WorldWideScience

Sample records for airplane passenger boarding

  1. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  2. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2008-12-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics, where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  3. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty

  4. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  5. Self-propelled pedestrian dynamics model: Application to passenger movement and infection propagation in airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Namilae, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Mubayi, A.; Scotch, M.; Pahle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design ...

  6. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  7. Mechanism behind phase transitions in airplane boarding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Shengjie; Jia, Bin; Huang, Qingxia; Gao, Ziyou

    2016-02-01

    A simple airplane boarding model is built much like an asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). The dynamics of the model is constrained by local interference between passengers and global seat assignments for individuals. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations by using a parallel update rule to determine quantities like boarding time and sequence correlation. Our results clarify the scaling behavior in boarding process and identify a critical value of arrival time interval for boarding time threshold. Three different phases (steady, intermediate and linear) with respect to the boarding time are distinguished and the mechanism behind phase transition is further discussed.

  8. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  9. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  10. Time needed to board an airplane: a power law and the structure behind it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frette, Vidar; Hemmer, Per C

    2012-01-01

    A simple model for the boarding of an airplane is studied. Passengers have reserved seats but enter the airplane in arbitrary order. Queues are formed along the aisle, as some passengers have to wait to reach the seats for which they have reservation. We label a passenger by the number of his or her reserved seat. In most cases the boarding process is much slower than for the optimal situation, where passenger and seat orders are identical. We study this dynamical system by calculating the average boarding time when all permutations of N passengers are given equal weight. To first order, the boarding time for a given permutation (ordering) of the passengers is given by the number s of sequences of monotonically increasing values in the permutation. We show that the distribution of s is symmetric on [1,N], which leads to an average boarding time (N+1)/2. We have found an exact expression for s and have shown that the full distribution of s approaches a normal distribution as N increases. However, there are significant corrections to the first-order results, due to certain correlations between passenger ordering and the substrate (seat ordering). This occurs for some cases in which the sequence of the seats is partially mirrored in the passenger ordering. These cases with correlations have a boarding time that is lower than predicted by the first-order results. The large number of cases with reduced boarding times have been classified. We also give some indicative results on the geometry of the correlations, with sorting into geometry groups. With increasing N, both the number of correlation types and the number of cases belonging to each type increase rapidly. Using enumeration we find that as a result of these correlations the average boarding time behaves like N(α), with α≃0.69, as compared with α=1.0 for the first-order approximation. © 2012 American Physical Society

  11. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. 250.5 Section 250.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. (a) Subject to the exceptions provided...

  12. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.011130 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=216=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., ∝Nα for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α≃0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent αeff(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent αeff(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N-1/3 for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of tb, and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  13. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance.

  14. Comment on "Time needed to board an airplane: a power law and the structure behind it".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Noam

    2012-08-01

    Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)] recently showed that for a simple model for the boarding of an airplane, the mean time to board scales as a power law with the number of passengers N and the exponent is less than 1. They note that this scaling leads to the prediction that the "back-to-front" strategy, where passengers are divided into groups from contiguous ranges of rows and each group is allowed to board in turn from back to front once the previous group has found their seats, has a longer boarding time than would a single group. Here I extend their results to a larger number of passengers using a sampling approach and explore a scenario where the queue is presorted into groups from back to front, but allowed to enter the plane as soon as they can. I show that the power law dependence on passenger numbers is different for large N and that there is a boarding time reduction for presorted groups, with a power law dependence on the number of presorted groups.

  15. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  16. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and... certificate holder may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land unless each food and beverage tray...

  17. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93 Airplane...

  18. Alighting and Boarding Time Model of Passengers at a LRT Station in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor Peay San

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to study the factors affecting the alighting and boarding rate of passengers and establish a prediction model for alighting and boarding time of passengers for a passenger rail service in Malaysia. Data was collected at the KL Sentral LRT station during the morning and evening peak hours for a period of 5 working days. Results show that passenger behaviour, passenger volume, crowdedness in train and mixture of flow has significant effects on the alighting and boarding time though mixture of flow is not significant in the prediction model produced due to the passenger behaviour at the platform.

  19. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.577 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... may move an airplane on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished...

  20. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355 Airplane...

  1. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-11-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Passenger Spaceplanes and Airplanes that Have Variable Configuration for Sonic Boom Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SANDU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last time, the interest for passenger space plane, supersonic passenger aircraft and supersonic business jets is increasing. For reducing sonic boom effects at ground level, some companies proposed airplanes having fuselage with small traversal section or having curved fuselage. This paper presents a new practical method for exciting vibrations in the leading edge of wing, tail and airplane's nose surfaces in order to scatter the shock wave and to reduce the sonic boom impact at ground level. The leading edges of wing, tail and airplane nose are covered with thin elastic fairings made of carbon fiber composite material which are separated through small gaps by the adjacent surfaces of wing, tail and nose. When the aircraft flies over populated areas, compressed air bleed from the engine compressors excites the vibration of carbon fiber fairings. The air is released through calibrated nozzles and directly impinges on the fairing surface generating their vibration. Thus, the shock waves are scattered and the impact of sonic boom on ground is much reduced.

  3. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: ► Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. ► A possible cause is exposure to tricresyl phosphate in engine lubricating oil. ► A blood

  4. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liyasova, Mariya, E-mail: mliyasov@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Nachon, Florian, E-mail: fnachon@nachon.net [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Masson, Patrick, E-mail: pmasson@unmc.edu [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Furlong, Clement E., E-mail: clem@uw.edu [Department of Medicine (Div. Medical Genetics) and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such 'fume events'. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible cause is exposure to

  5. Predictive NO x emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.; Andreasson, K.

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x±38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr-1. The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x, CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships.

  6. Predictive NOx emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.A.; Andreasson, K.

    1999-01-01

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x ± 38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr -1 . The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x , CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships. (author)

  7. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements...

  8. Fast Aircraft Turnaround Enabled by Reliable Passenger Boarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Future 4D aircraft trajectories demand comprehensive consideration of environmental, economic, and operational constraints, as well as reliable prediction of all aircraft-related processes. Mutual interdependencies between airports result in system-wide, far-reaching effects in the air traffic network (reactionary delays. To comply with airline/airport challenges over the day of operations, a change to an air-to-air perspective is necessary, with a specific focus on the aircraft ground operations as major driver for airline punctuality. Aircraft ground trajectories primarily consists of handling processes at the stand (deboarding, catering, fueling, cleaning, boarding, unloading, loading, which are defined as the aircraft turnaround. Turnaround processes are mainly controlled by ground handling, airport, or airline staff, except the aircraft boarding, which is driven by passengers’ experience and willingness/ability to follow the proposed boarding procedures. This paper provides an overview of the research done in the field of aircraft boarding and introduces a reliable, calibrated, and stochastic aircraft boarding model. The stochastic boarding model is implemented in a simulation environment to evaluate specific boarding scenarios using different boarding strategies and innovative technologies. Furthermore, the potential of a connected aircraft cabin as sensor network is emphasized, which could provide information on the current and future status of the boarding process.

  9. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  10. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  11. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Joseph W.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Munoz-Ramos, Karina; Akhil, Abbas A.; Curgus, Dita B.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H 2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

  12. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-05-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  13. LAYOUT of the PASSENGER twin-fuselage AIRPLANE FOR LOCAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Gusev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the peculiarities and disadvantages of the classical single-fuselage configuration aircraft for local lines. It also provides an overview of the twin-fuselage configuration aircraft. A version of the twin-fuselage passenger aircraft is offered and the ground of its advantages is given.

  14. Improving airplane boarding time : A review, a field study and an experiment with a new way of hand luggage stowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, J.; Dangal, Sagar; Vendel, M.E.; Anjani, S.; Akkerman, Stefan; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S.; Vink, P.

    2018-01-01

    The airplane (de)boarding process is not organized optimally. The goal of this paper is to search for improvement possibilities. In this paper literature is reviewed, boarding characteristics are studied in a field study and a pilot study with a new way of hand luggage stowing is performed. Computer

  15. Broadband Internet Based Service to Passengers and Crew On-board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarelli, Tony

    2003-07-01

    The Connexion by BoeingSM (CbB) global network will provide broadband information services to aircraft passengers and crews. Through this Ku-band (14 GHz (uplink) and 11/12 GHz (downlink)) satellite-based system, aircraft passengers and crew will no longer be limited to pre-packaged services, but instead will be able to access the full range of broadband services from their seats using their laptop, PDA or the on-board IFE console.The kind of services offered to passengers are based on the internet/intranet access via their own laptops and PDA (using Ethernet wired cable, or wireless 802.11b access), while those offered to the crew can range between various crew application (such as weather updates and travel information) and aircraft health monitoring.The CbB system is divided into four basic layers of infrastructure:(1) an airborne segment, i.e. the Aircraft Earth Station (AES) consisting of proprietary high gain antenna, transceivers and other on-board subsystems providing a nominal return link data rate of 1 Mbps and a forward link data rates up to 20 Mbps;(2) a space segment consisting of leased satellite transponders on existing in-orbit Geostationary satellites;(3) a ground segment consisting of one or more leased satellite land earth stations (LESs) and redundant interconnection facilities; and;(4) a network operations centre (NOC) segment.During 2003, trials with Lufthansa (DLH) and British Airways (BA) have proved very successful. This has resulted in the recent signing of an agreement with Lufthansa which calls for the Connexion by BoeingSM service to be installed on Lufthansa's fleet of approximately 80 long-haul aircraft, including Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A330 and A340 aircraft, beginning in early 2004. BA is expected to follow soon. In addition to the successful recent service demonstrations, both Japan Airlines (JAL) and Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) have announced their intent to install the revolutionary service on their long-range aircraft.

  16. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  17. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  18. Multiple imputation of missing passenger boarding data in the national census of ferry operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report presents findings from the 2006 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO) augmented with imputed values for passengers and passenger miles. Due to the imputation procedures used to calculate missing data, totals in Table 1 may not corresp...

  19. Mathematical adventures in performance analysis from storage systems, through airplane boarding, to express line queues

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmat, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes problems in the field of performance analysis, primarily the study of storage systems and the diverse mathematical techniques that are required for solving such problems. Topics covered include best practices for scheduling I/O requests to a disk drive, how this problem is related to airplane boarding, and how both problems can be modeled using space-time geometry. The author also explains how Riemann's proof of the analytic continuation and functional equation of the Riemann zeta function can be used to analyze express-line queues in a minimarket. Overall, the book reveals the surprising applicability of abstract mathematical ideas that are not usually associated with applied topics. Advanced undergraduate students or graduate students with an interest in the applications of mathematics will find this book a useful resource. It will also be of interest to professional mathematicians who want exposure to the surprising ways that theoretical mathematics may be applied to engineering pr...

  20. Improving public transportation systems with self-organization: A headway-based model and regulation of passenger alighting and boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Gustavo; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    The equal headway instability-the fact that a configuration with regular time intervals between vehicles tends to be volatile-is a common regulation problem in public transportation systems. An unsatisfactory regulation results in low efficiency and possible collapses of the service. Computational simulations have shown that self-organizing methods can regulate the headway adaptively beyond the theoretical optimum. In this work, we develop a computer simulation for metro systems fed with real data from the Mexico City Metro to test the current regulatory method with a novel self-organizing approach. The current model considers overall system's data such as minimum and maximum waiting times at stations, while the self-organizing method regulates the headway in a decentralized manner using local information such as the passenger's inflow and the positions of neighboring trains. The simulation shows that the self-organizing method improves the performance over the current one as it adapts to environmental changes at the timescale they occur. The correlation between the simulation of the current model and empirical observations carried out in the Mexico City Metro provides a base to calculate the expected performance of the self-organizing method in case it is implemented in the real system. We also performed a pilot study at the Balderas station to regulate the alighting and boarding of passengers through guide signs on platforms. The analysis of empirical data shows a delay reduction of the waiting time of trains at stations. Finally, we provide recommendations to improve public transportation systems.

  1. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or...

  2. Behavioural, physiological and psychological responses of passengers to the thermal environment of boarding a flight in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxin; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Cheng, Yong; Mmereki, Daniel; Kong, Deyu

    2018-06-01

    In practice, passengers actively respond to the thermal environment when they board an aircraft in winter, which is not considered in the current standards. In this study, the behavioural, physiological and psychological responses to the thermal environment were examined at 22 °C (with 68 subjects), 20 °C and 26 °C (with 32 subjects). The results showed that the three air temperature levels had significant effect on nozzle usage and clothing adjustment behaviours, surface skin temperature, and thermal sensation vote (TSV). The walking/waiting states prior to boarding the aircraft cabin had a significant effect on the proportion of jacket removal, TSV and thermal comfort vote. After 10 min in the aircraft cabin, the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins. Practitioner Summary: Experimental investigation of human responses was conducted in an aircraft cabin. Analysis showed that the subjects maintained their comfort in a wider range of the thermal environment when the behavioural adjustments existed compared to when they did not. Thus, a suggestion was made for behavioural adjustments to be provided in aircraft cabins.

  3. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2015-10-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings.

  4. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  5. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual or...

  6. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a reported...

  7. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off, or...

  8. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chikhi , Saâdane; Boughedaoui , Ménouèr; Kerbachi , Rabah; Joumard , Robert

    2014-01-01

    International audience; On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO 2 were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-LPG, gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most eff...

  9. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine or fewer passenger seats. 135.422 Section 135.422... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine...

