WorldWideScience

Sample records for airport control towers

  1. Optical design of airport control tower cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, P D; Budde, H W

    1980-02-15

    A study has been made of optical aspects of airport control towers as part of a planned general optimization of control towers by Transport Canada. Problems found were reflections, glare, visual obstructions, identification of distant objects, and excessive solar heat. The study makes recommendations on cab shape, tower height, glazing, shades, sunglasses, binoculars, and internal lighting. Proper choice of cab shape (e.g., 30 degrees window inclination and 12-28 sides) provided effective control of reflections. Some plastic shades werefound to increase the risk of eye damage. Two tower cabs incorporating the recommendations have been built and were found to be satisfactory. PMID:20216882

  2. Design of air traffic control tower at Brnik airport

    OpenAIRE

    Štular, David

    2007-01-01

    Design of air traffic control tower at Brnik airport according to European Standard Eurocode is presented. The structure of tower is a concrete, 106 m high core, supported by 31 m long piles. Calculation of self weight, variable actions, snow and wind load has been examined. The main part of diploma thesis is earthquake analysis. The building belongs to importance class III which determinates the building to be designed for the earthquake with a longer return period as regular ...

  3. Virtual and remote control tower research, design, development and validation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The interdisciplinary research and development work carried out in the last ten years which is presented in this book aimed at replacing the conventional airport control tower by a new “remote tower operation” work environment (RTO) which should enhance work efficiency and safety and reduce costs. This revolutionary human–system interface allows for remote aerodrome traffic control without a physical tower building and enables the establishment of remote airport traffic control centers (RTC) of which each may serve several airports from a central location.

  4. Airport Economics: Management Control Financial Reporting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of management control financial reporting systems for airport operation is discussed. The operation of the system to provide the reports required for determining the specific revenue producing facilities of airports is described. The organization of the cost reporting centers to show the types of information provided by the system is analyzed.

  5. THE REMOTE AND MOBILE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER AND ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO THE OPERATIONAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea VAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of remote and mobile Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC TWR and its development has started in Europe, Australia and also in the USA, in order to improve the efficiency of Air Traffic Management (ATM systems in terms of air transportation safety. These new technologies are applicable in many countries in peace time, but on mobility reasons these are promoted to achieve commitments in the operational area. This article describes the devices and range of equipment of mobile and remote tower, and their specifications, which can even serve a medium sized airport, furthermore examines, whether how can those provide the air traffic services at an operational airfield.

  6. 14 CFR 105.23 - Parachute operations over or onto airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parachute operations over or onto airports... Parachute operations over or onto airports. No person may conduct a parachute operation, and no pilot in... any airport unless— (a) For airports with an operating control tower: (1) Prior approval has...

  7. Towards Determination of Visual Requirements for Augmented Reality Displays and Virtual Environments for the Airport Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    The visual requirements for augmented reality or virtual environments displays that might be used in real or virtual towers are reviewed with respect to similar displays already used in aircraft. As an example of the type of human performance studies needed to determine the useful specifications of augmented reality displays, an optical see-through display was used in an ATC Tower simulation. Three different binocular fields of view (14deg, 28deg, and 47deg) were examined to determine their effect on subjects ability to detect aircraft maneuvering and landing. The results suggest that binocular fields of view much greater than 47deg are unlikely to dramatically improve search performance and that partial binocular overlap is a feasible display technique for augmented reality Tower applications.

  8. Adaptive Backstepping Control of Lightweight Tower Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Borup, Kasper Trolle; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of operating a wind turbine with lightweight tower in the full load region exploiting an adaptive nonlinear controller that allows the turbine to dynamically lean against the wind while maintaining nominal power output. The use of lightweight structures...... for towers and foundations would greatly reduce the construction cost of the wind turbine, however extra features ought be included in the control system architecture to avoid tower collapse. An adaptive backstepping collective pitch controller is proposed for tower point tracking control, i.e. to modify...

  9. Z Specification of Gate and Apron Control Management at Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of an air traffic control (ATC system is an open issue and has become a challenging problem due to its complexity and increase of traffic at airports and in airspace. Consequently, automated ATC systems are suggested to improve efficiency ensuring the safety standards. It is reported that the number of collisions that occurred at airports surface is three times larger than in airspace. Further, it is observed that gates and aprons congestions cause significant delays at airports; hence, effective monitoring and guidance mechanisms are required to control ground air traffic. In this paper, formal procedure of managing air traffic from gate to enter in the active area of airport for taxiing is provided using Z notation. An integration of gate and apron controllers is described to manipulate the information for correct decision making and flow management. Graph theory is used for representation of airport topology and appropriate routs. In static part of the model, safety properties are described in terms of invariants over the critical data types. In dynamic model, the state space is updated by defining pre- and postconditions ensuring the safety. Formal specification is analysed using Z/Eves tool.

  10. 77 FR 2343 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ...). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 9, 2012, from 10 a.m.-4..., Airport Security Access Control Systems. The agenda will include the following: February 9, 2012...

  11. 77 FR 71474 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held December 13, 2012... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  12. 78 FR 43963 - Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  13. 77 FR 64838 - Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held November 15, 2012... Federal Aviation Administration Sixteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  14. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from 9... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  15. 78 FR 31627 - Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held on June 20, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty-Second Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  16. 78 FR 7850 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held February 21, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  17. 77 FR 55894 - Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held September 27-28, 2012... Federal Aviation Administration Fifteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  18. 78 FR 22025 - Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 9-10, 2013... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty First Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security...

  19. 78 FR 51810 - Twenty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Security Access Control Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control... RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held...

  20. 77 FR 25525 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Access Control Systems. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems DATES: The meeting will be held May 30, 2012, from...

  1. Input-Output Modeling and Control of the Departure Process of Congested Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujet, Nicolas; Delcaire, Bertrand; Feron, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A simple queueing model of busy airport departure operations is proposed. This model is calibrated and validated using available runway configuration and traffic data. The model is then used to evaluate preliminary control schemes aimed at alleviating departure traffic congestion on the airport surface. The potential impact of these control strategies on direct operating costs, environmental costs and overall delay is quantified and discussed.

  2. Open-loop control of class-2 tensegrity towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Milenko; Skelton, Robert E.

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns open-loop control laws for reconfiguration of tensegrity towers. By postulating the control strategy as an equilibrium tracking control, very little control energy is required. Several different reconfiguration scenarios are possible for different string connectivity schemes. This includes unit radius control, twist angle control and truncation parameter control. All these control laws allow a nonuniform distribution of the control parameters among units. By defining a wave--like reference signal and injecting it in the open--loop control law, we demonstrate the concept of self--propelled tensegrity structure that are capable of locomotion.

  3. Take control of your 802.11n airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Make your 802.11n-based AirPort network fast, reliable, and secure! Find real-world advice from Wi-Fi wizard Glenn Fleishman on setting up the 802.11n models of Apple's AirPort Express, AirPort Extreme, and Time Capsule, with full information about the simultaneous dual-band models introduced in early 2009. You'll get help with all the special networking details, such as how to set the best band and channel for your network, use pre-802.11n base stations and clients without hurting performance, set up complex Int

  4. Methods for Determining Aircraft Surface State at Lesser-Equipped Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keenan; Null, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Tactical departure scheduling within a terminal airspace must accommodate a wide spectrum of surveillance and communication capabilities at multiple airports. The success of such a scheduler is highly dependent upon the knowledge of a departure's state while it is still on the surface. Airports within a common Terminal RAdar CONtrol (TRACON) airspace possess varying levels of surface surveillance infrastructure which directly impacts uncertainties in wheels-off times. Large airports have access to surface surveillance data, which is shared with the TRACON, while lesser-equipped airports still rely solely on controllers in Air Traffic Control Towers (Towers). Coordination between TRACON and Towers can be greatly enhanced when the TRACON controller has access to the surface surveillance and the associated decision-support tools at well-equipped airports. Similar coordination at lesser-equipped airports is still based on verbal communications. This paper investigates possible methods to reduce the uncertainty in wheels-off time predictions at the lesser-equipped airports through the novel use of Over-the-Air (OTA) data transmissions. We also discuss the methods and equipment used to collect sample data at lesser-equipped airports within a large US TRACON, as well as the data evaluation to determine if meaningful information can be extracted from it.

  5. ARC Control Tower: A flexible generic distributed job management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, J. K.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.

    2015-12-01

    While current grid middleware implementations are quite advanced in terms of connecting jobs to resources, their client tools are generally quite minimal and features for managing large sets of jobs are left to the user to implement. The ARC Control Tower (aCT) is a very flexible job management framework that can be run on anything from a single users laptop to a multi-server distributed setup. aCT was originally designed to enable ATLAS jobs to be submitted to the ARC CE. However, with the recent redesign of aCT where the ATLAS specific elements are clearly separated from the ARC job management parts, the control tower can now easily be reused as a flexible generic distributed job manager for other communities. This paper will give a detailed explanation how aCT works as a job management framework and go through the steps needed to create a simple job manager using aCT and show that it can easily manage thousands of jobs.

  6. Corrosion control studies in a mini cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, raw water is used for cooling the condensers in packaged air conditioning (AC) units installed in separate buildings. These AC units and their cooling water systems are operated on as-and-when required basis. The cooling water remains untreated generally. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam, TamiInadu, India is a 40 MWt sodium cooled, (uranium and plutonium) mixed carbide fuelled nuclear test reactor. In FBTR, four freon-based packaged AC units having 40 TR capacities with cooling water system have been installed in Annexe Building. Palar river water serves as the make-up to the system. The heat extracted from condensers is rejected in natural draft cooling tower. Initially, algae fouling and increased corrosion attacks were observed in the system. Sodium hypo chlorite dosing reduced the algae fouling considerably. Corrosion monitoring program was initiated with installation of corrosion monitoring set up. Inhibitors and dispersants like hydroxy ethylidene diphosphonic acid, sodium hexa meta phosphate, sodium dodecyl sulphate, ortho phosphoric acid and poly acrylic acid were used. It has been observed that minimum corrosion rate of 5 mpy could be obtained with 20 ppm of Hydroxy Ethylidene Diphosphonic Acid (HEDP) and 20 ppm of poly acrylic acid as against 9 mpy for the untreated water. This paper describes the problems associated with irregular operation of cooling water systems in corrosion control and experience gained in control of bio fouling and corrosion in cooling water system installed in packaged AC units having natural draft cooling tower. (author)

  7. Closed-loop control for power tower heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Mark R.

    2011-10-01

    In a Power Tower solar thermal power plant, alignment and control of the heliostats constitutes one of the largest costs of both time and money. This is especially the case in systems where individual heliostats are small (~1m2). I describe a closed-loop control system that generates the required feedback by inducing small mechanical vibrations in the heliostat reflector surface using piezoelectric actuators. These vibrations induce time-dependent changes in the reflected wavefront that can be detected by photosensors surrounding the thermal receiver target. Time and frequency encoding of the vibrations allows identification of a misaligned heliostat from among the thousands in the system. Corrections can then be applied to bring the reflected beam onto the receiver target. This technique can, in principle, control thousands of heliostats simultaneously.Outdoor testing of a small-scale model of this system has confirmed that such a system is effective and can achieve milliradian tracking accuracy. If such a system were implemented in a commercial plant, it could relax the accuracy specification required of the heliostats as well as provide an automated alignment and calibration system. This could significantly reduce the installed cost of the heliostat field.

  8. CHEP2015: Dynamic Resource Allocation with arcControlTower

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job mangement system (Panda) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experience...

  9. Dynamic Resource Allocation with the arcControlTower

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration; Nilsen, Jon Kerr

    2015-01-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers’ workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job management system (PanDA) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experienc...

  10. Dynamic Resource Allocation with the arcControlTower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčič, A.; Cameron, D.; Nilsen, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Distributed computing resources available for high-energy physics research are becoming less dedicated to one type of workflow and researchers workloads are increasingly exploiting modern computing technologies such as parallelism. The current pilot job management model used by many experiments relies on static dedicated resources and cannot easily adapt to these changes. The model used for ATLAS in Nordic countries and some other places enables a flexible job management system based on dynamic resources allocation. Rather than a fixed set of resources managed centrally, the model allows resources to be requested on the fly. The ARC Computing Element (ARC-CE) and ARC Control Tower (aCT) are the key components of the model. The aCT requests jobs from the ATLAS job management system (PanDA) and submits a fully-formed job description to ARC-CEs. ARC-CE can then dynamically request the required resources from the underlying batch system. In this paper we describe the architecture of the model and the experience of running many millions of ATLAS jobs on it.

  11. Control of Carbon Nanotube Density and Tower Height in an Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for controlling density or tower height of carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown in spaced apart first and second regions on a substrate. CNTs having a first density range (or first tower height range) are grown in the first region using a first source temperature range for growth. Subsequently or simultaneously, CNTs having a second density range (or second tower height range), having an average density (or average tower height) in the second region different from the average density (or average tower height) for the first region, are grown in the second region, using supplemental localized hearing for the second region. Application for thermal dissipation and/or dissipation of electrical charge or voltage in an electronic device are discussed.

  12. Virtual Environment Design for Low/Zero Visibility Tower Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ron; Farouk, Ahmed; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes prototype software for three-dimensional display of aircraft movement based on realtime radar and other Air Traffic Control (ATC) information. This prototype can be used to develop operational tools for controllers in ATC Towers who cannot view aircraft in low or zero visibility (LZV) weather conditions. The controller could also use the software to arbitrarily reposition his virtual eyepoint to overcome physical obstructions or increase situation awareness. The LZV Tower tool prototype consists of server and client components. The server interfaces to operational ATC radar and communications systems, sending processed data to a client process written in java. This client process runs under Netscape Communicator to provide an interactive perspective display of aircraft in the airport environment. Prototype VRML airport models were derived from 3-D databases used in FAA-certified high fidelity flight-simulators. The web-based design offers potential efficiency increases and decreased costs in the development and deployment of operational LZV Tower tools.

  13. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  14. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  15. Traffic Control Under Complex Weather Conditions in Suining Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维峰

    2014-01-01

    Complex weather conditions is meaning thunderstorm freezing turbulence wind-shear low visibility weather affect the flight safety. When confronted with complex weather conditions,the controllers should know the weather condition and trend weather,and notify the aircraft under your control zone.The controllers provide the required services to the pilots,help the pilots to avoid the complex weather.In this paper, through different complex weathers under different control command,get the different methods of control.

  16. Lighting and shading control studies at P.E. Trudeau Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzempelikos, A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering; Athienitis, A.K.; O' Neill, B.; Kapsis, K. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2009-06-15

    This paper reported on the use of shading and lighting control algorithms at the P.E. Trudeau airport in Montreal. The airport has several perimeter zones with large glazed facades that receive excessive solar gains throughout the year. These facades were shaded by motorized shades operated manually by the airport personnel. As such, the building did not have efficient solar protection and extra air-conditioning was needed. Several light sensors were placed in strategic positions for monitoring the daylighting performance during variable weather conditions. Control algorithms for efficient shading and lighting operation were then developed using correlations between illuminance sensor signals. The sensors were used to monitor interior daylight levels under different sky conditions and shade positions. Reliable correlations were derived between ceiling and work plane illuminance, which were used to develop control schemes for shading and lighting operation. This paper also included simulation results for the potential energy savings due to reduced lighting and cooling energy demand. It was concluded that the shades close and prevent glare while still providing some view to the outdoors. The lighting energy savings will be significant because of the large glass areas and solar exposure throughout the day for all seasons. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  17. Wind-induced vibration control of long-span power transmission towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Peng; LI Li; HU Liang-xia

    2009-01-01

    We investigated wind-induced vibration control of long-span power transmission towers based on a case study of the Jingdongnan-Nanyang-Jingmen 1000 kV transmission line project in P. R. China. The height of the cup tower is 181 m with a ground elevation of 47 m, which makes it a super flexible and wind-sensitive structure. Therefore, we should analyze the wind-resistant capacity of the system. We simulated applicable transverse fluctuating wind velocity field, developed a lead-rubber damper (LRD) for controlling wind-induced vibration of long-span transmission towers, deduced LRD calculation model parameter, and researched the best layout scheme and installation method of LRD. To calculate the wind-induced response of tower-line coupling system in seven layout schemes, we used the time history analysis method, and obtained the efficiencies of wind-induced vibration control. LRD deformation research proved that the damp of all LRDs was efficient under the designed wind velocity when they were laid along the edge of tower heads. We studied the controlling efficiency resulting from only applying stiffness to the tower poles where the dampers used to be laid under the designed wind velocity. The results show that the controlling efficiency was not ideal when the stiffness is increased on the poles only. Therefore, LRD should contribute to both the stiffness and damp of a structure to effectively reduce the dynamic response of a tower-line coupling system under strong winds. We also discussed the controlling efficiency of LRD under static winds. The results show that there was little difference between displacements derived by the finite element time history method and those obtained by static wind method conducted by a design institute. This means the simulation on space relevant wind velocity field was accurate and reasonable.

  18. Independent motion control of a tower crane through wireless sensor and actuator networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumboulis, Fotis N; Kouvakas, Nikolaos D; Giannaris, George L; Vouyioukas, Demosthenes

    2016-01-01

    The problem of independent control of the performance variables of a tower crane through a wireless sensor and actuator network is investigated. The complete nonlinear mathematical model of the tower crane is developed. Based on appropriate data driven norms an accurate linear approximant of the system, including an upper bound of the communication delays, is derived. Using this linear approximant, a dynamic measurable output multi delay controller for independent control of the performance outputs of the system is proposed. The controller performs satisfactory despite the nonlinearities of the model and the communication delays of the wireless network. PMID:26654725

  19. SARDA: An Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is an integrated decision support tool for airlines and air traffic control tower enabling surface collaborative decision making (CDM) and departure metering in order to enhance efficiency of surface operations at congested airports. The presentation describes the concept and architecture of the SARDA as a CDM tool, and the results from a human-in-the-loop simulation of the tool conducted in 2012 at the FutureFlight Central, the tower simulation facility. Also, presented is the current activities and future plan for SARDA development. The presentation was given at the meeting with the FAA senior advisor of the Surface Operations Office.

  20. Wind-induced vibration control of Hefei TV tower with fluid viscous damper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiqiang; Aiqun LI; Jianping HE; Jianlei WANG

    2009-01-01

    The Hefei TV tower is taken as an analytical case to examine the control method with a fluid viscous damper under wind load fluctuation. Firstly, according to the random vibration theory, the effect of fluctuating wind on the tower can be modeled as a 19-dimensional correlated random process, and the wind-induced vibration analysis of the tower subjected to dynamic wind load was further obtained. On the basis of the others' works, a bi-model dynamic model is proposed. Finally, a dynamic model is proposed to study the wind-induced vibration control analysis using viscous fluid dampers, and the optimal damping coefficient is obtained regarding the wind-induced response of the upper turret as optimization objectives. Analysis results show that the maximum peak response of the tower under dynamic wind load is far beyond the allowable range of the code. The wind-induced responses and the wind vibration input energy of the tower are decreased greatly by using a fluid viscous damper, and the peak acceleration responses of the upper turret is reduced by 43.4%.

  1. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  2. Market Power : Airports - Vertical Integration between Airports and Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Serebrisky, Tomás

    2003-01-01

    In the late 1980s and the 1990s many countries privatized airports or concessioned their operation. The United Kingdom began the trend, followed by other countries adopting new forms of infrastructure ownership and management. To control infrastructure licensing and the "natural monopoly" characteristics of some airport services, governments developed regulatory policies for airport system...

  3. Operational Characteristics Identification and Simulation Model Verification for Incheon International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Yeonju; Jeon, Daekeun; Lee, Hanbong; Zhu, Zhifan; Jung, Yoon C.; Jeong, Myeongsook; Kim, Hyounkyong; Oh, Eunmi; Hong, Sungkwon; Lee, Junwon

    2016-01-01

    Incheon International Airport (ICN) is one of the hub airports in East Asia. Airport operations at ICN have been growing more than 5 percent per year in the past five years. According to the current airport expansion plan, a new passenger terminal will be added and the current cargo ramp will be expanded in 2018. This expansion project will bring 77 new stands without adding a new runway to the airport. Due to such continuous growth in airport operations and future expansion of the ramps, it will be highly likely that airport surface traffic will experience more congestion, and therefore, suffer from efficiency degradation. There is a growing awareness in aviation research community of need for strategic and tactical surface scheduling capabilities for efficient airport surface operations. Specific to ICN airport operations, a need for A-CDM (Airport - Collaborative Decision Making) or S-CDM (Surface - Collaborative Decision Making), and controller decision support tools for efficient air traffic management has arisen since several years ago. In the United States, there has been independent research efforts made by academia, industry, and government research organizations to enhance efficiency and predictability of surface operations at busy airports. Among these research activities, the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) developed and tested by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a decision support tool to provide tactical advisories to the controllers for efficient surface operations. The effectiveness of SARDA concept, was successfully verified through the human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations for both spot release and runway operations advisories for ATC Tower controllers of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) in 2010 and 2012, and gate pushback advisories for the ramp controller of Charlotte-Douglas International Airport (CLT) in 2014. The SARDA concept for tactical surface scheduling is further enhanced and is being

  4. Semiactive Vibration Control of a Wind Turbine Tower using an MR Damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Poulsen, B. L.;

    2002-01-01

    For fatigue vibration reduction modern wind turbines are installed with different kind of passive systems such as a tuned mass damper or a tuned liquid damper. However, passive control systems are limited because they cannot adapt to broadbanded loading conditions, i.e. they perform well...... or semiactive system for reducing the fatigue will be more optimal than a passive control system. This paper presents a numerically and experimentally investigation of semiactive vibration control of wind turbine tower vibrations by using a magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Numerical simulations as well...... as experimental laboratory results indicate that the MR damper approach is superior to a traditional tuned mass damper for reducing the vibration of wind turbine towers....

  5. Evaluation of automatic face recognition for automatic border control on actual data recorded of travellers at Schiphol Airport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, L.J.; Hendrikse, A.J.; Gerritsen, K.J.; Brömme, A.; Busch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic border control at airports using automated facial recognition for checking the passport is becoming more and more common. A problem is that it is not clear how reliable these automatic gates are. Very few independent studies exist that assess the reliability of automated facial recognition

  6. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčič, Andrej; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  7. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses a specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControlTower load parameters, the jobs can be controlled by ARC client tools. The system could be extended to other submission systems using central distribution.

  8. Self-optimizing Control of Cooling Tower for Efficient Operation of Chilled Water Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiao; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.; Li, Pengfei

    2012-01-01

    The chilled-water systems, mainly consisting of electric chillers and cooling towers, are crucial for the ventilating and air conditioning systems in commercial buildings. Energy efficient operation of such systems is thus important for the energy saving of commercial buildings. This paper presents an extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme for energy efficient operation of the chilled-water system, and presents a Modelica based dynamic simulation model for demonstrating the effectiveness of th...

  9. Augmented Reality in a Simulated Tower Environment: Effect of Field of View on Aircraft Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.; Reisman, Ronald J.; Schmidt-Ott, Joelle R.; Gips, Jonathan; Krozel, Jimmy; Cohen, Malcolm (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical see-through, augmented reality display was used to study subjects' ability to detect aircraft maneuvering and landing at the Dallas Ft. Worth International airport in an ATC Tower simulation. Subjects monitored the traffic patterns as if from the airport's western control tower. Three binocular fields of view (14 deg, 28 deg and 47 deg) were studied in an independent groups' design to measure the degradation in detection performance associated with the visual field restrictions. In a second experiment the 14 deg and 28 deg fields were presented either with 46% binocular overlap or 100% overlap for separate groups. The near asymptotic results of the first experiment suggest that binocular fields of view much greater than 47% are unlikely to dramatically improve performance; and those of the second experiment suggest that partial binocular overlap is feasible for augmented reality displays such as may be used for ATC tower applications.

  10. Shaking table test and numerical analysis of offshore wind turbine tower systems controlled by TLCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbing; Liu, Youkun; Bai, Xueyuan

    2015-03-01

    A wind turbine system equipped with a tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is comprehensively studied via shaking table tests using a 1/13-scaled model. The effects of wind and wave actions are considered by inputting response-equivalent accelerations on the shaking table. The test results show that the control effect of the TLCD system is significant in reducing the responses under both wind-wave equivalent loads and ground motions, but obviously varies for different inputs. Further, a blade-hub-tower integrated numerical model for the wind turbine system is established. The model is capable of considering the rotational effect of blades by combining Kane's equation with the finite element method. The responses of the wind tower equipped with TLCD devices are numerically obtained and compared to the test results, showing that under both controlled and uncontrolled conditions with and without blades' rotation, the corresponding responses exhibit good agreement. This demonstrates that the proposed numerical model performs well in capturing the wind-wave coupled response of the offshore wind turbine systems under control. Both numerical and experimental results show that the TLCD system can significantly reduce the structural response and thus improve the safety and serviceability of the offshore wind turbine tower systems. Additional issues that require further study are discussed.

  11. Airport Casualties: Non-Admission and Return Risks at Times of Internalized/Externalized Border Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybritt Jill Alpes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes what can happen to forced returnees upon arrival in their country of nationality. Subjective configurations of state agents in the Global South have created return risks, which in turn transform subjectivities of post-colonial citizens. The article contributes to this Special Issue by tracing repercussions of the externalization and internalization of border controls. In the case of Cameroon, these connections have resulted in the criminalization of emigration. Aspiring migrants are prosecuted if their departure projects fail to respect the entry requirements of countries in the Global North. The article is based on research conducted in Douala, Cameroon, in the form of discussions with control agents at the international airport, investigations at a prison, a review of related case law, police registers and interviews with Cameroonians returnees (November 2013–January 2014. Border controls and connected anti-fraud programs suppress family-based forms of solidarity and allow only for subjectivities rooted in state-managed forms of national identity. The article illustrates how efforts to combat fraud fuel corruption in returnees’ social networks, whereby, instead of receiving remittances, families in emigration countries have to mobilize financial resources in order to liberate returnees from police stations or prison complexes. Migration related detention of nationals in the Global South highlights the growing significance of exit controls in migration management.

  12. Reuso de efluentes em torres de resfriamento - estudo conceitual: Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro = Water reuse for cooling towers – conceptual study: Rio de Janeiro International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O reuso de água é ferramenta valiosa na gestão da água, que promove a otimização da utilização do recurso desta, que reduz e, muitas vezes, até elimina os impactos no meio ambiente. Neste trabalho foi investigada a composição do efluente secundário da estação de tratamento de efluentes (ETE APOIO do Aeroporto Internacional do Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de propor o processo adequado à reutilização deste efluente como água de reposição nas torres de resfriamento desse Aeroporto. Com base nas análises de cátions, ânions, DBO e DQO, verificou-se o parâmetro SDT - Cl- como crítico para processamento do efluente. Foi proposta uma sequência para reutilização do efluente que continha o tratamento de osmose inversa, o custo do m3 produzido por essa sequência foi estimado em R$ 2,90 m-3. Water reuse is an important tool in water management; it is a conceptthat promotes optimization of the water resource, reducing and often even eliminating environmental impacts. In this work, the composition of a secondary effluent (from the effluent treatment station (ETE APOIO at Rio de Janeiro International Airport was analyzed, with theaim of determining an adequate process for the reutilization of this effluent as replacement cooling water. Chemical analyses such as cation and anion analysis, BOD and COD were performed. Based on these analyses, it was found that TDS - Cl- was the critical parameter foreffluent processing. A treatment system was proposed for effluent reuse including reverse osmosis; the cost estimate per m3 produced by this system was R$ 2.90 m-3.

  13. Dynamics and Control of Lateral Tower Vibrations in Offshore Wind Turbines by Means of Active Generator Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lateral tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines are normally lightly damped, and large amplitude vibrations induced by wind and wave loads in this direction may significantly shorten the fatigue life of the tower. This paper proposes the modeling and control of lateral tower vibrations in offshore wind turbines using active generator torque. To implement the active control algorithm, both the mechanical and power electronic aspects have been taken into consideration. A 13-degrees-of-freedom aeroelastic wind turbine model with generator and pitch controllers is derived using the Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model displays important features of wind turbines, such as mixed moving frame and fixed frame-defined degrees-of-freedom, couplings of the tower-blade-drivetrain vibrations, as well as aerodynamic damping present in different modes of motions. The load transfer mechanisms from the drivetrain and the generator to the nacelle are derived, and the interaction between the generator torque and the lateral tower vibration are presented in a generalized manner. A three-dimensional rotational sampled turbulence field is generated and applied to the rotor, and the tower is excited by a first order wave load in the lateral direction. Next, a simple active control algorithm is proposed based on active generator torques with feedback from the measured lateral tower vibrations. A full-scale power converter configuration with a cascaded loop control structure is also introduced to produce the feedback control torque in real time. Numerical simulations have been carried out using data calibrated to the referential 5-MW NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore wind turbine. Cases of drivetrains with a gearbox and direct drive to the generator are considered using the same time series for the wave and turbulence loadings. Results show that by using active generator torque control, lateral tower vibrations can be significantly mitigated for

  14. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Creation of NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate database of meteorological data is essential for designing any aerospace vehicle and for preparing launch commit criteria. Meteorological instrumentation were recently placed on the three Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B), which provide a unique meteorological dataset existing at the launch complex over an extensive altitude range. Data records of temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction are produced at 40, 78, 116, and 139 m at each tower. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch (EV44) received an archive that consists of one-minute averaged measurements for the period of record of January 2011 - April 2015. However, before the received database could be used EV44 needed to remove any erroneous data from within the database through a comprehensive quality control (QC) process. The QC process applied to the LPS towers' meteorological data is similar to other QC processes developed by EV44, which were used in the creation of meteorological databases for other towers at KSC. The QC process utilized in this study has been modified specifically for use with the LPS tower database. The QC process first includes a check of each individual sensor. This check includes removing any unrealistic data and checking the temporal consistency of each variable. Next, data from all three sensors at each height are checked against each other, checked against climatology, and checked for sensors that erroneously report a constant value. Then, a vertical consistency check of each variable at each tower is completed. Last, the upwind sensor at each level is selected to minimize the influence of the towers and other structures at LC-39B on the measurements. The selection process for the upwind sensor implemented a study of tower-induced turbulence. This paper describes in detail the QC process, QC results, and the attributes of the LPS towers meteorological

  15. Wireless Channel Characterization: Modeling the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Future Airport Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolak, D. W.; Apaza, Rafael; Foore, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a recently completed wideband wireless channel characterization project for the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System (MLS) extension band, for airport surface areas. This work included mobile measurements at large and small airports, and fixed point-to-point measurements. Mobile measurements were made via transmission from the air traffic control tower (ATCT), or from an airport field site (AFS), to a receiving ground vehicle on the airport surface. The point-to-point measurements were between ATCT and AFSs. Detailed statistical channel models were developed from all these measurements. Measured quantities include propagation path loss and power delay profiles, from which we obtain delay spreads, frequency domain correlation (coherence bandwidths), fading amplitude statistics, and channel parameter correlations. In this paper we review the project motivation, measurement coordination, and illustrate measurement results. Example channel modeling results for several propagation conditions are also provided, highlighting new findings.

  16. arcControlTower: the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    PanDA, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the job resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the PanDA server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with the arcControl...

  17. Public Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  18. Virtual Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Engineering Dept.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  19. Airport Logistics : Modeling and Optimizing the Turn-Around Process

    OpenAIRE

    Norin, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this licentiate thesis is air transportation and especially the logistics at an airport. The concept of airport logistics is investigated based on the following definition: Airport logistics is the planning and control of all resources and information that create a value for the customers utilizing the airport. As a part of the investigation, indicators for airport performance are considered. One of the most complex airport processes is the turn-around process. The turn-around is...

