditions that affect human beings, cancer has received a great deal of attention primarily because it leads to significant morbidity and mortality. This is essentially due to increasing world-wide incidence of this disease and the inability to discover the cause and molecular mechanisms by which normal human cells acquire the characteristics that define cancer cells. Since the discovery of p53 over a quarter of a century ago, it is now recognized that virtually all cell fate pathways of live cells and the decision to die are under the control of p53. Such extensive involvement indicates that p53 protein is acting as a major traffic controller in the cell signaling network. In cancer cells, many cell signaling pathways of normal human cells are rerouted towards immortalization and this is accomplished by the corruption of the main controllers of cell signaling pathways such as p53. This review highlights how p53 signaling activity is altered in cancer cells so that cells acquire the hallmarks of cancer including deregulated infinite self replicative potential.

  7. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  8. Use of social media by airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Halpern


    Full Text Available This article investigates the use of social media by airports using content analysis of 1,559 airport websites. One-fifth of airports use at least one type of social media. There is a greater use of social media by airports in North America and Europe, by larger airports, and by airports that are owned and operated by private interests. Demand for social media is greater at airports in North America and Europe, and at larger airports. Findings from 183 airport Twitter accounts demonstrate a positive correlation between the extent to which airports are active users of social media and the number of followers that they have.

  9. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination (United States)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.


    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  10. Airport operator and aircraft operator in case of bird strike. Relations, obligations and liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Air transport is subject to various risks. One of them is bird strike hazard. Despite numerous regulations concerning prevention from this type of occurrence, it is not possible to eliminate them entirely.Bird strikes most often take place during take-off and landing, that is on or in the vicinity of an airport. For that reason airport operators are the first parties that can be made accountable for this occurence. International law imposes numerous responsibilities on airport operators in terms of bird strike hazard prevention on air operations, thus placing airport operators in a “key position” in the system of safety. However, the party that suffers significant damages in the first instance, is the aircraft operator. If a bird strike takes place on or in the vicinity of an airport, an aicraft operator can sue the airport operator for compensation of damages. Generally, the issue of indemnity is subject to out of court negotiations, however instances in which there is a lack of agreement between the parties, i.e. airport operator, aircraft operator or their insurers, lead to legal proceedings for compensation.This article attempts to illustrate the relationship between air traffic participants such as airport operators and aircraft operators in connection with their obligations and liability, particulary taking into account the legal obligations of an airport operator.

  11. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský


    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  12. Performance Analysis of Prioritized Call Admission Control Schemes for Integrated Traffic in Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Jain


    Full Text Available Wireless/mobile communication systems are becoming increasingly popular in recent years. As the wireless resources are scarce, it is important to allocate resources efficiently and carefully, in order to achieve maximum output. The call admission control schemes play a significant role in providing the desired quality of service (QoS by judiciously assigning the radio channels that are available in a micro cell. In this paper, we present two call admission control (CAC schemes for wireless mobile network, (i Prioritized call admission control (PCAC scheme (S1 and (ii Prioritized call admission control scheme with releasing function (S2. Both schemes support integrated traffic i.e. data and voice for both new and handoff attempts. Guard channel concept is used to give the priority to the handoff attempts. To admit more handoff attempts in the cellular system, buffering process is used for the handoff attempts. The concept of balking and reneging is also incorporated for both the schemes. The calls arrive in poisson fashion whereas channel holding time and cell residence times are exponentially distributed. The arrival rate of handoff attempts is computed by using iterative algorithm. Various performance metrics such as blocking probability of new call, blocking probability of handoff data/voice attempts, time out probability of handoff data/voice attempts, force termination probability of handoff data/voice attempts, waiting time of handoff data/voice attempts, carried load, etc. are determined. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to facilitate the insights of controllable parameters for real time systems

  13. Allocation of Functions in a Far-Term Air Traffic Control Environment (United States)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Cabrall, Christopher; Prevot, Thomas


    A human-in-the-loop exploration of a ground-based automated separation assurance concept was conducted that involved the allocation of certain functions between humans and automation. This exploration included operations that were sustained for prolonged periods of time with high levels of traffic in the presence of convective weather and scheduling constraints. An investigation into the acceptability of the defined roles and performance of tasks was conducted where it was found that the participants rated the concept and allocation of functions with a high level of acceptability. However, issues were encountered with the automation related to the detection of and response to tactical conflicts. Lower ratings were given on account of these concerns, and it was found that a key contributor to the underlying problems was transitioning aircraft and the uncertainty of their trajectories. Stemming from those results, participants responded that they would rather have direct control over aircraft transitions as well as more control over the tactical conflict resolution automation. In contrast, participants responded that they would rather have the automation place aircraft back on trajectory, and perform weather avoidance and scheduling tasks.