  10. 77 FR 38467 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Isolation or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized... airplane systems and the passenger entertainment services. Applicability As discussed above, these special... Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection from Unauthorized Internal Access. The applicant must ensure...

  11. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer... vulnerabilities to the airplanes' systems. The proposed network architecture includes the following connectivity.... Operator business and administrative support systems, and 3. Passenger entertainment systems, and access by...

  12. The Airplane Cabin Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Howard; Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Dupont, Chris; Espinoza, Josh L; Levy, Shawn; Nelson, Karen; Norris, Sharon

    2018-06-06

    Serving over three billion passengers annually, air travel serves as a conduit for infectious disease spread, including emerging infections and pandemics. Over two dozen cases of in-flight transmissions have been documented. To understand these risks, a characterization of the airplane cabin microbiome is necessary. Our study team collected 229 environmental samples on ten transcontinental US flights with subsequent 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that bacterial communities were largely derived from human skin and oral commensals, as well as environmental generalist bacteria. We identified clear signatures for air versus touch surface microbiome, but not for individual types of touch surfaces. We also found large flight-to-flight beta diversity variations with no distinguishing signatures of individual flights, rather a high between-flight diversity for all touch surfaces and particularly for air samples. There was no systematic pattern of microbial community change from pre- to post-flight. Our findings are similar to those of other recent studies of the microbiome of built environments. In summary, the airplane cabin microbiome has immense airplane to airplane variability. The vast majority of airplane-associated microbes are human commensals or non-pathogenic, and the results provide a baseline for non-crisis-level airplane microbiome conditions.

  13. Flatulence on airplanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans C; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases......, due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should...... airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers....

  14. On-board measurement of emissions from liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline and diesel powered passenger cars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, Saâdane; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr; Kerbachi, Rabah; Joumard, Robert

    2014-08-01

    On-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO₂ were conducted on 17 private cars powered by different types of fuels including gasoline, dual gasoline-liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, and diesel. The tests performed revealed the effect of LPG injection technology on unit emissions and made it possible to compare the measured emissions to the European Artemis emission model. A sequential multipoint injection LPG kit with no catalyst installed was found to be the most efficient pollutant reduction device for all of the pollutants, with the exception of the NOx. Specific test results for a sub-group of LPG vehicles revealed that LPG-fueled engines with no catalyst cannot compete with catalyzed gasoline and diesel engines. Vehicle age does not appear to be a determining parameter with regard to vehicle pollutant emissions. A fuel switch to LPG offers many advantages as far as pollutant emissions are concerned, due to LPG's intrinsic characteristics. However, these advantages are being rapidly offset by the strong development of both gasoline and diesel engine technologies and catalyst converters. The LPG's performance on a chassis dynamometer under real driving conditions was better than expected. The enforcement of pollutant emission standards in developing countries is an important step towards introducing clean technology and reducing vehicle emissions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  16. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  17. 76 FR 71865 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane; Windshield Coating in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...; Special Conditions No. 25-452-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GVI Airplane... Aerospace Corporation Model GVI airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s..., Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) applied for an FAA type certificate for its new Model GVI passenger...

  18. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input to...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix E to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the designated...

  1. 78 FR 23110 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... pressure, resulting in improper flow of oxygen through the passenger masks and injury to passengers if... Company Model 777-200, -200LR, -300, -300ER, and 777F series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report... properly flow oxygen, and that a loud noise occurred in the overhead area, which was caused by the flex...

  2. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  3. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  4. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  5. Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri

    2016-01-01

    Airlines create value for employees, investors, governments, customers and consumers. This chapter focuses on the customers and consumers of the airline product. Airline customers, who include passengers and corporate travel providers, exert considerable market power in the air transport industry through their purchasing decisions and travel behaviour. As a purchaser of a commercial aviation product, customers are responsible for stimulating product and service innovation and their behaviour ...

  6. Analysis of orthopedic injuries in an airplane landing disaster and a suggested mechanism of trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzatolooei, Fardin; Bazzazi, Amirmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Survival after an airplane disaster is rare. We describe the injuries of survivors of an airplane accident and present a common mechanism of trauma for victims. Descriptive data were gathered by interviews with patients, physical examination. Review of charts and patients X-ray films. Informations regarding the flight characteristics were obtained from Iran air safety board. All dead patients were clinically examined by legal medicine department. The suggested mechanism of trauma was established according to present knowledge of mechanism of fractures. From 105 passengers, 27 survived. There was no mortality during hospital course. Between dead passengers, lower extremity fractures were the most common followed by chest wall fractures. Among the survivors, neurosurgical help was needed only in one case for shunt application. Brain concussions and effusions and one hematoma managed conservatively. Two laparotomies were performed for one splenectomy and two hepatoraphy. One pelvic fracture and two femur fractures were occurred. Tibia fractures were the most common (17) followed by spine (14) fractures. Ten tibial fractures were open, and 15 were in distal third. All tibia fractures were fixed with IM locking nails or locking plates. Eight posterior instrumentations were applied for seven burst and two fracture-dislocations. In this landing accident, a combination of vertical loading along with deceleration force produced burst fractures of spine and distal leg fractures.

  7. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  8. Analyzing Factors Of In-flight Services Of Garuda Indonesia And Batik Air Towards Passengers Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Tulandi, Victor Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transportation services play an important role in supporting any activity, of human. Various types of the transportation that we use. Among them, are air transportation or airplane. Talk about the satisfaction of airline passenger, nowadays many airlines competing to provide the best service for the passengers, one of the things that can influence passenger satisfaction is through airline service especially in-flight service. The objective of this research is to identify the factors of in-fli...

  9. Recurring norovirus transmission on an airplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Craig N; Emslie, Nicola A; Sprott, Tim W; Greening, Gail E; Rapana, Jackie P

    2011-09-01

    Previously reported outbreaks of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with aircraft have been limited to transmission during a single flight sector. During October 2009, an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting occurred among different groups of flight attendants who had worked on separate flight sectors on the same airplane. We investigated the cause of the outbreak and whether the illnesses were attributable to work on the airplane. Information was obtained from flight attendants on demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible transmission risk factors. Case patients were defined as flight attendants with diarrhea or vomiting airplane during 13-18 October 2009. Stool samples were tested for norovirus RNA. A passenger had vomited on the Boeing 777-200 airplane on the 13 October flight sector. Sixty-three (82%) of 77 flight attendants who worked on the airplane during 13-18 October provided information, and 27 (43%) met the case definition. The attack rate among flight attendants decreased significantly over successive flight sectors from 13 October onward (P airplane during successive flight sectors. Airlines should make provision for adequate disinfection of airplanes with use of products effective against norovirus and other common infectious agents after vomiting has occurred.

  10. Airplane crash simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovall, Ola

    2007-01-01

    Impact loads are considered in nuclear facility design as the result of the loading effects of certain design basis accidents and design basis threats made up of natural as well as man-made hazards. Also, beyond design basis accidents and threats are considered. Typical missiles include objects caused by tornado winds, aircrafts, war or terrorist activities, dropped objects, turbine fragments and other missiles resulting from failure of rotating equipment and whipping pipes and other objects of failure of pressurized fluid systems. The aim of the work is to study the potential of tools for numerical simulations to study the local load effects of airplane missiles impacting concrete structures. Two of the leading commercial computer codes for analysis of highly dynamic events, ABAQUS/Explicit and AUTODYN, have been evaluated. Numerical simulations have been carried out for rigid as well as deformable missiles with the characteristics of airplane engines. The analysis results have been compared with test results from a test program performed in the USA at Sandia National Laboratory and in Japan at Kobori Research Complex and Central Research Institute of the Electric Power industry. Finally, numerical simulations of a large passenger airliner impacting a reactor containment has been carried out using the analysis methodology developed. (author)

  11. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  12. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine or...

  13. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  14. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  15. 14 CFR 91.535 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.535 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... an aircraft on the surface, take off, or land when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the...

  16. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  17. Airplane energy use and conservation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilati, D.A.

    1974-05-01

    Domestic commercial airplane fuel use is examined as a function of stage length. A fuel use model is developed using the eight most popular airplanes. Short flights are very fuel inefficient; a 100-mile flight consumes 2.5 times as much fuel per passenger-mile than a 1,000-mile flight. Half of today's flights are for distances under 260 miles. Fuel consumption for purposes other than flying directly between airports is examined. Over 10% of total fuel use is for those portions of the flight in which no enroute distance is achieved. Delays account for at least 4.2% of the fuel consumption and auxiliary power units use over 1%. Fuel requirements for attempting to recover lost time and for fuel ferrying are also discussed. Airplane fuel efficiency can be increased in the short term by operational changes, particularly by increasing the load factor. A load factor increase from 50 to 60% would reduce airplane fuel use by 16% for the same traffic. Other options include reducing cruise speeds, increasing cruise altitudes, and changing ground operations. Each of these strategies offer savings of 1 to 3%. Total transportation energy use can be reduced by shifting air passengers to ground modes, especially for the inefficient short-stage traffic. Net energy savings for diverting half the flights under 200 miles to buses or trains is equivalent to 6% of the fleet fuel use. (6 tables, 6 fig., 36 references)

  18. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public

  19. Airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.

    1975-01-01

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60 Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  20. 78 FR 42727 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...; installation of new circuit breakers, relays, relay connectors, and wiring; and replacement of certain circuit... cabin of various transport category airplanes, related to the wiring for the passenger cabin in-flight... panel, and making changes to the wiring and certain electrical load management system (ELMS) panels. We...

  1. 78 FR 27310 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... wiring; installation of new circuit breakers, relays, relay connectors, and wiring; and replacement of... Installation of wiring and changing 36 work-hours x $85 per $2,503 $5,563 $328,217 ELMS panel wiring. hour = $3... flames in the passenger cabin of various transport category airplanes related to the wiring for the...

  2. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  3. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalenoja, H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  4. 76 FR 17334 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-2G4B Airplane; Certification of Cooktops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... into the passenger cabin environment. These potential hazards to the airplane and its occupants must be... airplane and its occupants from these potential hazards. Accordingly, this system is considered to be a novel or unusual design feature. Discussion Currently, ovens are the prevailing means of heating food on...

  5. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Mao, B. H.; Bai, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial domain. Ten cluster groups were identified, indicating a hierarchical urban polycentric structure composed of large concentrated flows at urban activity centers. These empirical findings provide insights regarding urban human mobility patterns within a large subway network.

  6. Amphibious Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The airplane pictured is the new Air Shark I, a four-place amphibian that makes extensive use of composite materials and cruises at close to 200 miles per hour under power from a 200-horsepower engine. Air Shark I is a "homebuilt" airplane, assembled from a kit of parts and components furnished by Freedom Master Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida. The airplane incorporates considerable NASA technology and its construction benefited from research assistance provided by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) In designing the Shark, company president Arthur M. Lueck was able to draw on NASA's aeronautical technology bank through KSC's computerized "recon" library. As a result of his work at KSC, the wing of the Air Shark I is a new airfoil developed by Langley Research Center for light aircraft. In addition, Lueck opted for NASA-developed "winglets," vertical extensions of the wing that reduce drag by smoothing air turbulence at the wingtips. The NASA technology bank also contributed to the hull design. Lueck is considering application of NASA laminar flow technology-means of smoothing the airflow over wing and fuselage-to later models for further improvement of the Shark's aerodynamic efficiency. A materials engineer, Lueck employed his own expertise in designing and selecting the materials for the composite segments, which include all structural members, exposed surfaces and many control components. The materials are fiber reinforced plastics, or FRP They offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, with a nominal strength rating about one and a half times that of structural steel. They provide other advantages: the materials can be easily molded into finished shapes without expensive tooling or machining, and they are highly corrosion resistant. The first homebuilt to be offered by Freedom Master, Air Shark I completed air and water testing in mid-1985 and the company launched production of kits.

  7. Field Trial Measurements to Validate a Stochastic Aircraft Boarding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient boarding procedures have to consider both operational constraints and the individual passenger behavior. In contrast to the aircraft handling processes of fueling, catering and cleaning, the boarding process is more driven by passengers than by airport or airline operators. This paper delivers a comprehensive set of operational data including classification of boarding times, passenger arrival times, times to store hand luggage, and passenger interactions in the aircraft cabin as a reliable basis for calibrating models for aircraft boarding. In this paper, a microscopic approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the passenger movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. This model is used to compare measurements from field trials of boarding procedures with simulation results and demonstrates a deviation smaller than 5%.

  8. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  9. 14 CFR 250.6 - Exceptions to eligibility for denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... boarding compensation. 250.6 Section 250.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... boarding compensation. A passenger denied boarding involuntarily from an oversold flight shall not be eligible for denied boarding compensation if: (a) The passenger does not comply fully with the carrier's...

  10. Turbulence Hazard Metric Based on Peak Accelerations for Jetliner Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations are made of the approximate hazard due to peak normal accelerations of an airplane flying through a simulated vertical wind field associated with a convective frontal system. The calculations are based on a hazard metric developed from a systematic application of a generic math model to 1-cosine discrete gusts of various amplitudes and gust lengths. The math model simulates the three degree-of- freedom longitudinal rigid body motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) fuselage flexibility, (2) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, (3) gradual lift effects, (4) a simplified autopilot, and (5) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths. The airplane response contours are used to develop an approximate hazard metric of peak normal accelerations as a function of gust amplitude and gust length. The hazard metric is then applied to a two-dimensional simulated vertical wind field of a convective frontal system. The variations of the hazard metric with gust length and airplane heading are demonstrated.