  20. arcControlTower, the System for Atlas Production and Analysis on ARC

    CERN Document Server

    Filipcic, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Abstract content Panda, the Atlas management and distribution system for production and analysis jobs on EGEE and OSG clusters, is based on pilot jobs to increase the throughput and stability of the job execution on grid. The ARC middleware uses specific approach which tightly connects the job requirements with cluster capabilities like resource usage, software availability and caching of input files. The pilot concept renders the ARC features useless. The arcControlTower is the job submission system which merges the pilot benefits and ARC advantages. It takes the pilot payload from the panda server and submits the jobs to the Nordugrid ARC clusters as regular jobs, with all the resources known in advance. All the pilot communication with the panda server is done by the arcControlTower, so it plays the role of a pilot factory and the pilot itself. There are several advantages to this approach: no grid middleware is needed on the worker nodes, the fair-share between the production and user jobs is tuned with t...

  1. Control Space Analysis of Three-Degree Decelerating Approaches at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.M.A.; In 't Veld, A.C.; De Leege, A.M.P.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2010-01-01

    Amsterdam Schiphol Airport currently uses a Continuous Descent Approach during night time operations only, due to reduced runway capacity caused by unpredictable individual aircraft behavior. The Three-Degree Decelerating Approach (TDDA) has been developed to increase predictability and runway capac

  2. Technical research on control of caisson construction for the middle tower foundation of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianbo; Yang Yanhua; Zhang Yongtao; Du Song

    2011-01-01

    The real-time informational monitoring system is adopted in the construction of middle tower foundation of Taizhou Bridge for the first time. The geometric state of the caisson, the stress of upstream and downstream anchorage cables, underwater topography, the drag forces of the caisson cutting edge and frictional resistances of the sidewall and etc. are monitored in real time. According to the synthesized data analysis and decision-making system, the spatial states of the caisson are adjusted in time to locate and embed the deep water caisson precisely. The offset error of the caisson is less than 30 cm and the vertical error is 1/363 at the final stage. The control technology for construction of large caisson under deep water is concluded and would be helpful for the construction of bridge foundation in the future.

  3. Airport Heterotopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    . It is a system of interconnected material worlds, and thus a heterotopia; a blending space of overlapping ontologies. Ursula Le Guin playfully examines this concept of overlapping ontologies in her short story collection Changing Planes, where airport travellers can shift realities due to the unpleasantries...

  4. Heraklion Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter

    Heraklion City is located on Crete Island, Grece with a population of 150000. In the project for extension of the airport at Heraklion, part of the runway is placed in the sea. The runway must be designed to resist attack from the waves. the observed wave and wind data in the period of 1949...

  5. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  6. A review of smoking policies in airports around the world

    OpenAIRE

    Frances A Stillman; Soong, Andrea; Kleb, Cerise; Grant, Ashley; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review smoking policies of major international airports, to compare these policies with corresponding incountry tobacco control legislation and to identify areas of improvement for advancing smoke-free policy in airports. Methods We reviewed smoking policies of 34 major international airports in five world regions, and collected data on current national and subnational legislation on smoke-free indoor places in the corresponding airport locations. We then compared airport smoking...

  7. Airports Geographic Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  8. Airport Configuration Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Airport configuration is a primary factor in various airport characteristics such as arrival and departure capacities and terminal area traffic patterns. These...

  9. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  10. Tower Shielding Reactor II design and operation report. Vol. 3. Assembling and testing of the control mechanism assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms that are operated to control the reactivity of the Tower Shielding Reactor II(TSR-II) are mounted on a Control Mechanism Housing (CMH) that is centered inside the reactor core. The information required to procure, fabricate, inspect, and assemble a CMH is contained in the ORNL engineering drawings listed in the appropriate sections. The components are fabricated and inspected from these drawings in accordance with a Quality Assurance Plan and a Manufacturing Plan. The material in this report describes the acceptance and performance tests of CMH subassemblies used ty the Tower Shielding Facility (TSF) staff but it can also be used by personnel fabricating the components. This information which was developed and used before the advent of the formalized QA Program and Manufacturing Plans evolved during the fabrication and testing of the first five CMHs

  11. The Quality Control Algorithms Used in the Process of Creating the NASA Kennedy Space Center Lightning Protection System Towers Meteorological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Brenton, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and the results of the quality control (QC) process of the meteorological data from the Lightning Protection System (LPS) towers located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) launch complex 39B (LC-39B) are documented in this paper. Meteorological data are used to design a launch vehicle, determine operational constraints, and to apply defined constraints on day-of-launch (DOL). In order to properly accomplish these tasks, a representative climatological database of meteorological records is needed because the database needs to represent the climate the vehicle will encounter. Numerous meteorological measurement towers exist at KSC; however, the engineering tasks need measurements at specific heights, some of which can only be provided by a few towers. Other than the LPS towers, Tower 313 is the only tower that provides observations up to 150 m. This tower is located approximately 3.5 km from LC-39B. In addition, data need to be QC'ed to remove erroneous reports that could pollute the results of an engineering analysis, mislead the development of operational constraints, or provide a false image of the atmosphere at the tower's location.

  12. Work and Safety in Small to Medium-Sized Air Traffic Control Towers : A Study of Distributed Cognition and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Linger, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Air Traffic Control (ATC) is a safety-critical system which places high demands on air traffic controllers’ (ATCO) multitasking abilities. Having the requisite information for well-informed decision making is central, and as new technologies such as remote towers demand an increase in capacity, efficiency, and safety there is a need for research that informs system development. Adopting a systems perspective, Distributed Cognition is an approach for investigating system functioning, and Resil...

  13. Demolition technique of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower by directional controlled blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Cui Xiaorong; Lu Hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on blasting demolition of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower,by virtue of engi-neering practice of blasting the tube concrete structures,the analysis and research were made on the mechanism of cool tower collapse through selecting blasting parameters and selecting gap form,gap size and gap angle.The cool tower was twisted,collapsed directionally and broken weU according to the design requirements.The expected results and purpo-ses of blasting were obtained with no back blow,total blasted pile approximates to 4 ~ 5 m,no occurrence of flying stones and no damage to fixed buildings and equipment,the large-sized hyperbolic thin-wall reinforced concrete cool towers are twisted during blasting and it collapses well with good breaking.The test and measurement of blasting vibra-ting velocity was carried out during blasting and the measuring results are much less than critical values specified by Safety Regulations for Blasting.The study shows that gap form,gap size and gap angle are the key factors to cool tower collapse and will give beneficial references to related theoretical study and field application.

  14. Water tower

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The water tower, being built on the highest point of the site, 460.5 m above the sea level. The tank will hold 750 m3 of water, and the tower will be topped by a knob which can serve as a geological survey reference mark.

  15. Airport Project Goes Smoothly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The Shanghai Airport Group Company has set up a headquarters to command a project to refurbish Pudong and Hongqiao airports. Construction on Pudong Airport will be completed by the end of 2007, while that on Hongqiao Airport will be finished by the end of 2009.

  16. The infrared-based early warning system for bird strike prevention at Frankfurt airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzberg, M.; Schilling, A.; Schlemmer, H.; Vogel, H.; Cramer, H.; Schlosshauer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Flocks of migratory birds are very often using geographic structures like rivers, valleys or coast lines for orientation. Wherever the preferred migration routes are crossing the approach corridor of an airport there is an increased risk of bird strike. Flocks of birds crossing the runway corridor of the new runway Northwest of the Frankfurt airport are kept under surveillance now with in total three watch towers located at the river Main which in this case is the preferred used line of orientation. Each of the watch towers carries an early warning system which consists of two pairs of stereoscopic thermal imaging cameras sensitive in the mid wavelength infrared range (3 - 5 μm). A stereoscopic pair measures the swarm size, direction of flight and velocity in real time and with high accuracy. From these results an early warning is derived under all relevant weather conditions. The fixed focus thermal imaging cameras are thermally compensated and designed for ultra low image distortion. Each stereoscopic pair is aligned in the sub-pixel range and is controlled by a reference beam to ensure that the alignment is preserved under all environmental conditions and over a very long time. The technical concept is discussed and the design of the realized warning system at the Frankfurt airport is presented.

  17. Control of Wind-Induced Vibration of Transmission Tower-Line System by Using a Spring Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-voltage power transmission tower-line system, which is a high flexible structure, is very susceptible to the wind-induced vibrations. This paper proposes the utilization of the internal resonance feature of the spring pendulum to reduce the wind-induced vibration of a transmission tower. The kinetic expression of the spring pendulum system is obtained through Lagrangian equation. The condition of the internal resonance is verified to be λ = 2, in which λ is the ratio of the spring mode frequency over the pendulum mode frequency. A 55 m tower in the Liaoning province is established in SAP2000 to numerically verify the effectiveness of the proposed device. The spring pendulum is modeled using Link element. The wind speed history is generated based on Kaimal spectrum using harmonic superposition method. Results show that, (1 compared with the suspended mass pendulum, the spring pendulum absorbs more energy and reduces the oscillation more effectively and (2 the vibration control performance of the proposed spring pendulum improves as the external wind load increases.

  18. 国外控制机场飞机噪声影响的措施%Noise Impact Control Measures of Aircrafts in Foreign Airports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建坤; 赵仁兴; 田瑞丽; 马丽霞

    2015-01-01

    介绍了国外机场控制飞机噪声影响的主要做法。国际民航组织发行的《飞机噪声管理的平衡做法指导》主要是从减少噪声源,土地使用规划和管理,减噪运行程序和运行限制等方面控制噪声污染。美国采取的控制措施主要有做好航空规划和城市规划的协调发展,根据机场周边敏感点情况设计影响居民较少的飞行程序,并给出了机场噪声控制措施汇总。欧盟采取的控制措施是建立安静的空中交通系统,技术上需要有安静的飞机,低噪声程序和社会影响管理等。举例说明了目前国外几个机场采取的降噪措施。结合国外机场飞机噪声控制措施,提出了适合我国的飞机噪声控制措施建议。%The main approaches to control the impact of aircraft noise in foreign airports were introduced. The“Bal-ance approach guidance for aircraft noise management”by ICAO has provided the approaches for noise pollution control in the aspects of noise source reduction, land-use planning and management, noise abatement operational procedures and opera-tion restrictions, etc. In the United States, the main control measures are the balancing between aviation development plan-ning and urban development planning, designing the flight procedures with less affect on residents according to the distribu-tion of sensitive points around the airport, and summarizing the airport noise control measures. Control measure by the EU is to establish a quiet air traffic system, including the use of technically quiet aircrafts, low-noise flight procedures and social impact management. The noise reduction measures currently used by several foreign airports were illustrated. Summarizing the aircraft noise control measures in foreign airports, some aircraft noise control measures for domestic airports were sug-gested.

  19. Noise control of counterflow cooling towers%逆流式冷却塔的噪声治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费朝阳; 陈长征; 周勃

    2011-01-01

    根据逆流式冷却塔辐射噪声的实测频谱图,分析了冷却塔的主要噪声来源和频谱特征.分别从吸声、消声和隔声等方面制定了降噪方案,取得了良好的降噪效果.%Based on the measured radiation noise frequency spectrogram, analyses the main noise source and noise spectrum characteristics of cooling tower.Makes a noise control scheme from the aspects of sound absorption, attenuation and insulation.The effect of the noise control is satisfactory.

  20. 76 FR 27743 - Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment for a Proposed Airport Traffic Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... visibility and improve safety of airport movement areas, have the capability to meet existing and future...-day public comment period at the following libraries: Champaign Public Library, 200 W Green...

  1. CYBER SECURITY FOR AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s information age, government organizations and business enterprises are heavily relying on interconnected computer systems to manage a variety of public services including energy, transportation, water, etc. While this increased connectivity has many operational advantages benefitting the public, they have also become vulnerable to cyber attacks such as Corporate Security Breaches, Spear Phishing, and Social Media Fraud. The aviation sector is one the critical infrastructure systems that is not only vulnerable to physical threats, but also cyber threats, especially with the increased use of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD at airports. It has been recognized that there is currently no cyber security standards established for airports in the United States as the existing standards have mainly focused on aircraft Control System (CS. This paper summarizes the need, background, ongoing developments and research efforts with respect to the establishment of cyber-security standards and best practices at U.S. airports with special emphasis on cyber security education and literacy.

  2. Airport noise and teratogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, L.D.; Layde, P.M.; Erickson, J.D.

    1979-07-01

    It has been suggested that exposure to high-noise levels near major airports may cause increased incidence of birth defects in the offspring of parents residing near these airports. Using data gathered in Metropolitan Atlanta during 1970 to 1972, we compared the rates of seventeen categories of defects in high- and low-noise census tracts. No significant differences were observed. However, when we subdivided the category of central nervous system defects into several subcategories of specific defects, we noted a significantly increased incidence of spina bifida without hydrocephalus in the high-noise areas. Because of the small number of cases associated with this finding we did a matched case-control study using all cases of central nervous system defects born during the years 1968 to 1976. No significantly increased risk for residents in the high-noise areas was noted in this study. It is our opinion that noise or other factors associated with residence near airports are unlikely to be important environmental teratogens.

  3. 输电塔-线体系的舞动及风振控制%Galloping and Wind-induced Vibration Control on Transmission Tower-line System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李黎; 曹化锦; 罗先国; 姜维

    2011-01-01

    输电塔-线体系具有高柔特点,风振作用显著,为了研究输电塔-线体系的舞动机理和优化输电塔风振控制方案,基于ANSYS建立了输电塔-导地线-绝缘串的塔线耦合体系非线性有限元模型,提出了采用重启动技术进行覆冰导线的水平、竖向、扭转3方向舞动和输电塔风振分析的方法;编制了风速场模拟程序,进行了输电塔-线耦合体系的舞动及风振仿真;同时进行了4种铅芯橡胶阻尼器布置方案对输电塔振动控制计算.通过计算分析得到了输电塔-线体系的3方向舞动的振幅和输电塔的内力响应,对输电塔的铅芯橡胶阻尼器布置方案进行了优化.结果表明,输电塔-线体系在风振作用下塔线耦合作用显著,塔-线耦合体系优于简化模型以及铅芯橡胶阻尼器对输电塔-线体系风振有良好的控制效果并且安装在塔身上半部分效果显著.%The transmission tower-line coupling system has the properties of high flexibility, and significant vibration of transmission tower system under wind loads may cause many inverted tower accidents, so it is important to research the wind-induced vibration control for transmission tower-line system. To study the galloping behavior of the transmission tower-line and to optimize tower wind-induced vibration control scheme, the finite element analysis program ANSYS was used to model the nonlinear behavior of transmission tower-line coupling system including transmission tower-cable-insulator, and the restarting technology was proposed to solve the vertical, horizontal and torsion galloping of transmission conductors and wind-induced vibration of transmission towers. Meanwhile, a program of wind velocity fields was compiled, and galloping of a transmission tower line coupling system was simulated to obtain the amplitude of the conductors and the internal forces of the transmission towers. Moreover, four proposals of lead viscoelastic dampers {LVDs) layout

  4. 77 FR 68196 - Orders Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 77 FR 30585 (May... Authorizations (slots) at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), LaGuardia Airport (LGA), and Newark... occurred at slot-controlled and non- slot-controlled airports. JFK and EWR were effectively closed...

  5. Evaluating competitiveness of airports - Airport competitiveness index

    OpenAIRE

    Grancay, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces a concept of airport competitiveness index. The index consists of numerous indicators grouped into four categories: market potential, infrastructure, charges and recent traffic results. Another important factor we take into account is safety. We find that from the selected sample the most competitive airports are Singapore Changi, New York Kennedy, Newark Liberty and Dubai International. U.S. and South-East Asian airports in general are among the most competitive.

  6. Airport Configuration Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is presently poor knowledge throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) of the airport configurations currently in use at each airport. There is even less...

  7. Rapunzel's Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature often inspires the author's lessons, and reading to her primary students motivates their participation. In this article, the author presents and describes her lesson which is based on the book "Falling for Rapunzel" by Leah Wilcox. Students created a fairy tale tower in this lesson, which took place over three class periods.…

  8. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the internal elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Before and after statistics of costs and profits obtained through optimization of colder water by engineered thermal upgrading are discussed

  9. Lhasa Airport Gets Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On November 12, Gonggar Airport in Lhasa, capital of southwest China’s Tibet Autonomous Region, ended its 43-year history of not being able to handle night flights with a passenger jet bound for Chengdu City in neighboring Sichuan Province, taking off at 7:50 p.m.The progress is the result of a $150-million navigation lighting project that the airport completed in June.Gonggar Airport, situated 3,600 meters above sea level, is one of the world’shighest airports. It began operation in March 1956. After an expansion projectin 2001 -03, the airport can now handle 1.1 million passengers every year.

  10. Anti-Swing Control of Gantry and Tower Cranes Using Fuzzy and Time-Delayed Feedback with Friction Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a feedback controller to automate crane operations by controlling the load position and its swing. First, a PD tracking controller is designed to follow a prescribed trajectory. Then, another controller is added to the control loop to damp the load swing. The anti-swing controller is designed based on two techniques: a time-delayed feedback of the load swing angle and an anti-swing fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The rules of the FLC are generated by mapping the performance of the time-delayed feedback controller. The same mapping method used for generating the rules can be applied to mimic the performance of an expert operator. The control algorithms were designed for gantry cranes and then extended to tower cranes by considering the coupling between the translational and rotational motions. Experimental results show that the controller is effective in reducing load oscillations and transferring the load in a reasonable time. To experimentally validate the theory, we had to compensate for friction. To this end, we estimated the friction and then applied a control action to cancel it. The friction force was estimated by assuming a mathematical model and then estimating the model coefficients using an off-line identification technique, the method of least squares (LS.

  11. Productivity Analysis of Public and Private Airports: A Causal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Gorjidooz, Javad

    2007-01-01

    Around the world, airports are being viewed as enterprises, rather than public services, which are expected to be managed efficiently and provide passengers with courteous customer services. Governments are, increasingly, turning to the private sectors for their efficiency in managing the operation, financing, and development, as well as providing security for airports. Operational and financial performance evaluation has become increasingly important to airport operators due to recent trends in airport privatization. Assessing performance allows the airport operators to plan for human resources and capital investment as efficiently as possible. Productivity measurements may be used as comparisons and guidelines in strategic planning, in the internal analysis of operational efficiency and effectiveness, and in assessing the competitive position of an airport in transportation industry. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the operational and financial efficiencies of 22 major airports in the United States and Europe. These airports are divided into three groups based on private ownership (7 British Airport Authority airports), public ownership (8 major United States airports), and a mix of private and public ownership (7 major European Union airports. The detail ownership structures of these airports are presented in Appendix A. Total factor productivity (TFP) model was utilized to measure airport performance in terms of financial and operational efficiencies and to develop a benchmarking tool to identify the areas of strength and weakness. A regression model was then employed to measure the relationship between TFP and ownership structure. Finally a Granger causality test was performed to determine whether ownership structure is a Granger cause of TFP. The results of the analysis presented in this paper demonstrate that there is not a significant relationship between airport TFP and ownership structure. Airport productivity and efficiency is

  12. Application of S7-300 PLC in Temperature Control System for Fractionating Tower%S7-300PLC在精馏塔温度控制系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 赵德瑞; 吕湘晔

    2011-01-01

    针对精馏塔温度系统结构复杂和精确度要求高等特点,采用西门子S7-300可编程控制器PIE对系统温度进行控制.控制回路采用单参数模糊PID调制法;同时,将单参数模糊PID控制和可编程控制器的逻辑判断指令结合起来,使PID控制更为灵活,较好地满足了生产过程的要求.实际运行结果验证了PLC应用于精馏塔温度控制系统的可行性及精确性.%Aiming at the features of the temperature system of fractionating tower, i.e.complex structure and high precision requirement, the temperature is controlled by adopting Siemens S7-300 programmable controller.The single parameter fuzzy PID modulation method is used in the control loop.In addition, the single parameter fuzzy PID control is combined with the logic judgment instruction in programmable controller,thus PID control becomes more flexible, and better meets the requirements of productive process.The result of practical operation verifies the feasibility and precision of using PLC in temperature control system of fractionating tower.

  13. Airports and Airfields - Volusia County Airports (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Public Use Airports database is a geographic point database of aircraft landing facilities in the United States and U.S. Territories. This database has been...

  14. On line monitoring of the power control and engineering parameters systems of the NEMO Phase-2 tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEMO Collaboration is presently carrying out an intense activity on 'NEMO Phase-2' project for the realization of an underwater infrastructure on the deep-sea site of Capo Passero including a fully instrumented 16 storey tower. In this paper the design of the electrical power control system and of a system for the monitoring of some engineering parameters, useful to study the dynamical behavior of the structure, are presented. The proposed architecture is strongly modular and flexible. The entire architecture is described with a special focus on the electrical parameters monitoring, protection system and on the sensors fusion algorithm implemented to deduce the attitude through Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers and magnetometer sensors.

  15. Waste and energy management at airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korul, V.; Ozen, M. [Anadolu Univ., (Turkey). School of Civil Aviation

    2005-07-01

    Aviation is experiencing increased growth worldwide. As such, airports face a new and costly long-term threat in the form of environmental controls. Passenger traffic is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 4.5 per cent until 2020. This growth will be influenced by challenges such as airport and airspace congestion, environmental protection and increasing capital investment. Air transportation has created several environmental externalities such as aircraft noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution and waste. Airports also take up large areas of land and are highly dependent on non-renewable energy sources. With increased traffic, the volume of waste also increases. The waste at airports is generated by airlines, airport operators and other airport related companies. Airport managers must come to the realization that sustainability within the aviation industry encompasses environmental, social and economic issues. Energy management is an essential part of the economical and efficient use of energy sources since it provides airports with a basis for evaluating power consumption and power supplies. Energy planning creates the foundation for a safe power supply from external sources or on-site power generation or cogeneration for a reliable supply of airport infrastructure services such as water, gas and air. This paper listed 9 advantages of using renewable energy sources for aviation high-energy requirements. Some airports generate waste volumes equivalent to those of small cities and their waste disposal costs are high. A strategy must be developed to deal with both solid and liquid wastes and address waste reduction and recycling. 38 refs.

  16. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  17. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  18. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  19. Fluctuations in airport arrival and departure traffic: A network analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shan-Mei; Xu Xiao-Hao; Meng Ling-Hang

    2012-01-01

    Air traffic is a typical complex system,in which movements of traffic components (pilots,controllers,equipment,and environment),especially airport arrival and departure traffic,form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics.The fluctuations of airport arrival and departure traffic are studied from the point of view of networks as the special correlation between different airports.Our collected flow volume data on the time-dependent activity of US airport arrival and departure traffic indicate that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation of an individual airport obeys a certain scaling law with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1.These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the airport internal dynamics (e.g.queuing at airports,a ground delay program and following flying traffic) and a change in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (e.g.an increase in traffic during peak hours every day),allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the collective behaviour of the transportation system.We separate internal dynamics from external fluctuations using a scaling law which is helpful for us to systematically determine the origin of fluctuations in airport arrival and departure traffic,uncovering the collective dynamics.Hot spot features are observed in airport traffic data as the dynamical inhomogeneity in the fluxes of individual airports.The intrinsic characteristics of airport arrival and departure traffic under severe weather is discussed as well.

  20. Vibration Control of Articulated Tower Platform%铰接塔海洋平台的振动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡蕴斌; 刘锟; 蔡国平

    2013-01-01

    A tuned mass damper (TMD) was designed in the vibration control for an articulated tower platform.The motion equation of the system was firstly given with considering gravity,water pressure difference and wave force,and this equation was discreted using the finite difference method.Then active controller was designed using the optimal control method.The determination of parameters of TMD was also given in this paper.Simulation results indicate that the control effectiveness using active TMD control is better than that using passive TMD control,and the displacement of the TMD using active TMD control is smaller than that using passive TMD control.%采用调谐质量阻尼器(Tuned Mass Damper,TMD)设计了铰接塔海洋平台的振动主动控制方法.首先给出了考虑重力梯度、水压力差、波浪力等外部载荷作用的系统动力学方程,并采用有限差分法对方程进行了离散,而后采用最优控制方法设计TMD的主动控制,并给出了TMD参数的设计方法.仿真结果表明,主动TMD的控制效果优于被动TMD,而且主动控制时的TMD位移量明显小于被动控制方法.

  1. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  2. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of UHPFRC Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the UHPFRC tower in the hybrid wind turbine tower. The analysis of the UHPFRC tower includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS) for both characteristic and frequent load cases, the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue load state. The analysis...

  3. Passive Control System for Mitigation of Longitudinal Buffeting Responses of a Six-Tower Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Geng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the Jiashao Bridge, the longest multispan cable-stayed bridge in the world. A time-domain procedure for analyzing buffeting responses of the bridge is implemented in ANSYS with the aeroelastic effect included. The characteristics of longitudinal buffeting responses of the six-tower cable-stayed bridge are studied in some detail, focusing on the effects of insufficient longitudinal stiffness of central towers and partially longitudinal constraints between the bridge deck and part of bridge towers. The effectiveness of viscous fluid dampers on the mitigation of longitudinal buffeting responses of the bridge is further investigated and a multiobjective optimization design method that uses a nondominating sort genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II is used to optimize parameters of the viscous fluid dampers. The results of the parametric investigations show that, by appropriate use of viscous fluid dampers, the top displacements of central towers and base forces of bridge towers longitudinally restricted with the bridge deck can be reduced significantly, with hampering the significant gain achieved in the base forces of bridge towers longitudinally unrestricted with the bridge deck. And the optimized parameters for the viscous fluid dampers can be determined from Pareto-optimal fronts using the NSGA-II that can satisfy the desired performance requirements.

  4. Air Traffic and Operational Data on Selected US Airports with Parallel Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas M.; McGee, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents information on a number of airports in the country with parallel runways and focuses on those that have at least one pair of parallel runways closer than 4300 ft. Information contained in the report describes the airport's current operational activity as obtained through contact with the facility and from FAA air traffic tower activity data for FY 1997. The primary reason for this document is to provide a single source of information for research to determine airports where Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) technology may be applicable.

  5. Cogeneration/district cooling system in new Kuala Lumpur International Airport; Malaysia Kuala Lumpur shinkokusai kuko no cogeneration chiiki reibo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, S. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-05

    Described herein is a cogeneration/district cooling system for a new international airport constructed in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, from the design to start of services. The airport constructed in the first stage has two-4000m long runways, and sufficiently accommodates up to 84 flights an hour and more than 60 million passengers a year. It has a total floor area of approximately 700 thousand m{sub 2} for various airport facilities. The gas turbine cogeneration plant is located in a 3.8ha area, together with other facilities, including refrigerator plant, control house, cooling towers, water and jet fuel tanks, warehouses, fire-fighting pump yard, gatekeeper`s office, and parking lots for the employees and guests. The cogeneration plant produced 58,534Gcal of chilled water and 41,425MWH of power (of which 31,864MHW was supplied to the airport) in July and August at average loads of 13,008RT and 27,839kW, respectively, which represent 65 and 70% of the design loads. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. White Tower, London, England

    OpenAIRE

    William the Conqueror; William Rufus; Henry I

    2007-01-01

    White Tower (Tower of London), London, England. Photograph taken by Terry Barry. There is restoration work being carried out on one of the towers. The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. The great central keep was built by William the Conqueror and finished by his sons and successors, William Rufus and Henry I, around 1087. It is 90 feet high and is of massive construction, the walls varying from 15 feet thickness at the base to almost 11 feet in the upper parts. Above ...

  7. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  8. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former. PMID:21214028

  9. Speed Control of a DC Motor for the Orientation of a Heliostat in a Solar Tower Power Plant using Artificial Intelligence Systems (FLC and NC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Zeghoudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in the field of motor controls is becoming more interesting especially with the developments of new control methods. This study shows a comparative study between two artificial intelligence methods namely neural networks and fuzzy logic for the speed control of a DC motor for the orientation of a heliostat in a solar tower power plant. The speed controller of DC motor is performed using two Fuzzy Logic Configuration (FLC1 and FLC2 and neural controller in MATLAB environment. The simulation results are used to make sure the real possibility of using artificial intelligence systems to identify and control this type of installation. The performance of the Fuzzy Logic Controller and Neural control are compared using different errors metrics. The results show that Fuzzy logic method is more efficient compared with neural controller method.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of airport noise using computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Maldonado Bentes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the method to analyze the sensitivity of airport noise using computer simulation with the aid of Integrated Noise Model 7.0. The technique serves to support the selection of alternatives to better control aircraft noise, since it helps identify which areas of the noise curves experienced greater variation from changes in aircraft movements at a particular airport.

  11. Optimal inflatable space towers of high height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggested, developed theory, and computed some projects of an optimal inflatable space tower of the heights some hundreds km. These towers can be used for tourism, scientist observation of space, Earth surface, Earth weather, Earth top atmosphere, and for radio, TV, communication transmissions. These towers can be used for launching of the space ships and Earth s atellites. The computed projects not expensive, do not request rockets. They need only in thin strong films composed from the artificial fibers and fabricated by a current industry. Towers can be built by a current technology. Towers can be explored (for tourism, communication, etc.) in a time of the construction process and give a profit, self- financing for further constriction. They can permanent increase their height. The tower design does not request a work at the high altitudes. All construction works will be making at the Earth surface. Author suggests the transport system for this tower of a high capability, which does not request a power energy issue. The small engine (only for a friction compensation) is located at the Earth surface. The tower is separated on sections and has a special protection of a case of a damage. It is considered also the problems of security, control, repair, etc. of the suggested towers. The author has also solved additional problems, which appear in these projects and which can look as difficult for the given proposal and current technology. The author is prepared to discuss the problems with serious organizations, which want to research and develop these projects.

  12. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers of High Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Author provides theory and computations for building inflatable space towers up to a hundred km in height. These towers can be used for tourism; scientific observation of space, earth's surface, weather, top atmosphere, as well as for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. Towers can be built using present technology. Towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the earth's surface. The transport system for this tower consists a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanism in case of a damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in subsequent publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  13. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling...

  14. A National Airport Conference Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A national working conference on civil airport was held at Ramada Pudong Airport Hotel on August 10. At the two-day conference, CAAC Minister Yang Yuanyuan and Shanghai Vice-Mayor Yang Xiong delivered speeches. Yang Guoqing, vice minister of CAAC, gave a working report on upgrading China’s civil airports.Yang Yuanyuan required all the airports to adhere to the

  15. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  16. 19 CFR 122.15 - User fee airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., California Southern California Logistics Airport. Waterford, Michigan Oakland County International Airport...-Palomar Airport. Daytona Beach, Florida Daytona Beach International Airport. Decatur, Illinois Decatur Airport. Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey Atlantic City International Airport. Englewood,...

  17. The Leaning Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石夫

    2005-01-01

    W hy does the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy lean?It leans because of a m istake.It has leanedalm ostsince the day the tower was built.In1173,the people ofPisa,Italy,wanted to build a belltower.They wanted the tower to be them ost beautiful bell tower in all of Italy.The city also needed a bell tower because the church did nothave one.H owever,there was a problem.As soon as the firstfloor ofthe building was finished,the towerstarted to lean.Builders tried to m ake the building straight again as they added m...

  18. Use of social media by airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Halpern

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the use of social media by airports using content analysis of 1,559 airport websites. One-fifth of airports use at least one type of social media. There is a greater use of social media by airports in North America and Europe, by larger airports, and by airports that are owned and operated by private interests. Demand for social media is greater at airports in North America and Europe, and at larger airports. Findings from 183 airport Twitter accounts demonstrate a positive correlation between the extent to which airports are active users of social media and the number of followers that they have.