  14. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen


    Full Text Available Although controlled traffic farming (CTF is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG, conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser use efficiency. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the European Commission Soil Framework Directive, the choice of and the weighting of the impact of each of the environmental benefits were made. The framework was validated using data from three selected farms. For Colworth farm (Unilever, UK, the framework predicted the largest overall environmental benefit of 59.3% of the theoretically maximum achievable benefits (100%, as compared to the other two farms in Scotland (52% and Australia (47.3%. This overall benefit could be broken down into: reducing soil compaction (24%, tillage energy requirement (10% and GHG emissions (3%, enhancing soil biodiversity (7% and erosion control (6%, conserving organic matter (6%, and improving fertiliser use efficiency (3%. Similar evaluation can be performed for any farm worldwide, providing that data on soil properties, topography, machinery, and weather are available.

  15. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C


    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  16. Measuring the levels of noise at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations. (United States)

    Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye


    Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The noise levels for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European Noise Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic noise. In the setting the noise model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the noise source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term noise measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For noise model validation, the daily noise measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated noise model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the noise levels in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the noise abatement procedures.

  17. Lagrangian Multi-Class Traffic State Estimation


    Yuan, Y.


    Road traffic is important to everybody in the world. People travel and commute everyday. For those who travel by cars (or other types of road vehicles), traffic congestion is a daily experience. One essential goal of traffic researchers is to reduce traffic congestion and to improve the whole traffic system operation and the environment. To achieve this goal, we have to first understand prevailing traffic situations, then perform pro-active traffic control and management. The estimation of tr...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    t is all systems go for the new Terminal 3 at the Beijing Capital International Airport(BCLA).Called the"Gateway Project,"Terminal 3 passed its final tests on November 6 and will begin operations as of February 2008.

  19. Human factors issues in the use of artificial intelligence in air traffic control. October 1990 Workshop (United States)

    Hockaday, Stephen; Kuhlenschmidt, Sharon (Editor)


    The objective of the workshop was to explore the role of human factors in facilitating the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) to advanced air traffic control (ATC) automation concepts. AI is an umbrella term which is continually expanding to cover a variety of techniques where machines are performing actions taken based upon dynamic, external stimuli. AI methods can be implemented using more traditional programming languages such as LISP or PROLOG, or they can be implemented using state-of-the-art techniques such as object-oriented programming, neural nets (hardware or software), and knowledge based expert systems. As this technology advances and as increasingly powerful computing platforms become available, the use of AI to enhance ATC systems can be realized. Substantial efforts along these lines are already being undertaken at the FAA Technical Center, NASA Ames Research Center, academic institutions, industry, and elsewhere. Although it is clear that the technology is ripe for bringing computer automation to ATC systems, the proper scope and role of automation are not at all apparent. The major concern is how to combine human controllers with computer technology. A wide spectrum of options exists, ranging from using automation only to provide extra tools to augment decision making by human controllers to turning over moment-by-moment control to automated systems and using humans as supervisors and system managers. Across this spectrum, it is now obvious that the difficulties that occur when tying human and automated systems together must be resolved so that automation can be introduced safely and effectively. The focus of the workshop was to further explore the role of injecting AI into ATC systems and to identify the human factors that need to be considered for successful application of the technology to present and future ATC systems.

  20. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V


    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  1. 云南大理机场鸟类调查及鸟撞防治对策%Bird Survey and Bird Strike Control at Dali Airport, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗旭; 梁丹; 马国强; 杜小浪; 洪磊