  11. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  12. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... complaints, and more than half of these involved severe or considerable pain. Only acetaminophen (paracetamol) and opioids were in the ferry medicine chest. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedical assistance and the medicine...

  13. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  14. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  15. Developing a Risk Model for Fire in Passenger Ships - Based on Bayesian Belief Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmo, Hanne Bjørkås

    2016-01-01

    Passenger ships, especially cruise ships, are rapidly increasing in size. With larger vessels, comes a greater risk to the passengers if something where to happen. A fire on a passenger vessel can spread quickly, and with as much as thousands of people needing to be evacuated many things could go wrong. The issue of the safety on board is therefore crucial to consider, seeing as the consequences could be tremendous. There are three types of passenger ships; Passenger vessel, RoPax vessel and ...

  16. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  17. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  18. Adaptive advisory system for economy class passenger with spinal cord injury during air travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Verbunt, M.N.C.; Bartneck, C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Today, air travel is popular as a way of transportation for different purpose such as business and tourism. The numbers of air travel passengers are increasing every year. At the same time the flight distance is increased because of better fuel efficiency and technology advancement of airplanes.

  19. 77 FR 50644 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Cessna Airplane Company Model 525 airplanes equipped with certain part number (P/N... Aircraft Company (Cessna) 525, 550, and 560 airplanes, where investigation revealed brushes had worn beyond...

  20. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  1. 14 CFR 250.8 - Denied boarding compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denied boarding compensation. 250.8 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS OVERSALES § 250.8 Denied boarding compensation. (a) Every carrier shall tender to a passenger eligible for denied boarding compensation, on the day and place the denied boarding...

  2. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This section sets forth the Board's policy on passenger fares for scheduled service by certificated air...

  3. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), passenger traffic and services (marketing, ticketing, station, and on- board services), and general... retention, ``green'' environmental outcomes, potential energy savings, and effects on community livability. Program Management Approach--A phased program implementation strategy including a preliminary description...

  4. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  5. 78 FR 65153 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... design feature associated with the architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplanes' computer... the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor union, etc.). DOT's complete... passengers and two crew members. The proposed Learjet Model 45 avionics architecture is new and novel for...

  6. International Passenger and Freight Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The International Passenger and Freight report is a summarization of all passengers and all freight transported between the U.S. and foreign countries combined, with...

  7. Radiated Emissions from a Remote-Controlled Airplane-Measured in a Reverberation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Mielnik, John J.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A full-vehicle, subscale all-electric model airplane was tested for radiated emissions, using a reverberation chamber. The mission of the NASA model airplane is to test in-flight airframe damage diagnosis and battery prognosis algorithms, and provide experimental data for other aviation safety research. Subscale model airplanes are economical experimental tools, but assembling their systems from hobbyist and low-cost components may lead to unforseen electromagnetic compatibility problems. This report provides a guide for accommodating the on-board radio systems, so that all model airplane systems may be operated during radiated emission testing. Radiated emission data are provided for on-board systems being operated separately and together, so that potential interferors can be isolated and mitigated. The report concludes with recommendations for EMI/EMC best practices for subscale model airplanes and airships used for research.

  8. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  9. The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1926-01-01

    The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

  10. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  11. A Generic Approach to Analyze the Impact of a Future Aircraft Design on the Boarding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Yildiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The turnaround process constitutes an important part of the air transportation system. Airports often represent bottlenecks in air traffic management (ATM, thus operations related to the preparation of the aircraft for the next flight leg have to be executed smoothly and in a timely manner. The ATM significantly depends on a reliable turnaround process. Future paradigm changes with respect to airplane energy sources, aircraft design or propulsion concepts will also influence the airport layout. As a consequence, operational processes associated with the turnaround will be affected. Airlines aim for efficient and timely turnaround operations that are correlated with higher profits. This case study discusses an approach to investigate a new aircraft design with respect to the implications on the turnaround. The boarding process, as part of the turnaround, serves as an example to evaluate the consequences of new design concepts. This study is part of an interdisciplinary research to investigate future energy, propulsion and designs concepts and their implications on the whole ATM system. Due to these new concepts, several processes of the turnaround will be affected. For example, new energy storage concepts will influence the fueling process on the aircraft itself or might lead to a new infrastructure at the airport. This paper aims to evaluate the applied methodology in the case of a new boarding process, due to a new aircraft design, by means of a generic example. An agent-based boarding simulation is applied to assess passenger behavior during boarding, particularly with regard to cabin layout and seat configuration. The results of the generic boarding simulation are integrated into a simplified, deterministic and generic simulation of the turnaround process. This was done to assess the proposed framework for future investigations which on the one hand address the ATM system holistically and on the other, incorporate additional or adapted

  12. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam KONICZEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  13. 78 FR 52107 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... passengers. The Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes have fly-by-wire controls, fully software... lead acid batteries and nickel cadmium batteries. These special conditions provide an equivalent level... characteristics that differ significantly from those of the nickel cadmium and lead acid rechargeable batteries...

  14. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original

  15. Likely transmission of norovirus on an airplane, October 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirking, Hannah L; Cortes, Jennifer; Burrer, Sherry; Hall, Aron J; Cohen, Nicole J; Lipman, Harvey; Kim, Curi; Daly, Elizabeth R; Fishbein, Daniel B

    2010-05-01

    On 8 October 2008, members of a tour group experienced diarrhea and vomiting throughout an airplane flight from Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles, California, resulting in an emergency diversion 3 h after takeoff. An investigation was conducted to determine the cause of the outbreak, assess whether transmission occurred on the airplane, and describe risk factors for transmission. Passengers and crew were contacted to obtain information about demographics, symptoms, locations on the airplane, and possible risk factors for transmission. Case patients were defined as passengers with vomiting or diarrhea (> or =3 loose stools in 24 h) and were asked to submit stool samples for norovirus testing by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-six (88%) of 41 tour group members were interviewed, and 15 (41%) met the case definition (peak date of illness onset, 8 October 2008). Of 106 passengers who were not tour group members, 85 (80%) were interviewed, and 7 (8%) met the case definition after the flight (peak date of illness onset, 10 October 2008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sitting in an aisle seat (adjusted relative risk, 11.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-84.9) and sitting near any tour group member (adjusted relative risk, 7.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-33.6) were associated with the development of illness. Norovirus genotype II was detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in stool samples from case patients in both groups. Despite the short duration, transmission of norovirus likely occurred during the flight.

  16. Influence of driving style on fuel consumption and Emissions in diesel-powered passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca González, Natalia Elizabeth; Casanova Kindelán, Jesús; Espinosa Zapata, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a study on the influence of driving style on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of diesel passenger car in urban traffic. Driving styles (eco, normal or aggressive) patterns were based on the “eco-driving” criteria. The methodology is based on on-board emission measurements in real urban traffic in the city of Madrid. Five diesel passenger cars, have been tested. Through a statistical analysis, a Dynamic Performance Index was defined for die...

  17. In-flight Meals, Passengers- Level of Satisfaction and Re-flying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zahari; M. S; Salleh; N. K.; Kamaruddin; M. S. Y; Kutut; M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Service quality has become a centerpiece for airline companies in vying with one another and keeps their image in the minds of passengers. Many airlines have pushed service quality through service personalization which includes both ground and on board especially from the viewpoint of retaining satisfied passengers and attracting new ones. Besides those, in-flight meals/food service is another important aspect of the airline operation. The in flight meals/food services now are seen as part of...

  18. Evaluating efficiency of passenger railway stations: a DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Preston, John; Khadem Sameni, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Stations are bottlenecks for railway transportation as they are where traffics merge and diverge. Numerous activities such as passengers boarding, alighting and interchanging, train formation and technical checks are also done at these points. The number of platforms is limited and it is vital to do all the work efficiently. For the first time in the literature, we implement a methodology based on data envelopment analysis which is benchmarked from ports and airport efficiency studies. It can...

  19. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical change...

  20. Traian Vuia – the Romanian inventor who first flew a powered airplane in 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu FILIMON

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As observed the beginning of heavier than air devices started with Wright Brothers who flew in 1903 the first catapulted airplane equipped with an engine, similar to present motor gliders. In March 1906 took place the first flight of Vuia’s monoplane using on board installations. Since then a real competition between manufacturers has started to improve their airplanes as they become more efficient. Traian Vuia’s first flights and his beginnings are explained below.

  1. 77 FR 37797 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 series airplanes; Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter series airplanes; Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes; Airbus Model A340-200 series airplanes; and Airbus Model A340-300 series...

  2. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...-0416; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-144-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A318-111 and -112 airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower...

  3. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318 series airplanes, Model A319 series airplanes, Model A320 series airplanes, and Model A321 series airplanes. AD 2010- 24-07 required repetitive inspections of the 80VU rack lower...

  4. 78 FR 70207 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4- 600R series airplanes; and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model A300-600 series airplanes). This AD was...

  5. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  6. Spatial-Temporal Similarity Correlation between Public Transit Passengers Using Smart Card Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Faroqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of public transit smart card data has enabled several studies to focus on identifying passengers with similar spatial and/or temporal trip characteristics. However, this paper goes one step further by investigating the relationship between passengers’ spatial and temporal characteristics. For the first time, this paper investigates the correlation of the spatial similarity with the temporal similarity between public transit passengers by developing spatial similarity and temporal similarity measures for the public transit network with a novel passenger-based perspective. The perspective considers the passengers as agents who can make multiple trips in the network. The spatial similarity measure takes into account direction as well as the distance between the trips of the passengers. The temporal similarity measure considers both the boarding and alighting time in a continuous linear space. The spatial-temporal similarity correlation between passengers is analysed using histograms, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hexagonal binning. Also, relations between the spatial and temporal similarity values with the trip time and length are examined. The proposed methodology is implemented for four-day smart card data including 80,000 passengers in Brisbane, Australia. The results show a nonlinear spatial-temporal similarity correlation among the passengers.

  7. Flatulence on airplanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases...

  8. "Good Passengers and Not Good Passengers:" Adolescent Drivers' Perceptions About Inattention and Peer Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the theory of planned behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤1year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (SD 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7days (SD 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) "Good and not good" passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. An understanding of teens' perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 78 FR 78694 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes, and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. AD... certain check valves in the [[Page 78695

  10. 78 FR 72834 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... airworthiness directive (AD) for SOCATA Model TBM 700 airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... review this referenced service information at the FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Kansas...

  11. A simulation study regarding different aircraft boarding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Sílvia; Juan Pérez, Angel Alejandro; Arias, Pol; Fonseca Casas, Pau

    2013-01-01

    The airline industry is constantly subject to the search of new methods in order to increase efficiency, profitability, and customer satisfaction. Since airlines only generate revenue when their airplanes are on the air, the time they spend at the airports should be the shortest possible. Hence, the airplane turnaround time becomes a process which airlines pay special attention on. The boarding process has a very important role, since it is one of the significant elements of...

  12. 14 CFR 121.589 - Carry-on baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (c) and (d). (c) No certificate holder may allow an airplane to take off or land unless each article... holder may allow the boarding of carry-on baggage on an airplane unless each passenger's baggage has been... program in its operations specifications. In addition, no passenger may board an airplane if his/her carry...

  13. Airplane dopes and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  14. Dynamic Passenger Assignment during Disruptions in Railway Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passenger-oriented rescheduling problems receive increasing attention. However, the passenger assignment models used for evaluating the rescheduling solutions are usually simplified by many assumptions. To estimate passenger inconvenience more accurately, this paper establishes a dynamic passenger

  15. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  16. Fast Aircraft Turnaround Enabled by Reliable Passenger Boarding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Schultz

    2018-01-01

    Future 4D aircraft trajectories demand comprehensive consideration of environmental, economic, and operational constraints, as well as reliable prediction of all aircraft-related processes. Mutual interdependencies between airports result in system-wide, far-reaching effects in the air traffic network (reactionary delays). To comply with airline/airport challenges over the day of operations, a change to an air-to-air perspective is necessary, with a specific focus on the aircraft ground opera...

  17. 78 FR 71992 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... certain Airbus Model A318-100 and A319-100 series airplanes, A320-111 airplanes, A320-200 series airplanes... identified in this AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EIAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  18. 78 FR 9787 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called Model A300- 600 series airplanes); and Airbus [[Page 9788

  19. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...-200, A340- 300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. AD 2009-04-07 required revising the airplane... reference unit (ADIRU) from providing erroneous data to other airplane systems. AD 2011-02-09 required...

  20. 78 FR 28159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ...-0418; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-200-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes...

  1. 77 FR 6023 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...-0038; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-209-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes and Model A310-203, -204, - 221, and -222 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of... explosion and consequent loss of the airplane. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD by March...

  2. 78 FR 27015 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 and A330-300 series airplanes, and Model A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes... seal on a solenoid. This AD requires, depending on airplane configuration, modifying three flight...

  3. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  4. 78 FR 65187 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted..., and possibly resulting in loss of control of the airplane. DATES: This AD becomes effective December 5...

  5. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  6. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from noncontiguous... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties...

  7. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  8. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  9. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... ferries was analysed retrospectively. Results: Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember patients were analysed. Passenger patients were generally older and more serious ill than...

  10. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 48473 - Airworthiness Directives; Fokker Services B.V. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... the corrective actions in accordance with the approved maintenance documentation. If no compliance... the instructions for continued airworthiness for certain airplanes, and the FAA-approved maintenance... Services B.V. issuing a Fokker 70/100 maintenance review board (MRB) document with revised limitations...