  19. AN AIRPORT MODERNIZES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    t is all systems go for the new Terminal 3 at the Beijing Capital International Airport(BCLA).Called the"Gateway Project,"Terminal 3 passed its final tests on November 6 and will begin operations as of February 2008.

  20. Thermal Effect of the Cable-Stayed Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangHai-long; LiJun; LiuChang-guo; JiangTian-hua; Weijun

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal effect of the cable-stayed bridge tower based on full time accurate measurement and finite element analysis on Xiantao Hanjiang River Highway Bridge. The measured results and the displacement variation of top tower show that the tower rotates periodically when it is exposed in sunshine. But the tower column will not decline when there is no sunshine. In spite of in winter or in summer, the period when the tower column changed smallest is from 0:00 am to 5:00 am. The time period when the tower column has maximum deviation lags behind the time when the tower column has maximum temperature difference, and this phenomenon is obvious in winter. The conclusions also have directive value in predicting the tower deformations and their directions in construction control of cable-stayed bridge, and in verifying the finite element program.

  1. Thermal Effect of the Cable-Stayed Bridge Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hai-long; Li Jun; Liu Chang-guo; Jiang Tian-hua; Wei jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the thermal effect of the cable-stayed bridge tower based on full time accurate measurement and finite element analysis on Xiantao Hanjiang River Highway Bridge. The measured results and the displacement variation of top tower show that the tower rotates periodically when it is exposed in sunshine. But the tower column will not decline when there is no sunshine. In spite of in winter or in summer, the period when the tower column changed smallest is from 0∶00 am to 5∶00 am. The time period when the tower column has maximum deviation lags behind the time when the tower column has maximum temperature difference, and this phenomenon is obvious in winter. The conclusions also have directive value in predicting the tower deformations and their directions in construction control of cable-stayed bridge, and in verifying the finite element program.

  2. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  3. 机场水泥混凝土道面施工质量控制技术%Quality Control Technology for Airport Cement Concrete Pavement Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董军; 贡文献

    2011-01-01

    针对机场水泥混凝土道面施工中容易出现掉边掉角、表面网状或环状裂纹、板体断裂和蜂窝麻面等质量通病,根据大面积混凝土铺筑施工的特点和环境因素,综合分析其质量通病产生的原因,并提出相应的施工控制措施,在实践中取得了明显效果,可供水泥混凝土道面施工参考.%For the common quality defects on airport cement concrete pavement such as side or corner peeling,surface pattern crack or annular crack, slab fracture, and voids and pits, according to the characteristics of large area concrete pavement construction and environmental factors, the causes of these quality defects are analyzed and the corresponding control measures are put forward, which have achieved significant effect in practical engineering. These measures can be reference for cement concrete pavement construction.

  4. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  5. Literature review of the airport business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    Airports are very important for economic growth. The demand for airport capacity has been growing very fast and private companies are now also investing in airport infrastructure. Airports must however be regulated because they are natural monopolies with high market power. Airports have variables

  6. Congestion pricing of Canadian airports

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph I. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Under congestion pricing, Canadian airports would annually save between $72 and $105 million. Social costs per landing and takeoff decrease about $300 at Toronto and Vancouver and $50 at Calgary and Montreal. Slot constraints fail to eliminate this airport congestion. Congestion prices are lower on average than existing weight-based prices. Current airport capacity accommodates at least five more years of traffic growth before congestion reaches current levels. Substantial welfare gains occur...

  7. Airports and Airfields - AIRPORTS_NTAD_IN: Public Use Airports in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Bernardin-Lochmueller and Associates (BLA) created an Indiana subset of the NTAD airports dataset described below. Dataset includes airports, heliports, seaplane...

  8. Confusion at the Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  9. 输电塔-线体系舞动仿真及控制研究%Simulation and control for galloping of a transmission tower-line system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹化锦; 李黎; 姜维; 陈元坤

    2011-01-01

    Galloping of overhead transmission conductors is a low-frequency, high-amplitude self-induced vibration. A coupled transmission tower-cable-insulator system model was established based on ANSYS finite element software here. The vertical, horizontal and torsional gallopings of the transmission conductors were analyzed in detail using the restarting technology and the feasibility of the restarting technology was verified with a typical example. Under the condition of different wind velocities, the galloping analysis was performed and the galloping amplitudes of the tower-cable coupled system and the dynamic responses of the towers were obtained. Different galloping control measures including inter-spacers and multi-point loading were employed. Various layout projects of the galloping control measures were compared it was shown that adding loading is a good measure for galloping control, the multi-point loading is better than the single point loading, and increment of loading in an appropriate range is conducive to anti-galloping.%舞动是输电线高频低幅的自激振动,基于ANSYS建立了输电塔-导地线-绝缘串的塔线耦合体系非线性有限元模型,提出了采用重启动技术进行覆冰导线的水平、竖向、扭转三方向舞动分析,并通过经典算例验证了此新方法的可行性;进行不同风速工况下输电塔-线耦合体系的舞动仿真,得到了体系舞动振幅和输电塔动力响应.同时针对典型工况,进行了相间间隔棒及多点压重防舞措施的舞动控制分析,并对不同布置方案的舞动控制效果进行了比较,确定了有效舞动控制方案.

  10. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish

  11. Scarcity rents and airport charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; W. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way airli

  12. Extensible Wind Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study on seismic response control on top of Three-Gorges ship lift towers using magnetorheological intelligent isolation system and its keytechnique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weilian QU; Jianwei TU

    2009-01-01

    A vertical ship lift under earthquake excitation may suffer from a whipping effect due to the sudden change of building lateral stiffness at the top of the ship lift towers. This paper proposes a roof magnetorheological (MR) intelligent isolation system to prevent the seismic whipping effect on machinery structures. Theoretically, the dynamic models of MR damper and the mechanical model of ship lift was established, the inverse neural network controlling algorithm was proposed and the fundamental semi-active control equation for the Three-Gorges ship lift where the MR intelligent isolation system was installed was deduced. Experimentally, the experimental model of the ship lift was given, the vibrating table experiment of the MR intelligent isolation system controlling the whipping effect was carried out and the results of the inverse neural network control strategy and passive isolation strategy were compared. In practical aspect, the large-scale MR damper (500kN) and a sliding support with limited stiffness were designed and fabricated. It was proven that the MR intelligent isolation system with proper control strategy can greatly reduce the seismic whipping effect on the top workshop of the ship lift and be simple and effective enough to be applied to real engineering structures.

  14. Airport Pricing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pels, Eric; Verhoef, Erik T.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional economic wisdom suggests that congestion pricing would be an appropriate response to cope with the growing congestion levels currently experienced at many airports. Several characteristics of aviation markets, however, may make naive congestion prices equal to the value of marginal travel delays a non-optimal response. This paper has developed a model of airport pricing that captures a number of these features. The model in particular reflects that airlines typically have market power and are engaged in oligopolistic competition at different sub-markets; that part of external travel delays that aircraft impose are internal to an operator and hence should not be accounted for in congestion tolls. We presented an analytical treatment for a simple bi-nodal symmetric network, which through the use of 'hyper-networks' would be readily applicable to dynamic problems (in discrete time) such as peak - off-peak differences, and some numerical exercises for the same symmetric network, which was only designed to illustrate the possible comparative static impacts of tolling, in addition to marginal equilibrium conditions as could be derived for the general model specification. Some main conclusions are that second-best optimal tolls are typically lower than what would be suggested by congestion costs alone and may even be negative, and that the toll as derived by Brueckner (2002) may not lead to an increase in total welfare. While Brueckner (2002) has made clear that congestion tolls on airports may be smaller than expected when congestion costs among aircraft are internal for a firm, our analysis adds to this that a further downward adjustment may be in order due to market power. The presence of market power (which causes prices to exceed marginal costs) may cause the pure congestion toll to be suboptimal, because the resulting decrease in demand is too high (the pure congestion tall does not take into account the decrease in consumer surplus). The various

  15. Drop Tower Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  16. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  17. 14 CFR 141.38 - Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports. 141.38 Section 141.38 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.38 Airports. (a) An... has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate. (b) Each airport used...

  18. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  19. Arrival manager (AMAN) and its implementation study at Vilnius International Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Bimal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study in detail the working principle of AMAN, its components involved, develop a trajectory prediction simulator using BADA 3.6 and compare the initial flight plan predicted time with that of TP simulator. Due to the increasing traffic demands in major European airports, those airports are implementing it to assist the controllers and decrease their workload. AMAN is used to balance the flow of inbound aircraft and capacity of airport by proving sequence of aircr...

  20. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  1. 76 FR 30822 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Airports: Addition of Naples Municipal Airport, Naples, FL AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Naples Municipal Airport, in Naples, Florida. User fee airports are those airports which, while not qualifying for designation...

  2. Flight delay performance at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Yablonsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the annual cyclical flight delays at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then using other data such as annual precipitation, passenger and aircraft traffic volumes and other factors, we attempted to correlate these factors with overall delays. These data could assist airport management in predicting periods of flight delay.Design/methodology/approach: Data were taken and analyzed from the data base “Research and Innovation Technology Administration” (RITA for the years 2005-2011 for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The data included 2.8 million flights originating and departing from this airport. Data were also gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA showing precipitation. Additional data were gathered from the FAA regarding delay causes, number and types of delays and changes to the infrastructure of ATL airportFindings: There is a repeatable annual pattern of delays at ATL that can be modeled using delay data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. This pattern appears to be caused primarily by the frequency and amount of precipitation that falls at ATL and by the amount of flights that arrive and depart at ATL.Originality/value: This information could assist airport operations personnel, FAA air traffic controllers and airlines in anticipating and mitigating delays at specific times of the year.

  3. 76 FR 15028 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property (75 FR 54946..., Safety Management System for Certificated Airports (75 FR 62008, October 7, 2010). However, the agency... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Interim Policy Regarding Access...

  4. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  5. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  6. 基于嵌入式的智能塔吊远程控制系统的设计%Design of intelligent tower crane remote control system based on Embedded System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 夏朝阳; 刘磊; 宁汝博; 张华清

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability and safety of the tower crane,tower crane operator high-altitude problem solving,intel igent remote control crane,with the help of the embedded technology,research and design of a tower crane remote control system based on embedded intel igent.System is divided into processor and wireless control er of two parts,PC machine is provided by wireless control er display real-time operation of tower crane and working parameters of information to the crane operator,also located in the tower crane on the processor receives the control er to send commands through the drive interface circuit,control tower crane operation.The crane operator keep away from the scene,the safety and automation has been greatly improved,reducing safety accidents.%为提高塔吊操作的可靠性与安全性,解决操作人员高空作业问题,实现塔吊的远程智能化控制,借助于嵌入式技术,研究设计一个基于嵌入式的智能塔吊远程控制系统。系统分为处理器和无线控制器两部分,通过无线控制器中的PC机向塔吊操作人员显示塔机实时运行情况及工作参数等信息,同时位于塔吊上的处理器接收控制器发出的动作指令,通过驱动接口电路控制塔吊的运行。塔吊操作人员远离现场,施工作业的安全性和自动化都得到了极大地提高,减少安全事故发生。

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Towers, Published in 2008, Duchesne County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Towers'. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. Deployable tensegrity towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Jean-Paul

    The design of a complete tensegrity system involves the analysis of static equilibria, the mechanical properties of the configuration, the deployment of the structure, and the regulation and dynamics of the system. This dissertation will explore these steps for two different types of structures. The first structure is the traditional Snelson Tower, where struts are disjointed, and is referred to as a Class 1 tensegrity. The second structure of interest is referred to as a Class 2 structure, where two struts come in contact at a joint. The first part of the thesis involves the dynamics of these tensegrity structures. Two complete nonlinear formulations for the dynamics of tensegrity systems are derived. In addition, a general formulation for the statics for an arbitrary tensegrity structure resulted from one of the dynamic formulations and is presented with symmetric and nonsymmetric tensegrity configurations. The second part of the thesis involves statics. The analysis of static equilibria and the implementation of this analysis into an open loop control law that will deploy the tensegrity structures along an equilibrium manifold are derived. The analysis of small stable tensegrity units allow for a modular design, where a collection of these units can be assembled into a larger structure that obeys the same control laws for deployment concepts. In addition, a loaded structure is analyzed to determine the optimal number of units required to obtain a minimal mass configuration. The third part of the thesis involves laboratory hardware that demonstrates the practical use of the methodology presented. A Class 2 symmetric structure is constructed, deployed, and stowed using the analysis from part two. In addition, the static equilibria of a Class 1 structure is computed to obtain nonsymmetric reconfigurations. The final part of the thesis involves the attenuation of white noise disturbances acting on nodes of both structures. The structures are simulated using linear

  9. Geodesy work in the construction of cooling towers of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specifications are described of the cooling tower foundations, the bottom part of the flue chimney and of the cooling tower casing. In view of the cooling tower configuration, the ground control points inside the tower were selected in the pit bottom and the layout and check were performed of the inner tower wall. The methodology of measuring the basic layout network, and of laying out up to the fiftieth (ca. 80 m) and from the 70th (106 m) strip is described. The measurement results are computer-processed. The accuracy is assessed of the cooling tower construction in the Temelin nuclear power plant. (E.J.). 1 fig., 5 refs

  10. Quality Control of Truss Storey Installation for Shanghai Tower%上海中心大厦桁架层安装施工质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱洁民

    2012-01-01

    The equipment storey of Shanghai Tower consists of outrigger truss, ring truss and floor radial truss. The ring truss and giant columns form the giant peripheral truss. Thus the steel structure of truss storey has characteristics of heavy segments and strict requirements on installation precision and welding quality. This paper introduces supervision control points from controlling of safety risk, installation process, components temporary stability, welding quality of super-thick plates, deformation and installation precision. Moreover the controlling points of hoisting, high-strength bolts construction and welding construction process are analyzed in detail. The quality control process and key points for steel structure are summarized to ensure the successful construction.%上海中心大厦设备层由外伸臂桁架、环带桁架和楼面径向桁架组成,环带桁架与巨型柱形成外围巨型桁架.桁架层具有钢结构分段构件重且数量多、安装精度和焊接质量要求高等施工特点.从安全风险控制、安装顺序控制、构件临时稳定控制、超厚板件焊接质量控制、变形及安装精度控制等方面介绍了监理控制要点.并详细分析了吊装、高强螺栓施工、焊接施工等各工序控制要点.系统总结了钢结构质量控制流程及关键点,保证了工程顺利施工.

  11. Solar thermal power towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  12. The TALE Tower Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  13. FE Simulation of Transmission Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshra Eltaly

    2014-01-01

    the tower were considered. The current models have been calibrated with results from previous full-scale tower tests and numerical models with good accuracy in terms of both the failure load and the failure mode.

  14. 单神经元PID控制在炼油装置塔顶pH控制中的应用%Application of Single Neuron PID Control in pH Control of Tower Top in Refining Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐朝阳; 陈江; 黄善祥

    2013-01-01

    pH是过程工业中一个常见的控制对象,尤其在炼油装置中对pH的控制尤为重要.文中先分析炼油装置塔顶pH的控制特点,若pH控制不好会对设备产生严重的腐蚀,这样导致设备的寿命有所下降,更影响炼油质量.再通过仿真得出合理的控制算法,能有限减小pH滞后带来的影响.最后通过PLC的编程,实现对整个系统的控制,使改进的算法在实际中得到很好地应用,可有效解决炼油装置塔顶pH控制难的问题.%pH is a common controlled parameter in the process industry,and especially it is very important in the refining units.This paper analyzed the characteristic of pH control in the tower of refining units,because it will reduce the life of the equipment at the corrosion station without being controlled well,especially influence the quality of petroleum products.Then the paper came up with a better control method according to the simulation between the common and the improved single neuron PID control which could reduce the influence from the long delayed pH value.A better method was used well in the reality with the help of PLC controller to solve the problem of the pH control of the tower top in refining units well.

  15. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  16. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  17. Optimal Inflatable Space Towers with 3 - 100 km Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Theory and computations are provided for building inflatable space towers up to one hundred kilometers in height. These towers can be used for tourism, scientific observation of space, observation of the Earth's surface, weather and upper atmosphere, and for radio, television, and communication transmissions. These towers can also be used to launch space ships and Earth satellites. These projects are not expensive and do not require rockets. They require thin strong films composed from artificial fibers and fabricated by current industry. The towers can be built using present technology. The towers can be used (for tourism, communication, etc.) during the construction process and provide self-financing for further construction. The tower design does not require work at high altitudes; all construction can be done at the Earth's surface. The transport system for a tower consists of a small engine (used only for friction compensation) located at the Earth's surface. The tower is separated into sections and has special protection mechanisms in case of damage. Problems involving security, control, repair, and stability of the proposed towers are addressed in other publications. The author is prepared to discuss these and other problems with serious organizations desiring to research and develop these projects.

  18. Modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the large-scale disruptive event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the largescale disruptive event. These events affecting the airport's operations individually or in combination can be bad weather, failures of particular crucial aiiport and ATC (Air Traffic Control) component

  19. Airport Surface Access and Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martin-Domingo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport Surface Access faces two main opposite issues: (1 cars, being the main transport mode, contribute to the increasing level of congestion and pollution of cities; and (2 simultaneously, parking fees are one important source of airports commercial revenue, creating a dilemma for airports when facing the problem. Following the recent trend of air passengers travelling with Smartphone (78% in 2013, the purpose of this paper is to monitor the adoption of mobile Applications (Apps by airports and to analyze if the information and functions provided in those Apps can help to overcome the above two issues. Design/methodology/approach: 31 iPhone App of some of the largest European airports were evaluated in the lab using the evaluation model of Destinations Mobile Applications (Scolari and Fernández-Cavia 2014 adapted for for the Airport Surface Access on Airport Apps Findings and Originality/value: The Apps evaluated provided a very limited functionality to help passengers to plan and book their trips to/from the airports on public transports and gave high priority to parking information and services. Originality/value: Although Airport Surface Access has been a widely researched, the originality of this paper is the analysis of airport mobile Apps as a potential tool for airports to deal with the surface airport access problems.Access, Airports, Mobile Internet, Commercial Revenues

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Soong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11 and the US (10. Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities.

  1. TacTowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    The interactive training equipment, TacTower, is aimed at supporting multiple elite athletes, such as handball players in training their micro-tactical skills in close-contact situations. It focuses on psychomotor abilities and trains the skills involved in reading the opponents’ actions and anti...

  2. The Towers of Hanoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, George C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an investigation carried out with a group of able mathematics students who were studying at a level 1 year in advance of their peers. The purpose was to investigate the extension of usual three peg Towers of Hanoi to four pegs and attempt to find a rule that could be used to predict the minimum number of moves required to…

  3. 14 CFR 121.445 - Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. 121.445 Section 121.445 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Qualifications § 121.445 Pilot in command airport qualification: Special areas and airports. (a)...

  4. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  5. 75 FR 39091 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Program (62 FR 48693). A request for participation in the Pilot Program must be initiated by the filing of... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... (SJU) preliminary application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program...

  6. Recent developments in cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1981-07-01

    The last few years have brought about some interesting developments in large cooling towers. Cooling tower technology and research have already been reviewed from the researcher's point of view. The present article describes some practical problems from the planning engineer's point of view. Only development trends in wet natural-draught cooling towers are considered. The shape of cooling towers has been improved as well as their internals. Hints for cooling tower operation are given on the basis of operating experience in winter.

  7. Good Towers of Function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter; Nguyen, Nhut

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will give an overview of known and new techniques on how one can obtain explicit equations for candidates of good towers of function fields. The techniques are founded in modular theory (both the classical modular theory and the Drinfeld modular theory). In the classical modular...... setup, optimal towers can be obtained, while in the Drinfeld modular setup, good towers over any non-prime field may be found. We illustrate the theory with several examples, thus explaining some known towers as well as giving new examples of good explicitly defined towers of function fields....

  8. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  9. 超大跨度斜拉桥裸塔风致抖振 MTMD 控制研究%Buffeting control of the free-standing tower of a super-long-span cable-stayed bridge using MTMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶天友; 王春峰; 王浩; 李爱群

    2015-01-01

    以主跨1088 m 的苏通大桥为工程背景,根据规范推荐的风谱模型分别模拟了不同风速下裸塔结构的三维脉动风场,基于 ANSYS 进行了裸塔在强风作用下的风致抖振响应及其 MTMD 减振控制研究,重点探讨了 MTMD用于大型斜拉桥裸塔抖振控制的效果及其中的关键影响因素。结果表明:TMD 的数量、MTMD 的质量比、频带宽、阻尼比等参数的变化对其减振效果的影响不尽一致;合理设置 MTMD 参数可大大降低斜拉桥裸塔的抖振位移响应,实现主塔结构抖振的有效控制。分析结果可为大跨度斜拉桥裸塔结构的风致抖振控制提供参考。%With the increase of the height and structural complexity of the long-span cable-stayed bridge tower,the buffeting response of the free-standing tower and its control become one of the key issues in bridge engineering.In this paper,Sutong Bridge,a long-span cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1088 m is taken as the engineering background.3-dimensional wind turbulence field for the free-standing tower is simulated according to the measured specification spectrum,the buffeting response of the free-standing tower under the action of strong wind and its control using MTMD are studied based on ANSYS.The control effect on buffeting of the free-standing tower of long-span cable-stayed bridge and the key MTMD parameters are investigated. Results show that the influences of the MTMD parameters including the number of TMD,mass ratio,frequency bandwidth and damping ratio are not identical.The MTMD with reasonable pa-rameters can greatly decrease the buffeting displacements for the free-standing tower of the cable-stayed bridge,and therefore effectively control the buffeting of the main tower.Results can pro-vide references for wind-induced buffeting control of the free-standing tower of long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  10. Operations Strategy and Airport Development

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary The airport business is taking off. During the last twenty-five years the airport in-dustry has been transformed from being a branch of government into a dynamic and commercial orientated business (Doganis, 1992). The world�������¢��â����â�¬��â����â�¢s airports served over 4 billion passengers in 2005, a new record for the industry. Passenger traffic was up 6% over 2004, with strong growth in all regions. (ACI 2006a). In order to cope with t...

  11. Evolution of Chinese airport network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Cai, Kai-Quan

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the accelerated globalization process, the aviation industry plays more and more critical role in today's world, in both developed and developing countries. As the infrastructure of aviation industry, the airport network is one of the most important indicators of economic growth. In this paper, we investigate the evolution of Chinese airport network (CAN) via complex network theory. It is found that although the topology of CAN remains steady during the past several years, there are many dynamic switchings inside the network, which changes the relative relevance of airports and airlines. Moreover, we investigate the evolution of traffic flow (passengers and cargoes) on CAN. It is found that the traffic keeps growing in an exponential form and it has evident seasonal fluctuations. We also found that cargo traffic and passenger traffic are positively related but the correlations are quite different for different kinds of cities.

  12. 机场航空噪声监测系统及其作用%Aircraft noise monitoring and control around airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余成轩

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the practice of aircraft noise monitoring system installation at Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, this paper introduced the development of the system in the world. The main function, system structure and key-technology are recommended. Also, how to reduce the aircraft noise with the help of monitoring system is discussed.%结合上海虹桥国际机场建设航空噪声监测系统的具体实践,探讨了机场航空噪声监测系统在国内外的发展与应用,系统关键技术及其在机场噪声管理中的作用.

  13. Combined Application of Silencer and Sound Barrier in Cooling Tower Noise Control%消声装置和声屏障在冷却塔降噪治理中的组合应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞敏捷

    2014-01-01

    针对火电厂自然通风冷却塔的噪声污染,通过分析研究冷却塔噪声特性,以辽宁某电厂冷却塔噪声控制为例,根据厂界及敏感点噪声控制目标,利用CADNA_ A软件进行分析和预测,采取消声装置和声屏障相结合的噪声控制技术,使厂界及敏感点噪声达到相关标准,取得了理想效果,为同类工程噪声治理提供参考。%This paper focused on the noise pollution of natural ventilation cooling tower in power plant. Taking cooling towers in a power plant in Liaoning as an example,the noise characteristics and noise control of cooling towers were analyzed and studied. According to the noise control target of factory circle and sensitive points,the noise distribution was analyzed and forecasted by CADNA_ A software. The result showed that the noise in factory circle and sensitive points reached the relevant standards and achieved the desired results by the combined applica-tion of silencer and sound barrier. This approach provides a reference for similar project.

  14. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  15. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under the Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... application for participation in the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C....

  16. 75 FR 68018 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... procedures to be used in applications for exemption under Airport Privatization Pilot Program (62 FR 48693... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... the airport privatization pilot program received under 49 U.S.C. Section 47134. The...

  17. Planning, Management, and Economics of Airport Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of the role of the airport in the transportation complex and in the community is presented. The establishment of the airport including its requirements in regional planning and the operation of the airport as a social and economic force are discussed.

  18. European Sail Tower SPS concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seboldt, W.; Klimke, M.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N.

    2001-03-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called "System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE&U)" a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called "European Sail Tower SPS" and consists mainly of deployable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such a SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to Earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150m × 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal light-weight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW e. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology development. The paper presents the technical concept

  19. Implementing Solar Technologies at Airports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-07-01

    Federal agencies, such as the Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security, as well as numerous private entities are actively pursuing the installation of solar technologies to help reduce fossil fuel energy use and associated emissions, meet sustainability goals, and create more robust or reliable operations. One potential approach identified for siting solar technologies is the installation of solar energy technologies at airports and airfields, which present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to large amounts of open land. This report focuses largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) policies toward siting solar technologies at airports.

  20. EIB智能照明控制系统在某航站楼工程中的应用%Application of EIB Intelligent Lighting Control System in an Airport Terminal Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴霓霞

    2014-01-01

    本文主要介绍了电气安装总线(Electrical Installation Bus,简称EIB)系统的概念、产生、特点、构成、应用及发展远景。对比传统的照明控制方式,详细介绍了EIB系统在某航站楼照明工程中的应用。%The paper mainly introduces conception, production, characteristics, composition, application and development prospect of the electrical installation bus system(EIB for short). This paper introduces the application of EIB system in lighting engineering in an airport terminal project, compared with the traditional lighting control mode.

  1. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  2. Ceramic cooling tower packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1986-05-01

    No material for cooling tower packings demonstrates all the characteristics desired by the designer. The choice of a specific material must therefore always be oriented towards the limiting conditions of a specific project. Resistance to frost, combustibility and resistance to ageing may, for example, be determining requirements. Ceramic stones will find further possibilities of application in the near future due to their almost unlimited durability.

  3. Stair Column Tower

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, Lauren N

    2013-01-01

    This set of drawings, paintings, and photographs explores the realms of knowledge and experience in architecture through analytical and perceptual means. In other words, how physical, material considerations inform the experience of moving through space, the perception of space, and the memory of place. These themes and questions are considered through the design of an observation tower that punctuates the ambiguous joint between land and water, earth and sky on the southwestern most point on...

  4. Engineering photochemical smog through convection towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Prueitt, M.L.; Bossert, J.E.; Mroz, E.J.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jacobson, M.Z.; Turco, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Dept.

    1995-02-01

    Reverse convection towers have attracted attention as a medium for cleansing modern cities. Evaporation of an aqueous mist injected at the tower opening could generate electrical power by creating descent, and simultaneously scavenge unsightly and unhealthful particulates. The study offered here assesses the influence to tower water droplets on the photochemical component of Los Angeles type smog. The primary radical chain initiator OH is likely removed into aqueous phases well within the residence time of air in the tower, and then reacts away rapidly. Organics do not dissolve, but nighttime hydrolysis of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} depletes the nitrogen oxides. A lack of HOx would slow hydrocarbon oxidation and so also ozone production. Lowering of NOx would also alter ozone production rates, but the direction is uncertain. SO{sub 2} is available in sufficient quantities in some urban areas to react with stable oxidants, and if seawater were the source of the mist, the high pH would lead to fast sulfur oxidation kinetics. With an accommodation coefficient of 10{sup {minus}3}, however, ozone may not enter the aqueous phase efficiently. Even if ozone is destroyed or its production suppressed, photochemical recovery times are on the order of hours, so that tower processing must be centered on a narrow midday time window. The cost of building the number of structures necessary for this brief turnover could be prohibitive. The increase in humidity accompanying mist evaporation could be controlled with condensers, but might otherwise counteract visibility enhancements by recreating aqueous aerosols. Quantification of the divergent forcings convection towers must exert upon the cityscape would call for coupled three dimensional modeling of transport, microphysics, and photochemistry. 112 refs.

  5. Twin Towers of Hanoi

    CERN Document Server

    Sunic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    In the Twin Towers of Hanoi version of the well known Towers of Hanoi Problem there are two coupled sets of pegs. In each move, one chooses a pair of pegs in one of the sets and performs the only possible legal transfer of a disk between the chosen pegs (the smallest disk from one of the pegs is moved to the other peg), but also, simultaneously, between the corresponding pair of pegs in the coupled set (thus the same sequence of moves is always used in both sets). We provide upper and lower bounds on the length of the optimal solutions to problems of the following type. Given an initial and a final position of N disks in each of the coupled sets, what is the smallest number of moves needed to simultaneously obtain the final position from the initial one in each set? Our analysis is based on the use of a group, called Hanoi Towers group, of rooted ternary tree automorphisms, which models the original problem in such a way that the configurations on N disks are the vertices at level N of the tree and the action...

  6. [Airport related air pollution and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Ancona, Carla; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Airport is an extremely complex emission source of airborne pollutants that can have a significant impact on the environment. Indeed, several airborne chemicals emitted during airport activities may significantly get worse air quality and increase exposure level of both airport workers and general population living nearby the airports. In recent years airport traffic has increased and consequently several studies investigated the association between airport-related air pollution and occurrence of adverse health effects, particularly on respiratory system, in exposed workers and general population resident nearby. In this context, we carried out a critical evaluation of the studies that investigated this correlation in order to obtain a deeper knowledge of this issue and to identify the future research needs. Results show that the evidence of association between airport-related air pollution and health effects on workers and residents is still limited.

  7. Human factors in layers of defense in airport security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, H.; Van Gulijk, C.; Ale, B.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Airport security systems are built up out of layers of defence based on the security-in-depth model (Talbot & Jakeman, 2008). The Transport Safety Authority (TSA) in the United States defined a staggering 20 layers of defence to control security risks. This means that not only security personnel is

  8. Application of i-bus Intelligent Building Control System in Xianyang International Airport%i-bus智能建筑控制系统在咸阳国际机场的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 尚东卫

    2013-01-01

    简要介绍ABB i-bus®智能建筑控制系统的结构及特点,并通过该系统在西安咸阳国际机场T3航站楼项目的应用,阐述系统现场智能面板控制、中文触摸屏控制、光照度自动感应控制、中央图形化控制,以及与其他系统的集成。%A brief intro duction to the structure and characteristics of ABB i-bus®intelligent building control system is provided. The integrated functions of intelligent panel control, Chinese touch screen control, light illuminance automatic induction control and central graphical control integration with other systems are described through the application of the system in terminal building T3 of Xianyang international airport in Xi’ an.