    The projected ground surface area around the Dali airport was classified into 7 types of bird habitat, I. E. , orchards or nurseries, mills or factories, villages, forests, water bodies, cropland and barren hills to obtain the basic ecological information for bird strike control in this area. Four surveys on bird species and corresponding numbers in the 7 types of habitats were conducted in the four seasons of 2010, and the characteristics of the habitat vegetation and those of the insect communities were also investigated at the same time. The threat extent of different bird species to the aviation safety was comprehensively analyzed according to the data of bird size, flight height, size of population and occurrence frequency. The survey showed that there were totally 81 bird species belonging to 31 families of 12 orders recorded in the peripheral area of Dali airport, among which 6 species were listed as highthreat species, 14 as threat species and 61 species were listed as less threat species in the light of their body size, flight activity and other behavior characters. The bird strike control strategy was proposed to secure the flight safety for the airport based on analyses of the topography, habitat, season change, food source and other factors.%为获得云南大理机场鸟撞预防所需的基础性生态资料,将大理机场净空范围内的地面投影区域分为果园苗圃、工厂、村落、林地、水域、农地、荒山7种类型生境,2010年春、夏、秋、冬季分4次对这7种生境的鸟类种类和数量进行调查,同时收集栖息地植被与昆虫群落特征.根据鸟类体型、飞行高度、群体数量以及遇见频次等信息综合分析各种鸟类对航空飞行的威胁程度.结果表明:大理机场及其周边共有鸟类81种,隶属于12目31科,其中有严重威胁鸟类6种、有威胁的14种和无威胁的61种;从地形、生境、季节、食源等方面对威胁鸟种进行分析,并依此提出大理机场鸟撞防治对策.

  2. A Data-Driven Control Design Approach for Freeway Traffic Ramp Metering with Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangtai Jin


    Full Text Available ALINEA is a simple, efficient, and easily implemented ramp metering strategy. Virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT is most suitable for many practical systems since it is a “one-shot” data-driven control design methodology. This paper presents an application of VRFT to a ramp metering problem of freeway traffic system. When there is not enough prior knowledge of the controlled system to select a proper parameter of ALINEA, the VRFT approach is used to optimize the ALINEA's parameter by only using a batch of input and output data collected from the freeway traffic system. The extensive simulations are built on both the macroscopic MATLAB platform and the microscopic PARAMICS platform to show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed data-driven controller tuning approach.

  3. Effects of shift work in air traffic controllers: a systematic review based on the Prisma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Vieira Marcolino


    Full Text Available Air Traffic Controllers (ATC perform very complex functions of great responsibility. Due to the necessities of the job, they are submitted to a work shift system which makes their schedule irregular. The alternation of work shifts can result in effects that cause damages to their work performance and quality of life. Objective: To explore the effects of shift work in ATCs through a systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis model (PRISMA. Methodological procedures: The systematic review was conducted based on three databases: PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science. Results: A total of 748 articles were found, 487 from PubMed, 240 from Science Direct and 21 from Web of Science; seven articles were included in the review after the application of eligibility criteria. Conclusions: The researches showed effects that affect mainly the night shifts, caused by alteration in sleep quality, somnolence and fatigue, resulting in decreased performance and increasing the risk of air accidents.

  4. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C


    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Unlike simulations that show suppression of jams due to increased string stability, simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging is proposed to increase throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time (reduce travel times). In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the opposite lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, partial implementation of cooperative merging where only main line ACC vehicles react to an on-ramp vehicle is effective. Significant improvement in throughput (18%) and increases up to 3 km in distance traveled ...

  5. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin


    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  6. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp (United States)

    Davis, L. C.


    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.

  7. UAS Air Traffic Controller Acceptability Study. 2; Evaluating Detect and Avoid Technology and Communication Delays in Simulation (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Hoffler, Keith D.


    This study evaluated the effects of communications delays and winds on air traffic controller ratings of acceptability of horizontal miss distances (HMDs) for encounters between Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and manned aircraft in a simulation of the Dallas-Ft. Worth (DFW) airspace. Fourteen encounters per hour were staged in the presence of moderate background traffic. Seven recently retired controllers with experience at DFW served as subjects. Guidance provided to the UAS pilots for maintaining a given HMD was provided by information from Detect and Avoid (DAA) self-separation algorithms (Stratway+) displayed on the Multi-Aircraft Control System. This guidance consisted of amber "bands" on the heading scale of the UAS navigation display indicating headings that would result in a loss of well clear between the UAS and nearby traffic. Winds tested were successfully handled by the DAA algorithms and did not affect the controller acceptability ratings of the HMDs. Voice communications delays for the UAS were also tested and included one-way delay times of 0, 400, 1200, and 1800 msec. For longer communications delays, there were changes in strategy and communications flow that were observed and reported by the controllers. The aim of this work is to provide useful information for guiding future rules and regulations applicable to flying UAS in the NAS. Information from this study will also be of value to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 228 - Minimum Performance Standards for UAS.

  8. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie


    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...