  12. [Injuries sustained by bus passengers in the municipality of Odense 1996-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, T; Faergemann, C; Larsen, L B

    2001-10-22

    Owing to several recent bus-related accidents in Denmark, we wished to investigate injuries sustained by passengers. From our ongoing registration of patients treated in the casualty department at Odense University Hospital, we identified all residents of Odense Municipality who had sustained injuries as bus passengers from 1996 to 1999. Market analysis and demographic information were used to calculate the incidence and risk. Over this four-year period, 327 consecutive injuries had been sustained by 246 bus passengers, 72 men and 174 women, mean ages 44 and 53 years. The incidence rate was 3.3 injured per 10,000 inhabitants per year, with no increasing tendency during the study period. The risk was 2.2 injured per 1,000,000 bus passengers per year, highest in women and increasing with age. Injuries most frequently occurred when the bus stopped (31%), as passengers were boarding or alighting (23%), or during collision with another vehicle (20%). Most commonly injured areas were the lower (30%) and upper (28%) extremities and the head or neck (27%). Contusions and sprains were the most common injuries (59%). The most common fractures were those of the humerus and hip region. Bus passenger injuries are not a growing problem. The incidence increases with age.

  13. Board game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A board game comprises a board, a number of counters and two dice. The board is marked to provide a central area, representing the nucleus of an atom, and six or more annular rings extending concentrically around the central area, the rings being divided into 2,8,18,32,48 and 72 squares. Each ring represents an electron shell, and some of the squares are numbered, the number representing the atomic number of different elements. (author)

  14. Mars Gashopper Airplane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2...

  15. Differential equations in airplane mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleman, M T

    1922-01-01

    In the following report, we will first draw some conclusions of purely theoretical interest, from the general equations of motion. At the end, we will consider the motion of an airplane, with the engine dead and with the assumption that the angle of attack remains constant. Thus we arrive at a simple result, which can be rendered practically utilizable for determining the trajectory of an airplane descending at a constant steering angle.

  16. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  17. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships...... Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2). The distribution of symptoms, accidents and diseases, treatments/actions taken, evacuations and the communication forms were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand ninety-five contacts for seafarers from merchant ships and 651 passenger patients from Swedish ferries were...

  18. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  19. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  20. 77 FR 24137 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... Register. That AD applies to all Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, Model... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4- 600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes...

  1. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  2. 78 FR 78285 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-1064; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-101-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A300 B4-605R and B4-622R airplanes; Model A300 F4-605R airplanes; and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes. AD 2005-23-08 required repetitive inspections to detect cracks of certain attachment holes...

  3. Comparative Study of Aircraft Boarding Strategies Using Cellular Discrete Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafagh Jafer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Time is crucial in the airlines industry. Among all factors contributing to an aircraft turnaround time; passenger boarding delays is the most challenging one. Airlines do not have control over the behavior of passengers; thus, focusing their effort on reducing passenger boarding time through implementing efficient boarding strategies. In this work, we attempt to use cellular Discrete-Event System Specification (Cell-DEVS modeling and simulation to provide a comprehensive evaluation of aircraft boarding strategies. We have developed a simulation benchmark consisting of eight boarding strategies including Back-to-Front; Window Middle Aisle; Random; Zone Rotate; Reverse Pyramid; Optimal; Optimal Practical; and Efficient. Our simulation models are scalable and adaptive; providing a powerful analysis apparatus for investigating any existing or yet to be discovered boarding strategy. We explain the details of our models and present the results both visually and numerically to evaluate the eight implemented boarding strategies. We also compare our results with other studies that have used different modeling techniques; reporting nearly identical performance results. The simulations revealed that Window Middle Aisle provides the least boarding delay; with a small fraction of time difference compared to the optimal strategy. The results of this work could highly benefit the commercial airlines industry by optimizing and reducing passenger boarding delays.

  4. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  5. 76 FR 61555 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... pieces unit welded, instead of 4 pieces unit with 3 welds (old design) as pictured in Appendix 1 of this... pre-modification 02447. Blue and Green. A300 airplanes post-modification 02447 Blue. A300-600 airplanes Blue. A310 airplanes Green. Table 2--Applicable Service Information Airbus Mandatory Service...

  6. 78 FR 53640 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter series airplanes; Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes, and Model... of the forward or aft cargo door. To address this condition, Airbus issued four separate Alert...

  7. 78 FR 41280 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A319-112, -113, and -132 airplanes; Model A320-211, -212, -214, -231, and -232 airplanes... A319 aeroplane on which Airbus modification (mod.) 22058 had been embodied in production. Airbus mod...

  8. 78 FR 70003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model...

  9. 77 FR 64701 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; Model A310 series airplanes; and Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4... that the AD be effective after Airbus completes certifying the improved design for the fuel pump half...

  10. 78 FR 47537 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes, and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. AD... by application of Airbus modification 49590/Service Bulletin (SB) A330-27-3085 [or SB A340-27-4089...

  11. 77 FR 76228 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted... operational test. This [EASA] AD also requires reporting operational test results to Airbus. You may obtain...

  12. 78 FR 52414 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214, -232 and -233 airplanes; and Model A321-211, - 213, and -231 airplanes. This AD... Service Information Airbus requested that we revise the NPRM (77 FR 63270, October 16, 2012) to reflect...

  13. 77 FR 16430 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F airplanes.../N A5231007000600. This [EASA] AD has been corrected to make clear that the use of Airbus SB A310...

  14. 77 FR 42952 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112 and -121 airplanes; Model A319-111, -112, -115, - 132, and -133 airplanes; Model... MCAI states: During structural part assembly in Airbus production line, some nuts Part Number (P/N...

  15. 77 FR 65799 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 freighter series airplanes, Model A330-200 and - 300 series airplanes, and Model... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-21-20 Airbus: Amendment 39...

  16. 78 FR 69594 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...-0972; Directorate Identifier 2002-NM-009-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330 series airplanes. The NPRM would have required... rulemaking (NPRM) for a new AD for all Airbus Model A330 series airplanes. The NPRM, FAA Docket No. FAA-2013...

  17. 78 FR 78294 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-1031; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-155-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Freighter, and A330-300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200, A340-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the failure of the generator control unit-constant speed motor...

  18. 78 FR 65173 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that... Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on the availability of this...

  19. 78 FR 40069 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...-0539; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-145-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600 and Model A300 B4-600R series airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive inspections to... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on...

  20. 78 FR 40074 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...-0465; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-085-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a determination that oxygen generators installed on a... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on...

  1. 78 FR 40057 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...-0467; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-023-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of certain sliding windows that were... from safely evacuating the airplane during an emergency. DATES: We must receive comments on this...

  2. 78 FR 8054 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...-1321; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-147-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A310 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires repetitive inspections for fatigue cracking... information at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on...

  3. 78 FR 7261 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A310-203 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of an analysis that demonstrated a...-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057-3356; telephone (425...

  4. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in § 121...

  5. 78 FR 49915 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of..., for certain Airbus Model A310 series airplanes. AD 2004-15-07 required repetitive inspections for..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057-3356...

  6. 78 FR 46543 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...-0665; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-082-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-300 series airplanes and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of corrosion...

  7. 78 FR 46536 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...-0668; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-017-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600R series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracks found in the bottom wing... at the FAA, Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA. For information on the...

  8. 78 FR 31386 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) for all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes; and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes. That AD currently requires a one-time detailed inspection of both main landing gear...

  9. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  10. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior...... to the autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury severity...

  11. Prospects of introduction of innovative technology overhead passenger traffic on the basis of the passenger ropeways for the modernization of the public transport system of the Bryansk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the current situation in the field of public transport in the Bryansk city was shown the main problems in the implementation of innovative technology for the aerial passenger transport on the basis of suspended passenger ropeways (Cable metro. Shows the advantages of the cable metro-based mechatronic technology transportation compared to the traditional suspended passenger ropeways. Was made the technical and economic feasibility analysis of the construction of the cable metro in conditions of a highly urbanized urban environment of large cities, metropolises and urban agglomerations. Presented the statistical data on the development of vehicles in the Bryansk city in the period 2004-2016 years and based on the analysis of these data shows the feasibility of the development of aerial passenger transport as the most high-speed and environmentally friendly mode of transport compared with automobile and electric transport. Considered the possible sources of financing of design and construction works and shows the commercial attractiveness of the project to potential investors in the framework of public-private partnerships. For existing urban development and major transport flows of the Bryansk city was formulated proposals for the location of future transport cable metro lines, order their gaskets, the formation routes of movement of the rolling stock. Made the estimation of labor and financial costs for the implementation of the project of modernization of the public transport system of the city of Bryansk on the basis of the suspended passenger ropeways. The proposed option has the following characteristics: the number of transport lines - 6, total length - 54.8 km, total number of passenger boarding stations - 26, hub passenger stations – 6, the total number of intermediate supports – 100...110 pieces with a span between supports of 400...600 m. the cost of construction of transport lines and the purchase of necessary

  12. A Software Defined Radio Based Airplane Communication Navigation Simulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L.; Zhong, H. T.; Song, D.

    2018-01-01

    Radio communication and navigation system plays important role in ensuring the safety of civil airplane in flight. Function and performance should be tested before these systems are installed on-board. Conventionally, a set of transmitter and receiver are needed for each system, thus all the equipment occupy a lot of space and are high cost. In this paper, software defined radio technology is applied to design a common hardware communication and navigation ground simulation system, which can host multiple airplane systems with different operating frequency, such as HF, VHF, VOR, ILS, ADF, etc. We use a broadband analog frontend hardware platform, universal software radio peripheral (USRP), to transmit/receive signal of different frequency band. Software is compiled by LabVIEW on computer, which interfaces with USRP through Ethernet, and is responsible for communication and navigation signal processing and system control. An integrated testing system is established to perform functional test and performance verification of the simulation signal, which demonstrate the feasibility of our design. The system is a low-cost and common hardware platform for multiple airplane systems, which provide helpful reference for integrated avionics design.

  13. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  14. Building concepts against airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, F.O.; Woelfel, H.

    1984-01-01

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  15. Air resistance measurements on actual airplane parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiselsberger, C

    1923-01-01

    For the calculation of the parasite resistance of an airplane, a knowledge of the resistance of the individual structural and accessory parts is necessary. The most reliable basis for this is given by tests with actual airplane parts at airspeeds which occur in practice. The data given here relate to the landing gear of a Siemanms-Schuckert DI airplane; the landing gear of a 'Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft' airplane (type Roland Dlla); landing gear of a 'Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen' G airplane; a machine gun, and the exhaust manifold of a 269 HP engine.

  16. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  17. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  18. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  19. The Application of Online Check-in in the Process of Passenger Handling in Air Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Adamčík

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Passenger handling is one of the most important activities any passenger is obliged to carry out prior to boarding the plane to depart. For the handling process to be safeguarded, it is inevitable to perform the services involved in it fast and efficiently so as to prevent idle times or delays during the procedures potentially resulting in delay of flight. By gradual development of the so-called web-based information technologies, some of the activities involved in the handling process can be delegated to the passengers themselves, thereby achieving a faster course of the passenger handling process. In this contribution the authors are dealing with the status quo of the on-line web-based check-in process in air transportation forecasting the expected course of events in these services in the future. Next, based on analyzing functions and characteristics of similar solutions available in the market, the authors are putting forward their new proposal of their own design of a self-service, on-line system of passenger handling with the aim to simplify and expedite the entire handling process. It is the aim of the authors to develop a competitive design in terms of costs as well as new function and services not offered by the hitherto existing with emphasis on improving efficiency of passenger handling at the airports. The resulting solution thanks to internet based technologies is platform independent and fully applicable to the process of airport passenger handling. To an equal extent, the solutions are being applied by the authors to the educational process, as a training tool for the preparation of the aviation personnel and also as part of simulation models for research in the field of airport processes optimization.

  20. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given.

  1. Provisional standards of radiation safety of flight personnel and passengers in air transport of the civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provisional standards for radiation affecting passenger aircraft are considered. Agencies responsible for seeing that the regulations are enforced are designated while radiation sources and types of radiation are defined. Standard levels of permissible radiation are given and conditions for radiation safety are discussed. Dosimetric equipment on board aircraft is delineated and regulation effective dates are given

  2. DESIGN ASPECTS IN AIRPLANE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENUŞ Marilena

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes to present a few important aspects from aerodynamics and aerospace technology. It also, presents important points regarding the improvement of airplanes as a result of research in shape modelling, materials, aerodynamics and 3d design. Several examples based on constructive structures are offered. The embodiment design of a traditional airplane is presented in order to offer directions of conceptual development for improving its performance parameters and shapes. The virtual scale models are created by computer in Catia V5, in order to provide the validation of the features and the performance of aerodynamic configuration in the wind tunnel.