  9. Virtual Airport Simulation Technology: Perceptions of Airport Operations Initial Training Program Variables and Effectiveness for Airside Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Air travel is expected to grow by a factor of 2 to 3 times by 2025 and people working in the aviation system, including airport personnel, pilots, and air traffic controllers, must be able to safely and efficiently operate in this arena ("NextGen"). In response to the personnel training and education requirements concomitant with "NextGen,"…

  10. Investigation and Analysis for Advanced Airport Surface Movement Guidance and Control System%先进的机场场面导向和控制系统浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁汀

    2012-01-01

    放眼全球化的当今社会,航空交通密度日益增大。机场运营繁忙,部分枢纽型机场的吞吐量逐渐趋近饱和。这种现状对先进的机场场面导向和控制系统提出了更高的要求。与传统的机场导向和控制系统SMGCS(Surface Movement Guidance and Control System)相比,先进的机场场面导向和控制系统A—SMGCS(Advanced—Surface Movement Guidance and ControlSystem)功能分为四部分:监视、路由、导向及控制。将对A—SMGCS的应用背景和发展状况给出较为全面的调研总结[1],并结合ICAOA—SMGCSManual[3]论述对A—SMGCS提出详细功能需求.最后在此基础上提出A—SMGCS的系统功能架构.%Due to an increasing air traffic density all around the mordent world, some of the airport operations, with a SMGCS (Surface Movement Guidance and Control System) performance, are suffering overloads to their capacities. This project intends to search for a solution for the above difficulty. Compared with SMGCS, A-SMGCS (Advanced-Surface Movement Guidance and Control System)is facilitated with promoted functions spited as guidance, routing, navigation, and control. This paper gives a conclusion covering the investigation into the A-SMGCS application and development[1]. Additionally, system performance requirements are outlined based on ICAO (International Civil Aeronautics Organization) A-SMGCS Manual[2]. Finally, the A-SMGCS system architecture is developed in the paper. The introduction of A-SMGCS is capable to improve the airport operation efficiency and reduce the accident rate.

  11. Vienna international airport noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidelinde Jelinek-Nigitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: On the topic of sustainable aviation a study was carried out to measure the difference between the actual change in air traffic noise and the airport’s residents’ perception of the noise change at Vienna International Airport. Therefore, a questionnaire was developed in cooperation with the airport and an online survey was conducted. Design/methodology/approach: For the survey of the opinion of the affected population of the surrounding communities, a web based online questionnaire is created and distributed via various channels including e-mail, and online forums. After the basic structure of the questionnaire had been defined, the questions were developed in cooperation with employees form the environmental department of VIE, who had a sustainable influence on the questions’ order and formulation. As the survey was supposed to be answered by residents around VIE. Findings: Results of the online study show that only parts of the participants are affected by air traffic noise at VIE. Even less experienced a significant change over the last five years. About one third of the participants stated that they are affected by air traffic noise in one way or another. The majority of these people live in Lower Austria, the federal state in which the airport is located. The participants obviously judge air traffic noise during day time more importantly than air traffic noise at night. Research limitations/implications: Due to the low number of returns, no statistically relevant conclusions can be drawn, the results of the survey can be used to make some general statements. Originality/value: Economic growth and deregulation lead to growing aircraft operations. Vienna International Airport with its approximately 260,000 flight movements per year is the biggest airport in Austria and a major hub in Europe. The combination of constantly growing air transport and the resulting noise exposure, as well as the steadily increasing

  12. SOME ISSUES OF THE AIRPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Ovidiu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, the recommended standards for the operation and management of civil-use airports are provided by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. In most individual countries, airports are managed directly by the government, most often under the ministry of transport. In some countries, including EU countries, some airports are privately owned and operated, although, despite private ownership, they are still subject to much of the country’s regulations regarding aviation operations. The complex system of civil airports is made up of individual airport facilities of varying sizes, serving various purposes, all organized into plans of regional, national, and international levels. The range of rules, regulations, and policies, administered from varying levels of government, cover the full spectrum of airport and aviation system operations. Furthermore, a large number of professional and industry organizations play a large part in influencing the policies by which airport management must operate their facilities. By understanding where an airport manager’s airport falls within the civil aviation system, what rules must be followed, and what sources of support and assistance exist, the task of efficiently managing the complex system that is an airport, becomes highly facilitated.

  13. 塔式太阳能发电系统定日镜控制研究%Research on Heliostat Control System of Solar Power Tower Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽婵; 陆宇; 汤雪华

    2014-01-01

    As environmental pollution and resource waste becoming increasingly obvious, the importance of the new energy has been more and more apparent. As a representative of the new energy, solar energy has been widely used. The tower plants have the highest concentration ratio in the solar thermal power generation technology, which is the reason why tower plants can operate of a higher temperature, so that it can give higher efficiency and more power of the system. Therefore, solar tower power generation has a good application prospect.%随着环境污染和资源浪费问题的日益突出,新能源的重要性已越来越明显。太阳能作为新能源家族中的代表能源已广泛成为人们所利用的对象。在太阳能热发电技术中,塔式发电系统的聚光比最高,因此塔式发电系统可以进行更高温度的运行,从而导致更高的系统效率以及更多的电力产出。因此,太阳能塔式发电有着良好的应用前景。

  14. Research on Heliostat Control System of Solar Power Tower Plants%塔式太阳能发电系统定日镜控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丽婵; 陆宇; 汤雪华

    2014-01-01

    As environmental pollution and resource waste becoming increasingly obvious, the importance of the new energy has been more and more apparent. As a representative of the new energy, solar energy has been widely used. The tower plants have the highest concentration ratio in the solar thermal power generation technology, which is the reason why tower plants can operate of a higher temperature, so that it can give higher efficiency and more power of the system. Therefore, solar tower power generation has a good application prospect.%随着环境污染和资源浪费问题的日益突出,新能源的重要性已越来越明显。太阳能作为新能源家族中的代表能源已广泛成为人们所利用的对象。在太阳能热发电技术中,塔式发电系统的聚光比最高,因此塔式发电系统可以进行更高温度的运行,从而导致更高的系统效率以及更多的电力产出。因此,太阳能塔式发电有着良好的应用前景。

  15. Power supply facilities and comprehensive power distribution automation system at the Kansai International Airport; Kansai kokusai kuko ni okeru denryoku kyokyu setsubi oyobi haiden sogo jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    This paper introduces the power supply facilities and the comprehensive power distribution automation system using an optical network installed at the Kansai International Airport that has begun operation. The power supply has adopted a three-line spot network system for the 22-kV system, a system to supply power from multiple number of distribution towers using a constant reserve system for the 6-kV system, and a system to supply power from high-voltage transformers for 100 to 200 V systems. As a conduit used to deal with subsidence of the power supply cable path, a pipe was developed that combines a PE-made flexible pipe with a cable protecting expansion steel pipe. The power distribution towers were given considerations for environmental harmony, size reduction, heavy salt damage, and measures for soft soil ground. The comprehensive power distribution automation system performs remote control of switches, operation of remote detectors, and load survey. Cost reduction has been realized in the system by adopting an optical multi-drop system that uses an air blown fiber (ABF) construction method. An optical shunt having eight branches was developed for this construction method. The ABF method blows optical fibers having two to eight cores into a hollow plastic pipe by using compressed air. 10 figs.

  16. Control Strategy of Time Interval with Temperature Difference Control for Heat Pump System with Hybrid of Cooling Tower and Ground Source%冷却塔复合地源热泵分时段温差控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金焘; 雷波; 孙亮亮

    2014-01-01

    A new control strategy applied to Heat Pump Air-Conditioning system with hybrid of cooling tower and ground source cooling water system, Time Interval with Temperature Difference Control (TITDC), is proposed in the article. And then a simulation model is developing for a case study building, by using a building energy simulation tool, TRNSYS, to verify the advantages of the new TITDC strategy contrasted to Temperature Difference Control (TDC) stategy on the critical parameters of annual ground heat energy balance, load satisfied percentage for long term and energy consumption.%提出了一种用于冷却塔复合地源热泵空调系统的新型控制策略-分时段温差控制。然后通过对一个具体冷却塔复合地源热泵空调系统的TRNSYS模拟,从土壤的取放热量平衡、系统能否长期满足空调要求和系统的能耗三个方面综合分析了系统的运行控制采用分时段温差控制较采用温差控制的优点。

  17. Tautological Classes on Projective Towers

    CERN Document Server

    Negut, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    When one has a tower of projective bundles over an algebraic variety and wishes to compute the push-forward of any cohomology class down this tower, one needs to recursively compute the Segre classes corresponding to each level. In this paper, we give a closed combinatorial formula that encodes this recursive procedure.

  18. 76 FR 31823 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Airports: Addition of Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport, Dallas, TX AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... revising the list of user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Dallas Love... of user fee status for Dallas Love Field Municipal Airport. This document updates the list of...

  19. Study on Settlement Control of Intercity Railway Tunnel under-passing Flight Area of Shenzhen Airport%城际铁路隧道下穿机场飞行区沉降控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁新朋

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of Pearl River Delta Intercity Railway under passing the airport for the first time,based on a wide range of investigation and fieldwork,combined with the actual situation of the project,a settlement control standard of Guangzhou-Dongguan-Shenzhen intercity railway undercrossing Shenzhen Airport pavement is put forward in the paper. Combined with the environmental conditions and the special settlement control standard of the flight area,3D numerical analysis method is applied to simulate the construction process of shield tunnel,the degree and influence area of the construction process to soil disturbance are obtained and surface subsidence of different buried depths is calculat-ed. According to the analysis result,the revised settlement control standard is proposed. Suggestions on pavement moni-toring during construction process are put forward according to the complex environment in the flight area. The automatic total station is erected in non-pavement area to perform whole cycle prismatic-free automatic scanning on the specified pavement to solve the problems such as difficult admittance of personnel in flight area and no monitoring point embed-ded.%针对珠三角城际铁路首次下穿运营机场的问题,通过广泛的资料调研和实地考察,结合工程实际,提出了穗莞深城际铁路下穿深圳机场道面沉降控制标准。结合飞行区环境条件及特殊的沉降控制标准,采用三维数值分析方法对盾构隧道施工过程进行模拟分析,给出了施工过程对土体扰动的程度及影响范围,计算了不同埋深的地表沉降。根据分析结果提出了穿越过程修正的沉降控制标准。根据飞行区地表复杂的环境提出了施工过程的道面监测建议,即在非道面区架设自动全站仪,对指定道面进行全周期无棱镜自动扫面,以解决飞行区人员准入难、不准埋设监测点等问题。

  20. The impact of mobile marketing in airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Florido-Benítez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper seeks to analyze the effects of mobile marketing tool at airports and passengers. Design/methodology: This research approach consist of going through data files and bibliographical sources in search of information gathered by authors, institutions and organizations regarding our case study. Findings: Mobile marketing to increase passenger satisfaction and commercial income in the airports. Large airports are taking advantage of the consolidation of mobile devices in the 21st century to create applications for branding and communication. Originality/value: This paper is the first research that examines the impact of mobile marketing in airports. First, to evaluate the effects that mobile marketing is having over the levels of passenger satisfaction at airports. Second, to analyze the impact of mobile marketing on passengers behavior in the aerodrome; lastly, to study the effects of this tool on the perceived image of an airport.

  1. Strategic development of commercial airports in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏煦

    2014-01-01

    Civil airports in China in the last 10 years have expanded substantially, and the construction of airports has come into a period planning to build airports into large transportation hub. This article combines the new trends of commercial real estate and the airport business, and explores various business marketing and management modes for operating airports with specific reference to the case of Chongqing. The main research results are as follows: First, the introduction of products and services markets should make more focus on the structure and habits of travelers. Second, developing new commercial projects through the BOT model and practicing resource replacement mode. Third, planning the terminal surrounding functions, the layout of successful business is the key factor of the rapid increase of airport non-aeronautical revenue.

  2. Reduction of commercial aircraft noise emission around airports. A new environmental challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Khardi, Salah

    2009-01-01

    Noise abatement procedures (NAPs) are considered as a necessary measure for a balanced approach of noise control around airports. Their correct implementation depends upon many factors, which vary in operation and influence the efficiency of the NAPs. Any system, which defines the correct features of the NAPs for particular aircraft in specific conditions, would be useful for noise control. Thus, implementation of noise level monitoring systems, currently used around airports, gives a noise m...

  3. Travel Time Variability and Airport Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Koster, P.R.; Kroes, E.P.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in a publication in Transportation Research Part B: Methodological (2011). Vol. 45(10), pages 1545-1559. This paper analyses the cost of access travel time variability for air travelers. Reliable access to airports is important since it is likely that the cost of missing a flight is high. First, the determinants of the preferred arrival times at airports are analyzed, including trip purpose, type of airport, flight characteristics, travel experience, type of che...

  4. Location of airports - selected quantitative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Merkisz-Guranowska; Maciej Bieńczak; Marcin Kiciński; Paweł Zmuda-Trzebiatowski

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of air transport in  the economic development of a country and its regions cannot be overestimated. The decision concerning an airport's location must be in line with the expectations of all the stakeholders involved. This article deals with the issues related to the choice of  sites where airports should be located. Methods: Two main quantitative approaches related to the issue of airport location are presented in this article, i.e. the question of opt...

  5. 75 FR 54946 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52524). Comments were due on March 31, 2010. Comments on the... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports... Federally obligated airport from an adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a...

  6. 云南大理机场鸟类调查及鸟撞防治对策%Bird Survey and Bird Strike Control at Dali Airport, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗旭; 梁丹; 马国强; 杜小浪; 洪磊

    2011-01-01

    The projected ground surface area around the Dali airport was classified into 7 types of bird habitat, I. E. , orchards or nurseries, mills or factories, villages, forests, water bodies, cropland and barren hills to obtain the basic ecological information for bird strike control in this area. Four surveys on bird species and corresponding numbers in the 7 types of habitats were conducted in the four seasons of 2010, and the characteristics of the habitat vegetation and those of the insect communities were also investigated at the same time. The threat extent of different bird species to the aviation safety was comprehensively analyzed according to the data of bird size, flight height, size of population and occurrence frequency. The survey showed that there were totally 81 bird species belonging to 31 families of 12 orders recorded in the peripheral area of Dali airport, among which 6 species were listed as highthreat species, 14 as threat species and 61 species were listed as less threat species in the light of their body size, flight activity and other behavior characters. The bird strike control strategy was proposed to secure the flight safety for the airport based on analyses of the topography, habitat, season change, food source and other factors.%为获得云南大理机场鸟撞预防所需的基础性生态资料,将大理机场净空范围内的地面投影区域分为果园苗圃、工厂、村落、林地、水域、农地、荒山7种类型生境,2010年春、夏、秋、冬季分4次对这7种生境的鸟类种类和数量进行调查,同时收集栖息地植被与昆虫群落特征.根据鸟类体型、飞行高度、群体数量以及遇见频次等信息综合分析各种鸟类对航空飞行的威胁程度.结果表明:大理机场及其周边共有鸟类81种,隶属于12目31科,其中有严重威胁鸟类6种、有威胁的14种和无威胁的61种;从地形、生境、季节、食源等方面对威胁鸟种进行分析,并依此提出大理机场鸟撞防治对策.

  7. Airport noise predicts song timing of European birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominoni, Davide M; Greif, Stefan; Nemeth, Erwin; Brumm, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic noise is of increasing concern to biologists and medical scientists. Its detrimental effects on human health have been well studied, with the high noise levels from air traffic being of particular concern. However, less is known about the effects of airport noise pollution on signal masking in wild animals. Here, we report a relationship between aircraft noise and two major features of the singing behavior of birds. We found that five of ten songbird species began singing significantly earlier in the morning in the vicinity of a major European airport than their conspecifics at a quieter control site. As birds at both sites started singing before the onset of air traffic in the morning, this suggests that the birds in the vicinity of the airport advanced their activity to gain more time for unimpaired singing before the massive plane noise set in. In addition, we found that during the day, chaffinches avoided singing during airplane takeoffs, but only when the noise exceeded a certain threshold, further suggesting that the massive noise caused by the airport can impair acoustic communication in birds. Overall, our study indicates that birds may be adjusting their mating signals and time budgets in response to aircraft noise. PMID:27648232

  8. PRECISE ORTHO IMAGERY AS THE SOURCE FOR AUTHORITATIVE AIRPORT MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Howard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the aviation industry moves from paper maps and charts to the digital cockpit and electronic flight bag, producers of these products need current and accurate data to ensure flight safety. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration and ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization require certified suppliers to follow a defined protocol to produce authoritative map data for the aerodrome. Typical airport maps have been produced to meet 5 m accuracy requirements. The new digital aviation world is moving to 1 m accuracy maps to provide better situational awareness on the aerodrome. The commercial availability of 0.5 m satellite imagery combined with accurate ground control is enabling the production of avionics certified .85 m orthophotos of airports around the globe. CompassData maintains an archive of over 400+ airports as source data to support producers of 1 m certified Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB critical to flight safety and automated situational awareness. CompassData is a DO200A certified supplier of authoritative orthoimagery and attendees will learn how to utilize current airport imagery to build digital aviation mapping products.

  9. Precise Ortho Imagery as the Source for Authoritative Airport Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, H.; Hummel, P.

    2016-06-01

    As the aviation industry moves from paper maps and charts to the digital cockpit and electronic flight bag, producers of these products need current and accurate data to ensure flight safety. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) require certified suppliers to follow a defined protocol to produce authoritative map data for the aerodrome. Typical airport maps have been produced to meet 5 m accuracy requirements. The new digital aviation world is moving to 1 m accuracy maps to provide better situational awareness on the aerodrome. The commercial availability of 0.5 m satellite imagery combined with accurate ground control is enabling the production of avionics certified .85 m orthophotos of airports around the globe. CompassData maintains an archive of over 400+ airports as source data to support producers of 1 m certified Aerodrome Mapping Database (AMDB) critical to flight safety and automated situational awareness. CompassData is a DO200A certified supplier of authoritative orthoimagery and attendees will learn how to utilize current airport imagery to build digital aviation mapping products.

  10. Air Travel Choices in Multi-Airport Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Ishii; Sunyoung Jun; Kurt Van Dender

    2006-01-01

    We estimate a conditional logit model to measure the impact of airport and airline supply characteristics on the air travel choices of passengers departing from one of three San Francisco Bay area airports and arriving at one of four airports in greater Los Angeles in October 1995. Non-price characteristics like airport access time, airport delay, flight frequency, the availability of particular airport-airline combinations, and early arrival times are found to strongly affect choice probabil...

  11. 77 FR 7231 - Public Notice for Release of Aeronautical Property at New Castle Airport (ILG), New Castle, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... the development of an approximate thirty-eight (38) acre parcel of airport property on the... development, 0.610 +/- acres of Old Churchman's Road must be vacated by the Delaware Department of... sponsorship and operational control of the airport. There are no known adverse impacts to the operation of...

  12. Taxi Time Prediction at Charlotte Airport Using Fast-Time Simulation and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    Accurate taxi time prediction is required for enabling efficient runway scheduling that can increase runway throughput and reduce taxi times and fuel consumptions on the airport surface. Currently NASA and American Airlines are jointly developing a decision-support tool called Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) that assists airport ramp controllers to make gate pushback decisions and improve the overall efficiency of airport surface traffic. In this presentation, we propose to use Linear Optimized Sequencing (LINOS), a discrete-event fast-time simulation tool, to predict taxi times and provide the estimates to the runway scheduler in real-time airport operations. To assess its prediction accuracy, we also introduce a data-driven analytical method using machine learning techniques. These two taxi time prediction methods are evaluated with actual taxi time data obtained from the SARDA human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation for Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) using various performance measurement metrics. Based on the taxi time prediction results, we also discuss how the prediction accuracy can be affected by the operational complexity at this airport and how we can improve the fast time simulation model before implementing it with an airport scheduling algorithm in a real-time environment.

  13. Anti-swing Control of Fuzzy Neural Network of Tower Crane Based on Passivity%基于无源性的塔机模糊神经网络防摆控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨婷; 陈志梅; 邵雪卷

    2015-01-01

    针对塔式起重机的防摆控制问题,提出了一种基于无源性的模糊神经网络控制方法。通过建立Lyapunov能量函数,分析了系统的无源特性,在此基础上采用模糊控制并依靠神经网络对隶属函数进行学习,不需要依赖系统精确的数学模型,实现了塔式起重机小车的定位和负载的防摆,提高了系统的鲁棒性。仿真结果表明该方法的有效性和可行性。%Aiming at anti swing of tower crane,a control method of fuzzy neural network based on passivity is pro-posed. The passivity of system is analyzed by establishing the Lyapunov energy function,and the membership func-tion can be learned to rely on neural network by using fuzzy control on this basis. The accurate mathematical model of system was no more needed. In this method the position and anti swing of tower crane can be related. The robust-ness of system also be improved. The simulation results proved the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  14. The Effect of Governance Forms on North American Airport Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis of Airport Authority vs. Government Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qi; Choo, Yap Y.; Oum, Tae H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies a stochastic cost frontier model to a panel of 54 major airports over 2002-2008 to examine how the two dominant governance forms of publicly owned airports in the United States and Canada, namely, operation and governance by a government (city, county, or state) branch, or by an airport authority, affect airport efficiency performance. Our key findings are (a) airports operated by an airport authority achieve higher cost efficiency (on average, 14% higher technical efficien...

  15. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  16. Light Rails at Kennedy Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The Port Authority in New Jersey, New York opened a new light rail on December 18, 2003 to link Kennedy Airport to New York city. The rail with an investment of US$1.5 billion runs along the airport’s terminals, taxi stop, shuttle station and parking area to connect with the city’s downtown rail network, subways, railways and coach stations.The light rail is convenient, safe, reliable and fast to free passengers of the worries about traffic jam and the pressure

  17. Tighter Airports,Safer Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s aviation authorities have beefed up security measures in order to guarantee an incident-free Olympics New security check procedures issued by China’s civil aviation authorities in the wake of a foiled terrorist attack will make Chinese airports and air travel safer. The regulations,which came into force on March 14,banned liquid products,including drinks,and some cosmetics and medicines from carry-on luggage on domestic flights. The day before the cabin ban,the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (CAAC) had announced it was stepping up safety checks ahead of the Olympic Games.

  18. Modelling delay propagation within an airport network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyrgiotis, N.; Malone, K.M.; Odoni, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analytical queuing and network decomposition model developed to study the complex phenomenon of the propagation of delays within a large network of major airports. The Approximate Network Delays (AND) model computes the delays due to local congestion at individual airports and capture

  19. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  20. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  1. 14 CFR 398.3 - Specific airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific airports. 398.3 Section 398.3... STATEMENTS GUIDELINES FOR INDIVIDUAL DETERMINATIONS OF BASIC ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE § 398.3 Specific airports. (a) At an eligible place, essential air service may be specified as service to a particular...

  2. An Agent-based Model for Airline Evolution, Competition, and Airport Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junhyuk

    2005-01-01

    The air transportation system has grown significantly during the past few decades. The demand for air travel has increased tremendously as compared to the increase in the supply. The air transportation system can be divided into four subsystems: airports, airlines, air traffic control, and passengers, each of them having different interests. These subsystems interact in a very complex way resulting in various phenomena. On the airport side, there is excessive flight demand during the peak ...

  3. 变速变桨风力发电机组塔架的侧向振动控制%Control of side-to-side vibration of the tower of a variable speed and variable pitch wind turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜静; 谢双义; 王磊; 罗敏; 金鑫

    2012-01-01

    针对结构阻尼很小的大型兆瓦级变速变桨(Variable Speed and Variable Pitch,VSVP)风力发电机组如何抑制塔架的侧向振动问题进行研究,提出在控制器的设计中,借助反馈增益并使用塔顶振动加速度测量值米确定附加的电机转矩设定点,并在反馈控制回路中使用椭圆带通滤波器和切比雪夫低通滤波器,进而改善塔架侧向振动阻尼.以某5 MW变速变桨风力发电机组为验证对象,基于Bladed软件平台对该控制策略进行仿真验证.结果表明:所提出的控制策略能够有效降低塔架的侧向振动位移,且对叶轮转速和电机扭矩没有太大影响.%A study was performed on the control strategy of a large variable speed and variable pitch (VS VP) wind turbine wilh very small structural damping to suppress the side to side vibration of the tower. The side-to-side vibration damping of the tower can be improved by setting an additional torque setpoint based on feedback gain and vibration acceleration measurements of the tower head, and applying the elliptic band-pass filter and Chebyshev low-pass filter in the feeback control loop in the controller design. Simulation for a 5 M W wind turbine with the proposed control strategy was conducted on Bladed software platform. The results show that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the side to side displacement without too much influence on rotor speed and generator torque.

  4. Airport in the intermodal transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of integrating of airports into the intermodal transport system is presented in this paper. The development of intermodal systems helps to use the available transport means in optimal and balanced way. The intermodality of the airport is analyzed in two areas: the airport accessibility and the integration of an airport with other transport means of domestic and international transport system. The railway transport is the main transport branch concerned to be integrated together with the air transport. The examples of existing solutions of intermodal systems in the biggest European hubs are presented with the strongest emphasis put on the airport in Frankfurt. The inhibiting and stimulating factors of the development of intermodal transport system are presented. The last part of the paper presents the conclusions how European solutions can be of the help in the process of the development of the Polish transport system.

  5. Siting Solar Photovoltaics at Airports: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Romero, R.

    2014-06-01

    Airports present a significant opportunity for hosting solar technologies due to their open land; based on a 2010 Federal Aviation Administration study, the US Department of Agriculture, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service, there's potential for 116,704 MW of solar photovoltaics (PV) on idle lands at US airports. PV has a low profile and likely low to no impact on flight operations. This paper outlines guidance for implementing solar technologies at airports and airfields, focusing largely on the Federal Aviation Administration's policies. The paper also details best practices for siting solar at airports, provides information on the Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool, and highlights a case study example where solar has been installed at an airport.

  6. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  7. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  8. Analysis of Welding Deformation Prevention and Control of Tower Flange and Cylinder%风力发电塔架法兰与筒体焊接变形预防控制技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永君; 刘坚宏; 张斌; 席嘉伟; 马志文

    2014-01-01

    风力发电塔架法兰与筒体焊接时,法兰平面易产生“角变形”,致使法兰平面度、内倾度、法兰椭圆度超标,为了预防和控制法兰变形,故在法兰采购时预留内倾量,并在焊接采用对把焊接,在两法兰之间夹垫片用螺栓紧固,严控焊接顺序。该方法可很好地控制法兰平面度、内倾度变形。此控制方法已在工程中得到应用,收获了很好的经济效果。%Tis paper provided the prevention and control of welding deformation of wind power tower fange and cylinder, wind power tower flange and cylinder welding.The flange plane is easy to produce"angular deformation".Thus, the flange flatness negative camber exceeded the standard fange ellipticity. In order to prevent and control the deformation of fange, the reserved introverted in flange procurement (welding deformationamount), and a pair of flanges on the welding in welding, clamping pad between two fanges and fxed by fastening bolts, strict control of welding sequence and a welding. Te technical measures can meet the requirements of inner flange flatness, inclination, and the control method has been applied in the engineering, and gains good results.

  9. Control system design for the deethanizer absorber tower pressure in the light end unit of the Nico Lopez refinery; Diseno del sistema de control para la presion en la torre absorvedora deetanizadora de la unidad de finales ligeros de la refineria Nico Lopez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Corral, Camilo [Refineria Nico Lopez, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: Camilo.morales@refhab.cupet.cu; Pedre Mendoza, Isabel [DAISA, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: Isabel@daisa.copextel.com.cu; Garcini Leal, Hector J. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: garcini,novi@electrica.cujae.edu.cu; Fernandez, Luis M. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: luis@icmf.inf.cu; Benitez Gonzalez, Ivon Oristela [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose A. Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-11-15

    This paper is about pressure feed forward control. It is for an absorber tower of the Light End Unit. This one is in the Havana Oil Refinery. Control loop was designed using identification technic and simulation software. Moreover the design control loop has been validated and his quality has been determined. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se aborda un control anticipatorio de presion. Fue desarrollado para la torre absorvedora de la Unidad de Finales Ligeros. La cual pertenece a la refineria de La Habana. Fue disenado un lazo de control empleando tecnicas de identificacion y programas de simulacion. Ademas el lazo disenado es validado y se determina su calidad.

  10. 14 CFR 152.325 - Financial status report: Airport planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial status report: Airport planning... agency conducting a project for airport system planning shall submit a financial status report on a form... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.325...

  11. 19 CFR 122.13 - List of international airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of international airports. 122.13 Section 122... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.13 List of international airports. The following is a list of international airports of entry designated by the Secretary of the Treasury....

  12. 19 CFR 122.11 - Designation as international airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation as international airport. 122.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.11 Designation as international airport. (a) Procedure. International airports, as defined in § 122.1(e), will be designated after...

  13. 19 CFR 122.14 - Landing rights airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landing rights airport. 122.14 Section 122.14... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.14 Landing rights airport. (a) Permission to land. Permission to land at a landing rights airport may be given as follows: (1) Scheduled flight....

  14. 14 CFR 93.123 - High density traffic airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High density traffic airports. 93.123... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93.123 High density traffic airports. (a) Each of the following airports is designated as a...

  15. 77 FR 73310 - Technical Amendment to List of User Fee Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Airports: Addition of Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport, Belgrade, MT AGENCY: U.S. Customs and... user fee airports to reflect the recent user fee airport designation for Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport in Belgrade, Montana. User fee airports are those airports which, while not qualifying...

  16. Tall towers for large wind turbines. Report from Vindforsk project V-342

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Staffan; Lyrner, Tomas; Hassanzadeh, Manouchehr; Stalin, Thomas; Johansson, John

    2010-07-15

    joints both longitudinally and laterally. Such a tower is transported as the separate cut, bent, drilled and painted steel plates, which are assembled at the turbine site. Also pretensioned concrete towers have a long history in wind power, starting with in-situ built slip formed towers. Today most concrete towers are assembled from prefabricated elements, cast in sizes allowing road transportation. The advantages of the concrete towers are concentrated to the lower parts, which are capable of absorbing large moments in an economical way. Therefore hybrid towers are appearing on the market, with a concrete part for the lower section and a conventional steel shell tower for the upper. From the present study one can draw a quite firm conclusion that hybrid towers generally are more economical than pure concrete ones. Due to the very large base width, lattice towers reveal the lowest weights and investments of all towers. The advantages are counteracted by disadvantages that may be equally strong. The number of bolts is very high and they need periodic checking. The dynamic properties are hard to control. During icing conditions large accumulation of ice in extreme cases may endanger the turbine. An acceptable level of safety for the maintenance personnel may be hard to maintain. And finally the visual qualities are controversial. Wood has been used as a construction material for wind turbine blades for decades, but only recently considered for wind turbine towers. This may seem strange, since towers should be a less demanding application than blades. Wood is also in general known to be an economical construction material resistant to fatigue and buckling. The so far only large wind turbine tower of wood is designed by a German company for a 1,5 MW wind turbine. In this report the wooden towers were studied less extensively than the others, due to the less developed and known technology especially regarding joints. From the study one can draw a general conclusion that it is

  17. Surface Operations Systems Improve Airport Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Ames Research Center, Mosaic ATM of Leesburg, Virginia created software to analyze surface operations at airports. Surface surveillance systems, which report locations every second for thousands of air and ground vehicles, generate massive amounts of data, making gathering and analyzing this information difficult. Mosaic?s Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool is an off-line support tool that can analyze how well the airport surface operation is working and can help redesign procedures to improve operations. SODAA helps researchers pinpoint trends and correlations in vast amounts of recorded airport operations data.

  18. 75 FR 9017 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... CFR Sec. 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 74 FR 51653... Airport, LaGuardia Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan National Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of limited waiver of the...

  19. Airport Capacity Forecast : Short-term forecasting of runway capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, Henk; Nibourg, Joyce; D'Estampes, Ludovic; Lezaud, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    International audience Airports expect major benefits from increasing predictability of the operation. This paper will investigate the use of forecast information to determine forecast airport capacity, which will allow airport stakeholders to optimize the use of their resources. The focus will be on forecasting runway capacity, at most airports the major factor for the overall airport capacity. The possibility to model forecast runway capacity, based on probabilistic inputs, will be inves...