  9. Traffic Flow Management Wrap-Up (United States)

    Grabbe, Shon


    Traffic Flow Management involves the scheduling and routing of air traffic subject to airport and airspace capacity constraints, and the efficient use of available airspace. Significant challenges in this area include: (1) weather integration and forecasting, (2) accounting for user preferences in the Traffic Flow Management decision making process, and (3) understanding and mitigating the environmental impacts of air traffic on the environment. To address these challenges, researchers in the Traffic Flow Management area are developing modeling, simulation and optimization techniques to route and schedule air traffic flights and flows while accommodating user preferences, accounting for system uncertainties and considering the environmental impacts of aviation. This presentation will highlight some of the major challenges facing researchers in this domain, while also showcasing recent innovations designed to address these challenges.

  10. Complaints of Poor Sleep and Risk of Traffic Accidents: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philip

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05. The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05, 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05, 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05, and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05. Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  11. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport


    Thomas Eikmann; Christin Peschel; Cara Kahl; Dirk Schreckenberg; Markus Meis


    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft n...

  12. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems. (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H


    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  13. [Airports and air quality: a critical synthesis of the literature]. (United States)

    Cattani, Giorgio; Di Menno di Bucchianico, Alessandro; Gaeta, Alessandra; Romani, Daniela; Fontana, Luca; Iavicoli, Ivo


    This work reviewed existing literature on airport related activities that could worsen surrounding air quality; its aim is to underline the progress coming from recent-year studies, the knowledge emerging from new approaches, the development of semi-empiric analytical methods as well as the questions still needing to be clarified. To estimate pollution levels, spatial and temporal variability, and the sources relative contributions integrated assessment, using both fixed point measurement and model outputs, are needed. The general picture emerging from the studies was a non-negligible and highly spatially variable (within 2-3 km from the fence line) airport contribution; even if it is often not dominant compared to other concomitant pollution sources. Results were highly airport-specific. Traffic volumes, landscape and meteorology were the key variables that drove the impacts. Results were thus hardly exportable to other contexts. Airport related pollutant sources were found to be characterized by unusual emission patterns (particularly ultrafine particles, black carbon and nitrogen oxides during take-off); high time-resolution measurements allow to depict the rapidly changing take-off effect on air quality that could not be adequately observed otherwise. Few studies used high time resolution data in a successful way as statistical models inputs to estimate the aircraft take-off contribution to the observed average levels. These findings should not be neglected when exposure of people living near airports is to be assessed.

  14. Literature review of the airport business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.


    Airports are very important for economic growth. The demand for airport capacity has been growing very fast and private companies are now also investing in airport infrastructure. Airports must however be regulated because they are natural monopolies with high market power. Airports have variables

  15. Perspective on traffic control: Aspects of freeway control, intersection control and the control of transit flow in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkesteegt, P.


    Paper presented at the 1988 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA. The first part of this paper deals with the control and signalling system for motorways, directed to a more efficient use of available road capacity and to the improvement of road safety. The second part gives some insight into th

  16. Analysis of the Capacity Potential of Current Day and Novel Configurations for New York's John F. Kennedy Airport (United States)

    Glaab, Patricia; Tamburro, Ralph; Lee, Paul


    In 2015, a series of systems analysis studies were conducted on John F. Kennedy Airport in New York (NY) in a collaborative effort between NASA and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). This work was performed to build a deeper understanding of NY airspace and operations to determine the improvements possible through operational changes with tools currently available, and where new technology is required for additional improvement. The analysis was conducted using tool-based mathematical analyses, video inspection and evaluation using recorded arrival/departure/surface traffic captured by the Aerobahn tool (used by Kennedy Airport for surface metering), and aural data archives available publically through the web to inform the video segments. A discussion of impacts of trajectory and operational choices on capacity is presented, including runway configuration and usage (parallel, converging, crossing, shared, independent, staggered), arrival and departure route characteristics (fix sharing, merges, splits), and how compression of traffic is staged. The authorization in March of 2015 for New York to use reduced spacing under the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Wake Turbulence Recategorization (RECAT) also offers significant capacity benefit for New York airports when fully transitioned to the new spacing requirements, and the impact of these changes for New York is discussed. Arrival and departure capacity results are presented for each of the current day Kennedy Airport configurations. While the tools allow many variations of user-selected conditions, the analysis for these studies used arrival-priority, no-winds, additional safety buffer of 5% to the required minimum spacing, and a mix of traffic typical for Kennedy. Two additional "novel" configurations were evaluated. These configurations are of interest to Port Authority and to their airline customers, and are believed to offer near-term capacity benefit with minimal operational and