  3. Airplane stroke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2016-07-01

    Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, p<0.001), had similar stroke severity, and received intravenous thrombolysis more often than non-flight-related stroke patients. Seven patients had flight-related intracerebral haemorrhage. The aetiology of the ischaemic strokes was cardioembolic in 14/35 (40%), including seven patients with confirmed PFO, one with atrial septal defect, four with atrial fibrillation, one with endocarditis, and one with aortic arch atheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. “Good passengers and not good passengers:” Adolescent drivers’ perceptions about inattention and peer passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. Design & Methods We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. Results The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (sd 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7 days (sd 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) “Good and not good” passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. Conclusions While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. Practical Implications An understanding of teens’ perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. PMID:27496828

  5. Paper Airplanes: A Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    A learning experience is described for upper elementary or junior high students involving the manufacture, transportation, and marketing of a product for consumers. Steps are given and roles are assigned for students to convert raw material (paper) to a finished product (paper airplanes) and to sell it. (AV)

  6. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  7. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  8. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  9. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  10. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  11. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  12. Headache during airplane travel ("airplane headache"): first case in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararizou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Evangelos; Paraskevas, George P; Vassilopoulou, Sofia D; Naoumis, Dimitrios; Kararizos, Grigoris; Spengos, Konstantinos

    2011-08-01

    Headache related to airplane flights is rare. We describe a 37-year-old female patient with multiple intense, jabbing headache episodes over the last 3 years that occur exclusively during airplane flights. The pain manifests during take-off and landing, and is located always in the left retro-orbital and frontotemporal area. It is occasionally accompanied by dizziness, but no additional symptoms occur. Pain intensity diminishes and disappears after 15-20 min. Apart from occasional dizziness, no other symptoms occur. The patient has a history of tension-type headache and polycystic ovaries. Blood tests and imaging revealed no abnormalities. Here, we present the first case in Greece. We review the current literature on this rare syndrome and discuss on possible pathophysiology and the investigation of possible co-factors such as anxiety and depression.

  13. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in the...

  14. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...

  15. Intercity Passenger Parametric Analysis: Overview: Maglev Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    This document provides information intended to clarify consideration of some of the technically-based questions which arise in connection with intercity passenger transportation, and to provide insight into the characteristics and potential roles o...

  16. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  17. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  18. Effect of human movement on airborne disease transmission in an airplane cabin: study using numerical modeling and quantitative risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhuyang; To, Gin Nam Sze; Fu, Sau Chung; Chao, Christopher Yu-Hang; Weng, Wenguo; Huang, Quanyi

    2014-08-06

    Airborne transmission of respiratory infectious disease in indoor environment (e.g. airplane cabin, conference room, hospital, isolated room and inpatient ward) may cause outbreaks of infectious diseases, which may lead to many infection cases and significantly influences on the public health. This issue has received more and more attentions from academics. This work investigates the influence of human movement on the airborne transmission of respiratory infectious diseases in an airplane cabin by using an accurate human model in numerical simulation and comparing the influences of different human movement behaviors on disease transmission. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is adopted to simulate the dispersion and deposition of the expiratory aerosols. The dose-response model is used to assess the infection risks of the occupants. The likelihood analysis is performed as a hypothesis test on the input parameters and different human movement pattern assumptions. An in-flight SARS outbreak case is used for investigation. A moving person with different moving speeds is simulated to represent the movement behaviors. A digital human model was used to represent the detailed profile of the occupants, which was obtained by scanning a real thermal manikin using the 3D laser scanning system. The analysis results indicate that human movement can strengthen the downward transport of the aerosols, significantly reduce the overall deposition and removal rate of the suspended aerosols and increase the average infection risk in the cabin. The likelihood estimation result shows that the risk assessment results better fit the outcome of the outbreak case when the movements of the seated passengers are considered. The intake fraction of the moving person is significantly higher than most of the seated passengers. The infection risk distribution in the airplane cabin highly depends on the movement behaviors of the passengers and the index patient. The walking activities of the crew

  19. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  20. Spoilers for roll control of light airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Kohlman, D. L.; Wentz, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art of roll control spoilers for light airplanes. Reasons for using spoilers on light airplanes are presented. Several classical objections to the use of spoilers of such airplanes are critically examined. It is shown that mechanically driven spoiler systems can be designed. Flight test results of a new mechanically driven spoiler on the Redhawk airplane are discussed. Tunnel data of spoilers on the new general aviation airfoil GA(W)-1 are presented. Finally, a bibliography on spoiler data is included.

  1. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  2. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  3. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  4. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-01-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  5. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 135 - Additional Airworthiness Standards for 10 or More Passenger Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... powered airplanes— (a) There must be means to prevent hazardous quantities of fuel leakage or overflow...) There must be a means that ensures prompt detection of fire in the engine compartment. An... loads to which it may be subjected in operation. (c) No fire detector may be affected by any oil, water...

  7. 78 FR 66861 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ...-0834; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... 2004-11-08, AD 2004-13-25, AD 2004-18-14, AD 2008-06-07, and AD 2012-04-07 that apply to certain Airbus... Airbus Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series airplanes from the applicability. We are proposing...

  8. 78 FR 51058 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... certain Airbus Model A319 and A320 series airplanes. AD 2004-13-06 required repetitive detailed... and to allow extension of the interval between two consecutive inspections, Airbus validated an Eddy...

  9. 78 FR 60798 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...-0363; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-031-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200, -300 and -200 Freighter series airplanes, and Model A340-200... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  10. 77 FR 57003 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of a torn out.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-18-12 Airbus: Amendment 39-17189...

  11. 78 FR 9581 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F...-03-11 Airbus: Amendment 39-17346. Docket No. FAA-2012-1002; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-052-AD. (a...

  12. 77 FR 51717 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... applies to certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4- 203 airplanes; and Model A300 B4-601, B4-603... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point...

  13. 78 FR 54377 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that certain... accordance with the Accomplishment Instructions of Airbus Service Bulletin A320-27- 1214, including Appendix...

  14. 78 FR 68352 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-223F, -223, -321, -322, and -323 airplanes. This AD was prompted by fatigue load... this AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac...

  15. 78 FR 64162 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination that...., Washington, DC. For service information identified in this AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EIAS, 1...

  16. 78 FR 79292 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) 2011-24-09 which applied to certain Airbus Model A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes. AD... AD, contact Airbus SAS-- Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac...

  17. 77 FR 65808 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A320-214 and -232 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports that medium-head fasteners were... installation of upper panels on Frame 35 in Airbus A320 final assembly line. Investigations revealed that...

  18. 77 FR 40485 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 series airplanes; all Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series... new AD: 2012-13-06 Airbus: Amendment 39-17108. Docket No. FAA-2012-0040; Directorate Identifier 2011...

  19. 78 FR 71996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111, A319-112, A319-115, A319-132, and A319-133 airplanes. This AD was... developing this AD. We have considered the comments received. Request To Refer to Revised EASA AD Airbus...

  20. 78 FR 64156 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A340-211 -212, -213, -311, -312, -313, -541, and -642 airplanes. This AD... information identified in this AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice...

  1. 78 FR 21227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200, A330-200 Freighter, A330-300, A340-200, and A340-300 series airplanes; and Model... that, due to similar design, the enhanced MLG bogie pivot pin (Airbus modification 54500) could also be...

  2. 77 FR 7523 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires modifying the fire.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A340-26-5020, including Appendix...

  3. 78 FR 14647 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... (AD) for certain Airbus Model A310-204, -222, -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This AD was prompted by... the Airbus A310 Airworthiness Limitation Section (ALS) Part 1 and bolts must be replaced at or before...

  4. 78 FR 60667 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. AD 2012- 26-51 required revising the...''), to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: Recently, an Airbus A330...

  5. 77 FR 19067 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A321-131, -211, -212, and -231 airplanes. This AD requires a.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A320-57-1120, Revision 01...

  6. 77 FR 19065 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires a detailed inspection for.... Relevant Service Information Airbus has issued All Operators Telex A340-25A5191, dated January 18, 2011...

  7. 78 FR 21230 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by fuel system reviews conducted..., Airbus developed a modification which includes installing Ground Fault Interrupters (GFI) into the centre...

  8. 78 FR 19085 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of oil residue... (MCAI) states: During Airbus Final Assembly Line flight tests, AoA [angle of attack] data from two...

  9. 78 FR 17071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, -300, and -200 Freighter series airplanes; and all Airbus Model A340-200 and -300 series...

  10. 77 FR 75825 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report of a prematurely... [Amended] 0 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-25-12 Airbus: Amendment 39...

  11. 77 FR 19059 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... all Airbus Model A340-500 and Model -600 series airplanes. This AD requires performing repetitive high... Airbus has issued Mandatory Service Bulletin A340-57-5029, including Appendices 01 and 02, dated February...

  12. 78 FR 37437 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series airplanes. That AD currently requires one-time and... affected by AOT A320-55-1039 and Airbus SB A320-55-1035, A320-55- 1036 and A320-55-1037 which were not...

  13. 78 FR 15874 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F... ground threat avoidance, an Airbus A310 aeroplane experienced an uncommanded slide back of the co-pilot...

  14. 78 FR 52405 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-300, A340-200, and A340-300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by a determination... Airbus: Amendment 39-17549. Docket No. FAA-2013-0335; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-187-AD. [[Page 52407...

  15. 77 FR 19071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This AD...: During structural part assembly in Airbus production line, some nuts Part Number (P/N) ASNA2531-4 were...

  16. 77 FR 65812 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... airplanes; and Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of ram air turbine... before delivery from production, an A330 aeroplane experienced a RAT [ram air turbine] pump failure, as a result of which, the green hydraulic system could not be fully pressurized. Investigations concluded that...

  17. 76 FR 50706 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; e-mail: albert.mercado@faa... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  18. 76 FR 50405 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ...) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; e-mail: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of... information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301...

  19. 76 FR 67341 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4119; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa...: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City...

  20. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25 Airplane...

  1. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  2. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual...

  3. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  4. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  5. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  6. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  7. Predicting Passenger Survival Rates on the Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Chanda

    2017-01-01

    The sinking of the RMS Titanic is one of the most infamous shipwrecks in history. On April 15, 1912, during her maiden voyage, the Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, killing 1502 out of 2224 passengers and crew. This sensational tragedy shocked the international community and led to better safety regulations for ships. One of the reasons that the shipwreck led to such loss of life was that there were not enough lifeboats for the passengers and crew. Although there was some el...

  8. Mortality of German travellers on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Herzog, Jan; Püschel, Klaus; Harth, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, more and more Germans decided to spend their holidays on a passenger vessel. This study examined the frequencies and causes of deaths of German travellers aboard passenger vessels of all flags. The shipboard deaths of all German travellers within the time period from 1998 to 2008 were counted using the German civil central register in Berlin. The available documentation in this register provides information on frequencies, circumstances and causes of deaths on ships. In the above-mentioned period of time, the total cohort of German travellers on cruise ships is estimated to be 5.97 million persons. During the 11-year examination period, 135 shipboard deaths of German passengers [102 males (75.6%) and 33 females (24.4%)] were recorded. Out of these travellers, 110 died on cruise ships. When considering only the passengers on cruise ships (without those on ferries) an average crude mortality rate of 1.8 per 100,000 German passengers was calculated. The crude mortality rate of shipboard death for males and females was 2.5 and 0.8 per 100,000 German passengers with a mean age of 71.2 years [standard deviation (SD) 16.0 years] and 73.3 years (SD 16.0 years), respectively. Significantly, more deceased travellers older than 70 years were observed on traditional cruise ships and resort vessels than on passenger ferries (P = 0.001). The causes of death were documented in 85 cases (63.0%). Out of these documented deaths, 82 (96.5%) cases were regarded to be natural causes (particularly circulatory diseases) and 3 (3.5%) as unnatural causes (twice drowning and once an accidental fall). In spite of the large proportion of unknown causes of death, this study argues for a high significance of internal causes of deaths among German passengers. Thus, ship's doctors-particularly those on traditional cruise ships-should be well experienced in internal and geriatric medicines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  9. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  11. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  12. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  13. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  14. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  15. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  16. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  17. Rescheduling of Railway Rolling Stock with Dynamic Passenger Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Maróti (Gábor); L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTraditional rolling stock rescheduling applications either treat passengers as static objects whose influence on the system is unchanged in a disrupted situation, or they treat passenger behavior as a given input. In case of disruptions however, we may expect the flow of passengers to

  18. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  19. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    /or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...

  20. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5...

  1. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  2. Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-airplane lasercom experiment: Airplane considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Ford

    1990-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of various airplanes for a Shuttle Laser Technology Experiment Facility (LTEF)-to-Airplane laser communications experiment. As supporting documentation, pertinent technical details are included about the potential use of airplanes located at Ames Research Center and Wallops Flight Facility. The effects and application of orbital mechanics considerations are also presented, including slant range, azimuth, elevation, and time. The pros and cons of an airplane equipped with a side port with a bubble window versus a top port with a dome are discussed.

  3. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  4. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  5. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  6. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  7. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R.M. Lentink (Ramon); M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms

  8. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the point where the two engines are...-inoperative, en route, net flight path data in the Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the... Airplane Flight Manual, allows the airplane to fly from the point where the two engines are assumed to fail...

  9. Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers during some Czechoslovak airlines commercial flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Votockova, I.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers on boards of Czechoslovak Airlines (CSA) subsonic aircraft was studied. It was found that the exposure levels depends on flights altitude, changes also with geographical position (latitude and longitude). Measurements were performed during 1991 to 1993 years; i.e. at the period of sun maximum and immediately after it. Total dose equivalent rates did not exceed 10 μSv per hour of flight. An increasing of its level with decreasing sun activity has been already registered. (orig.)

  10. 77 FR 26937 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C, B2-203, B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 airplanes; and Model... Airbus Service Bulletins (SB) A300-57-0235 and A300-57-6088 * * *. Subsequently, new cases of cracks were...

  11. 77 FR 75833 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103, and B4-203 airplanes; and Model A300 B4-601, B4-603, B4... accordance with Airbus SB A300-57-6053 (Mod. 10453). Therefore and pending completion of the full analysis...