  20. Dynamic capabilities in airport management : A study of Jönköping Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Tollén, Erik; Frånlund, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Background: The deregulation of the airline and airport sectors has introduced airport managers to free market competition. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify dynamic capabilities in a regional airport, examine which of the predominant views they correlate to and whether dynamic capabilities concern different levels of strategy. Method: This study uses a qualitative method. Data are collected through a documentary review and interview. The documentary review concerns the fea...

  1. Legionella safety in cooling towers; Legionellaveiligheid in koeltorens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kordes, B. [Kordes Advies, (Netherlands); De Bok, F. [KBBL Wijhe, (Netherlands); De Zeeuw, L. [Holland Environment Group, (Netherlands); Settels, P. [Safety, Health Services and Ergonomics, ING, (Netherlands); Oesterholt, F.; Wullings, B. [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, (Netherlands); Guiot, P. [Tevan, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Brands, R. [Cumulus Nederland, Cuijk (Netherlands); Nuijten, O. [Kennisinstituut ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Wijne, R. [Beer advocaten, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-04-15

    In 9 articles attention is paid to several aspects with regard to Legionella in cooling towers: representative sampling, the use of copper and silver ionization or hydrogen peroxide to prevent Legionella growth and biofilms, the use of a zero-tolerance model to control a cooling tower installation, detection of DNA of Legionella Pneumophila, legionella safety in air conditioners, the model Legionella risk analysis and control of cooling tower installations, legislation and regulations for the control of cooling tower installations with regard to the Dutch Occupational Health and Safety Act ('Arbo-wet'), and an article about a lawsuit for victims of a Legionella outbreak, caused by careless owners of a cooling tower in Amsterdam, Netherlands. [Dutch] In 9 artikelen wordt in deze aflevering aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. Legionella in koeltorens: representatieve monstername, de toepassing van koper en zilver-ionisatie of waterstofperoxide om de groei van Legionella en biofilms te voorkomen, het gebruik van een zero-tolerance model om een koeltoren installatie te controleren, detectie van DNA van Legionella Pneumophila, Legionella veiligheid in luchtbehandelingsinstallaties, het model Legionella risicoanalyse en beheersplan voor koeltoreninstallaties, de rol van de Arbo-wet, en een artikel over een rechtszaak voor slachtoffers van Legionella door onzorgvuldig beheer van een koeltoren in Amsterdam.

  2. Southampton international airport: an environmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplen, J.G.F. [Southampton Business School, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the effect of airport noise on residents living within the locality of Southampton International Airport (SIA). It briefly reviews the hedonic pricing method, contrasting it with the contingent valuation method (CVM), explaining why the latter approach is more relevant in this case. Problems generated by the airport and the airport authority's approach to reaching individual solutions, in conjunction with the local authorities of Eastleigh and Southampton, are discussed; these include air pollution, emissions and odour. Most of these are addressed to the satisfaction of the majority of local residents, with the exception being night aircraft noise, which has resulted in much local controversy. A local survey of residents' preferences is detailed and analysed in an attempt to quantify the cost to local residents. A discussion of sources of bias is included, along with considerations and recommendations. (author)

  3. Future Airportal Surveillance and Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in airport surface surveillance and other sensor, automation, and data sharing technologies now allow the consideration of a significant change in...

  4. Airports and Airfields, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  5. CERN lands a slot at Geneva Airport

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From left to right:Carlo Lamprecht, Luciano Maiani and Jean-Pierre Jobin. When you step off your plane at Geneva Airport there's a good chance you'll come face-to-face with an advertising hoarding bearing the message 'CERN, the world's largest particle physics research laboratory, where the World Wide Web was born...five minutes from here'. This may be obvious to you, but it certainly isn't to the majority of the 7 million travellers who pass through the gates of Geneva Airport every year. On the initiative of the Chairman of its Board of Directors, State Councillor Carlo Lamprecht, Geneva International Airport has therefore come up with the idea of highlighting CERN's presence by giving the Laboratory its own hoarding. The hoarding was inaugurated on 24 May by Carlo Lamprecht, Airport Director Jean-Pierre Jobin and CERN Director-General Luciano Maiani.

  6. Airport Gate Assignment: New Model and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chendong

    2008-01-01

    Airport gate assignment is of great importance in airport operations. In this paper, we study the Airport Gate Assignment Problem (AGAP), propose a new model and implement the model with Optimization Programming language (OPL). With the objective to minimize the number of conflicts of any two adjacent aircrafts assigned to the same gate, we build a mathematical model with logical constraints and the binary constraints, which can provide an efficient evaluation criterion for the Airlines to estimate the current gate assignment. To illustrate the feasibility of the model we construct experiments with the data obtained from Continental Airlines, Houston Gorge Bush Intercontinental Airport IAH, which indicate that our model is both energetic and effective. Moreover, we interpret experimental results, which further demonstrate that our proposed model can provide a powerful tool for airline companies to estimate the efficiency of their current work of gate assignment.

  7. Airports and Airfields, To provide airports recognized by LA DOTD as "official" airports, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2007. It is described as 'To provide airports recognized by LA DOTD as "official"...

  8. Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The construction of water-powered astronomical instruments was a long tradition of instrument making that started in the second century AD with Zhang Heng's water-powered celestial globe. The technology reached a peak when, in the eleventh century, Su Song and his team constructed the Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower which combined the armillary sphere, the celestial globe, and the time-keeping mechanism into a large automatic structure. Su Song's instrument contained a mechanism for controlling the water-powered movements of its wheels that amounts to an "escapement mechanism" for a mechanical clock. A new reconstruction of the mechanism is introduced in this chapter.

  9. Modelling of Bending of Windturbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kurt

    1997-01-01

    Describes a model of a windturbine tower's transverse oscillation depending of turbulence in the wind.......Describes a model of a windturbine tower's transverse oscillation depending of turbulence in the wind....

  10. Tower-supported solar-energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-collector tower system supports three receiver/concentrators that absorb solar energy reflected from surrounding field of heliostats. System overcomes disadvantages of tower-supported collectors. Booms can be lowered during heavy winds to protect arms and collectors.

  11. Airport Merchandising Using Micro Services Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Bhaskar Sankaranarayanan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Airport offers an ecosystem where passengers, airlines, airport, and merchants meet under one roof during travel. During the journey, there is a good amount of time spent by passengers on waiting or transit before boarding the flight. Passengers look for spending that time by shopping, dining, and entertainment. Airport merchants and airlines look for merchandising opportunities to acquire new customers, up-sell, and cross-sell their products and services. Highly personalized merchandising offers can be generated on the fly by combining contextual information from passenger profile, likes and interests, merchant offers, and location specific events, seasons, and festivals. To achieve this, a strong airport merchandising platform is needed. The goal of the airport merchandising platform is to exchange information in a seamless manner across travel systems. The platform is designed on microservices design principles that use information from airlines, airport, social media, and merchant systems. Microservices can promote quick development, deployment, and realization of services. Microservices also improve the time to market capabilities. Mobile and desktop applications consume them to offer a personalized shopping experience to the passengers.

  12. STRATEGIC MARKET POSITION OF THE GDANSK AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ćwikliński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Airports are a key link of the air transport infrastructure, which is a part of the whole transportation system. Their potential is determined by a network of airlines relations and affects the long-term, strategic position in the market of aviation services. The most possible scenario of the macro-environment of the Gdansk Airport has a relatively high predictability and generally positive influencing on the potential for development in the next years. Only international and demographic areas can constitute a barrier to achieving the strategic objectives. Gdansk Airport takes permanently the third position on the Polish market. Strategic gap analysis leads to the conclusion that, compared to its main competitors Airport Gdansk has a gap of compliance trends, but in relation to smaller regional airports excess gap. GDN services are located in the square "Star" in the BCG matrix. This airport has prepared an investment program till 2035. The dynamics of the projected increase in the number of passengers and air operations in Gdansk is generally slightly higher than the growth nationwide forecasts. The strategic challenge for next years will be to strengthen the status of the GDN as a Polish aviation gateway to Scandinavia.

  13. Energy Research in Airports: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ortega Alba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main function of an airport is to provide access to air transport both for passengers and cargo. The number of air operations over the past 20 years has increased rapidly, and this has led to a rise in the energy needs of airports to satisfy this demand. As a consequence, the cost of energy supply for airport managers has escalated. At the same time, global energy consumption has soared due to the needs of emerging countries like China and India, with the consequent environmental impact. This complex scenario of environmental and economic factors has made airport managers become aware of the need to reduce energy consumption as well as a more efficient use of it. The aim of this article is to analyze the main behaviors and energy trends at airports in more recent research, starting with the description of the main energy sources and consumers, the application of energy conservation and energy efficiency measures, the establishment of energy indicators and benchmarking between airports, as well as energy modeling and simulation.

  14. A New Intelligent Airplane Landing Planning Method in Congested Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dastgerdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays considering many advantages of air traveling, we notice that traffic congestion has significantly increased in airspace of countries, and it is expected that this growth rate, increases even more in the forthcoming years.This growth rate and different limitations posed on developing some airports led to the problem of landing airplanes to become one of the most important issues formed in the field of aviation. In this paper, in the form of a new approach based on CPSO algorithm for intelligent landing planning, determining optimal landing times, optimal allocation of runways, and at last the order of successive landings of planes has been done in a way that appropriately fulfills the main goal of the problem (minimizing the total flights delays; thus helping significantly to controlling air traffic congestion in airports approaches. The simulation results show that compared to the last presented methods, including methods based on genetic algorithms, GLS and Bionomic, has decreased the total amounts of flight delays considerably. Getting zero for total amount of flight delays for the two problems with real data of DFW airport in Texas, United States, confirms the more capability of CPSO algorithm compared to the other intelligent methods for obtaining optimal solutions to the problem.

  15. Prediction of Weather Impacted Airport Capacity using Ensemble Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2011-01-01

    Ensemble learning with the Bagging Decision Tree (BDT) model was used to assess the impact of weather on airport capacities at selected high-demand airports in the United States. The ensemble bagging decision tree models were developed and validated using the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aviation System Performance Metrics (ASPM) data and weather forecast at these airports. The study examines the performance of BDT, along with traditional single Support Vector Machines (SVM), for airport runway configuration selection and airport arrival rates (AAR) prediction during weather impacts. Testing of these models was accomplished using observed weather, weather forecast, and airport operation information at the chosen airports. The experimental results show that ensemble methods are more accurate than a single SVM classifier. The airport capacity ensemble method presented here can be used as a decision support model that supports air traffic flow management to meet the weather impacted airport capacity in order to reduce costs and increase safety.

  16. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    Operating an airport is a very complex task involving many stakeholders. The primary role of airport management is to ensure that the airport provides sufficient capacity in all operational areas and that all the companies carrying out business at the airport have the best possible working...... conditions. Moreover, management must ensure that the airport stays competitive and that its business goals are met to the greatest possible extent. The European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) expects demand for air services in Europe to double by 2030 and identifies airport...... operations is imperative for the viability and continued development of both individual airports and the air transportation industry in general. This thesis gives a general introduction to the management of airport operations. It describes the main airport processes and optimization problems...

  17. The Tower as a Metaphor and Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2007-01-01

    Tatlin´s "Monument to the Third International" from 1919, which in turn was a response to the Eiffel Tower being build in Paris in 1989. The Eiffel Tower is the iconic symbol of Paris and the new industrial spirit in Europe at the time. Almost all tourists love to buy tiny models of the Eiffel tower when...

  18. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... FR 5058) that amended the CBP regulations to establish such procedures and airport eligibility... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr.,...

  19. 77 FR 30350 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Use of Mineral Revenue at Certain Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... modifications to this assurance at 77 FR 22376. Specifically, paragraph (a)(3) of Sponsor Assurance 25 permits... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Improvement Program (AIP) Use of Mineral Revenue at Certain Airports AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of guidance; opportunity...

  20. 77 FR 44515 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Access to Airports From Residential Property (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011). The interim policy modified... assisted public use airport. This is discussed in detail at 75 FR 54946, 54948 (Sept. 9, 2010). As a result... limits application of the FAA's previously published interim policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011)...

  1. 78 FR 42419 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) with regard to commercial service airports, and establishes how FAA will... Existing Through-the- Fence Access to Commercial Service Airports From A Residential Property (77 FR 44515... adjacent or nearby property, when that property is used as a residence, is available at: 75 FR...

  2. 虹桥机场航管办公大楼热源塔热泵系统应用分析%Application analysis of the heat-source tower heat pump system in air traffic control tower of Hongqiao airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏学鹰; 李静

    2012-01-01

    介绍上海虹桥机场航管办公大楼热源塔热泵系统的应用,重点阐述了热源塔热泵系统的组成及工作原理、系统的改造方案、运行方式及经济性分析等,并总结了热源塔热泵系统在实际工程应用中的几点体会.

  3. The solar towers of Chankillo

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    An ancient solar observatory is composed by thirteen towers lined on a hill of a coastal desert of Peru. This is the Chankillo observatory. Here we discuss it, showing some simulations of the local sun direction. An analysis of the behaviour of shadows is also proposed.

  4. Preventing accidents at intake towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, F. (INTEGRAL S.A., Medellin, CO (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Strong air blow-outs occurring in the intake tower of Guatape Hydroelectric Power Plant in Colombia have caused two serious accidents recently. The causes of the accidents were investigated and recommendations are made here to prevent future repetitions of these dangerous events. (UK)

  5. The Magnetic Tower of Hanoi

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Uri

    2010-01-01

    In this work I study a modified Tower of Hanoi puzzle, which I term Magnetic Tower of Hanoi (MToH). The original Tower of Hanoi puzzle, invented by the French mathematician Edouard Lucas in 1883, spans "base 2". That is - the number of moves of disk number k is 2^(k-1), and the total number of moves required to solve the puzzle with N disks is 2^N - 1. In the MToH puzzle, each disk has two distinct-color sides, and disks must be flipped and placed so that no sides of the same color meet. I show here that the MToH puzzle spans "base 3" - the number of moves required to solve an N+1 disk puzzle is essentially three times larger than he number of moves required to solve an N disk puzzle. The MToH comes in 3 flavors which differ in the rules for placing a disk on a free post and therefore differ in the possible evolutions of the Tower states towards a puzzle solution. I analyze here algorithms for minimizing the number of steps required to solve the MToH puzzle in its different versions. Thus, while the colorful ...

  6. Good towers of function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Nhut

    of q. In this thesis, we study a construction using Drinfeld modules that produces explicitly defined families of algebraic curves that asymptotically achieve Ihara’s constant. Such families of curves can also be described using towers of function fields. Restated in this language the aim...

  7. Origin and prevention of infection with Legionella pneumophila through cooling towers and evaporative cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaporative cooling towers and industrial ventilator cooling towers have repeatedly been described as the origin of Legionnaires' disease. This article describes the design and function of cooling towers and evaporative cooling towers, sums up knowledge on the colonization of such systems with Legionella pneumophila, and describes conditions permitting the transmission of Legionella. Furthermore, design, maintenance, cleaning and disinfection measures are indicated which are believed to reduce the risk of infection through industrial and evaporative cooling towers. (orig.)

  8. Building designed granular towers one drop at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Julien; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2012-02-01

    The impact of a drop on a surface leads to beautiful dynamical shapes that result from a subtle interplay between inertial effects, fluid properties and substrate characteristics. In this talk, we will present an experiment where the successive impacts of drops lead to surprisingly slender mechanically stable structures that we called granular towers. They are created by dripping a dense granular suspension on a liquid absorbing surface such as a blotter paper or a dry granular bed. These towers formed by rapid solidification of the drop upon impact are analogous to many natural structures found in nature including frozen lava flows, icicles and stalagmites. We find that the height can be determined by balancing the excess liquid flux and the drainage through the granular tower. The velocity impact, the free fall time and the density of the suspension are found to control the tower width and its detailed morphology. We show that these facts can be manipulated to obtain various symmetric, smooth, corrugated, zigzag, and chiral structures. Further, the shape of the tower can be used as a quick diagnostic tool to characterize the rheology of a granular suspension. [J. Chopin and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 208304 (2011)

  9. Plant Vogtle cooling tower studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Steen, L.

    2000-01-26

    Intensive ground-based field studies of plumes from two large, natural-draft cooling towers were conducted in support of the MTI modeling effort. Panchromatic imagery, IR imagery, meteorological data, internal tower temperatures and plant power data were collected during the field studies. These data were used to evaluate plume simulations, plume radioactive transfer calculations and plume volume estimation algorithms used for power estimation. Results from six field studies indicate that a 3-D atmospheric model at sufficient spatial resolution can effectively simulate a cooling tower plume if the plume is of sufficient size and the ambient meteorology is known and steady. Small plumes and gusty wind conditions degrade the agreement between the simulated and observed plumes. Thermal radiance calculations based on the simulated plumes produced maximum IR temperatures (near tower exit) which were in good agreement with measured IR temperatures for the larger plumes. For the smaller plumes, the calculated IR temperature was lower than the measured temperature by several degrees. Variations in maximum IR plume temperature with decreasing power (one reactor was undergoing a shutdown process), were clearly observed in the IR imagery and seen in the simulations. These temperature changes agreed with those calculated from an overall tower energy and momentum balance. Plume volume estimates based on camcorder images at three look angles were typically 20--30 percent larger than the plume volumes derived from the simulations, although one estimate was twice the simulated volume. Volume overestimation is expected and will have to be accounted for to some degree if plume volume is to be a useful diagnostic quantity in power estimation. Volume estimation with MTI imagery will require a large, stable plume and two looks in the visible bands (5m GSD) along with a solar shadow.

  10. 佳木斯东郊机场鸟类资源及鸟击防控措施研究1)%Airport Bird Ecological Investigation and Measures of Prevention and Control of Bird Strike Dongjiao Jiamusi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕冬云; 刘东海; 赵宇; 岳丽红; 周清波; 潘亭如; 周雪婷; 罗志文

    2013-01-01

      通过对佳木斯东郊机场围界内进行2年多的鸟类生态与环境调查,掌握了佳木斯机场的鸟类种类及其分布情况,分析了鸟类活动的规律。通过调查提出了适合佳木斯机场鸟击防范的措施,为保障佳木斯机场安全提供了技术支持。%By Jiamusi city eastern outskirts of the airport within the enclosures for more than 2 years of bird ecology and environmental investigations and the Jiamusi airport bird species and their distribution ,such as analysis of the laws of bird activity .Suitable for the Jiamusi city air‐port bird strike prevention measures through the investigation ,provided technical support for the protection of the safety of Jiamusi Airport .

  11. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  12. INNOVATION OF AIRPORTS AND AERODROMES IN TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to characterize changes occurring in EU transport policy, taking into account innovation of airports and aerodromes. To face challenges like: increase in air traffic, ensuring safety of flight operations, regional development or requirements of passengers it is necessary to determine desired direction network of airports and aerodromes within the aviation policy, which is part of the national and European transport policy. Overview of national and EU studies, strategies and legislative plans enable to specify changes taking place in the EU aviation policy, as well as to create potential scenarios of its development with particular attention to the innovation of aerodromes and airports. Based on the above analysis it should be noted, that aims of the European institutions and agencies are: reduction amount of restrictive rules on general aviation (including GA aerodromes, spread concepts of multimodality and Small Aircraft Transport Systems, enhance competitiveness of the EU aviation sector but also reduction investment funding at airports. Conclusions may be a theoretical inspiration in the process of updating master plans of aerodromes and airports.

  13. Location of airports - selected quantitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Merkisz-Guranowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of air transport in  the economic development of a country and its regions cannot be overestimated. The decision concerning an airport's location must be in line with the expectations of all the stakeholders involved. This article deals with the issues related to the choice of  sites where airports should be located. Methods: Two main quantitative approaches related to the issue of airport location are presented in this article, i.e. the question of optimizing such a choice and the issue of selecting the location from a predefined set. The former involves mathematical programming and formulating the problem as an optimization task, the latter, however, involves ranking the possible variations. Due to various methodological backgrounds, the authors present the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and point to the one which currently has its own practical application. Results: Based on real-life examples, the authors present a multi-stage procedure, which renders it possible to solve the problem of airport location. Conclusions: Based on the overview of literature of the subject, the authors point to three types of approach to the issue of airport location which could enable further development of currently applied methods.

  14. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Research on welding deformation control at steel structure of Shanghai Center Tower%上海中心大厦钢结构焊接变形控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄誉

    2012-01-01

    对大型钢结构焊接变形因素进行了阐述,以上海中心大厦钢结构工程为案例,针对该工程结构及节点复杂、安装精度要求高、焊接变形大等特点,从焊接坡口形式、焊接方法、焊接顺序、焊接工艺及节点装配顺序等方面进行了控制研究,实践表明,该工程焊接变形得到了有效控制,钢结构安装顺利进行,构件安装精度及节点施工质量符合相关要求。%The paper illustrates the welding deformation factors of large steel structure, undertakes the control research from the welding groove, the welding methods, the welding sequence, the welding craft and joint assembling according to the features complicated joints and structure, the high installation accuracy, and large welding deformation of the steel structure project of Shanghai Center Tower, and proves by the practice that the welding deformation of the project can have effective control, the steel structure installation can be undertaken in a smooth way, and its components installation accuracy and joint construction quality can meet the relative requirements.

  16. Lidar Wind Profiler for the NextGen Airportal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a standoff sensor that can measure 3D components of wind velocity in the vicinity of an airport has the potential to improve airport throughput,...

  17. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although a number of airportal surface models exist and have been successfully used for analysis of airportal operations, only recently has it become possible to...

  18. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE AIRPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan Durmaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Air transportation industry is a globally growing industry. As an inseparable part of this industry, airport management is also becoming more crucial issue to be dealt with. Airports offer economic and social benefits to the society, but also environmental impacts of airport operations are increasing due to high traffic growth. While airport capacity is increasing, airport operators are being responsible for mitigating environmental constraints. Today to implement airport environmental management system is seen as a critical way of solution. To ensure effective implementation of this system, an organizational change with definite roles, responsibilities and structure are needed. This study illustrates a way of organizational response to market forces and national regulations guiding the achievement of sustainable airports by determining the structure and the roles in an airport organization.

  19. Aspect Of Reliability In Airport Business Continuity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Michał

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the issue of ensuring the continuity of the operation at the airport. Requirements and objectives relating to business continuity management have been defined in accordance with ISO 22301 international standard. Conducted a study of reliability issues operation of the airport. Defined the function of the reliability and operational readiness of the airport. Presented the concept of using function of operational readiness in the risk assessment for the continuity of the airport.

  20. Guidelines to improve airport preparedness against chemical and biological terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Donna M.; Price, Phillip N. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Gordon, Susanna P.; Gadgil, Ashok (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA)

    2005-05-01

    Guidelines to Improve Airport Preparedness Against Chemical and Biological Terrorism is a 100-page document that makes concrete recommendations on improving security and assessing vulnerable areas and helps its readers understand the nature of chemical and biological attacks. The report has been turned over to Airports Council International (ACI) and the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), two organizations that together represent the interests of thousands of airport personnel and facilities in the U.S. and around the world.

  1. The Global Tower of Babel

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2005-01-01

    The key to long-term economic and social stability is the sustainable use of the planet. The Global Tower of Babel is such a formidable obstacle in achieving sustainable use of the planet that the barriers must be diminished. However, if a global consensus can be reached and compatible eco-ethics and sustainability ethics can be established, humankind may have a chance at achieving sustainability despite its cultural diversity.

  2. Research on the stiffening girder erection sequence of three-tower suspension bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Runqing; Luo Xiheng

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the conventional two-tower suspension bridge, the three-tower suspension bridge has obviously different characteristics in structural performance because of the extra middle tower and main span. The construction sequence for the stiffening girder is significantly different between the three-tower suspension bridge and the two-tower suspension bridge. The tangential angle of the main cable is one of the controlling factors of the stiffening girder erection stage for a suspension bridge. According to 5 feasible cases for the stiffening girder erection scheme in Taizhou Bridge, the research about the tangential angle in each case mentioned above was made, and some factors that should be taken into account for the erection scheme of stiffening girder were pointed out.

  3. Airports and Airfields, Airport hangers areas for storage of airplanes and tiedown areas., Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Airport hangers areas for storage...

  4. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport...

  5. 78 FR 44188 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Gateway Airport/Col. Bud Day Field, Sioux City, Iowa. ] SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invites public comment on the release of land at Sioux Gateway Airport/Col. Bud Day Field, Sioux City, Iowa... Airport/Col. Bud Day Field (SUX) under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47107(h)(2). On April 13, 2013,...

  6. 14 CFR 121.97 - Airports: Required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.97 Section 121... § 121.97 Airports: Required data. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag operations must show that each route it submits for approval has enough airports that are properly equipped...

  7. 14 CFR 121.624 - ETOPS Alternate Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false ETOPS Alternate Airports. 121.624 Section... Alternate Airports. (a) No person may dispatch or release an airplane for an ETOPS flight unless enough ETOPS Alternate Airports are listed in the dispatch or flight release such that the airplane...

  8. 46 CFR 72.05-30 - Windows and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Windows and airports. 72.05-30 Section 72.05-30 Shipping... Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-30 Windows and airports. (a) For the purpose of this subpart, all glass in windows or airports shall be at least 1/4 inch thick. However, greater thickness may be required...

  9. 14 CFR 121.117 - Airports: Required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airports: Required data. 121.117 Section... Operations § 121.117 Airports: Required data. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may use any airport unless it is properly equipped and adequate for the proposed...

  10. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  11. 78 FR 53184 - Land Release for Penn Yan Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Penn Yan Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on the Penn Yan Airport (PEO), Penn Yan, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use of approximately 0.069 +/- acres of airport property, to allow for...

  12. 77 FR 12905 - Land Release for Penn Yan Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Penn Yan Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on the Penn Yan Airport (PEO), Penn Yan, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use of approximately 10.00 +/- acres of airport property, to allow for...

  13. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker;

    2016-01-01

    of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  14. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S... as Global Entry, at twenty major U.S. airports. Global Entry allows pre-approved,...

  15. 77 FR 27272 - Land Release for Dunkirk Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Land Release for Dunkirk Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on the Dunkirk Airport (DKK), Dunkirk, New York, Notice of Proposed Release from Aeronautical Use of approximately 2.666 +/- acres of airport property, to allow for...

  16. Airports, Hotel, and Ground Transportation Information | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airports in and near Washington, DC Reagan National Approximate 30 minute drive from Rockville* Has its own Metro stop on the blue and yellow lines in Virginia NOTE: This airport may be the closest and easiest option if not renting a car or do not want to pay for an airport cab/shuttle.   Dulles International Approximate 1 hour drive from Rockville* |

  17. Scheduling of outbound luggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the outbound luggage handling problem at airports. The problem is to assign handling facilities to outbound flights and decide about the handling start time. This dynamic, near real-time assignment problem is part of the daily airport operations. Quality, efficiency...... and robustness issues are combined in a multi-criteria objective function. We present important requirements for the real world usage of the model and compare different solution techniques. One solution method is a heuristic approach oriented on the logic of GRASP (Greedy randomized adaptive search procedure...

  18. Service quality, national differences, and shopping behaviour at airport commercial area : the case of Keflavik International Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Bryndís Marteinsdóttir

    2016-01-01

    As the airport industry is becoming more competitive airports are under increased pressure to increase their non-aeronautical revenues. Airports are thus focusing more and more on service quality and customer satisfaction, in order to differentiate themselves and attract more passengers, to increase commercial revenues and gain a competitive advantage. However, a deeper understanding of how passengers of different national cultures perceive airport service quality is needed, as well as a deep...

  19. Research Of Airborne Precision Spacing to Improve Airport Arrival Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan E.; Baxley, Brian T.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2004, the European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL) and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation to mutually develop, modify, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices to meet the need for safe and efficient air navigation and air traffic control in the future. In the United States and Europe, these efforts are defined within the architectures of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Program and Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) Program respectively. Both programs have identified Airborne Spacing as a critical component, with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) as a key enabler. Increased interest in reducing airport community noise and the escalating cost of aviation fuel has led to the use of Continuous Descent Arrival (CDA) procedures to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel usage compared to current procedures. To provide these operational enhancements, arrival flight paths into terminal areas are planned around continuous vertical descents that are closer to an optimum trajectory than those in use today. The profiles are designed to be near-idle descents from cruise altitude to the Final Approach Fix (FAF) and are typically without any level segments. By staying higher and faster than conventional arrivals, CDAs also save flight time for the aircraft operator. The drawback is that the variation of optimized trajectories for different types and weights of aircraft requires the Air Traffic Controller to provide more airspace around an aircraft on a CDA than on a conventional arrival procedure. This additional space decreases the throughput rate of the destination airport. Airborne self-spacing concepts have been developed to increase the throughput at high-demand airports by managing the inter-arrival spacing to be more precise and consistent using on-board guidance. It has been proposed that the

  20. 风电塔筒法兰焊接变形控制的工艺措施%The Process Measure of the Flange Welding Deformation Control for Wind Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡强

    2011-01-01

    It needs control three target in the process of flanges welding wind tower pylon,the flatness of flange,angular distortion of flange,ovality of flange. There is important economic efficiency taking a measure to ensure the three targets in the process of w%风力发电塔架法兰焊接时需要控制三个指标:法兰平面度、法兰角变形(即内倾量)、法兰椭圆度。在焊接过程中采取相应的工艺措施保证这三个指标,具有重要的经济效益。本文重点介绍了法兰焊接变形成因及焊接变形控制措施等,且该方法在实践中得到广泛应用,取得很好的效果。

  1. 75 FR 23841 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Reading Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Reading Regional Airport, Reading, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of... release of land at the Reading Regional Airport, Reading, Pennsylvania under the provisions of Section...: Terry P. Sroka, Manager, Reading Regional Airport Authority, 2501 Bernville Road, Reading, PA 19605,...

  2. 75 FR 60495 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Monroe Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Monroe Regional Airport, Monroe, LA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Request for Public... Regional Airport under the provisions of Title 49, U.S.C. Section 47153(c). DATES: Comments must...

  3. 76 FR 30422 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Helena Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Helena Regional Airport, Helena, Montana AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Request to Release Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to...

  4. 78 FR 20168 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Boulder Municipal Airport, Boulder, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public...

  5. 77 FR 12906 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite...

  6. 76 FR 23854 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite...

  7. 76 FR 19517 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ....\\1\\ \\1\\ 75 FR 9017 (Feb. 26, 2010). ATA also stated the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...\\ 14 CFR 93.227 (DCA); 74 FR 51648 (Oct. 7, 2009) (EWR); 74 FR 51650 (Oct. 7, 2009) (JFK); 74 FR 51653... Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Newark Liberty International Airport; High Density Rule at Reagan...

  8. Louisiana Airports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997)[airports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 20 Louisiana airports. The attributes include name, address, city, county (sic), state, phone,...

  9. Public Use Airport Runways, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airport_runway_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airport Runways database is a geographic dataset of runways in the United States and US territories containing information on the physical...

  10. Public Use Airports, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [public_use_airports_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Public Use Airports database is a geographic point database of aircraft landing facilities in the United States and U.S. Territories. Attribute data is provided...

  11. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  12. Evaluating transmission towers potentials during ground faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During ground faults on transmission lines, a number of towers near the fault are likely to acquire high potentials to ground. These tower voltages, if excessive, may present a hazard to humans and animals. This paper presents analytical methods in order to determine the transmission towers potentials during ground faults, for long and short lines. The author developed a global systematic approach to calculate these voltages, which are dependent of a number of factors. Some of the most important factors are: magnitudes of fault currents, fault location with respect to the line terminals, conductor arrangement on the tower and the location of the faulted phase, the ground resistance of the faulted tower, soil resistivity, number, material and size of ground wires. The effects of these factors on the faulted tower voltages have been also examined for different types of power lines.