  17. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogstrand Stig


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  18. Fastlane: Traffic flow modeling and multi-class dynamic traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.; Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Yuan, Y.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) aims to improve traffic conditions. DTM usually consists of two steps: first the current traffic is estimated, then appropriate control actions are determined based on that estimate. In order to estimate and control the traffic, a suitable traffic flow model that rep

  19. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype (United States)


    Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), a test battery that assesses cognitive abilities through performance in reading, mathematics, general science...Tennessee 38055-1000  NPRST-TR-14-3 June 2014 Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase III: Non...cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype Karen M. Walker, PhD Randy Brou, PhD William L. Farmer, PhD Navy Personnel Research

  20. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control


    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed


    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  1. Human activity under high pressure: A case study on fluctuation scaling of air traffic controller's communication behaviors (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Qiqian; Zhu, Chenping; Hu, Minghua; Duong, Vu


    Recent human dynamics research has unmasked astonishing statistical characteristics such as scaling behaviors in human daily activities. However, less is known about the general mechanism that governs the task-specific activities. In particular, whether scaling law exists in human activities under high pressure remains an open question. In air traffic management system, safety is the most important factor to be concerned by air traffic controllers who always work under high pressure, which provides a unique platform to study human activity. Here we extend fluctuation scaling method to study air traffic controller's communication activity by investigating two empirical communication datasets. Taken the number of controlled flights as the size-like parameter, we show that the relationships between the average communication activity and its standard deviation in both datasets can be well described by Taylor's power law, with scaling exponent α ≈ 0.77 ± 0.01 for the real operational data and α ≈ 0.54 ± 0.01 for the real-time training data. The difference between the exponents suggests that human dynamics under pressure is more likely dominated by the exogenous force. Our findings may lead to further understanding of human behavior.

  2. A control method applied to mixed traffic flow for the coupled-map car-following model (United States)

    Cheng, Rong-Jun; Han, Xiang-Lin; Lo, Siu-Ming; Ge, Hong-Xia


    In light of previous work [Phys. Rev. E 60 4000 (1999)], a modified coupled-map car-following model is proposed by considering the headways of two successive vehicles in front of a considered vehicle described by the optimal velocity function. The non-jam conditions are given on the basis of control theory. Through simulation, we find that our model can exhibit a better effect as p = 0.65, which is a parameter in the optimal velocity function. The control scheme, which was proposed by Zhao and Gao, is introduced into the modified model and the feedback gain range is determined. In addition, a modified control method is applied to a mixed traffic system that consists of two types of vehicle. The range of gains is also obtained by theoretical analysis. Comparisons between our method and that of Zhao and Gao are carried out, and the corresponding numerical simulation results demonstrate that the temporal behavior of traffic flow obtained using our method is better than that proposed by Zhao and Gao in mixed traffic systems.

  3. Initial afferent lymphatic vessels controlling outbound leukocyte traffic from skin to lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eMelero


    Full Text Available Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels, which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e: LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1 and VEGFR-3. Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid oedema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. Lymphatic vessels are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes. Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals. This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to lymph nodes is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behaviour of leukocytes and condition the lymphatic vessel for subsequent trans-migratory events.

  4. Multi-Robot Path-Planning Problem for a Heavy Traffic Control Application: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebtehal Turki Saho Alotaibi


    Full Text Available This survey looked at the methods used to solve multi-autonomous vehicle path-planning for an application of heavy traffic control in cities. Formally, the problem consisted of a graph and a set of robots. Each robot has to reach its destination in the minimum time and number of movements, considering the obstacles and other robots’ paths, hence, the problem is NP-hard. The study found that decoupled centralised approaches are the most relevant approaches for an autonomous vehicle path-planning problem for three reasons: (1 a city is a large environment and coupled centralised approaches scale weakly, (2 the overhead of a coupled decentralised approach to achieve the global optimal will affect the time and memory of the other robots, which is not important in a city configuration and (3 the coupled approaches suppose that the number of robots is defined before they start to find the paths and resolve collisions, while in a city, any car can start at any time and hence, each car should work individually and resolve collisions as they arise. In addition, the study reviewed four decoupled centralised techniques to solve the problem: multi-robot path-planning rapidly exploring random tree (MRRRT, push and swap (PAS, push and rotate (PAR and the Bibox algorithm. The experiments showed that MRRRT is the best for exploring any search space and optimizing the solution. On the other hand, PAS, PAR and Bibox are better in terms of providing a complete solution for the problem and resolving collisions in significantly much less time, the analysis, however, shows that a wider class of solvable instances are excluded from PAS and PAR domain. In addition, Bibox solves a smaller class than the class solved by PAS and PAR in less time, in the worst case, and with a shorter path than PAS and PAR.