  12. [A rarely known headache: Airplane travel headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Filiz; Erkılınç, Büşra; Çabalar, Murat; Çağırıcı, Sultan; Yayla, Vildan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, headache associated with airplane travel has gained importance with case reports and took its place in the classification of headache in 2013. This rare condition has different spesific characteristic from the primary headaches and its pathophysiology is not clear yet. In this case report, a 27-years-old female patient was diagnosed with the headache associated with airplane travel by history, examination and imaging findings. The possible pathophysiology and treatment were discussed.

  13. Factors of airplane engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  14. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of terminal-area airplane fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Accurate modeling of airplane fuel consumption is necessary for air transportation policy-makers to properly : adjudicate trades between competing environmental and economic demands. Existing public models used for : computing terminal-area airplane ...

  16. 75 FR 59658 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301... found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...

  17. 77 FR 56991 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901....mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a supplemental notice of proposed.... Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901...

  18. High prevalence of Legionella in non-passenger merchant vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, D; Mentasti, M; Shaw, A; Johnson, A; Crossley, L; Willis, C

    2017-03-01

    There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c.f.u./100 ml) of faecal indicator bacteria. Eight hundred and three samples from 360 NPMVs were cultured specifically for Legionella and 58% of vessels proved positive for these organisms with 27% of samples showing levels greater than the UK upper action limit of 1 × 103 c.f.u./l. Cabin showers (49%) and hospital shower (45%) were frequently positive. A subset of 106 samples was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Legionella and identified a further 11 Legionella-positive NPMVs, returning a negative predictive value of 100%. There was no correlation between NPMV age or size and any microbial parameters (P > 0·05). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 46% of NPMVs and sequence-based typing of 17 isolates revealed four sequence types (STs) previously associated with human disease. These data raise significant concerns regarding the management of microbial and Legionella risks on board NPMVs and suggest that better guidance and compliance are required to improve control.

  19. Driverless operation for public passenger transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Verkehrstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The author presents the automation of new and existing lines as a possible solution to the twin problems of the growing need for public transport and the threat of collapse facing many public transport systems in the big conurbations as they wrestle against overloading. It emerges that automatic, driverless operation is a suitable approach to making systems more flexible and more attractive. Automation can increase the capacities of existing systems significantly and thus help them gain more passengers. (orig.)

  20. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Department of Transportation is clarifying its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010, which, among other issues, solicits comments on options to provide greater access to air travel for persons with peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers have accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions when selecting flights.

  1. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...This action extends the comment period for an NPRM on enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 9, 2010, to September 23, 2010. This extension is a result of requests from a number of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period for the proposal.

  2. Perturbed Motion of Airplane and Safe Store Separation

    OpenAIRE

    S. C. Raisinghani; S. Rao

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented to predict the perturbed motion of an airplane following stores jettisoning. The mass, moment of inertia, forces, and moments acting on the airplane are suitable split into contributions from the stores and the rest of the airplane parts. The seperation of stores is assumed to result in a step change of mass, moment of intertai, forces, and moments contributed by stores. The resulting set of perturbed state equations of motion are solved for two illustrative airplane str...

  3. Headache attributed to airplane travel: diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Sebastian Bao Dinh; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-08-16

    Headache attributed to airplane travel, also named "airplane headache" (AH) is a headache that occurs during take-off and landing. Today, there are still uncertainties about the pathophysiology and treatment of AH. This systematic review was performed to facilitate identification of the existing literature on AH in order to discuss the current evidence and areas that remain to be investigated in AH. The systematic literature search was performed in 3 relevant medical databases; PubMed, Scopus, and Embase. The search yielded 220 papers and the papers were sorted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria established for this study. This systematic review included 39 papers. Main findings revealed that AH attacks are clinically stereotyped and appear mostly during landing phases. The headache presents as a severe painful headache that often disappears within 30 min. The pain is unilateral and localized in the fronto-orbital region. Sinus barotrauma has been considered as the main cause of AH. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans have been taken by passengers with AH, to relieve the headache. Based on this systematic review, further studies seem required to investigate underlying mechanisms in AH and also to investigate the biological effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans for alleviating of AH. These studies would advance our understanding of AH pathogenesis and potential use of treatments that are not yet established.

  4. Medical emergencies on large passenger ships without doctors: the Oslo-Kiel-Oslo ferry experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thor-Erik; Tveten, Agnar; Dahl, Eilif

    2017-01-01

    The Oslo-Kiel-Oslo route is currently the only direct ferry crossing between Norway and Germany, covered by 2 cruise-and-cars ferries carrying about 2,600 passengers each and sailing every day (20 h at sea, 4 h in port). Unlike most ocean going cruise vessels, they are not required to carry a physician but an on-board paramedic handles medical emergencies. The aim of the study was to provide data on medical emergencies leading to helicopter evacuations (helivacs) or other urgent transfers to facilities ashore from the two ferries during a 3-year period. Data about the ferries, passengers, crew, helivacs and other medical transfers were collected from official company statistics and the paramedics' transfer reports. A total of 169 persons, including 14 (8.3%) crewmembers, were transferred from the ferries to land-based facilities by ambulance while alongside (n = 80; 47.3%) or evacuated by helicopter (n = 85; 50.3%) and rescue boat (n = 4; 2.4%) during the 3-year period. Transfer destinations were Denmark (n = 53), Germany (n = 49), Norway (n = 48) and Sweden (n = 19). The passenger helivac rate was 2.4 per 100,000 passenger-days. One person was airlifted from a ferry every 2 weeks. Among helivacs, 40% were heart-related, and more cardiac cases were airlifted than transferred by ambulance in port. All helivac requests were made after discussion between the ferry's paramedic and telemedical doctors ashore and agreement that the medical challenge exceeded the ferry's capability. This close cooperation kept the threshold for arranging helivacs from the ferries low, enabling short transport times to land-based facilities for critically ill patients. Further studies, including feedback from the receiving hospitals, are needed to determine measures that can reduce possible helicopter overutilisation without compromising patient safety and outcome.

  5. 76 FR 77157 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... airplane. A separated T/R piece could result in a rejected takeoff (RTO) and cause asymmetric thrust and... cause structural damage to the airplane, damage to other airplanes, or injury to people on the ground... be available in the AD docket shortly after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rebel Nichols...

  6. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane for eight hours or less during any 24... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes...

  7. 78 FR 70851 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... (EICAS) message that displays ``ENG THRUST (L,R)'' (for Model 787-8 airplanes) or ``ENG (1, 2, 3, or 4... The Boeing Company Model 747-8 and 747-8F series airplanes and Model 787-8 airplanes powered by GEnx...: 202-493-2251. Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground...

  8. 76 FR 70042 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Pacific Aerospace Limited Model FU24 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing... Schletzbaum, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  9. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains a...

  10. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent placards...

  11. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical miles...

  12. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  13. Nonlinear analysis of a reactor building for airplane impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, T.; Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose is to analyze the influence of material nonlinear behavior on the response of a reinforced concrete reactor building and on equipment response for airplane impact loadings. Two analyses are performed: first, the impact of a slow-flying commercial airplane (Boeing 707), then the impact of a fast flying military airplane (Phantom). (orig./HP)

  14. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type of...

  15. 77 FR 57529 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, or -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-800 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at chem- mill...

  16. 77 FR 57539 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, or -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-900 and -900ER series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at...

  17. 77 FR 57541 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... 737-600, -700, -700C, -800, -900, or -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-600 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at chem- mill...

  18. 77 FR 57536 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... -900ER series airplanes, a full-scale fatigue test article was inspected for skin cracks at similar... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-700 and -700C series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of early fatigue cracks at...

  19. Moving characteristics of single file passengers considering the effect of ship trim and heeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlu; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Ma, Jian; Xie, Qimiao

    2018-01-01

    Ship listing and motion affects the movement pattern of passengers on board, thus pedestrian traffic and evacuation dynamics would be significantly different from those on level ground. To quantify the influence of ship listing and motion on passenger evacuation, we designed a ship corridor simulator, with which we performed single-file pedestrian movement experiments considering the effect of trim and heeling. Results indicated that density is not the only factor that affects pedestrian speed under ship trim or heeling conditions, for that both individual walking speed and group walking speed would be greatly attenuated due to the influence of the trim angles. However, heeling angles show less impact on speed when compared with trim angles. In addition, the speed correlation coefficient between the adjacent experimental subjects would be higher with larger angles and lower speed. Moreover, both female and male experimental subjects need similar distance headway for walking in different trim or heeling conditions. Furthermore, experimental subjects with lower individual walking speed need longer time headway to keep enough distance headway. This work will provide fundamental guidance to the development of evacuation models and the design of evacuation facilities on board.

  20. How Important is the Integration of Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrníková Michaela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.

  1. 76 FR 36387 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Model A300 Series Airplanes; Model A310 Series Airplanes; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... pieces unit with 3 welds (old design) as pictured in Appendix 1 of this [EASA] AD. The welding process of... pre-modification 02447.. Blue and Green. A300 airplanes post-modification 02447. Blue. A300-600 airplanes Blue. A310 airplanes Green. Table 2--Applicable service information Airbus mandatory service...

  2. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  3. Analysing passenger arrivals rates and waiting time at bus stops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...

  4. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  5. "Welcome on board"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuysen, Nancy T.E.; Vrijhof, Milou N.; Wijk, de René A.; Kremer, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contexts on overall liking and just-about-right (JAR) ratings of airplane meals. A rice dish (meal type A) and a pasta dish (meal type B) were assessed. Per meal type, two variants were produced (variant 1 and 2). Two hundred

  6. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  7. [Injury pattern and identification after airplane catastrophies. Cooperation between forensic medicine and federal criminal investigations. An airplane accident in Mühlheim/Ruhr 8 February 1988].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, G; Risse, M

    1989-01-01

    On February 8th 1988, a two-motor passenger aircraft of Metroliner type with 21 people on board entered a front of heavy weather at an altitude of 900 m and crashed after being struck by lightning which led to complete breakdown of the electrical systems on board. The site of the crash was in the marshy Ruhr meadows. The formation of the terrain enabled a subdivision into plan squares for rescue. The identification of the 21 bodies was carried out in the Essen Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the identification commission of the Federal Criminal Investigation Office. The experience and recommendations for future (possibly larger-scale) disasters derived from this are described. Furthermore, the accident pattern in the casualties typical for this air crash is discussed.

  8. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  9. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  10. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, R.; Chiba, J.; Ogawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Kifune, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nishimura, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  11. Defense Transportation Regulation. Part I: Passenger Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    indicates apart action and the "N" in the special handling block identifies the passenger as a no-show. NAME RIC CHANL MSN- NBR /TVL-PD STS...will be retained and annotated with the origin, destination, ticket or token number(s) (when issued), and date issued to traveler. A rubber stamp...J. D. Pierce, TO. The use of a rubber stamp signature of the person authorized to sign GTRs is strictly prohibited. b. Other person(s) (acting TOs

  12. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well...

  13. In Defense of Boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke); S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIt is often assumed that bad corporate performance means a bad CEO. The task of a board of directors is then simple: dismiss the executive. If it fails to do so, the board is said to be indolent. We take a kinder approach to observed board behaviour and point to the problems even

  14. Homeland Security: Air Passenger Prescreening and Counterterrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart; Krouse, William; Rappaport, Ed

    2005-01-01

    ... of their persons or baggage, or to prevent them from boarding an aircraft in the event of a terrorist watch list hit, is likely to be a difficult proposition for the federal agencies tasked with aviation security...

  15. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  16. Performance Comparison of the Optimized Inverted Joined Wing Airplane Concept and Classical Configuration Airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Sieradzki Adam; Dziubiński Adam; Galiński Cezary

    2016-01-01

    The joined wing concept is an unconventional airplane configuration, known since the mid-twenties of the last century. It has several possible advantages, like reduction of the induced drag and weight due to the closed wing concept. The inverted joined wing variant is its rarely considered version, with the front wing being situated above the aft wing. The following paper presents a performance prediction of the recently optimized configuration of this airplane. Flight characteristics obtaine...

  17. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control...... over the management board, including its appointment and dismissal. The article considers which companies a two-tier structure may be relevant for, and reviews the consequences for the composition, election and functioning of the company organs....

  18. Performance Comparison of the Optimized Inverted Joined Wing Airplane Concept and Classical Configuration Airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieradzki Adam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The joined wing concept is an unconventional airplane configuration, known since the mid-twenties of the last century. It has several possible advantages, like reduction of the induced drag and weight due to the closed wing concept. The inverted joined wing variant is its rarely considered version, with the front wing being situated above the aft wing. The following paper presents a performance prediction of the recently optimized configuration of this airplane. Flight characteristics obtained numerically were compared with the performance of two classical configuration airplanes of similar category. Their computational fluid dynamics (CFD models were created basing on available documentation, photographs and some inverse engineering methods. The analysis included simulations performed for a scale of 3-meter wingspan inverted joined wing demonstrator and also for real-scale manned airplanes. Therefore, the results of CFD calculations allowed us to assess the competitiveness of the presented concept, as compared to the most technologically advanced airplanes designed and manufactured to date. At the end of the paper, the areas where the inverted joined wing is better than conventional airplane were predicted and new research possibilities were described.

  19. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, M.