  13. 'Towers in the Tempest' Computer Animation Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirah, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The following describes a computer animation that has been submitted to the ACM/SIGGRAPH 2008 computer graphics conference: 'Towers in the Tempest' clearly communicates recent scientific research into how hurricanes intensify. This intensification can be caused by a phenomenon called a 'hot tower.' For the first time, research meteorologists have run complex atmospheric simulations at a very fine temporal resolution of 3 minutes. Combining this simulation data with satellite observations enables detailed study of 'hot towers.' The science of 'hot towers' is described using: satellite observation data, conceptual illustrations, and a volumetric atmospheric simulation data. The movie starts by showing a 'hot tower' observed by NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft's three dimensional precipitation radar data of Hurricane Bonnie. Next, the dynamics of a hurricane and the formation of 'hot towers' are briefly explained using conceptual illustrations. Finally, volumetric cloud, wind, and vorticity data from a supercomputer simulation of Hurricane Bonnie are shown using volume techniques such as ray marching.

  14. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in unknown, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Cell Towers'. Data by this publisher are...

  15. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  16. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  17. The Tower of Hanoi and finite automata

    OpenAIRE

    Allouche, Jean-Paul; Shallit, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Some of the algorithms for solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle can be applied "with eyes closed" or "without memory". Here we survey the solution for the classical Tower of Hanoi that uses finite automata, as well as some variations on the original puzzle. In passing, we obtain a new result on morphisms generating the classical and the lazy Tower of Hanoi, and a new result on automatic sequences.

  18. 32 CFR 644.423 - Airport development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 21)—nondiscrimination in federally assisted programs of the Department of Transportation... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Airport development. 644.423 Section 644.423... development. (a) Authority. 49 U.S.C. 1723 provides that (a) . . . whenever the Secretary of...

  19. A Seminar On Shanghai Airport Airspace Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A seminar on Shanghai airport airspace, sponsored by the airport’s second-phase project headquarters and East China Air Traffic Administration, was held in Shanghai between March 21 and 23.Present at the seminar were Shanghai Vice-Mayor

  20. 77 FR 58208 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Federal Register 48693-48708 (September 16, 1997) (Notice) (as modified, 62 FR 63211, Nov. 26, 1997). A... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Privatization Pilot Program and has determined that the final application is substantially complete and...

  1. Design of Fire Auto-alarm and Control System of the Container Tower for the Second-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area%上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统设计介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭力清

    2000-01-01

    简要介绍上海外高桥港区二期工程集装箱调度中心火灾报警系统的设计及体会。%It briefly introduces design and understandings of the fire auto-alarm and control system of the Container Tower for the 2nd-phase Project of Shanghai Waigaoqiao Port Area.

  2. Torre de control. aeropuerto de Fort Worth - Dallas - Texas – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becket, Welton

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available The control tower consists of a low building and the actual tower. The 2,400 m2 surface space of the concrete base building is occupied by administrative offices, training facilities, shops and reception area. The structural system of the 60 m high tower is made up of 4 service cores, completed by a cabin and a control equipment level. The service cores are hollow modular units, equally of concrete, which house the elevator, stairs, power and communication cables. The cabin that crowns the tower is an 11-sided polygon. Immediately below it is the equipment level, formed by four quadrants the configuration of which guarantees 360 degree visibility. The control tower is the focal point and nerve centre of the activities at the airport.Está formada por un cuerpo bajo y la torre propiamente dicha. La base, realizada de hormigón, distribuye, en sus 2.400 m2 de superficie: oficinas administrativas, locales de enseñanza, tiendas y una zona de recepción. La torre, de 60 m de altura, se diseñó como un sistema estructural constituido por cuatro núcleos de servicio, rematada por una cabina y una planta para los equipos de control. Los núcleos son unidades modulares huecas, también de hormigón, que albergan en su interior un ascensor, las escaleras, las instalaciones de electricidad y comunicaciones. La cabina que corona el edificio es un polígono regular de once lados. Inmediatamente debajo de ella se encuentra el nivel de equipos, formado por cuatro cuadrantes cuya configuración asegura una visibilidad de 360°. La torre es el punto focal y centro neurálgico de todas las actividades del aeropuerto.

  3. Plumes from one and two cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of mechanical- and natural-draft cooling towers is expanding in the United States in response to pressures for better resource allocation and preservation. Specifically, increasing public and regulatory concern over the effects of the intake and discharge of large volumes of cooling water has encouraged electric utilities to accept cooling towers as the primary method of removing condenser waste heat even though once-through cooling is considerably less expensive. Other factors encouraging the use of cooling towers include small water supply and consumption rates, reduction in land requirements (compared to cooling ponds or lakes), and operational flexibility. The growing demand for electric energy should also add to the increase of cooling tower use. The experimental program and its comparison to model prediction suggest that optimal siting of cooling towers, particularly multiple towers, is a task requiring knowledge of ambient wind history, plume dynamics, and tower operating conditions. Based on the tower wake effects and on the results for interaction of plumes from two cooling towers, site terrain may be a very significant factor in plume dynamics and interaction

  4. The future cooling tower; Fremtidens koeletaarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, C.H. (Vestas Aircoil A/S, Lem St. (Denmark)); Schneider, P. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Haaning, N. (Ramboell A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lund, K. (Nyrup Plast A/S, Nyrup (Denmark)); Soerensen, Ole (MultiWing A/S, Vedbaek (Denmark)); Dalsgaard, T. (Silhorko A/S, Skanderborg (Denmark)); Pedersen, Michael (Skive Kommune, Skive (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    This project has designed and built a pilot-scale cooling tower with an output of up to 100 kW for which good correlation has been ascertained between measured and calculated values for output and pressure loss. The new cooling tower will save approximately 15% of electricity consumption compared with the widespread dry coolers. The pilot tower uses rainwater so that both water consumption and electricity consumption are saved in softening plants. On the basis of this cooling tower, models have been made and these have been implemented in PackCalc II in order to calculate electricity and other operating savings. (Energy 11)

  5. Verification of BModes: Rotary Beam and Tower Modal Analysis Code; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bir, G.

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes verification of BModes, a finite-element code developed to provide coupled modes for the blades and tower of a wind turbine. The blades, which may be rotating or non-rotating, and the towers, whether onshore or offshore, are modeled using specialized 15-dof beam finite elements. Both blade and tower models allow a tip attachment, which is assumed to be rigid body with six moments of inertia, and a mass centroid that may be offset from the blade or tower axis. Examples of tip attachments are aerodynamic brakes for blades and nacelle-rotor subassembly for towers. BModes modeling allows for tower supports including tension wires, floating platforms, and monopiles on elastic foundations. Coupled modes (implying coupling of flap, lag, axial, and torsional motions) are required for modeling major flexible components in a modal-based, aeroelastic code such as FAST1. These are also required for validation of turbine models using experimental data, modal-based fatigue analysis, controls design, and understanding aeroelastic-stability behavior of turbines. Verification studies began with uniform tower models, with and without tip inertia, and progressed to realistic towers. For the floating turbine, we accounted for the effects of hydrodynamic inertia, hydrostatic restoring, and mooring lines stiffness. For the monopole-supported tower, we accounted for distributed hydrodynamic mass on the submerged part of the tower and for distributed foundation stiffness. Finally, we verified a model of a blade carrying tip mass and rotating at different speeds (verifications of other blade models, rotating or non-rotating, have been reported in another paper.) Verifications were performed by comparing BModes-generated modes with analytical results, if available, or with MSC.ADAMS results. All results in general show excellent agreement.

  6. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  7. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of

  8. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  9. 76 FR 22011 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Faith Ranch Airport (76 FR 5303) Docket No. FAA- 2010-0877... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p....

  10. Control Technique of Steel Concrete Section of Long -span Cable-stayed Bridge Main-tower Construction%大跨径斜拉桥主塔钢混结合段施工测控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙景领; 魏浩瀚

    2012-01-01

    南京长江三桥是我国首座主塔采用钢结构形式的特大型斜拉桥.钢混结合段的安装定位精度对钢索塔的成塔线形起着决定性的作用.该文介绍了钢混结合段的安装工艺流程和技术要求及精度估算;对钢混结合段施工专用控制网的建立方法进行了探讨;研究了逐步归化的测控方法在定位过程中的应用,结果表明构件的定位精度符合设计要求.%Nanjing Yangzi river third bridge is the first cable -stayed bridge in China, which main tower is the steel structure form. The installation positioning accuracy of steel concrete composite section plays a decisive role in the linear of steel pylon which would be built.The installation and technical requirements of steel concrete composite section and precision estimation are introduced; the way of the special control network building for the construction of steel concrete composite section is discussed; the measurement and control method of gradual naturalization process in the application of positioning is studied, the results show that the location accuracy of component is accorded with the requirement of design.

  11. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAVOICO,ALEXIS B.

    2001-07-01

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues.

  12. Solar Power Tower Design Basis Document, Revision 0; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the design basis for a generic molten-salt solar power tower. A solar power tower uses a field of tracking mirrors (heliostats) that redirect sunlight on to a centrally located receiver mounted on top a tower, which absorbs the concentrated sunlight. Molten nitrate salt, pumped from a tank at ground level, absorbs the sunlight, heating it up to 565 C. The heated salt flows back to ground level into another tank where it is stored, then pumped through a steam generator to produce steam and make electricity. This report establishes a set of criteria upon which the next generation of solar power towers will be designed. The report contains detailed criteria for each of the major systems: Collector System, Receiver System, Thermal Storage System, Steam Generator System, Master Control System, and Electric Heat Tracing System. The Electric Power Generation System and Balance of Plant discussions are limited to interface requirements. This design basis builds on the extensive experience gained from the Solar Two project and includes potential design innovations that will improve reliability and lower technical risk. This design basis document is a living document and contains several areas that require trade-studies and design analysis to fully complete the design basis. Project- and site-specific conditions and requirements will also resolve open To Be Determined issues

  13. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Gamon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF, are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface–atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental

  14. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to address the reasons and methods for conducting optical remote sensing within the flux tower footprint. Fundamental principles and conclusions gleaned from over two decades of proximal remote sensing at flux tower sites are reviewed. An organizing framework is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model, both because it is widely used, and because it provides a useful theoretical construct for integrating optical remote sensing with flux measurements. Multiple ways of driving this model, ranging from meteorological measurements to remote sensing, have emerged in recent years, making it a convenient conceptual framework for comparative experimental studies. New interpretations of established optical sampling methods, including the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF), are discussed within the context of the LUE model. Multi-scale analysis across temporal and spatial axes is a central theme, because such scaling can provide links between ecophysiological mechanisms detectable at the level of individual organisms and broad patterns emerging at larger scales, enabling evaluation of emergent properties and extrapolation to the flux footprint and beyond. Proper analysis of sampling scale requires an awareness of sampling context that is often essential to the proper interpretation of optical signals. Additionally, the concept of optical types, vegetation exhibiting contrasting optical behavior in time and space, is explored as a way to frame our understanding of the controls on surface-atmosphere fluxes. Complementary NDVI and PRI patterns across ecosystems are offered as an example of this hypothesis, with the LUE model and light-response curve providing an integrating framework. We conclude that experimental approaches allowing systematic exploration of plant optical behavior in the context of the flux tower network provides a unique way to improve our understanding of environmental constraints and

  15. NASA Research on an Integrated Concept for Airport Surface Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Surface operations at airports in the US are based on tactical operations, where departure aircraft primarily queue up and wait at the departure runways. There have been attempts to address the resulting inefficiencies with both strategic and tactical tools for metering departure aircraft. This presentation gives an overview of Spot And Runway Departure Advisor with Collaborative Decision Making (SARDA-CDM): an integrated strategic and tactical system for improving surface operations by metering departure aircraft. SARDA-CDM is the augmentation of ground and local controller advisories through sharing of flight movement and related operations information between airport operators, flight operators and air traffic control at the airport. The goal is to enhance the efficiency of airport surface operations by exchanging information between air traffic control and airline operators, while minimizing adverse effects on stakeholders and passengers. The presentation motivates the need for departure metering, and provides a brief background on the previous work on SARDA. Then, the concept of operations for SARDA-CDM is described. Then the preliminary results from testing the concept in a real-time automated simulation environment are described. Results indicate benefits such as reduction in taxiing delay and fuel consumption. Further, the preliminary implementation of SARDA-CDM seems robust for two minutes delay in gate push-back times.

  16. Mechanical Properties of UHPFRC Joint for FORIDA Wind Turbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    FORIDA Development, Vestas and Aalborg University are currently undertaking the project “FORIDA Hybrid Towers – The towers for next generation of wind turbines”, aiming to develop a new wind turbine tower structure (The FORIDA Tower) for very tall turbines. The tower is going to be a hybrid of ma...... materials combining steel and Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC), applied as precast units. The FORIDA Tower is competitive regarding price, design, flexibility and durability....

  17. Green towers and green walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture and Planning, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    North American cities face many major environmental and health issues such as urban heat island effect, the intensity of storms, microclimate around buildings, imperviousness of sites, poor air quality and increases in respiratory disease. Several new technologies are starting to address global impacts and community level issues as well as the personal health and comfort of building occupants. These include green towers, living walls, vegetated rooftops and ecological site developments. This paper examined these forms of eco-development and presented their benefits. It discussed green walls in Japan; green towers in Malaysia, Singapore and Great Britain; green facades of climbing plants; active living walls in Canada; and passive living walls in France and Canada. It also discussed thermal walls; thematic walls; vertical gardens and structured wildlife habitat. Last, it presented testing, monitoring, research and conclusions. The Centre for the Advancement of Green Roof Technology is setting up a program to test thermal performance, to assess plant survival and to monitor green walls at the British Columbia Institute of Technology in Vancouver, Canada as much of the research out of Japan is only available in Japanese script. It was concluded that green architecture can provide shade, food, rainwater, shelter for wildlife and mimic natural systems. 15 refs.

  18. FlyPS - A PRICING AND QOS MODEL FOR PERVASIVE COMPUTING WITH AN AIRPORT ILLUSTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SASIKALA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Computing is the future technology for every living being that enables all time computing without his/her interaction. i.e any time, any where. Customer Assistance and Passenger Support are the prime factors for Airways Agencies. The idea of this paper to address the issues when equip an Airport with Pervasive Sensor Networks. Customer Assistance FlyPS – Fly Pervasive Sensor Networks, the proposed QoS model for Airport assisting service designed for the customers/passengers. The issues related to the implementation ofpervasive sensor network in the Airport and pricing them are focused in detail. Load balancing is a crucial factor accounted as a QoS parameter in this regard. A Quality of Service Model is suggested by analyzing the expected components of the Network. And an algorithm is given to determine the functionality of special equipment providedto the passengers. The pricing of the network is classified on the basis of services provided to/from the participants.And pricing to an individual passenger and Airways agency is also discussed.The user will be directed to the place where he wants to go in a particular area. A pervasive server is maintained to connect the pervasive controllers. An ‘on-body sensor’ is used for the input to receive data from the passengers. The pervasive controller is used to forward the data sensed by it from the user controller. In an application scenario airport, directing software is used to interact with the user for effective use of the airport facilities. A load balancing algorithm controls the traffic/congestion. The quality is assigned with the accuracy of the data observed by the data observed by the pervasive controller. Load balancing is the process of improving the performance of a parallel and distributed system through a redistribution of load among the processors .

  19. TMD对钢塔风振控制的优化设计%OPTIMIZATION DESIGN OF WIND-INDUCED VIBRATION CONTROL OF STEEL TV TOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学利; 王肇民

    2001-01-01

    提出了利用悬挂水箱作为调谐质量阻尼器来控制钢塔的风振,将TMD对钢塔的控制作用归结为结构阻尼的增加,并给出了TMD参数的优化设计方法。实例计算结果表明,提出的方法简便、实用,可应用于实际工程的设计中。%Tank is used to control wind-induced vibration of steel TV toweras pendulous tuned mass dampers. The influence of TMD is summed up as increasing structural damping, and optimization design method of TMD is given. The example shows that the method is simple and practical. It can be applied to the real project.

  20. An Optimal Unramified Tower of Function Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Efficient construction of long algebraic geometric--codes resulting from optimal towers of function fields is known to be difficult. In the following a tower which is both optimal and unramified after its third level, is investigated in the hope that its simple ramification structure can be explo...

  1. Experimental Number Theory, Part I : Tower Arithmetic

    OpenAIRE

    Gnang, Edinah K.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce in this section an Algebraic and Combinatorial approach to the theory of Numbers. The approach rests on the observation that numbers can be identified with familiar combinatorial objects namely rooted trees, which we shall here refer to as towers. The bijection between numbers and towers provides some insights into unexpected connexions between Number theory, combinatorics and discrete probability theory.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  3. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology: Reduced Insect Food Source at Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Christopher G L; Popay, Alison J; Rolston, M Philip; Townsend, Richard J; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Card, Stuart D

    2016-02-01

    Birds and other forms of wildlife are a major issue for airport authorities worldwide, as they can create hazards to operating aircraft. Wildlife "strikes," the majority caused by birds, can cause damage to operating aircraft and in severe cases lead to a loss of human life. Many airfields contain large areas of ground cover herbage alongside their runways that consist of mixtures of grasses, legumes, and weeds that can harbor many invertebrates. Many airfields use insecticides to control insect populations; however, mounting pressure from regional councils and water boards aim to reduce this practice due to ground water runoff and contamination concerns. Avanex Unique Endophyte Technology, a product specifically developed to reduce the attractiveness of airports and surrounding areas to birds, is based on a novel association between a selected strain of Epichloë endophyte and a turf-type tall fescue cultivar. This grass-endophyte association acts through a direct mechanism whereby a negative response in birds is created through taste aversion and postingestion feedback as well as an indirect mechanism by deterring many invertebrates, a food source of many bird species.

  4. Preliminary study on the applicability of semi-geodesic winding in the design and manufacturing of composite towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During last twenty years, wind turbine manufacturers took the path of building larger machines to generate more electricity. However, the bigger the size became, the more material was required to support the loads, leading to great weight increases. Larger turbines and higher hub heights also resulted in larger tower base diameters which are limited considering their logistics. In many countries, the limit for transports with special permits maximizes the diameter to 4.5 metres. Considering this fact, the wind turbine market dominated by welded steel shell towers is looking for new structural solutions for their future turbines. Although, composite materials are not used as the structural material in the towers of today's turbines, the demand for larger wind turbines forces engineers to seek for alternative material systems with high specific strength and stiffness ratios to be used in towers. Inspired by the applicability of filament winding in tower production, in the present article we investigated the effect of semi-geodesic winding on the winding angle, thickness, stiffness coefficients and vibration characteristics of filament wound composite conical shells of revolution which simulate wind turbine towers at the structural level. Present study showed that the preset friction applied during semi-geodesic winding is an important design parameter which can be controlled to obtain gradually increasing thickness from tower top to the base of the tower, and favourably alter the dynamic characteristics of the composite towers

  5. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limitations: Alternate airports. 121.197 Section 121.197 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... airports. No person may list an airport as an alternate airport in a dispatch or flight release for a... obstruction clearance plane and the runway. In the case of an alternate airport for departure, as provided...

  6. Performance Evaluation of the Approaches and Algorithms for Hamburg Airport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifan; Okuniek, Nikolai; Gerdes, Ingrid; Schier, Sebastian; Lee, Hanbong; Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have been independently developing and testing their own concepts and tools for airport surface traffic management. Although these concepts and tools have been tested individually for European and US airports, they have never been compared or analyzed side-by-side. This paper presents the collaborative research devoted to the evaluation and analysis of two different surface management concepts. Hamburg Airport was used as a common test bed airport for the study. First, two independent simulations using the same traffic scenario were conducted: one by the DLR team using the Controller Assistance for Departure Optimization (CADEO) and the Taxi Routing for Aircraft: Creation and Controlling (TRACC) in a real-time simulation environment, and one by the NASA team based on the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) in a fast-time simulation environment. A set of common performance metrics was defined. The simulation results showed that both approaches produced operational benefits in efficiency, such as reducing taxi times, while maintaining runway throughput. Both approaches generated the gate pushback schedule to meet the runway schedule, such that the runway utilization was maximized. The conflict-free taxi guidance by TRACC helped avoid taxi conflicts and reduced taxiing stops, but the taxi benefit needed be assessed together with runway throughput to analyze the overall performance objective.

  7. Hotellipaketin suunnittelu Case: Hilton Helsinki Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrö, Niina; Grönqvist, Henna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli hotellipaketin suunnittelu, joka toteutettiin toimeksiantona kansainväliseen Hilton -ketjuun kuuluvalle Hilton Helsinki Airportille. Hilton Helsinki Airport tarjoaa täyden palvelun hotellina asiakkailleen majoitus-, kokous- ja ravintolapalveluita. Opinnäytetyö oli toiminnallinen. Sen tavoitteena oli tuottaa toteuttamiskelpoinen hotellipaketti. Työn tarkoituksena oli luoda lisäarvoa toimeksiantajan hotellipakettitarjontaan ja edistää hotellin asiakastyytyväisyyt...

  8. Geothermal Energy at Oslo Airport Gardermoen

    OpenAIRE

    Huuse, Karine Valle; Moxnes, Vilde

    2012-01-01

    Rock Energy is a Norwegian company with a patented solution for drilling deep geothermal wells, for exploitation of deep geothermal energy from Hot Dry Rocks. The concept involves a drilled sub-surface heat exchanger, referred to as cross wells. The concept is well suited for production of heat for direct heat applications. In this thesis an analysis of the existing district heating plant at Oslo Airport Gardermoen has been conducted, together with examining possibilities of implementing geot...

  9. New terminal of Beijing Capial International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    THE extension of the terminal at the Beijing Capital International Airport, one of the key construction projects of the Ninth National Five Year Plan, was completed successfully in September 1999. The Hshaped new terminal building covers a total area of 336 thousand square meters -- four times that of the old one. It stands three floors above ground (part of it four floors) and one floor underground. Its opening upgrades peak time passenger

  10. Design of water distribution systems for large cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements of large cooling towers have increased: higher flow rates and improved part-load performance are needed. For this purpose liberal provision in water distribution systems of control elements, such as winter pipework, joint face disconnections, overspill shafts and by-pass pipework is necessary. However, the high expenditure on these facilities permits the plant to be operated in difficult operational phases with a high degree of security.

  11. An Airport Pavement Traffic Simulation Based on CPN

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Hong-jun; Yang Jue

    2014-01-01

    According to the characteristics of airport pavement traffic, we discuss a method of building an airport pavement traffic model which is based on CPN theory and simulate a practical situation as well. The method overcomes the shortage of modelling with normal Petri Net theory, solves the difficult problems of airport pavement traffic such as complex traffic nets, frequent road changing, etc., refines the process of the model, and will be good for the model’s analysis and simulation.

  12. Total Airport Management (Operational Concept and Logical Architectur)

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Yves; Inard, Anthony; Werther, Bernd; Marc BONNIER; Spies, Gunnar; Marsden, Alan; Temme, Marco; Böhme, Dietmar; Lane, Roger; Niederstraßer, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Airports are seen as constraints to growth in the future air transport system. In the context of a doubling of traffic by 2020, increased investment, development and research will be needed to support continuous improvement in airport throughput, efficiency and punctuality with continued safety considerations. Airport processes must be fully integrated within the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system and capable of interacting with other system components in order to be aware of the priorities ...

  13. 14 CFR 139.325 - Airport emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other medical facility and the business address and telephone number of medical personnel on the airport... and firefighting agencies, medical personnel and organizations, the principal tenants at the...

  14. The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Andreas; Koch, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the opportunities and threats which arise when turning origin/destination airports into hubs. The analysis focuses on market development trends, competitive structures, especially in the light of airline network strategies and the growing rivalry between airports, and finally the potential financial impacts for the airport, including both investment efforts and the financial results from hub operations. We argue that in most cases a decision against converting a traditional origin/destination airport into a major transfer point is preferable to the transformation into a hub.

  15. Airport Surface Management Tools for NAS Users Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Decision support tools that make use of surface surveillance technologies data can potentially make it possible to increase airport throughput, better accommodate...

  16. 76 FR 72996 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless...: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications Eleventh Meeting. SUMMARY..., Airport Surface Wireless Communications Eleventh Meeting DATES: The meeting will be held December...

  17. 78 FR 5861 - National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems: Clarification of Wildlife Hazard Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems: Clarification of Wildlife Hazard Management Requirements for Non-Certificated Federally Obligated Airports AGENCY: Federal Aviation... responsibility of federally obligated National Plan of Integrated Airport System/General Aviation...

  18. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings... comment on the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes and accessories. The FAA has...

  19. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  20. A Review of Lean Management Models at King Khaled International Airport (KKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Al Muhareb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates processes of enhancing service quality that is provided to airports’ customers. Applying lean practices can assure the enhancement of service quality from the customers’ perspective. Through this study King Khalid International Airport (KKIA has been chosen for the purpose of enhancing the passenger’s flow, by applying two Lean practices, which are SERVQUAL and Lean Six Sigma ‘DMAIC’ or Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. These two practices are chosen because SERVQUAL is described as one of the best Lean’s methods as it use five stages to evaluate them and improve service quality and DMAIC used for the purpose of enhancing the Level of Service (LOS which can be applied in airports. Through this study, several studies about applying Lean algorithms in International Airports for improving performance and LOS have been reviewed. This study also reviewed the effects of applying these practices specially SERVQUAL and DMAIC on these airports and how they enhanced and improved the overall level of service.

  1. Design and Construction of a Scaled Whirl Tower Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, John Alexander

    Experimental development of helicopter rotors requires centrifugal testing before entry into a wind tunnel or flight test campaign. This centrifugal testing is performed on test rigs called whirl towers. These facilities are very rare, in fact there were none available in Canada at the time of writing this thesis, but they are very valuable experimental research tools. This thesis describes the design and construction of a whirl tower facility for the centrifugal testing of scaled helicopter rotors with actively controlled systems for reducing vibration. First, the trade-offs between the desired capabilities for the facility to be designed are reviewed, leading to the identification of a set of design requirements. Following this, various concepts for the drive system, frame, data acquisition, and safety infrastructure are proposed. From these, a final design is assembled, whose main advantage is its flexibility and robustness for developmental research. The whirl tower is capable of testing single or multi-bladed rotors (up to four blades), with blades between 1.0 and 1.6 m radius, up to 1,800 RPM frequency with no 'dead zones'. The whirl tower is equipped with a 60 HP, 575 V, AC motor, with flexible coupling and direct drive to the scaled rotor hub. The facility also features a digital telemetry system, slip rings for power and signal transmission for active control, interchangeable rotor heads with variable root distance, and a containment wall for protection from possible rotor blade failures. The manufacturing and construction of the facility, as well as its installation at the National Research Council in Ottawa, is described in detail.

  2. Wind towers architecture, climate and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Mehdi N; Sayigh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a holistic treatment of wind towers, from their underlying scientific principles to design and operation. Includes suggestions for optimization based on the authors' own research findings from recent analytical studies.

  3. Another Look at the Tower of Hanoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwarger, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Through the use of sequences, geometric progressions and permutations, the author investigates some interesting and unusual questions concerning the number of moves required by each disc in solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. (JT)

  4. 77 FR 51948 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... previously published interim policy (76 FR 15028; March 18, 2011) to commercial service airports that... 14, 2012. DATES: The comment period for the proposed policy document published July 30, 2012 (77 FR... Proposed Policy in the Federal Register at 77 FR 44515 proposing an FAA policy, based on Federal...

  5. Dubai Tower%迪拜高塔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The design for RMJM 83-storey Dubai Tower is a dynamic and elegantly proportioned skyscraper, rising over 400 metres above the Arabian Gulf. Situated at the prominent water' s edge, this crystalline glass tower is intended to provide an iconic and symbolic reference for Dubai in the neighbouring city of Doha, Qatar. The development will contain world-class retail, offices,hotel, serviced apartments and residential units.

  6. An analysis of continuous black carbon concentrations in proximity to an airport and major roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E.; Andres Houseman, E.; Morin, Barbara; Levy, Jonathan I.

    Black carbon (BC), a constituent of particulate matter, is emitted from multiple combustion sources, complicating determination of contributions from individual sources or source categories from monitoring data. In close proximity to an airport, this may include aircraft emissions, other emissions on the airport grounds, and nearby major roadways, and it would be valuable to determine the factors most strongly related to measured BC concentrations. In this study, continuous BC concentrations were measured at five monitoring sites in proximity to a small regional airport in Warwick, Rhode Island from July 2005 to August 2006. Regression was used to model the relative contributions of aircraft and related sources, using real-time flight activity (departures and arrivals) and meteorological data, including mixing height, wind speed and direction. The latter two were included as a nonparametric smooth spatial term using thin-plate splines applied to wind velocity vectors and fit in a linear mixed model framework. Standard errors were computed using a moving-block bootstrap to account for temporal autocorrelation. Results suggest significant positive associations between hourly departures and arrivals at the airport and BC concentrations within the community, with departures having a more substantial impact. Generalized Additive Models for wind speed and direction were consistent with significant contributions from the airport, major highway, and multiple local roads. Additionally, inverse mixing height, temperature, precipitation, and at one location relative humidity, were associated with BC concentrations. Median contribution estimates indicate that aircraft departures and arrivals (and other sources coincident in space and time) contribute to approximately 24-28% of the BC concentrations at the monitoring sites in the community. Our analysis demonstrated that a regression-based approach with detailed meteorological and source characterization can provide insights

  7. Structural Evaluation for Maputo Airport Pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose F.R.Diogo; LU Yang; ZHANG Hua

    2007-01-01

    Maputo Airport was initially constructed to serve mixed traffic of light and medium aircrafts. With its opening to heavier aircrafts such as B727, DC10, Airbus 340, etc. , structural improvements have become necessary. For this purpose, structural evaluation were described and performed using falling weight deflectometer. Results show that while subgrade response to loads appears more consistent with depth, surface layer of the pavement is significantly influenced by the layer thickness as well as mechanical properties of pavement materials. Load magnitude also affects pavement performance. But loading conditions show an equivalent or even greater influence on pavement performance.

  8. A model for transfer baggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Timler Holm, Janus; Lindorff Larsen, Jakob

    This work deals with the handling of baggage from passengers changing aircraft at an airport. The transfer baggage problem is to assign the bags from each arriving aircraft to an infeed area into the airport infrastructure. The infrastructure will then distribute the bags to the handling facilities...

  9. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ..., in person at this same location. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA invites public comment on the... property will result in the land at the Kearney Regional Airport (EAR) being changed from aeronautical to non-aeronautical use and release the lands from the conditions of the Airport Improvement...

  10. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  11. Verification of the capacity of Malpensa Airport: Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Air Transport Group

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to assess the capacity of Malpensa airport taking into account the impact of environmental measures introduced by the Italian Government Environmental Decree of 13th December 1999. Second, to assess the impact of projected traffic growth in the Milan airport system.

  12. 75 FR 61612 - Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... ellen.crum@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On November 30, 1999 (64 FR 66768), the FAA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Airports/Locations: Special Operating Restrictions AGENCY... amending its airports and locations special operating restrictions regulation to clarify a...

  13. 19 CFR 122.12 - Operation of international airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administration in 14 CFR part 91. (2) Customs and Border Protection. CBP, based on security or other risk... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operation of international airports. 122.12...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Classes of Airports § 122.12 Operation of...