  5. The employment and income benefits of airport operation on the country in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska


    Full Text Available Background: The air transport market in Poland is undergoing significant changes, which take place both on the demand and supply side. Polish airports have experienced the unprecedented growth of air traffic. However, the increase in the number of airline connections - which benefits airports, passengers, aircraft industry and, indirectly, the whole society - at the same time results in the growth of social costs reflected by the intensification of noise and environmental pollution. The benefits of airport operation are reflected in the generation of employment and income. Existing literature reveals a gap in the knowledge in respect of impact of aviation in countries in transition. Material and methods: This paper investigates the applicability of socio-economic impact of air transport model to country in transition. In particular, it presents the employment and income benefits of airport operation. The input-output model is employed to measure the economic benefits of airport operation. The largest airport in Poland, Warsaw Chopin Airport is used as a case study. Results: The estimation results for the income and employment effects are found to be significant.  The operations of Warsaw Chopin Airport contributed to the generation of 527.8m EUR in current prices in 2011. Altogether, 19,349 jobs have been generated as the result of the direct, indirect and induced impact of Warsaw Chopin Airport.  Conclusion:  The size of production in the airport expressed in the number of aircraft operations and the number of passengers and goods serviced is positively correlated with the level of economic impact. The restriction on the development of the airport reflected by the inability to meet transport needs expressed by the society may generate opportunity costs.  

  6. Airports and Airfields - AIRPORTS_NTAD_IN: Public Use Airports in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Point Shapefile) (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Bernardin-Lochmueller and Associates (BLA) created an Indiana subset of the NTAD airports dataset described below. Dataset includes airports, heliports, seaplane...

  7. Surface gradients under electrochemical control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, Sven Olle


    Gradients are systems in which the physicochemical properties of a solution and/or surface change gradually in space and/or time. They are used for a myriad of technological and biological applications, for example for high-throughput screening, or for the investigation of biological systems. The de

  8. Optimal control of systems governed by differential equations with applications in air traffic management and systems biology (United States)

    Raffard, Robin L.

    Differential equations are arguably the most widespread formalism to model dynamical systems in sciences and engineering. In this dissertation, we strive to design a practical methodology which can be used for the optimal control of most systems modeled by differential equations. Namely, the method is applicable to ordinary differential equations (ODEs), partial differential equations (PDEs) and stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by deterministic control. The algorithm draws from both optimization and control theory. It solves the Pontryagin Maximum Principle conditions in an iterative fashion via a novel approximate Newton method. We also extend the method to the case in which multiple agents are involved in the optimal control problem. For this purpose, we use dual decomposition techniques which allow us to decentralize the control algorithm and to distribute the computational load among each individual agent. Most of the dissertation is devoted to promoting the applicability of the method to practical problems in air traffic management and systems biology. In air traffic management; we use the technique to optimize a new PDE-based Eulerian model of the airspace; suitable to represent and control air traffic flow at the scale of the US national airspace. We also apply the technique to aircraft coordination problems in the context of formation flight, in which aircraft dynamics are described by ODEs. In systems biology, we use the method to perform fast parameter identification in the analysis of protein networks, which allows us to gain some insights about the biological processes regulating the system. In particular we perform parameter identification for a PDE model of a spatially distributed network of proteins, playing a key role in the planar cell polarity of Drosophila wings. We also study a general representation of intra-cellular genetic networks, described as a stochastic nonlinear regulatory network, in which our control system approach

  9. Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) (United States)

    Wing, David J.


    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport..