    2004-11-01

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Water vapour (H 2 O) and NO x emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO 2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO 2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  20. Integrating passenger and freight transportation : model formulation and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; Woensel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating passenger and freight ows creates attractive business opportunities because the same transportation needs can be met with fewer vehicles and emissions. This paper seeks an integrated solution for the transportation of passenger and freight simultaneously, so that fewer vehicles are

  1. Delay Management with Re-Routing of Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe question of delay management is whether trains should wait for a delayed feeder train or should depart on time. In classical delay management models passengers always take their originally planned route. In this paper, we propose a model where re-routing of passengers is

  2. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  3. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  4. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-0108; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal... rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot... enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. The final rule develops this pilot...

  5. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  6. Ocean passenger vessels : migrating south for the winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In response to consumer demand, the passenger vessels that operate from seaports along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts alternate between north and south. Passenger vessels that sail out of ports such as New York, Baltimore and Seattle in the s...

  7. Deduction of passengers' route choice from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hurk, Evelien; Kroon, Leo; Maroti, Gabor; Vervest, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choice from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate passenger service. Especially in case of disruptions when route choice models may not be valid this is an advantage. This paper proposes a method for deducing the chosen route of

  8. Deduction of passengers' route choices from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hurk, E.; Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.; Vervest, P.

    2015-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choices from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate and improve their passenger service. Particularly in the case of disruptions, when traditional route choice models may not be valid, this is an advantage. This paper proposes a

  9. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  10. 75 FR 78063 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... for determining the maximum passenger capacity of small passenger pontoon vessels either by: Dividing.... 176.110 explicitly calling attention to the OCMI's prerogative to consider a vessel's suitability for... factors to which vessel masters should give special attention in both sections, and a requirement in Sec...

  11. Getting Frustrated: Modelling Emotion Contagion in Stranded Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Couwenberg, Maik; Bosse, T.

    2017-01-01

    Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency

  12. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.

  13. 77 FR 55768 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... pressure, resulting in improper flow of oxygen through the passenger masks and injury to passengers if... prompted by a report that during a test of the oxygen system, an operator found that the passenger oxygen... caused by the flex line separating from the hard line due to a missing clamshell coupler. This proposed...

  14. 77 FR 62182 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Invited We invite you to send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send... 7, 2001) requires certain type design (i.e., type certificate (TC) and supplemental type certificate... tanks. This requirement applies to type design holders for large turbine-powered transport airplanes and...

  15. 77 FR 58785 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: As a result of the Extended Service Goal 2 exercise... affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... this AD, as applicable. (1) For Model A300 B4-622R airplanes: Reinforce the door frame shells of...

  16. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  17. 76 FR 69168 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ...-1225; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-269-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-2C, B4-103..., contact Airbus SAS-EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  18. 78 FR 32347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, A330-200, A330-300, A340-200, A340- 300, A340-500, and A340-600 series... following service information: Airbus Mandatory Service Bulletin A330-56-3009, Revision 02, including...

  19. 77 FR 17327 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011-1087; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-032-AD; Amendment 39-16967; AD 2012-04-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes Correction In rule document 2012-5859 appearing on pages 14679-14681...

  20. 77 FR 66760 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...-1162; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, A330... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  1. 78 FR 39190 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...-0543; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  2. 77 FR 37829 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...-0671; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-096-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Airbus Model... this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  3. 77 FR 73340 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... earlier proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 series..., contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  4. 78 FR 23105 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model... Agency] has received a report via Airbus and Messier-Bugatti-Dowty Ltd, from a Maintenance repair...

  5. 77 FR 66764 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...-1160; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-096-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus... +33 5 61 93 36 96; fax +33 5 61 93 45 80; email [email protected]airbus.com ; Internet http...

  6. 78 FR 29261 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-0424; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-014-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, A330... this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  7. 77 FR 11793 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ...-0185; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-001-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-103, B4-203... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  8. 77 FR 15636 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  9. 77 FR 60325 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) that would supersede an existing AD for certain Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  10. 78 FR 59295 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...-0829; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-085-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2010-23- 12, which applies to certain Airbus... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD...

  11. 78 FR 18925 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...-0212; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-116-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-223F, -223, -321...., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this...

  12. 77 FR 66762 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...-1159; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-028-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A310-203, -204, -222... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point...

  13. 76 FR 62673 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ...-1066; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-050-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD), for certain Airbus Model A300 B2-1C, B2K-3C... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  14. 77 FR 49386 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus..., except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  15. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-1253; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-079-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A319, A320, and A321... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  16. 78 FR 51117 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...-0698; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-136-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2006-06- 14, that applies to certain Airbus... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice...

  17. 76 FR 68671 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...-1170; Directorate Identifier 2010-NM-264-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and... Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact...

  18. 76 FR 78524 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Airbus... an aeroplane from the Airbus production line, a fault message was triggered on FDU1 [fire detection...

  19. 78 FR 46306 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...-0632; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-045-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 and -300 series... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  20. 78 FR 25902 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...-0363; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-031-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200, -300 and -200... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  1. 77 FR 15644 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-0192; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-225-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -200... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  2. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ...-0810; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-195-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-300... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  3. 78 FR 64159 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... Airbus SAS-- EAW (Airworthiness Office), 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone +33 5 61 93 36 96; fax +33 5 61 93 44 51; email [email protected]airbus.com ; Internet http...

  4. 78 FR 79333 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ...-1066; Directorate Identifier 2013-NM-021-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2000-12- 12, for certain Airbus Model A300, A300... this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS, Airworthiness Office--EAW, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  5. 78 FR 32345 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300... FedEx requested that copies of Airbus Service Bulletin A300-53- 6170, dated May 16, 2011, be provided...

  6. 78 FR 1723 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Airbus...

  7. 78 FR 29666 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...-0422; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-097-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and -300... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point...

  8. 77 FR 26996 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...-0427; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-202-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A320-214 and-232... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  9. 78 FR 37498 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ...-0463; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-165-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, -200... holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office...

  10. 77 FR 12989 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model.... Airbus carried out an investigation, demonstrating that the life limit of retraction brackets must be...

  11. 78 FR 76572 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus..., except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus...

  12. 77 FR 59149 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...-1002; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-052-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R...: Airbus: Docket No. FAA-2012-1002; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM- 052-AD. (a) Comments Due Date We must...

  13. 78 FR 9341 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...-0088; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-233-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Airbus Model... this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707...

  14. 77 FR 64765 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...-1105; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-137-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A318, A319, and A320... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  15. 77 FR 66772 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...-1158; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-232-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Airbus Model... that AD, Airbus has revised certain ALI documents, which require more restrictive maintenance...

  16. 77 FR 65146 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...-1106; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-084-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-200 Freighter, -200..., contact Airbus SAS--Airworthiness Office--EAL, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France...

  17. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...-0291; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-168-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, and -121... identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte...

  18. 78 FR 53635 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200 and... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-17-03 Airbus: Amendment 39...

  19. 77 FR 73343 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...-1224; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-112-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A300 B4-600, B4-600R, and... holidays. For Airbus service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Airbus SAS-EAW...

  20. 78 FR 14029 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...-0096; Directorate Identifier 2012-NM-143-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A318-112, A319-111... Airbus, Airworthiness Office--EAS, 1 Rond Point Maurice Bellonte, 31707 Blagnac Cedex, France; telephone...

  1. 77 FR 26998 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...-0428; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-078-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A330-243, -243F, -342..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. For Airbus service information...

  2. 77 FR 36125 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... FAA, call (816) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA...; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a... information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301...

  3. 77 FR 1622 - Airworthiness Directives; Socata Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... the FAA, call (816) 329-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA...; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a.... Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901...

  4. 77 FR 14314 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane...; email: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any... procedures found in 14 CFR 39.19. Send information to ATTN: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  5. 77 FR 67263 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: During shop visit... first installed on an airplane: Before further flight, do the actions in Figure A-FBBAA-Sheet 03, Flow... Figure A-FBBAA-Sheet 02, Flow Chart, of Airbus Mandatory Service Bulletin A330-71-3025, excluding...

  6. 76 FR 79560 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... off, a transient loss of elevator control associated with a temporary incorrect flight control law... airplane flight manual. We are proposing this AD to prevent movement of the elevators to zero position... reset does not occur thanks to the introduction of second electrical power supply to FCPC3 from 1PP bus...

  7. 77 FR 36211 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... A310-204 and -304 airplanes, powered by General Electric (GE) CF6-80C2 series engines. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of two single-engine flame-out events during inclement weather. This proposed AD would require installing a shunt of the rotary selector (introducing an auto-relight function). We...

  8. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  9. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  10. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergau, L.

    1995-01-01

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Airplane tire inspection by image processing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jovancevic , Igor; Arafat , Al; Orteu , Jean-José; Sentenac , Thierry

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect and inspect airplane tires. We use normalized correlation based template matching to detect tires and GrabCut segmentation method to extract them from the background. We inspect the tires condition by investigating the tire treads. Ridge based intensity profiling gives satisfying inspection results.

  12. 77 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... proposed AD would require a high frequency eddy current (HFEC) inspection for any cracking on the left-hand...: Perform a high frequency eddy current (HFEC) inspection for any cracking on the left-hand and right-hand... A321-111 and -131 airplanes; certificated in any category; manufacturer serial numbers 0259, 0260, 0264...

  13. Methods to estimate railway capacity and passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    that an evaluation of passenger delays obtained with simulation software (in this case RailSys) and the passenger delay model is comparable with the daily operation of the Copenhagen suburban railway network. Using a microscopic simulation model, the thesis demonstrates that it is possible to compare travel times...... of additional travel time. The differences between the different kinds of delay (train delays, passenger delays and scheduled waiting time) are illustrated through simple, but representative, case examples in CHAPTER 10. The examples demonstrate that 3rd generation passenger delay models are more realistic than...... depend on the given infrastructure and timetable and can result in longer travel times for trains and passengers. Furthermore, the thesis shows that the network effects can result in reduced capacity as some trains or train services can make it impossible to operate other planned/desired trains or train...

  14. 14 CFR 135.393 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight that— (1) Allowing for anticipated consumption of... assumed that— (1) The airplane passes directly over the intersection of the obstruction clearance plane...

  15. 76 FR 41041 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction of Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Conditions No. 25-439-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Interaction... special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 airplane. This airplane...

  16. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  17. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  18. Wireless Local Area Network Performance Inside Aircraft Passenger Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Frank L.; Soroker, Andrew; Whetten, Dennis A.; Whetten, Frank L.; Beggs, John H.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of IEEE 802.11 wireless network performance within an aircraft fuselage is performed. This examination measured the propagated RF power along the length of the fuselage, and the associated network performance: the link speed, total throughput, and packet losses and errors. A total of four airplanes: one single-aisle and three twin-aisle airplanes were tested with 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g networks.

  19. Building Airline Passenger Loyalty Through an Understanding of Customer Value: A Relationship Segmentation of Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores means of restoring profitability to the airline industry by cultivating intrinsically motivated brand loyalty between passengers and airlines in today’s fragile environment. The air transport industry is caught up in traditional transaction-based strategies. Airlines rely on archaic frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to maintain loyalty which deter customers from choosing alternative airlines by increasing the cost associated with switching. In contrast, oth...

  20. Emergency medicine and the airline passenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.; Nicogossian, A.; Margulies, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to immediate medical care in case of in-flight emergencies are discussed with reference to such critical types of medical emergencies as obstructed airway, cardiac dysfunction, trauma, hemorrhage, hypoxia, and pain. It is shown that training flight attendants to deal with in-flight medical emergencies and to use first-aid support equipment and essential and useful drugs may later help with stabilization of a victim and allow continuing the flight to the scheduled destination without the need for a diverted landing. Among the steps suggested in order to upgrade inflight welfare and safety of passengers are the development of an advisory circular by the FAA covering standardized training for flight attendants, regulatory action requiring upgrading of the present rudimentary first-aid kit, and the enactment of Good Samaritan legislation by the U.S. Government.

  1. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  2. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  3. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  4. 76 FR 35344 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Model P2006T Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901.... Send information to Attn: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901...

  5. 76 FR 3854 - Airworthiness Directives; REIMS AVIATION S.A. Model F406 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  6. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, V.; Raida, Zbyněk; Tobola, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (t...

  7. Estimation of electromagnetic dosimetric values from non-ionizing radiofrequency fields in an indoor commercial airplane environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Erik; Arpón, Javier; Azpilicueta, Leire; López, Peio; de Miguel, Silvia; Ramos, Victoria; Falcone, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the impact of topology as well as morphology of a complex indoor environment such as a commercial aircraft in the estimation of dosimetric assessment is presented. By means of an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray-launching code, estimation of electric field amplitude as a function of position for the complete volume of a commercial passenger airplane is obtained. Estimation of electromagnetic field exposure in this environment is challenging, due to the complexity and size of the scenario, as well as to the large metallic content, giving rise to strong multipath components. By performing the calculation with a deterministic technique, the complete scenario can be considered with an optimized balance between accuracy and computational cost. The proposed method can aid in the assessment of electromagnetic dosimetry in the future deployment of embarked wireless systems in commercial aircraft.

  8. 75 FR 16660 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ...., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City...

  9. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  10. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...

  11. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  12. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egebaeck, K.E.; Laurikko, J.; Ryden, C.