  14. 78 FR 3311 - Safety Enhancements, Certification of Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ...) on Safety Enhancements Part 139, Certification of Airports (76 FR 5510). In the NPRM, the FAA... period until May 13, 2011, (76 FR 20570) because we learned that a number of airport operators were not... again reopened the comment period until July 5, 2011, (76 FR 32105) because several industry...

  15. Wind Turbine Tower Vibration Modeling and Monitoring by the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With appropriate vibration modeling and analysis the incipient failure of key components such as the tower, drive train and rotor of a large wind turbine can be detected. In this paper, the Nonlinear State Estimation Technique (NSET has been applied to model turbine tower vibration to good effect, providing an understanding of the tower vibration dynamic characteristics and the main factors influencing these. The developed tower vibration model comprises two different parts: a sub-model used for below rated wind speed; and another for above rated wind speed. Supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA data from a single wind turbine collected from March to April 2006 is used in the modeling. Model validation has been subsequently undertaken and is presented. This research has demonstrated the effectiveness of the NSET approach to tower vibration; in particular its conceptual simplicity, clear physical interpretation and high accuracy. The developed and validated tower vibration model was then used to successfully detect blade angle asymmetry that is a common fault that should be remedied promptly to improve turbine performance and limit fatigue damage. The work also shows that condition monitoring is improved significantly if the information from the vibration signals is complemented by analysis of other relevant SCADA data such as power performance, wind speed, and rotor loads.

  16. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL CAPACITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRPORTS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katheryna Kazhan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Forecasting of development of the major airports of Ukraine indicates that further increasingof air traffic and approaching of residential areas close to airports will cause constraints of airportoperational capacity according to ensuring environmental requirements. At present, aircraft noise is themost significant factor among other factors of airport environmental impact. For ensuring sustainabledevelopment of civil airports the model of airport environmental capacity is proposed. The model in longtermconsideration allows determination of optimal (according to reduction of noise levels fleet, choosingthe most profitable aircraft operational regimes in the frames of ICAO Balanced Approach to aircraft noisecontrol. The model is based on entropy optimization method. Using proposed approach needs taking intoaccount additional constraints: operational, environmental (emissions of aircraft engines. Meteorologicaland flight characteristics of aircraft type also should be taken into account.Keywords: aircraft noise, acoustical capacity, environmental capacity, operational restrictions.

  18. A Geometric Fuzzy-Based Approach for Airport Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nadia Postorino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport classification is a common need in the air transport field due to several purposes—such as resource allocation, identification of crucial nodes, and real-time identification of substitute nodes—which also depend on the involved actors’ expectations. In this paper a fuzzy-based procedure has been proposed to cluster airports by using a fuzzy geometric point of view according to the concept of unit-hypercube. By representing each airport as a point in the given reference metric space, the geometric distance among airports—which corresponds to a measure of similarity—has in fact an intrinsic fuzzy nature due to the airport specific characteristics. The proposed procedure has been applied to a test case concerning the Italian airport network and the obtained results are in line with expectations.

  19. Cellular Phone Towers - TOWERS_CELLUAR_FCC_ULS_IN: Cellular Towers in Indiana (Bernardin, Lochmueller & Associates, Derived from FCC ULS, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This dataset is a point shapefile of licensed cellular towers downloaded as part of the FCC ULS database of cellular towers in Indiana. The ground condition of this...

  20. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  1. Summary of tower designs for large horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, G. R.; Savino, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Towers for large horizontal axis wind turbines, machines with a rotor axis height above 30 meters and rated at more than 500 kW, have varied in configuration, materials of construction, type of construction, height, and stiffness. For example, the U.S. large HAWTs have utilized steel truss type towers and free-standing steel cylindrical towers. In Europe, the trend has been to use only free-standing and guyed cylindrical towers, but both steel and reinforced concrete have been used as materials of construction. These variations in materials of construction and type of construction reflect different engineering approaches to the design of cost effective towers for large HAWTs. Tower designs are the NASA/DOE Mod-5B presently being fabricated. Design goals and requirements that influence tower configuration, height and materials are discussed. In particular, experiences with United States large wind turbine towers are elucidated. Finally, current trends in tower designs for large HAWTs are highlighted.

  2. Aerodynamical errors on tower mounted wind speed measurements due to the presence of the tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Field measurements of wind speed from two lattice towers showed large differences for wind directions where the anemometers of both towers should be unaffected by any upstream obstacle. The wind speed was measured by cup anemometers mounted on booms along the side of the tower. A simple wind tunnel test indicates that the boom, for the studied conditions, could cause minor flow disturbances. A theoretical study, by means of simple 2D flow modelling of the flow around the mast, demonstrates that the tower itself could cause large wind flow disturbances. A theoretical study, based on simple treatment of the physics of motion of a cup anemometer, demonstrates that a cup anemometer is sensitive to velocity gradients across the cups and responds clearly to velocity gradients in the vicinity of the tower. Comparison of the results from the theoretical study and field tests show promising agreement. 2 refs, 8 figs

  3. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant

  4. Airport Solar Photovoltaic Concentrator Project. Phase 1 - final report, June 1, 1978-February 28, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The system design, analysis, and specification, site preparation, and operation and evaluation plan for a 500 kWe photovoltaic power supply to be located at the Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport in Phoenix, Arizona, are presented. The solar cell arrays are concentrator silicon solar cells with tracking 70X Cassegrain-type concentrators. The power conditioning system, tracking system, and control systems are described in detal. Environmental impact studies are described. Component specifications and drawings are included. (WHK)

  5. Macroscopic Model and Simulation Analysis of Air Traffic Flow in Airport Terminal Area

    OpenAIRE

    Honghai Zhang; Yan Xu; Lei Yang; Hao Liu

    2014-01-01

    We focus on the spatiotemporal characteristics and their evolvement law of the air traffic flow in airport terminal area to provide scientific basis for optimizing flight control processes and alleviating severe air traffic conditions. Methods in this work combine mathematical derivation and simulation analysis. Based on cell transmission model the macroscopic models of arrival and departure air traffic flow in terminal area are established. Meanwhile, the interrelationship and influential fa...

  6. Tri-generation at Bordeaux airport; Trigeneration a l`aeroport de Bordeaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourteau, J. [Aeroport de Bordeaux, 33 (France). Direction Technique; Andre, D. [BET Climat (France)

    1996-07-01

    A cogeneration system (Cogenair 2000) for the Bordeaux airport has been studied, for power generation, space heating and air conditioning. The system is composed of a cogeneration plant with natural gas generating plants, heat exchangers and absorption and compression refrigerating plants for winter and summer needs. A centralized control system is included for electric power and thermal comfort management. The organizational, fiscal, legal and financial aspects are also presented

  7. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Mei-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13% of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75% and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P 2X(t-1:Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2:Y = 0.31, P  Conclusions A moderate sensitivity of detecting dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in dengue-endemic or dengue-competent hotspots during an epidemic season is essential and highly recommended.

  8. Tilts of the Master Equatorial Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G., Jr.; Gawronski, W.; Girdner, D.; Noskoff, E.; Sommerville, J. N.

    2000-07-01

    At the center of the DSS-14 antenna, a tower reaches to the focal point of the antenna dish. The master equatorial (ME) instrument is located at the top of the tower. This instrument precisely (with an accuracy that exceeds that of the antenna) follows the commanded trajectory. Through the optical coupling, the antenna focal point follows the ME. One factor of the antenna pointing precision is the movement of the ME base, i.e., the top of the tower. For this reason, measurements of the ME tower tilts have been taken in order to quantify the tilts, to determine possible causes of the tilting, and to update the antenna pointing budget. They were conducted under three antenna operating modes: during tracking, slewing, and antenna stowing. The measurements indicate that the ME tower tilts introduce significant pointing errors that exceed the required 32-GHz (Ka-band) pointing precision (estimated as 0.8 mdeg for a 0.1-dB gain loss). Four different sources of tilt were identified and require verification.

  9. 78 FR 15804 - Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance: Rolla National Airport (VIH), Rolla, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance: Rolla National Airport (VIH... airport property at the Rolla National Airport (VIH) from aeronautical use to non-aeronautical for revenue... Airport (VIH) is proposing the release of one parcel, of 10 acres, more or less from aeronautical to...

  10. 77 FR 19410 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Airport, 73 FR 3510 (Jan. 18, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18620 (Apr. 4, 2011); Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport, 73 FR 29550 (May 21, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18618 (Apr. 4, 2011). The FAA...'s John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR)...

  11. 78 FR 19356 - Notice of Schedule Information Submission Deadline for O'Hare International Airport, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... International Airport, 73 FR 3510 (Jan. 18, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18620 (Apr. 4, 2011); Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport, 73 FR 29550 (May 21, 2008) as amended 76 FR 18618 (Apr. 4...'s John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), and Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR)...

  12. An Evaluation of the Importance of Military Associations at Civil Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patti J.

    2010-01-01

    Today there are over 1,500 public-use airports in the United States. Each of these airports provides a service to the surrounding community, whether in the form of a general aviation or commercial air service facility. An airport is dependent on many facets of the local government infrastructure for support services. Also, the airports have ties…

  13. 48 CFR 3036.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.236-70, Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports, in solicitations... work at operating airports. 3036.570 Section 3036.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  14. 14 CFR 382.99 - What agreements must carriers have with the airports they serve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airports they serve? 382.99 Section 382.99 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... the airports they serve? (a) As a carrier, you must negotiate in good faith with the airport operator of each U.S. airport described in § 382.95(b) to ensure the provision of lifts for boarding...

  15. 14 CFR 135.395 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. 135.395 Section 135.395 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. No person may select an airport as an alternate airport for a large nontransport category airplane unless that airplane (at the weight...

  16. 8 CFR 234.4 - International airports for entry of aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International airports for entry of aliens... DESIGNATION OF PORTS OF ENTRY FOR ALIENS ARRIVING BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 234.4 International airports for entry of aliens. International airports for the entry of aliens shall be those airports designated as...

  17. 42 CFR 71.45 - Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... airports. 71.45 Section 71.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Inspection § 71.45 Food, potable water, and waste: U.S. seaports and airports. (a) Every seaport and airport... or aircraft at any seaport or airport intended for human consumption thereon shall be obtained...

  18. 77 FR 55896 - Notice of Release Effecting Federal Grant Assurance Obligations Due to Airport Layout Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Due to Airport Layout Plan Revision at Mather Airport, Sacramento, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Administration (FAA) proposes to rule and invites public comment on the application for an Airport Layout Plan... Force to the County. As a result, the existing Airport Layout Plan will be revised to delete the...

  19. Response characteristics of a long life type floating offshore airport in waves. 3rd Report. Response due to short waves and an attempt of active inclination control; Chojumyogata futaishiki kaijo kuko no harochu oto tokusei. Tanhachoiki no oto oyobi shisei seigyo no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, T.; Ma, N.; Nishio, O.; Sato, N. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    Notice was given on response characteristics in a short wavelength range of a large floating structure for an offshore airport consisting of semi-submersible replaceable type units, and influence of unit lacking. An attempt was also made on performing restoration of inclination change during unit lacking and suppression of long-cycle variation in waves by using air pressure control. The result of a numerical calculation based on a three-dimensional singular point method may be summarized as follows: mass force added vertically on columns in short wavelength range differs in the outer edges and the central part; relatively uniform values are shown in the central part; and interactive interference is recognized in wave forces in the vertical direction, but the influence therefrom decreases as the wave length decreases. Calculations on vertical movements and bending moments in waves were performed by using a mode synthesizing method. The calculations used fluid force which was calculated based on the three-dimensional singular point method utilizing symmetry with respect to each condition for a complete model plus unit lacking and unit lacking plus inclination control. As a result of verifying the calculations by using an experiment, relatively good agreement was achieved in either case. A high-frequency vibration experiment made clear the characteristics of elastic response in the short-wave length range. 14 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Simple model of a cooling tower plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Cizek; Jiri, Nozicka

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the possibilities in the area of modeling of the so called cooling tower plume emergent at operating evaporating cooling systems. As opposed to recent publication, this text focuses on the possibilities of a simplified analytic description of the whole problem where this description shall - in the future - form the base of a calculation algorithms enabling to simulate the efficiency of systems reducing this cooling tower plume. The procedure is based on the application of basic formula for the calculation of the velocity and concentration fields in the area above the cooling tower. These calculation is then used to determine the form and the total volume of the plume. Although this approach does not offer more exact results, it can provide a basic understanding of the impact of individual quantities relating to this problem.

  1. Operating manual for the Tower Shielding Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual provides information necessary to operate and perform maintenance on the reactor systems and all equipment or systems which can affect their operation or the safety of personnel at the Tower Shielding Facility. The first four chapters consist of introductory and descriptive material of benefit to personnel in training, the qualifications required for training, the responsibilities of the personnel in the organization, and the procedures for reviewing proposed experiments. Chapter 8, Emergency Procedures, is also a necessary part of the indoctrination of personnel. The procedures for operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR-II), its water cooling system, and the main tower hoists are outlined in Chapters 5, 6, and 7. The Technical Specification surveillance requirements for the TSR-II are summarized in Chapter 9. The maintenance and calibration schedule is spelled out in Chapter 10. The procedures for assembly and disassembly of the TSR-II are outlined in Chapter 11

  2. CFD simulation of a solar tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yukselenturk, Yalcyn; Yilmaz, Mustafa [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of fossil fuels and the rising concerns about their impacts on the environment, the use of alternative energy sources has become necessary. Among the alternatives, solar energy, with its unlimited resources and its low impact on the environment, is the most promising. The aim of this paper is to present a numerical model of a regular solar tower. A CFD analysis of the solar tower was performed with a commercial CFD code and velocity fields, temperature measurements and flow characteristics were determined and compared to experimental results available in the literature. It was found that the numerical model is capable of assessing the buoyant air flow in chimneys. In addition results showed that increasing the solar chimney height, solar collector area, or solar irradiance increases power generation capacity while ambient temperature does not significantly affect this capacity. This study provided a numerical model which is proficient in modeling solar towers.

  3. Universal Engineering Model for Cooling Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Arif

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a universal engineering model, which can be used to formulates both counter-flow and cross-flow cooling towers. By using fundamental laws of mass and energy balance, the effectiveness of heat exchange is approximated by a second order polynomial equation. Gauss -Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods are then used to determine the coefficients from manufactures data. Compared with the existing models, the new model has two main advantages: (1 As the engineering model is derived from engineering perspective, it involves fewer input variables and has better description of the cooling tower operation; (2 There is no iterative computation required, this feature is very important for online optimization of cooling tower performance. Although the model is simple, the results are very accurate. Application examples are given to compare the proposed model with commonly used models.

  4. The design of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  5. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    Major airports have an average throughput of more than 100,000 passengers per day, some of which will need special assistance. The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. A significant number of people and busses are assigned to provide...... transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...

  6. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  7. Design of airport pavements for expansive soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeen, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Expansive soil subgrades exhibit volume changes with variation in moisture condition. These changes result in differential movement of airport pavements resting on these soils. Special design procedures must be used to account for the expansive soil activity during equilibration. In addition, special precautions are required to protect the subgrade from moisture variation with climate. Measurement of soil suction is a key step in quantifying moisture-induced soil behavior. Procedures are outlined for suction characterization of the soil and for estimating the in situ differential movement likely to occur under the pavement. Once the wavelength and amplitude characteristics of the differential movement are obtained, design calculations to select the thickness and materials for the pavement may proceed.

  8. Technology and politics: The regional airport experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, J. D.; Brown, J.; Gerhardt, J. M.; Dominus, M. I.

    1976-01-01

    The findings of a comparative study of the following six regional airports were presented: Dallas/Fort Worth, Kansas City, Washington, D.C., Montreal, Tampa, and St. Louis. Each case was approached as a unique historical entity, in order to investigate common elements such as: the use of predictive models in planning, the role of symbolism to heighten dramatic effects, the roles of community and professional elites, and design flexibility. Some of the factors considered were: site selection, consolidation of airline service, accessibility, land availability and cost, safety, nuisance, and pollution constraints, economic growth, expectation of regional growth, the demand forecasting conundrum, and design decisions. The hypotheses developed include the following: the effect of political, social, and economic conflicts, the stress on large capacity and dramatic, high-technology design, projections of rapid growth to explain the need for large capital outlays.

  9. Static and dynamic properties of three-tower suspension bridge and structural type selection of mid-tower%三塔悬索桥静动力特性与中塔选型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鹏; 吴向男; 李万恒; 徐岳

    2011-01-01

    为探讨三塔悬索桥与两塔悬索桥静动力特性差异与中塔选型,以泰州长江大桥为原型,基于有限位移理论建立相应的两塔、三塔(混凝土中塔与钢中塔)悬索桥的空间有限元模型,分析了各种结构参数下的静力和地震效应。研究结果表明:与两塔悬索桥相比,由于中塔顶缺乏边缆的有效纵向约束,三塔悬索桥整体刚度较小,变形较大,自振频率低;汽车作用下主缆抗滑、桥塔受力、主梁挠跨比等在常规两塔悬索桥中很容易满足要求的指标,但对三塔悬索桥却成为控制指标。三塔悬索桥的3个指标都与中塔抗推刚度密切相关,但其对中塔抗推刚度的需求是矛盾的。"人"字形%In order to discuss the static and dynamic properties differences between three-tower and two-tower suspension bridges,and select the rational structure type of mid-tower,based on the Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge,the 3D space finite element models of two-tower suspension bridge and three-tower suspension bridges with concrete mid-tower and steel mid-tower were set up by finite displacement theory and the static and seismal effects were analyzed under various structural parameters.Analysis result shows that compared with two-tower suspension bridge,because the mid-tower is lack of effective restraints from side cables,three-tower suspension bridge has lower total stiffness,lower natural frequency and larger deflection-to-span ratio of main girder.Under vehicle loads,the anti-slipping safety factor between main cable and saddle,the forces of mid-tower and the deflection-to-span ratio of main girder are not important for two-tower suspension bridge,but become controlling indices for three-tower suspension bridge.The indices are related to the anti-pushing rigidity of mid-tower,but have incompatible demands for the rigidity.Under vehicle loads,when the steel mid-tower with upside-down Y shape is selected,the anti-slipping safety factor

  10. 电视塔桅钢结构工程的监理质量安全控制信息读析%Supervision of Quality and Safety Control of TV Tower Masted Steel Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红斌

    2013-01-01

    With the expansion of communication supervision business scope, simply mastering the knowledge of communication tower is not enough; it is also necessary to learn about the professional knowledge of television transmitting tower. This paper aims to discuss how to deal with television tower business. First, be clear about the situation. There are many risks and uncertainty in foreign business operation environment. Domestically, the economic structure strategic adjustment is ongoing. How to adapt to the rapidly developing society and unpredictable market under the economic developing mode transferring environment is the key to the company. In order to keep the market share, the company must intensify efforts to expand market and solicit new business, thinking carefully, seizing opportunities and improving its ability. Second, improve service quality. Customer service goal is the starting point and objective of the company's service, and the effect of customer service goal is reflected in the optimization of service knowledge, service experience and service management and customer's satisfaction. Third, due to the specialty of broadcasting and TV industry and the difference between television tower construction and communication tower, this kind of project occupy a small proportion of the construction projects in the same period, so there is specialty and challenge for the existing communications supervision industry.%  根据通信监理业务范围的不断扩大,不光要对通信铁塔知识的掌握,而且对广电行业的电视发射塔的专业知识也要逐步进行了解,如何应对广电的电视塔业务是本文的主要研讨目的。首先、认清形式:国外业务运营环境风险大,存在着不确定性;国内在推进经济结构战略性调整,加快转变经济发展方式的导向下,公司如何适应社会快速发展和市场变化莫测的严峻形势。为了保持公司市场占有率,加大力度持续拓展市

  11. Two-Player Tower of Hanoi

    OpenAIRE

    Chappelon, Jonathan; Larsson, Urban; Matsuura, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    15 pages, 7 figures, 1 table; The Tower of Hanoi game is a classical puzzle in recreational mathematics, which also has a strong record in pure mathematics. In a borderland between these two areas we find the characterization of the minimal number of moves, which is $2^n-1$, to transfer a tower of $n$ disks. But there are also other variations to the game, involving for example move edges weighted by real numbers. This gives rise to a similar type of problem, but where the final score seeks t...

  12. A central tower solar test facility /RM/CTSTF/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, S.; Gislon, R.

    The considered facility is intended for the conduction of test work in connection with studies of receivers, thermodynamic cycles, heliostats, components, and subassemblies. Major components of the test facility include a mirror field with a reflecting surface of 800 sq m, a 40 m tower, an electronic control system, a data-acquisition system, and a meteorological station. A preliminary experimental program is discussed, taking into account investigations related to facility characterization, an evaluation of advanced low-cost heliostats, materials and components tests, high-concentration photovoltaic experiments, and a study of advanced solar thermal cycles.

  13. Lifting system and apparatus for constructing wind turbine towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Tracy; Schrader, Terry; Goldhardt, James; Lott, James

    2011-02-01

    The disclosed invention is utilized for mounting a wind turbine and blade assembly on the upper end of a wind turbine tower. The invention generally includes a frame or truss that is pivotally secured to the top bay assembly of the tower. A transverse beam is connected to the frame or truss and extends fore of the tower when the frame or truss is in a first position and generally above the tower when in a second position. When in the first position, a wind turbine or blade assembly can be hoisted to the top of the tower. The wind turbine or blade assembly is then moved into position for mounting to the tower as the frame or truss is pivoted to a second position. When the turbine and blade assembly are secured to the tower, the frame or truss is disconnected from the tower and lowered to the ground.

  14. Airports and Airfields, Shows airport runway and taxi with elevation information as well as runway numbers and names., Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Shows airport runway and taxi with...

  15. Airports and Airfields, Airports in 18 county region in South Georgia, Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale as of 1999. It is described as 'Airports in 18 county region in South Georgia'. Data by...

  16. Airports and Airfields, Airport runway/taviway linework as developed during 1996 planimetric and orthoimagery project., Published in 1996, Vilas County Land Information/Mapping.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1996. It is described as 'Airport runway/taviway linework as...

  17. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  18. A World Expo Campaign Launched At Shanghai Airports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The Shanghai Airport Group Company held a meeting on August 22, announcing a decision on renaming its spiritual civilization construction leading group into the Spiritual Civilization Construction Commission. It will adopt an action programme for the years

  19. Novel Surveillance Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the current research is to develop the concept, algorithms and software necessary for enabling a novel surveillance system for airports ramp areas....

  20. Airport Configuration Planner with Optimized Weather Forecasts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The core planning algorithms to support the NGATS concepts will need accurate predictions of airport configuration over planning horizons of six hours or more. Such...

  1. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  2. Airports and Airfields, Published in 2007, Churchill County, NV.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset as of 2007. Data by this publisher are often provided in State Plane coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of...

  3. Microscopic Analysis and Modeling of Airport Surface Sequencing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The complexity and interdependence of operations on the airport surface motivate the need for a comprehensive and detailed, yet flexible and validated analysis and...

  4. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  5. US Helicopter Expands Service to Newark Liberty International Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ US Helicopter Corporation ("US Helicopter") (OTC Bulletin Board: USHP) and Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL)announced a partnership to provide eight-minute shuttle service between Manhattan and Newark Liberty International Airport beginning Dec.18, 2006.

  6. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touri, Léa; Marchetti, Hélène; Sari-Minodier, Irène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures.

  7. Optimization of steel monopod offshore-towers under probabilistic constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, economical design implementation of a circular steel monopod-offshore-tower, which is subjected to the extreme wave loading, is presented. The mass of the tower is considered as the objective function. The thickness and radius of the cross-section of the tower are adopted as design var

  8. Analysis of efficiency of the Brazilian international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rodriguez Brochado

    2008-07-01

    Brazil. Analysis of correlations was used to select the 0 variable most representative of this system and after that, it was calculated efficiency of the system for classic and inverted the borders by means of model BCC guided for output. Finally, it was possible to identify which improvements are necessary for the inefficient airports, in way to identify which improvements are necessary to operational level to reach the efficiency. Key-words: Data Envelopment Analysis, Efficiency, Airports.

  9. Balsa Tower Walls Brave "Big Buster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2008-01-01

    Like many technology teachers, the author, a technology education teacher at Arthur Hill High School in Saginaw, Michigan, tries to stretch his budget by "milking" each student activity for maximum benefit. In the technology department, they use balsa wood towers to teach the basics of structural engineering. To get the most from their materials,…

  10. Gravity Helped Terrorists Destory Twin Towers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆增

    2002-01-01

    Though terrorists triggered (触发) the collapse (倒塌) of the World Trade Center's Twin Towers, much of the energy--calculated by a physicist to have been at least 2 percent that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima(广岛)--was supplied by nature's most ubiquitous(普通存在的)force: gravity.

  11. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  12. Technical specifications: Tower Shielding Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical specifications define the key limitations that must be observed for safe operation of the Tower Shielding Reactor II (TSR-II) and an envelope of operation within which there is reasonable assurance that these limits cannot be exceeded. The specifications were written to satisfy the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0540, September 1, 1972

  13. FORIDA Towers - Analysis of steel transition piece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Rom; Dollerup, Niels; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is a detailed analysis of the transition piece connecting the hybrid wind turbine towers lower UHPFRC part with the top steel part. The analysis of the transition piece includes a validation of the Service Limit State (SLS), the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Fatigue loads. The...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.400 - Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be “airport property”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is industrial property... Public Airports § 102-75.400 Is industrial property located on an airport also considered to be “airport... is industrial, then the property must be classified as such for disposal without regard to the...

  15. An Algorithm for Managing Aircraft Movement on an Airport Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maresca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the development of an algorithm for safely and optimally managing the routing of aircraft on an airport surface in future airport operations. This tool is intended to support air traffic controllers’ decision-making in selecting the paths of all aircraft and the engine startup approval time for departing ones. Optimal routes are sought for minimizing the time both arriving and departing aircraft spend on an airport surface with engines on, with benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and costs. The proposed algorithm first computes a standalone, shortest path solution from runway to apron or vice versa, depending on the aircraft being inbound or outbound, respectively. For taking into account the constraints due to other traffic on an airport surface, this solution is amended by a conflict detection and resolution task that attempts to reduce and possibly nullify the number of conflicts generated in the first phase. An example application on a simple Italian airport exemplifies how the algorithm can be applied to true-world applications. Emphasis is given on how to model an airport surface as a weighted and directed graph with non-negative weights, as required for the input to the algorithm.

  16. Selenite Towers Move Faster Than Hanoï Towers, But Still Require Exponential Time

    OpenAIRE

    Barbay, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    The Hanoi Tower problem is a classic exercise in recursive programming: the solution has a simple recursive definition, and its complexity and the matching lower bound correspond to the solution of a simple recursive function (the solution is so simple that most students memorize it and regurgitate it at exams without truly understanding it). We describe how some minor change in the rules of the Hanoi Tower yields various increases of difficulty in the solution, so that to require a deeper ma...

  17. Bouncing Towers move faster than Hanoi Towers, but still require exponential time

    OpenAIRE

    Barbay, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    The problem of the Hanoi Tower is a classic exercise in recursive programming: the solution has a simple recursive definition, and its complexity and the matching lower bound are the solution of a simple recursive function (the solution is so easy that most students memorize it and regurgitate it at exams without truly understanding it). We describe how some very minor changes in the rules of the Hanoi Tower yield various increases of complexity in the solution, so that they require a deeper ...

  18. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a major European airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Fulvio; Moreno, Teresa; Pandolfi, Marco; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Delgado, Ana; Pedrero, Manuel; Cots, Nuria

    2010-04-01

    Monitoring of aerosol particle concentrations (PM(10), PM(2.5), PM(1)) and chemical analysis (PM(10)) was undertaken at a major European airport (El Prat, Barcelona) for a whole month during autumn 2007. Concentrations of airborne PM at the airport were close to those at road traffic hotspots in the nearby Barcelona city, with means measuring 48 microg PM(10)/m(3), 21 microg PM(2.5)/m(3) and 17 microg PM(1)/m(3). Meteorological controls on PM at El Prat are identified as cleansing daytime sea breezes with abundant coarse salt particles, alternating with nocturnal land-sourced winds which channel air polluted by industry and traffic (PM(1)/PM(10) ratios > 0.5) SE down the Llobregat Valley. Chemical analyses of the PM(10) samples show that crustal PM is dominant (38% of PM(10)), followed by total carbon (OC + EC, 25%), secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA, 20%), and sea salt (6%). Local construction work for a new airport terminal was an important contributor to PM(10) crustal levels. Source apportionment modelling PCA-MLRA identifies five factors: industrial/traffic, crustal, sea salt, SIA, and K(+) likely derived from agricultural biomass burning. Whereas most of the atmospheric contamination concerning ambient air PM(10) levels at El Prat is not attributable directly to aircraft movement, levels of carbon are unusually high (especially organic carbon), as are metals possibly sourced from tyre detritus/smoke in runway dust (Ba, Zn, Mo) and from brake dust in ambient PM(10) (Cu, Sb), especially when the airport is at its most busy. We identify microflakes of aluminous alloys in ambient PM(10) filters derived from corroded fuselage and wings as an unequivocal and highly distinctive tracer for aircraft movement. PMID:20383366

  19. Airports and Airfields, airport data set attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as...

  20. Airports and Airfields, airport data set, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as...

  1. Airports and Airfields, Adams Co Airports, Published in 2004, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2004. It is...

  2. Airports and Airfields, Princeton Airport, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Township of Montgomery.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2011. It is described as...

  3. 77 FR 16891 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at Tulsa International Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Auto Salvage for use as an automobile salvage yard. Any person may inspect the request by appointment..., 2012. Joseph G. Washington, Acting Manager, Airports Division Office. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  4. Airports and Airfields, Polygons of airport runways, Published in 1995, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Cochise County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Airports and Airfields dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1995. It is described...

  5. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  6. Wind energy conversion. Volume IX. Aerodynamics of wind turbine with tower disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S.Y.

    1978-09-01

    Lifting line theory which is the counterpart of Prandtl's lifting line theory for rotating wing is employed for the overall performance analysis of a horizontal axis wind turbine rotor operating in a uniform flow. The wake system is modeled by non-rigid wake which includes the radial expansion and the axial retardation of trailing vortices. For the non-uniform flow which are caused by the ground, the tower reflection, or the tower shadow, the unsteady airloads acting on the turbine blade are computed, using lifting line theory and a non-rigid wake model. An equation which gives the wind profile in the tower shadow region is developed. Also, the equations to determine pitch angle control are derived to minimize the flapping moment variations or the thrust variations due to the non-uniform flow over a rotation.