  10. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network. (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup


    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  11. Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk for non-hodgkin lymphoma among adults. (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Harbo Poulsen, Aslak; Ketzel, Matthias; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Friis, Søren; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole


    Exposure to traffic noise may result in stress and sleep disturbances, which have been associated with impairment of the immune system. People with weakened immune systems are known to have a higher risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to determine whether traffic noise was associated with risk for NHL in a nationwide case-control study. We identified 2753 cases aged 30-84 years with a primary diagnosis of NHL in Denmark between 1992 and 2010. For each case we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road traffic and railway noise were calculated, and airport noise was estimated for all present and historical residential addresses of cases and controls from 1987 to 2010. Associations between traffic noise and risk for NHL were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for disposable income, education, cohabiting status and comorbidity. We found that a 5-year time-weighted mean of road traffic noise above 65 dB was associated with an 18% higher risk for NHL (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.37) when compared to road traffic noise below 55 dB, whereas for exposure between 55 and 65 dB no association was found (odds ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.88-1.08). In analyzes of NHL subtypes, we found no association between road traffic noise and risk for T-cell lymphoma, whereas increased risks for B-cell lymphoma and unspecified lymphomas were observed at exposures above 65 dB. In conclusion, our nationwide study may indicate that high exposure to traffic noise is associated with higher NHL risk.

  12. Airports and Navigation Aids Database System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Airport and Navigation Aids Database System is the repository of aeronautical data related to airports, runways, lighting, NAVAID and their components, obstacles, no...

  13. Analysis of Traffic Behavior Control Object and Its Characteristics%交通行为控制的对象及其特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建军; 李晓莉


    本文引入了交通行为控制的概念,明确其控制对象是交通中的人,以同交通系统控制区分开来.首先,借鉴行为科学、管理学和经济学中对人的研究方法,本文提出了以"交通人"的概念来承载交通行为控制对象的共性,明确了"交通人"的内涵与外延及其承载的有关人的性质的假设,并简单阐述了各项假设的意义;其次,通过探讨"交通人"与出行者的区别和联系,明确了"交通人"存在的时空范围;最后详细阐述了"交通人"存在的三个阶段:出行准备、出行中、交通行为回报阶段,提出交通行为意识、交通行为规范和交通行为回报对出行中的交通行为倾向性有重大的影响作用.%In order to differentiate from traffic system control, a concept of traffic behavior control , whose controlling object is person, was introduced in this paper. First,human research method in behavioral science, management and economics were used for reference, and the concept of “traffic man” was proposed to carry the common characteristics of the objects of traffic behavior control, and the “traffic man”possessed connotation , extension, and several assumptions of the human natures and also their implications were raised. Second, the spatial and temporal existence sphere of the “traffic man” was explained through discussion on the assumption distinctions and similarities between the “traffic man” and trip maker. Finally, three stages of the “traffic man” were elaborated: preparations for trip, in trip, traffic behavior return.It suggested that the traffic behavior consciousness, traffic behavior norms and traffic behavior return influenced the tendency of traffic behavior greatly

  14. Increased risk of traffic accidents in subjects with latent toxoplasmosis: a retrospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malý Marek


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects 30–60% of humans worldwide. Latent toxoplasmosis, i.e., the life-long presence of Toxoplasma cysts in neural and muscular tissues, leads to prolongation of reaction times in infected subjects. It is not known, however, whether the changes observed in the laboratory influence the performance of subjects in real-life situations. Methods The seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in subjects involved in traffic accidents (N = 146 and in the general population living in the same area (N = 446 was compared by a Mantel-Haenszel test for age-stratified data. Correlation between relative risk of traffic accidents and level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre was evaluated with the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. Results A higher seroprevalence was found in the traffic accident set than in the general population (Chi2MH = 21.45, p 95= 1.76–4.01 times higher risk of an accident than the toxoplasmosis-negative subjects. The OR significantly increased with level of anti-Toxoplasma antibody titre (p 95 = 1.14–3.03 for the 99 subjects with low antibody titres (8 and 16, higher (OR = 4.78, C.I.95 = 2.39–9.59 for the 37 subjects with moderate titres (32 and 64, and very high (OR = 16.03, C.I.95 = 1.89–135.66 for the 6 subjects with titres higher than 64. Conclusion The subjects with latent toxoplasmosis have significantly increased risk of traffic accidents than the noninfected subjects. Relative risk of traffic accidents decreases with the duration of infection. These results suggest that 'asymptomatic' acquired toxoplasmosis might in fact represent a serious and highly underestimated public health problem, as well as an economic problem.