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm's Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV's and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, (Sweden); Laurikko, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Ryden, C. [Tima, (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm`s Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV`s and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  14. The Impact of Drive Cycles and Auxiliary Power on Passenger Car Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grube

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the advancement of zero emission transportation and current discussions on the reliability of nominal passenger car fuel economy, this article considers the procedure for assessing the potential for reducing the fuel consumption of passenger cars by using electric power to operate them. The analysis compares internal combustion engines, hybrid and fully electric concepts utilizing batteries and fuel cells. The starting point for the newly developed, simulation-based fuel consumption analysis is a longitudinal vehicle model. Mechanical power requirements on the drive side incorporate a large variety of standardized drive cycles to simulate typical patterns of car usage. The power requirements of electric heating and air conditioning are also included in the simulation, as these are especially relevant to electric powertrains. Moreover, on-board grid-load profiles are considered in the assessment. Fuel consumption is optimized by applying concept-specific operating strategies. The results show that the combination of low average driving speed and elevated onboard power requirements have severe impacts on the fuel efficiency of all powertrain configurations analyzed. In particular, the operational range of battery-electric vehicles is strongly affected by this due to the limited storage capacity of today’s batteries. The analysis confirms the significance of considering different load patterns of vehicle usage related to driving profiles and onboard electrical and thermal loads.

  15. Effect of consecutive driving on accident risk: a comparison between passenger and freight train driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Ju, Lai-Shun

    2008-11-01

    This study combined driver-responsible accidents with on-board driving hours to examine the effect of consecutive driving on the accident risk of train operations. The data collected from the Taiwan Railway Administration for the period 1996-2006 was used to compute accident rates for varied accumulated driving hours for passenger and freight trains. The results showed that accident risk grew with increased consecutive driving hours for both passenger and freight trains, and doubled that of the first hour after four consecutive hours of driving. Additional accident risk was found for freight trains during the first hour due to required shunting in the marshalling yards where there are complex track layouts and semi-automatic traffic controls. Also, accident risk for train driving increased more quickly over consecutive driving hours than for automobile driving, and accumulated fatigue caused by high working pressure and monotony of the working environment are considered to be the part of the reason. To prevent human errors accidents, enhancing safety equipment, driver training programs, and establishing a sound auditing system are suggested and discussed.

  16. Bus transit operational efficiency resulting from passenger boardings at park-and-ride facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In order to save time and money by not driving to an ultimate destination, some urban commuters drive themselves a few miles to specially designated parking lots built for transit customers and located where trains or buses stop. The focus of this pa...

  17. 77 FR 53159 - Passenger Use of Portable Electronic Devices on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... systems. In today's avionics, there are various systems--global positioning, traffic collision and... name of the individual sending the comment (or signing the comment for an association, business, labor... technology are still in service and are as susceptible today to interference as they were when they first...

  18. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horwacik, T.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, 1-4 (2004), s. 377-380 ISSN 0144-8420 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Aircrew * thermoluminescent detectors * environmental measurements Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  19. Airplane impact on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.

    2003-01-01

    A short report on investigations of nuclear power plants under airplane attack is given. It concerns the modeling of planes with regard to mass and stiffness, the relevant plane velocity and finally the determination of load-time functions. The necessary analysis of the concrete containment structure is shortly addressed. Finally a proposal for a structure to keep planes from such building structures is discussed. (author)

  20. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackman, N.S.; Gummer, W.K.

    1982-02-01

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  1. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  2. 77 FR 2541 - Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board; Regular Meeting. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). DATE AND TIME: The meeting of the Board will be held at the...

  3. Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective control data ... mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, expert ... intended for development of methods and means of operative management of ...

  4. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  5. Intercity passenger rail : financial performance of Amtrak's routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-14

    Since it began operations in 1971, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation : (Amtrak) has never been profitable and has received about $21 billion in federal : subsidies for operating and capital expenses. In December 1994, at the : direction of ...

  6. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to : the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects : varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares : first the absolute climate impacts of current passenge...

  8. Crippling test of a Budd Pioneer passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    This research program was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development in support of the advancement of improved safety standards for passenger rail vehicles. FRA and the Volpe National Transportation Syst...

  9. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  10. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  11. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...... unattended. A description of the problem together with a mathematical model is presented. The objective is to maximize the quality of service by scheduling as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving...... the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution which in each step is transformed to an actual schedule by use of a greedy heuristic. Local search is performed on the abstract representation using advanced neighborhoods which modify large parts...

  12. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  13. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  14. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  15. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  16. Determiantion of elasticity coefficient of demand for suburban passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of changes in demand for suburban passenger road transport, depending on the value, is investigated. The results of the survey of passengers about changes of fare on the chosen route are given. It is built the curve of elasticity of demand for suburban bus transport use in labor and cultural and social movements. The equilibrium tariff for suburban road transport is defined

  17. An Optimization Method of Passenger Assignment for Customized Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Cao; Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an optimization method of passenger assignment on customized buses (CB). Our proposed method guarantees benefits to passengers by balancing the elements of travel time, waiting time, delay, and economic cost. The optimization problem was solved using a Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithm based on the shortest path for the selected stations. A simulation-based evaluation of the proposed optimization method was conducted. We find that a CB service can save 38.33% in average tra...

  18. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  19. Real-time passenger counting by active linear cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudour, Louahdi; Duvieubourg, Luc; Deparis, Jean-Pierre

    1996-03-01

    The companies operating subways are very much concerned with counting the passengers traveling through their transport systems. One of the most widely used systems for counting passengers consists of a mechanical gate equipped with a counter. However, such simple systems are not able to count passengers jumping above the gates. Moreover, passengers carrying large luggage or bags may meet some difficulties when going through such gates. The ideal solution is a contact-free counting system that would bring more comfort of use for the passengers. For these reasons, we propose to use a video processing system instead of these mechanical gates. The optical sensors discussed in this paper offer several advantages including well defined detection areas, fast response time and reliable counting capability. A new technology has been developed and tested, based on linear cameras. Preliminary results show that this system is very efficient when the passengers crossing the optical gate are well separated. In other cases, such as in compact crowd conditions, reasonable accuracy has been demonstrated. These results are illustrated by means of a number of sequences shot in field conditions. It is our belief that more precise measurements could be achieved, in the case of compact crowd, by other algorithms and acquisition techniques of the line images that we are presently developing.

  20. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  1. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  2. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  3. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. 78 FR 42720 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chandraduth Ramdoss, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM... airplane structure. The last element of those initiatives is the requirement to establish a limit of...

  6. 78 FR 42900 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support the established... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Galib Abumeri, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM 120L... airplane structure. The last element of those initiatives is the requirement to establish a LOV of the...

  7. 78 FR 42895 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... intended to support the airplane reaching its limit of validity (LOV) of the engineering data that support... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Galib Abumeri, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120L, FAA, Los... support initiatives that will ensure the continued airworthiness of aging airplane structure. The last...

  8. 77 FR 20511 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... language regarding certain ``specific airplane(s).'' We find these comments to be addressed to EASA... with thrust reverser part number (P/N) 315A2295-003 through 315A2295-154 inclusive: Do the actions...-155 through 315A2295-174 inclusive: Do the actions within 60 months after the effective date of this...

  9. 77 FR 60887 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory... and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  10. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory... identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as...

  11. 77 FR 2442 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... bulletin to change the concurrent requirement and provide wiring changes and an alternative installation... installation of the new panel assemblies for airplanes that have the optional water system drain plumbing and changing the interconnecting wiring between the P141 panel and the P36 and P37 panels. For airplanes with a...

  12. 77 FR 64704 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... consequent forced landing of the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective November 27, 2012. The Director of the... Labor cost product Cost on U.S. operators Operational Test 3 work hours x $85 per $255 $275,400 per..., inability to restart the engines, and consequent forced landing of the airplane. (f) Compliance Comply with...

  13. 78 FR 52838 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... consequent forced landing of the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective October 1, 2013. The Director of the... to comply with this AD: Estimated Costs Cost per Cost on U.S. Action Labor cost product operators... consequent forced landing of the airplane. (f) Compliance Comply with this AD within the compliance times...

  14. 77 FR 61548 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...-indicating and crew-alerting system (EICAS) messages ALT DISAGREE and IAS DISAGREE displayed. The flightcrew... Special Attention Service Bulletin 727-34-0245, dated June 4, 2008 (for Model airplanes); [[Page 61549... -200C series airplanes); and Boeing Special Attention Service Bulletin 747-34-2925, dated June 4, 2008...

  15. 77 FR 66417 - Airworthiness Directives; Costruzioni Aeronautiche Tecnam srl Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 [[Page 66418...: albert.mercado@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any written... Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, Missouri...

  16. 77 FR 2238 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... attachment. If not corrected, this failure could result in loss of control of the airplane. We are issuing... the referenced service information at the FAA, Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Kansas City..., Kansas City, Missouri 64106; telephone: (816) 329-4059; fax: (816) 329-4090; email: [email protected

  17. 76 FR 53308 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... bumper, and the attachment hardware with a rudder stop modification kit. This new AD requires a change to..., Small Airplane Directorate, 901 Locust, Kansas City, Missouri 64106. For information on the availability... acrobatic maneuvers in the airplane or replacement of the rudder stop, rudder stop bumper, and attachment...

  18. 77 FR 54854 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    .... Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data... airplanes), except as specified in paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this AD. (1) Steps 1 through 5 of Figure...

  19. 78 FR 33193 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... modifications (such as the installation of felt on Model 767 airplanes per Figure 18 of Boeing Special Attention... information identified in this AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE...

  20. 77 FR 47277 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... Docket Operations office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. The... airplanes, serial numbers 413, 443, 450 through 452 inclusive, 456, 458, 462 through 465 inclusive, 467 through 470 inclusive, and 473 through 588 inclusive. (2) Model DHC-8-400, -401, and -402 airplanes...

  1. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and PA-46-500TP airplanes. This... through Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Piper...

  2. 78 FR 72554 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GV and GV-SP airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of two... Aerospace Corporation, Technical Publications Dept., P.O. Box 2206, Savannah, GA 31402-2206; telephone 800...

  3. 78 FR 9781 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... directive (AD) for all Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes. This AD results... Aerospace Limited, Hamilton Airport, Private Bag, 3027 Hamilton, New Zealand; telephone: +64 7 843 6144; fax...

  4. 77 FR 31483 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Service Change (ASC) 229 and G-1159 (aka G-II) ASC 426 installs a new three-piece box fitting on the left... result of an improper structural modification. This records search also revealed that six other Model G... similar nonconforming condition was found on a total of six airplanes. Of those, one airplane does not...

  5. Variable-Structure Control of a Model Glider Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    A variable-structure control system designed to enable a fuselage-heavy airplane to recover from spin has been demonstrated in a hand-launched, instrumented model glider airplane. Variable-structure control is a high-speed switching feedback control technique that has been developed for control of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  6. Prospect of atomic airplane and mini-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Li Jinying; Ji Cunxing; Ma Huirou; Hou Yanli; Duan Zhihui

    2012-01-01

    History of R and D of atomic airplane was reviewed. inclusive of problem and actuality, principle and attaching. Prospect of R and D of atomic airplane in China is described extensively. Some suggestions to the government and establishments were made as well. (authors)

  7. Topological estimation of aerodynamic controlled airplane system functionality of quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С.В. Павлова

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is suggested to use topological methods for stage estimation of aerodynamic airplane control in widespread range of its conditions The estimation is based on normalized stage virtual non-isotropy of configurational airplane systems calculation.

  8. Transformation of Helicopter PinS Procedures for Airplanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibility to use existing helicopter Point in Space procedures with minor changes for airplanes. The basis is to find parts of PinS procedures that need to be changed, suggest these changes, and then determine whether the revised procedures could be usable and could bring the benefits for airplane operations.

  9. 77 FR 64695 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Model C90GTi (King Air) airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of... service information identified in this AD, contact Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, 10511 E. Central Ave...

  10. 78 FR 42724 - Airworthiness Directives; Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... certain Beechcraft Corporation Models 1900, 1900C, and 1900D airplanes. AD 2011-27-51 currently requires... Corporation at P.O. Box 85, Wichita, Kansas 67201-0085; telephone: (800) 429-5372 or (316) 676-3140; Internet...

  11. 77 FR 29214 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Models 58 and G58 airplanes. This AD was prompted by installation of... this AD, contact Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, B091-A04, 10511 E. Central Ave., Wichita, Kansas 67206...

  12. 78 FR 52870 - Airworthiness Directives; Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... (AD) for certain Beechcraft Corporation (type certificate previously held by Hawker Beechcraft Corporation) Models 1900, 1900C, and 1900D airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracking in...

  13. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for certain WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes... information identified in this AD, contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle...

  14. 77 FR 3585 - Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Corporation (Cirrus) Model SR22T airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of partial loss of engine power.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Cirrus Design Corporation, 4515 Taylor...

  15. 77 FR 64693 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Beechcraft Corporation Model G58 airplanes. This AD was prompted by notification from Hawker Beechcraft Corporation that certain affected aircraft were produced with the incorrect gauge wiring installed. This AD...

  16. 77 FR 12757 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Beechcraft Corporation Models 58 and G58 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by installation of... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, B091-A04, 10511 E. Central...

  17. 78 FR 47549 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... to certain The Boeing Company Model 737-200, -200C, -300, and -400 series airplanes. AD 2000-06-13 R1..., adds inspections and related investigative and corrective actions, revises certain inspection types...

  18. 76 FR 25229 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Dynamic Test Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... Memorandum ``Side-Facing Seats on Transport Category Airplanes'' and draft Issue Paper ``Dynamic Test...; Special Conditions No. 25-425-SC] Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane... are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G250 airplane. This airplane will have a novel...

  19. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all airplanes operated by a certificate holder under this part, except for those airplanes...

  20. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane (other than a turbine-engine-powered airplane certificated after September 30, 1958) unless— (1) The takeoff...