  7. A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Airport Departure Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gautam; Jung, Yoon Chul

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft departing from an airport are subject to numerous constraints while scheduling departure times. These constraints include wake-separation constraints for successive departures, miles-in-trail separation for aircraft bound for the same departure fixes, and time-window or prioritization constraints for individual flights. Besides these, emissions as well as increased fuel consumption due to inefficient scheduling need to be included. Addressing all the above constraints in a single framework while allowing for resequencing of the aircraft using runway queues is critical to the implementation of the Next Generation Air Transport System (NextGen) concepts. Prior work on airport departure scheduling has addressed some of the above. However, existing methods use pre-determined runway queues, and schedule aircraft from these departure queues. The source of such pre-determined queues is not explicit, and could potentially be a subjective controller input. Determining runway queues and scheduling within the same framework would potentially result in better scheduling. This paper presents a mixed integer linear program (MILP) for the departure-scheduling problem. The program takes as input the incoming sequence of aircraft for departure from a runway, along with their earliest departure times and an optional prioritization scheme based on time-window of departure for each aircraft. The program then assigns these aircraft to the available departure queues and schedules departure times, explicitly considering wake separation and departure fix restrictions to minimize total delay for all aircraft. The approach is generalized and can be used in a variety of situations, and allows for aircraft prioritization based on operational as well as environmental considerations. We present the MILP in the paper, along with benefits over the first-come-first-serve (FCFS) scheme for numerous randomized problems based on real-world settings. The MILP results in substantially reduced

  8. Study on Tower Models for EHV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning outage accident is one of the main factors that threat seriously the safe and reliable operation of power system. So it is very important to establish reasonable transmission tower model and evaluate the impulse response characteristic of lightning wave traveling on the transmission tower properly for determining reliable lightning protection performance. With the help of Electromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP, six 500kV tower models are built. Aiming at one line to one transformer operating mode of 500kV substation, the intruding wave overvoltage under different tower models is calculated. The effect of tower model on intruding overvoltage has been studied. The results show that different tower models can result in great differences to the calculation results. Hence, reasonable selection of the tower model in the calculation of back- strike intruding wave is very important.

  9. Monitoring Aircraft Motion at Airports by LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, C.; Jozkow, G.; Koppanyi, Z.; Young, S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving sensor performance, combined with better affordability, provides better object space observability, resulting in new applications. Remote sensing systems are primarily concerned with acquiring data of the static components of our environment, such as the topographic surface of the earth, transportation infrastructure, city models, etc. Observing the dynamic component of the object space is still rather rare in the geospatial application field; vehicle extraction and traffic flow monitoring are a few examples of using remote sensing to detect and model moving objects. Deploying a network of inexpensive LiDAR sensors along taxiways and runways can provide both geometrically and temporally rich geospatial data that aircraft body can be extracted from the point cloud, and then, based on consecutive point clouds motion parameters can be estimated. Acquiring accurate aircraft trajectory data is essential to improve aviation safety at airports. This paper reports about the initial experiences obtained by using a network of four Velodyne VLP- 16 sensors to acquire data along a runway segment.

  10. European sail tower SPS [Solar Power Satellite] concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seboldt, W.; Leipold, M.; Hanowski, N. [Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration, Cologne (Germany). German Aerospace Center; Klimke, M. [HOPE Worldwide Deutschland, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    Based on a DLR-study in 1998/99 on behalf of ESA/ESTEC called ''System Concepts, Architectures and Technologies for Space Exploration and Utilization (SE and U)'' a new design for an Earth-orbiting Solar Power Satellite (SPS) has been developed. The design is called ''European Sail Tower SPS'' and consists mainly of deplorable sail-like structures derived from the ongoing DLR/ESA solar sail technology development activity. Such an SPS satellite features an extremely light-weight and large tower-like orbital system and could supply Europe with significant amounts of electrical power generated by photovoltaic cells and subsequently transmitted to earth via microwaves. In order to build up the sail tower, 60 units - each consisting of a pair of square-shaped sails - are moved from LEO to GEO with electric propulsion and successively assembled in GEO robotically on a central strut. Each single sail has dimensions of 150 m x 150 m and is automatically deployed, using four diagonal lightweight carbon fiber (CFRP) booms which are initially rolled up on a central hub. The electric thrusters for the transport to GEO could also be used for orbit and attitude control of the assembled tower which has a total length of about 15 km and would be mainly gravity gradient stabilized. Employing thin film solar cell technology, each sail is used as a solar array and produces an electric power in orbit of about 3.7 MW{sub e}. A microwave antenna with a diameter of 1 km transmits the power to a 10 km rectenna on the ground. The total mass of this 450 MW SPS is about 2100 tons. First estimates indicate that the costs for one kWh delivered in this way could compete with present day energy costs, if launch costs would decrease by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, mass production and large numbers of installed SPS systems must be assumed in order to lower significantly the production costs and to reduce the influence of the expensive technology

  11. A Framework for Probabilistic Evaluation of Interval Management Tolerance in the Terminal Radar Control Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercencia-Zapana, Heber; Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Neogi, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Projections of future traffic in the national airspace show that most of the hub airports and their attendant airspace will need to undergo significant redevelopment and redesign in order to accommodate any significant increase in traffic volume. Even though closely spaced parallel approaches increase throughput into a given airport, controller workload in oversubscribed metroplexes is further taxed by these approaches that require stringent monitoring in a saturated environment. The interval management (IM) concept in the TRACON area is designed to shift some of the operational burden from the control tower to the flight deck, placing the flight crew in charge of implementing the required speed changes to maintain a relative spacing interval. The interval management tolerance is a measure of the allowable deviation from the desired spacing interval for the IM aircraft (and its target aircraft). For this complex task, Formal Methods can help to ensure better design and system implementation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic framework to quantify the uncertainty and performance associated with the major components of the IM tolerance. The analytical basis for this framework may be used to formalize both correctness and probabilistic system safety claims in a modular fashion at the algorithmic level in a way compatible with several Formal Methods tools.

  12. Wind-induced response analysis of a wind turbine tower including the blade-tower coupling effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo CHEN; Jing LI; Jian-yun CHEN

    2009-01-01

    To analyze wind-induced response characteristics of a wind turbine tower more accurately, the blade-tower coupling effect was investigated. The mean wind velocity of the rotating blades and tower was simulated according to wind shear effects,and the fluctuating wind velocity time series of the wind turbine were simulated by a harmony superposition method. A dynamic finite element method (FEM) was used to calculate the wind-induced response of the blades and tower. Wind-induced responses of the tower were calculated in two cases (one included the blade-tower coupling effect, and the other only added the mass of blades and the hub at the top of the tower), and then the maximal displacements at the top of the tower of the tow cases were compared with each other. As a result of the influence of the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades, the maximal displacement of the first case increased nearly by 300% compared to the second case. To obtain more precise analysis, the blade-tower coupling effect and the total base shear of the blades should be considered simultaneously in the design of wind turbine towers.

  13. Dynamic analysis of the Milad Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Edwin; Ford, Mitchell; Coelho, Darren; Lawler, Lachlan; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Tahmasebinia, Faham

    2016-08-01

    This report involves the modelling of the Milad Tower using the finite element analysis program Strand7. A dynamic analysis was performed on the structure in order to understand the deflections and stresses as a result of earthquake and wind loading. In particular, Linear Static as well as Natural Frequency and Spectral Response solvers were used to determine the behaviour of the structure under loading. The findings of the report highlight that the structure was modelled accurately with the outputs representing realistic values. The report suggests that the design of the beams, columns, slabs and all structural members was sufficient enough to support the tower during maximum loading cases. The governing load case was earthquake loading.

  14. Solar Physics at the Einstein Tower

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, C; Rendtel, J; Arlt, K; Balthasar, H; Diercke, A; Manrique, S J González; Hofmann, A; Kuckein, C; Önel, H; Pavai, V Senthamizh; Staude, J; Verma, M

    2016-01-01

    The solar observatory Einstein Tower (Einsteinturm) at the Telegrafenberg in Potsdam is both a landmark of modern architecture and an important place for solar physics. Originally built for high-resolution spectroscopy and measuring the gravitational redshift, research shifted over the years to understanding the active Sun and its magnetic field. Nowadays, telescope and spectrographs are used for research and development, i.e., testing instruments and in particular polarization optics for advanced instrumentation deployed at major European and international astronomical and solar telescopes. In addition, the Einstein Tower is used for educating and training of the next generation astrophysicists as well as for education and public outreach activities directed at the general public. This article comments on the observatory's unique architecture and the challenges of maintaining and conserving the building. It describes in detail the characteristics of telescope, spectrographs, and imagers; it portrays some of ...

  15. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  16. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... that a minimum of three braces in a symmetric circumferential configuration are needed to introduce homogeneous damping in the two lowest vibration modes, independent of the rotor direction. A novel hybrid viscous damper concept is described in the second part. The hybriddamper consists of a viscous dash...

  17. The Harworth tower - a symbol of underground environmental changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shead, P. [RJB Mining (United Kingdom) Ltd. (United Kingdom). Harworth Colliery

    1996-02-01

    This paper gives a practical account of the fundamental changes that have taken place at Harworth Colliery since the building of the new winder tower in 1989. Production has moved to the Deep Soft seam, where the gas makes are extremely high, making management of the environment one of the major challenges facing the management team. Major projects undertaken in this time include replacing the surface fans, installing new boosters, building a new methane extraction plant and finally bringing a new power generation plant on stream. The paper concentrates on the environmental aspects, which have been of crucial importance. The mine ventilation has been redesigned, and the methane drainage updated, with capture in excess of 70% needed to keep the districts in production and supply the power generation plant. These changes have not been made easily, and have been accompanied by a change in culture at the Colliery that has been equally crucial. The Colliery now plans to move to a single three entry retreat face, using the experience gained over the last five years in environmental control. The paper concludes that constant improvement in techniques is essential to continue to keep ahead in a competitive energy market. The Harworth Tower is symbolic of the decision to invest in the Colliery`s future, and the continuous changes that have happened since then. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Review of cooling tower drift deposition models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.

    1977-05-04

    The behavior, basic assumptions, and limitations of ten different models for calculating the drift deposition rate from wet cooling towers are reviewed and then their predicted results for such deposition with a common set of input parameters are compared. The predicted maximum deposition differs among the models by two orders of magnitude with a wide range in peak location. Comments and suggestions to improve the models are included.

  19. Modified Hanoi Towers Groups and Limit Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Makisumi, Shotaro; Steinhurst, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the $k$-peg Hanoi automorphisms and Hanoi self-similar groups, a generalization of the Hanoi Towers groups, and give conditions for them to be contractive. We analyze the limit spaces of a particular family of contracting Hanoi groups, $H_c^{(k)}$, and show that these are the unique maximal contracting Hanoi groups under a suitable symmetry condition. Finally, we provide partial results on the contraction of Hanoi groups with weaker symmetry.

  20. I-adic towers in topology

    OpenAIRE

    Wuethrich, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    A large variety of cohomology theories is derived from complex cobordism MU^*(-) by localizing with respect to certain elements or by killing regular sequences in MU_*. We study the relationship between certain pairs of such theories which differ by a regular sequence, by constructing topological analogues of algebraic I-adic towers. These give rise to Higher Bockstein spectral sequences, which turn out to be Adams spectral sequences in an appropriate sense. Particular attention is paid to th...

  1. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  2. Solar tower and farming plants compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives an abbreviated version of a study under the guidance of the DLR, comparing solar tower and farming plants (channel collectors) for electricity generation, in respect of technical and economical aspects. The comparison considers various influencing factors such as for instance: Meteorological conditions, characteristic technical differences, unit size, and permits conclusions, which are important for the development and construction of future plants. (orig.)

  3. The solar two power tower project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of United States utility concerns led by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a cooperative project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry to convert the 10-MWe Solar One Tower Pilot Plant to molten nitrate salt technology. Successful operation of the convert plant to be called Solar Two, will reduce the economic risks in building the initial commercial power tower projects and accelerate the commercial acceptance of this promising renewable energy technology. In a molten salt power tower plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver, atop a tower. Molten salt is heated in the receiver and stored until it is needed to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. Joining the SCE and DOE in sponsoring in sponsoring this project are the following organizations: Los Alamos department of Water Power, Idaho Power Company, PacifiCorp, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Arizona Public Service Company, Salt River Project, City of Pasadena, California Energy Commission, Electric Power Research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Commission, Electric Power research Institute, South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Bechtel Corporation. The Solar Two project will convert the Solar One heat transfer system from a water/steam type to molten nitrate salt by replacing the water/steam receiver and oil/rock thermal storage system with a nitrate salt receiver, salt thermal storage, and steam generator. The estimate cost of Solar Two, including 3-year test period, is 48.5 millions. The plant will be on line in early 1995. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of TEP Deaeration Tower Rectangular Flange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhi-hao

    2013-01-01

    The rectangular flange is adapted in the heater of TEP deaeration tower(Fig.1).The rectangular flange is no-round type flange,the evaluation of which is worked on equivalent round flange method.Thecalculation is based on no-round type flange evaluation chapter in HGT 20582—2011 Steel chemical vessel strength calculation code.The loads on the flange are inner pressure,nozzle loads and seismic loads.The nozzle loads is

  5. Differentiating Tower of Hanoi performance: interactive effects of psychopathic tendencies, impulsive response styles, and modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnaitis, Christina L; Baker, Crystal A; Holland, James; Welsh, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that performance on the computerized Tower of Hanoi is lower than performance on the manual Tower of Hanoi. The present study was conducted to elucidate potential factors that contribute to performance differences across modalities. Personality characteristics related to psychopathy and impulsive response styles were hypothesized to be correlates of poor performance on the computerized version of the Tower of Hanoi, which is a problem-solving task that requires working memory, planning, and inhibition. Eighty-four college students from a mid-sized university participated. Participants were grouped as low, middle, or high psychopathy based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory. A 2 (Modality) × 3 (Psychopathy) analysis of covariance, controlling for visuospatial working memory, yielded a significant interaction, in which the high psychopathy group did not differ in performance across modality, whereas the low and middle psychopathy groups performed more poorly on the computerized version. Subsequent analyses on reaction time and accuracy for the computerized modality indicated that a reflective, methodical approach to the computerized task was more productively utilized in the low psychopathy group, whereas the fast and accurate approach was more productively utilized in the high psychopathy group. These results suggest that individuals with elevated psychopathic tendencies within a normal population are not necessarily deficient in problem-solving performance on the Tower of Hanoi. Impulsive responding is associated with poor performance in the computerized version of the Tower of Hanoi, irrespective of psychopathic tendencies. Caution should be exercised in interpreting scores on the computerized Tower of Hanoi because the psychometric properties required for comparability with the manual version have not been sufficiently demonstrated. PMID:21390899

  6. On the design and feasibility of a pneumatically supported actively guided space tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Raj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Space tethers have been investigated widely as a means to provide easy access to space. However, the design and construction of such a device presents significant unsolved technological challenges. An alternative approach is proposed to the construction of a space elevator that utilises a free-standing core structure to provide access to near space regions and to reduce the cost of space launch. The theoretical and experimental investigation of the bending of inflatable cylindrical cantilevered beams made of modem fabric materials provides the basis for the design of an inflatable space tower. Experimental model structures were deployed and tested in order to determine design guidelines for the core structure. The feasibility of the construction of a thin walled inflatable space tower of 20 km vertical extent comprised of pneumatically inflated sections that are actively controlled and stabilised to balance external disturbances and support the structure is discussed. The response of the structure under wind loads is analyzed and taken into account for determining design guidelines. Such an approach avoids problems associated with a space tether including material strength constraints, the need for in-space construction, the fabrication of a cable at least 50,000 km in length, and the ageing and meteorite damage effects associated with a thin tether or cable in Low Earth Orbit. A suborbital tower of 20 km height would provide an ideal mounting point where a geostationary orbital space tether could be attached without experiencing atmospheric turbulence and weathering in the lower atmosphere. The tower can be utilized as a platform for various scientific and space missions or as an elevator to carry payloads and tourists. In addition, space towers can significantly be utilized to generate electrical power by harvesting high altitude renewable energy sources. Keywords: Space Elevator, Inflatable Space Tower, Inflatable Structure, Inflatable Beam, Inflatable Multiple

  7. [Airports and air quality: a critical synthesis of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Giorgio; Di Menno di Bucchianico, Alessandro; Gaeta, Alessandra; Romani, Daniela; Fontana, Luca; Iavicoli, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This work reviewed existing literature on airport related activities that could worsen surrounding air quality; its aim is to underline the progress coming from recent-year studies, the knowledge emerging from new approaches, the development of semi-empiric analytical methods as well as the questions still needing to be clarified. To estimate pollution levels, spatial and temporal variability, and the sources relative contributions integrated assessment, using both fixed point measurement and model outputs, are needed. The general picture emerging from the studies was a non-negligible and highly spatially variable (within 2-3 km from the fence line) airport contribution; even if it is often not dominant compared to other concomitant pollution sources. Results were highly airport-specific. Traffic volumes, landscape and meteorology were the key variables that drove the impacts. Results were thus hardly exportable to other contexts. Airport related pollutant sources were found to be characterized by unusual emission patterns (particularly ultrafine particles, black carbon and nitrogen oxides during take-off); high time-resolution measurements allow to depict the rapidly changing take-off effect on air quality that could not be adequately observed otherwise. Few studies used high time resolution data in a successful way as statistical models inputs to estimate the aircraft take-off contribution to the observed average levels. These findings should not be neglected when exposure of people living near airports is to be assessed. PMID:25115478

  8. [Airports and air quality: a critical synthesis of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Giorgio; Di Menno di Bucchianico, Alessandro; Gaeta, Alessandra; Romani, Daniela; Fontana, Luca; Iavicoli, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This work reviewed existing literature on airport related activities that could worsen surrounding air quality; its aim is to underline the progress coming from recent-year studies, the knowledge emerging from new approaches, the development of semi-empiric analytical methods as well as the questions still needing to be clarified. To estimate pollution levels, spatial and temporal variability, and the sources relative contributions integrated assessment, using both fixed point measurement and model outputs, are needed. The general picture emerging from the studies was a non-negligible and highly spatially variable (within 2-3 km from the fence line) airport contribution; even if it is often not dominant compared to other concomitant pollution sources. Results were highly airport-specific. Traffic volumes, landscape and meteorology were the key variables that drove the impacts. Results were thus hardly exportable to other contexts. Airport related pollutant sources were found to be characterized by unusual emission patterns (particularly ultrafine particles, black carbon and nitrogen oxides during take-off); high time-resolution measurements allow to depict the rapidly changing take-off effect on air quality that could not be adequately observed otherwise. Few studies used high time resolution data in a successful way as statistical models inputs to estimate the aircraft take-off contribution to the observed average levels. These findings should not be neglected when exposure of people living near airports is to be assessed.

  9. European dry cooling tower operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.; Simhan, K.

    1976-03-01

    Interviews were held with representatives of major plants and equipment manufacturers to obtain current information on operating experience with dry cooling towers in Europe. The report documents the objectives, background, and organizational details of the study, and presents an itemized account of contacts made to obtain information. Plant selection was based on a merit index involving thermal capacity and length of service. A questionnaire was used to organize operational data, when available, into nine major categories of experience. Information was also solicited concerning the use of codes and standards to ensure the achievement of cooling tower performance. Several plant operators provided finned-tube samples for metallographic analysis. Additionally, information on both operating experience and developing technology was supplied by European technical societies and research establishments. Information obtained from these contacts provides an updated and representative sample of European experience with dry cooling towers, which supplements some of the detailed reviews already available in the literature. In addition, the study presents categorized operating experience with installations which have not been reviewed so extensively, but nevertheless, have significant operational histories when ranked by the merit index. The contacts and interviews reported in the survey occurred between late March and October 1975. The study was motivated by the expressed interest of U.S. utility industry representatives who expect European experience to provide a basis of confidence that dry cooling is a reliable technology, applicable when necessary, to U.S. operating requirements.

  10. European dry cooling tower operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interviews were held with representatives of major plants and equipment manufacturers to obtain current information on operating experience with dry cooling towers in Europe. The report documents the objectives, background, and organizational details of the study, and presents an itemized account of contacts made to obtain information. Plant selection was based on a merit index involving thermal capacity and length of service. A questionnaire was used to organize operational data, when available, into nine major categories of experience. Information was also solicited concerning the use of codes and standards to ensure the achievement of cooling tower performance. Several plant operators provided finned-tube samples for metallographic analysis. Additionally, information on both operating experience and developing technology was supplied by European technical societies and research establishments. Information obtained from these contacts provides an updated and representative sample of European experience with dry cooling towers, which supplements some of the detailed reviews already available in the literature. In addition, the study presents categorized operating experience with installations which have not been reviewed so extensively, but nevertheless, have significant operational histories when ranked by the merit index. The contacts and interviews reported in the survey occurred between late March and October 1975. The study was motivated by the expressed interest of U.S. utility industry representatives who expect European experience to provide a basis of confidence that dry cooling is a reliable technology, applicable when necessary, to U.S. operating requirements

  11. Dynamic performance of cable-stayed bridge tower with multi-stage pendulum mass damper under wind excitations--Ⅱ:Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Anxin; Y L Xu; Li Hui

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of using a multi-stage pendulum mass damper(MSPMD) to control wind-induced vibration of a single column tower of a cable-stayed bridge during construction was studied theoretically in part Ⅰ of this work.In this paper,the performance of the MSPMD for reducing bridge tower vibration is studied experimentally.A MSPMD model and a tower model of the bridge with geometry scaling of 1:100 were designed and manufactured.Calibration of the MSPMD model with different wire lengths is conducted to verify the analytical model of the damper.A series of tests for the uncontrolled freestanding tower,tower with cables,and tower with MSPMD model are then performed under harmonic and white noise excitations.The experimental results show that the responses of the tower model significantly decrease with the installation of the MSPMD model,which demonstrates the effectiveness of the MSPMD to mitigate the vibration of the bridge tower.

  12. 78 FR 9449 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... ``A'' 2012 NEM and Map ``B'', 2017; NEM Chapter 9, Page 9-1, Airport Sponsor's Noise Exposure Map Certification; November 1, 2012 Airport Sponsor NEM Submittal Letter. The FAA has determined that these...

  13. 76 FR 60962 - Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Update for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, Buffalo, NY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation... Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA), for Buffalo Niagara International Airport, under the...

  14. 78 FR 8683 - Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Re-evaluation has been prepared for Theodore Francis Green Airport, Warwick, Rhode Island. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Doucette, Environmental Program Manager, Federal... Federal Aviation Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Theodore Francis Green Airport,...

  15. LIGHT-BEAM SENSORLESS CONTROL OF HELIOSTATS FOR TOWER TYPE SOLAR THERMAL POWER GENERATION APPLICATIONS%塔式太阳能热发电中定日镜无光线位置传感器跟踪控制及误差消除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马逊; 王平

    2012-01-01

    A method for the control of heliostats for the tower type solar thermal power generation applications without solar position sensor and projection light sensor was presented. Theoretically, sensorless control is not a no-error control, and these errors could be eliminated in control method. Some methods to eliminate the steady-state control error in engineering applications were presented, and the algorithm was verified in Badaling experimental solar thermal power generating plant.%提出一种无需太阳位置传感器和投射光线传感器的定日镜控制技术,用数学手段对镜体的位置进行计算,结合高精度伺服电机实现光斑的正确投射.理论上无传感器控制并不是一种无静差控制,在实际工程应用中应尽量将静态误差在控制环节中用算法消除.提出几种在实际中影响较大的误差消除算法,并在八达岭太阳能热发电实验电站对该方案进行验证.

  16. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Nowcasting system MeteoExpert at Irkutsk airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazlova, Tatiana; Bocharnikov, Nikolai; Solonin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Airport operations are significantly impacted by low visibility concerned with fog. Generation of accurate and timely nowcast products is a basis of early warning automated system providing information about significant weather conditions for decision-makers. Nowcasting system MeteoExpert has been developed that provides aviation forecasters with 0-6 hour nowcasts of the weather conditions including fog and low visibility. The system has been put into operation at the airport Irkutsk since August 2014. Aim is to increase an accuracy of fog forecasts, contributing to the airport safety, efficiency and capacity improvement. Designed for operational use numerical model of atmospheric boundary layer runs with a 10-minute update cycle. An important component of the system is the use of AWOS at the airdrome and three additional automatic weather stations at fogging sites in the vicinity of the airdrome. Nowcasts are visualized on a screen of forecaster's workstation and dedicated website. Nowcasts have been verified against actual observations.

  18. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  19. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports – Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Cherie; Morrell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different sized airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within ...

  20. Expanding Frankfurt Airport Under Conflict: Social Responsibility on the Growth Path

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebusch, Tim

    2014-01-01

    At airports, civil aviation meets its permanent com-panion: civil protest. Airports are under pressure to grow to meet air transport demand and stay competitive. In wide pub-lic perception, this interferes with their commitment to Cor-porate Social Responsibility (CSR) and sustainability goals. This article examines the new business environment for air-ports and proceeds to investigate the past and present of re-gional expansion conflicts at Frankfurt Airport, Germany. A very violent history ...

  1. A study of annoyance caused by ground based activities at Bromma airport

    OpenAIRE

    Bodén, Hans; Aslan, Johan; Yousif, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Bromma airport is located nearby the city centre of Stockholm Sweden. There are a number of residential areas around the airport. The paper reports results from a measurement campaign and a questionnaire survey investigation among the people living in the area Bromma kyrka, located approximately 500 meters from the airport. The objective of the study was to identify the most annoying sound sources related to ground activities at the airport. This means that the noise events caused by starting...

  2. Nusantara: Between sky and earth, could the PPP be the solution for Indonesian airport infrastructures?

    OpenAIRE

    Carnis, Laurent; YULIAWATI, Eny

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the airport infrastructures in Indonesia and it investigates the possibility of defining a solution for their funding. Indeed the economic development in Indonesia requires huge capital needs for completing the numerous plans of investment in transport and particularly for the airport infrastructures. More than 63% of the budget for the airport infrastructure needs is not funded, while the characteristics of airport infrastructure investments involve large amounts of mon...

  3. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  4. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  5. Analysis on application of risk analysis in influenza A(H1N1)prevention and control at Beijing Capital Airport Port%风险分析法在首都机场口岸甲型H1N1流感疫情防控工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄健华; 王康琳; 王保刚; 刘德臣; 朱戈; 刘鲁宁; 赵言群

    2011-01-01

    目的 证明风险分析法对于口岸传染病防控工作的重要作用.方法阐述在首都机场口岸甲型H1N1流感防控工作中风险分析法的应用,主要包括对可能造成疫情扩散和暴发的因素进行风险评估,对其危害程度进行分析,进而选择具有针对性的风险管理策略并加以实施,并在其过程中始终贯穿风险交流手段.结果甲型H1N1流感防控工作中风险分析方法的应用提高了疫情防控效率,有效控制了疫情蔓延.结论在口岸卫生检疫工作中引入风险分析法是口岸卫生检疫核心能力建设和促进卫生检疫事业发展的必要条件,应予以广泛推广.%Objective To prove the important role by risk analysis in infectious diseases prevention and control at frontier port. Methods This article demonstrated the application of risk analysis in influenza A(H1N1) prevention and control at Beijing Capital Airport port.including risk assessment of factors that may cause disease spread and breaking out,analysis of their harm extent.adopting risk management strategy aimed to them,and using risk communication through the whole process. Results The application of risk analysis in influenza A(H1N1) prevention and control promotes the efficiency,and controls disease spread effectively. Conclusion It is proved that application of risk analysis in quarantine at frontier will help to construction of frontier core ability and development of health quarantine.which should be popularize extensively.

  6. Vulnerability analysis for airport networks based on fuzzy soft sets: From the structural and functional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanmei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructure. In air traffic systems, the vulnerability analysis for airport networks can be used to guide air traffic administrations in their prioritization of the maintenance and repair of airports, as well as to avoid unnecessary disturbances in the planning of flight schedules. In this paper, the evaluation methods of airport importance and network efficiency are established. Firstly, the evaluation indices of airport importance are proposed from both the topological and functional perspectives. The topological characteristics come from the structure of airport network and the functional features stem from the traffic flow distribution taking place inside the network. Secondly, an integrated evaluation method based on fuzzy soft set theory is proposed to identify the key airports, which can fuse together importance indices over different time intervals. Thirdly, an airport network efficiency method is established for the purpose of assessing the accuracy of the evaluation method. Finally, empirical studies using real traffic data of US and China’s airport networks show that the evaluation method proposed in this paper is the most accurate. The vulnerability of US and China’s airport networks is compared. The similarities and differences between airport geography distribution and airport importance distribution are discussed here and the dynamics of airport importance is studied as well.

  7. 75 FR 30899 - Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless...: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications. DATES:...

  8. 75 FR 14483 - Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Third Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless...: Airport Surface Wireless Communications meeting. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 223: Airport Surface Wireless Communications. DATES:...

  9. 77 FR 55894 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless...: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 223, Airport Surface Wireless Communications. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Airport Surface Wireless Communications. DATES: The meeting will be held October 2-3, 2012, from 9...

  10. 14 CFR 151.13 - Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal-aid Airport Program: Policy affecting landing aid requirements. 151.13 Section 151.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS General...

  11. Spatial Differences and Costs of Emissions at U.S. Airport Hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Matthew J; Chester, Mikhail V; Ryerson, Megan S; Fraser, Andrew M

    2016-04-19

    As local governments plan to expand airport infrastructure and build air service, monetized estimates of damages from air pollution are important for balancing environmental impacts. While it is well-known that aircraft emissions near airports directly affect nearby populations, it is less clear how the airport-specific aircraft operations and impacts result in monetized damages to human health and the environment. We model aircraft and ground support equipment emissions at major U.S. airports and estimate the monetized human health and environmental damages of near airport (within 60 miles) emissions. County-specific unit damage costs for PM, SOx, NOx, and VOCs and damage valuations for CO and CO2 are used along with aircraft emissions estimations at airports to determine impacts. We find that near-airport emissions at major U.S. airports caused a total of $1.9 billion in damages in 2013, with airports contributing between $720 thousand and $190 million each. These damages vary by airport from $1 to $9 per seat per one-way flight and costs per passenger are often greater than airport charges levied on airlines for infrastructure use. As the U.S. aviation system grows, it is possible to minimize human and environmental costs by shifting aircraft technologies and expanding service into airports where fewer impacts are likely to occur. PMID:27007187

  12. 14 CFR 93.345 - VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports... Metropolitan Area Special Flight Rules Area § 93.345 VFR outbound procedures for fringe airports. (a) A pilot may depart from a fringe airport as defined in § 93.335 without filing a flight plan or...

  13. 14 CFR 121.590 - Use of certificated land airports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under 14 CFR part 380 are covered by the statutory requirements to operate to and from part 139 airports... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of certificated land airports in the... Use of certificated land airports in the United States. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) or...

  14. 48 CFR 1252.236-70 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.236-70 Special precautions for work at operating airports. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1236.570, insert the following clause: Special Precautions for Work at Operating Airports (OCT... work at operating airports. 1252.236-70 Section 1252.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  15. 14 CFR 135.393 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Landing limitations: Destination airports. 135.393 Section 135.393 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a large nontransport... effective length of the most suitable runway at the destination airport; and (2) Is greater than the...

  16. 14 CFR 121.443 - Pilot in command qualification: Route and airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airports. 121.443 Section 121.443 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Pilot in command qualification: Route and airports. (a) Each certificate holder shall provide a system... to each airport and terminal area into which that person is to operate, and ensures that that...

  17. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limitations: Destination airports. 121.195 Section 121.195 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at... alternate airport) the weight of the airplane on arrival would exceed the landing weight set forth in...

  18. The history of the airport; from grass fields to giant cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, H.

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of aviation airports where nothing more than a simple grass field from which airplanes could take off. These days there are airports that are enormous in size, and fulfil many more functions than simply allowing aircraft to take-off and land. The airport has shown a remarkable revo

  19. 48 CFR 1236.570 - Special precautions for work at operating airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contract Clauses 1236.570 Special precautions for work at operating airports. Where any acquisition will require work at an operating airport, insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.236-70, Special Precautions... work at operating airports. 1236.570 Section 1236.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  20. 14 CFR 93.69 - Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Sixmile Lake Airports. 93.69 Section 93.69 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Anchorage, Alaska, Terminal Area § 93.69 Special requirements, Lake Campbell and Sixmile Lake Airports. Each person operating an aircraft to or from Lake Campbell or Sixmile Lake Airport shall conform to the...