  15. Study on Control Algorithm of Traffic Signals at Intersections Based on Optimizing Sub-area Traffic Flows%基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧利林; 朱文兴


    In order to reduce average delay time of passing vehicles and improve urban area traffic efficiency, considering actual geographical characteristics of intersections and sub-area traffic data, a control model for traffic signals at intersections was built based on optimizing sub-area traffic flows, and genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimal solution of the model. With traffic signals coordination of neighboring intersections considered, vehicle minimal delay time was chosen as the optimization object in the model. HCM2000 was adopted to calculate vehicle delay time and Robertson model was embedded in the optimization procedure, which ensured the proposed model to be feasible and effective. VC+ 3- 6. 0 software was applied to programm and calculate an optimal control plan for traffic signals at intersections. Finally, simulation by CORSIM was implemented to verifythe validity of the control plan. The results show that the proposed model can obtain better traffic efficiency than the coordination control method based on existing common cycle, and provides a new signal control idea at intersections for urban traffic.%为了减少车辆平均延误时间,提高城市区域交通通行效率,结合实际交叉口地理特征和区域交通流数据,建立了一种基于子区域交通流优化的交叉口信号控制模型,并应用遗传算法获得模型的最优解。在模型中,考虑相邻交叉口信号之间的协调,以车辆平均延误时间最小为优化目标,采用HCM2000延误计算方法,并在优化过程中嵌入Robertson车队离散模型,保证提出模型的可行性和有效性。在VC++6.0中编写程序,获得交叉口信号最优控制方案,最后通过CORSIM仿真证明该控制方案的优劣。结果表明:与现有基于共同周期的协调控制方法相比,所提出的模型能够获得更优的交通效益,为区域交通信号控制提供了一种新的思路。

  16. Admission Control of Integrated Voice and Data CDMA/TDD System Considering Asymmetric Traffic and Power Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOYanbo; ZHOUBin; LIChengshu


    In this paper, we research an admission control scheme of integrated voice and data CDMA/TDD (Code division multiple access/Time division duplex) system considering asymmetric traffic and power limit. A new user can access the system only if the outage probabilities it experiences on the uplink and downlink time slots are below a threshold value. Based on the power limit the results show the voice and data blocking probabilities under different cell coverage~ arrival rates and various uplink/downlink time slot allocation patterns. Furthermore, multicode and multislot schemes are also evaluated under the presented admission control scheme.

  17. Altered Traffic of Cardiolipin during Apoptosis: Exposure on the Cell Surface as a Trigger for “Antiphospholipid Antibodies”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manganelli


    Full Text Available Apoptosis has been reported to induce changes in the remodelling of membrane lipids; after death receptor engagement, specific changes of lipid composition occur not only at the plasma membrane, but also in intracellular membranes. This paper focuses on one important aspect of apoptotic changes in cellular lipids, namely, the redistribution of the mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL. CL predominantly resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane, even if the rapid remodelling of its acyl chains and the subsequent degradation occur in other membrane organelles. After death receptor stimulation, CL appears to concentrate into mitochondrial “raft-like” microdomains at contact sites between inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, leading to local oligomerization of proapoptotic proteins, including Bid. Clustering of Bid in CL-enriched contacts sites is interconnected with pathways of CL remodelling that intersect membrane traffic routes dependent upon actin. In addition, CL association with cytoskeleton protein vimentin was observed. Such novel association also indicated that CL molecules may be expressed at the cell surface following apoptotic stimuli. This observation adds a novel implication of biomedical relevance. The association of CL with vimentin at the cell surface may represent a “new” target antigen in the context of the apoptotic origin of anti-vimentin/CL autoantibodies in Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

  18. Stochastic modeling of the dynamics of incident-induced lane traffic states for incident-responsive local ramp control (United States)

    Sheu, Jiuh-Biing


    Incident-induced traffic congestion has been recognized as a critical issue to solve in the development of advanced freeway incident management systems. This paper investigates the applicability of a stochastic optimal control approach to real-time incident-responsive local ramp control on freeways. The architecture of the proposed ramp control system embeds two primary functions including (1) real-time estimation of incident-induced lane traffic states and (2) dynamic prediction of ramp-metering rates in response to the changes of incident impacts. To accomplish the above two goals, a discrete-time nonlinear stochastic optimal control model is proposed, followed by the development of a recursive prediction algorithm. Based on the simulation data, the numerical results of model tests indicate that the proposed method permits relieving incident impacts particularly under low-volume and medium-volume conditions, relative to high-volume lane-blocking conditions. Particularly, the incident-induced queue lengths can be improved by 50.1% and 67.9%, compared to the existing ramp control and control-free strategies, respectively.

  19. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control. (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed


    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  20. 76 FR 5510 - Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports (United States)


    ... expired airport identification badge or when a tenant renews a lease agreement. All training curricula... required to conduct pavement surface evaluations to ensure reliability of runway surfaces in wet weather... performance is critical for all aircraft especially on wet runway surfaces. Under certain...