WorldWideScience

Sample records for airplane passenger boarding

  1. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty

  2. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  3. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  4. Experimental test of airplane boarding methods

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental comparison of different airplane boarding methods. This test was conducted in a mock 757 fuselage, located on a Southern California soundstage, with 12 rows of six seats and a single aisle. Five methods were tested using 72 passengers of various ages. We found a significant reduction in the boarding times of optimized methods over traditional methods. These improved methods, if properly implemented, could result in a significant savings to airline companies.

  5. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  6. 14 CFR 91.607 - Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency exits for airplanes carrying... Emergency exits for airplanes carrying passengers for hire. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no person may operate a large airplane (type certificated under the Civil Air...

  7. Scaling behavior of an airplane-boarding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brics, Martins; Kaupužs, Jevgenijs; Mahnke, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    An airplane-boarding model, introduced earlier by Frette and Hemmer [Phys. Rev. E 85, 011130 (2012)], is studied with the aim of determining precisely its asymptotic power-law scaling behavior for a large number of passengers N. Based on Monte Carlo simulation data for very large system sizes up to N=2(16)=65536, we have analyzed numerically the scaling behavior of the mean boarding time and other related quantities. In analogy with critical phenomena, we have used appropriate scaling Ansätze, which include the leading term as some power of N (e.g., [proportionality]N(α) for ), as well as power-law corrections to scaling. Our results clearly show that α=1/2 holds with a very high numerical accuracy (α=0.5001±0.0001). This value deviates essentially from α=/~0.69, obtained earlier by Frette and Hemmer from data within the range 2≤N≤16. Our results confirm the convergence of the effective exponent α(eff)(N) to 1/2 at large N as observed by Bernstein. Our analysis explains this effect. Namely, the effective exponent α(eff)(N) varies from values about 0.7 for small system sizes to the true asymptotic value 1/2 at N→∞ almost linearly in N(-1/3) for large N. This means that the variation is caused by corrections to scaling, the leading correction-to-scaling exponent being θ≈1/3. We have estimated also other exponents: ν=1/2 for the mean number of passengers taking seats simultaneously in one time step, β=1 for the second moment of t(b), and γ≈1/3 for its variance. PMID:23679383

  8. Secure vital indicators of air on board for passengers and crew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.І. Запорожець

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The analysis of harmful physical and chemical factors, which can negatively affect vital body indices of passengers and crew of airplane in the different conditions of flight is outlined in the article. On the basis of analysis the sanitary hygienically requirements conditions aboard an airplane are defined which do not contradict norms  of flightworthiness of civil airplanes and guarantee safety of vital functions of crew and passengers.

  9. Obstacle detection using thermal imaging sensors for large passenger airplane

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of ground collision in poor weather conditions. As bad weather is an adverse factor when airplanes are taxiing, an obstacle detection system based on thermal vision is proposed to enhance the awareness of pilots during taxiing in poor weather conditions. Two infrared cameras are employed to detect the objects and estimate the distance of the obstacle. The distance is computed by stereo vision technology. A warning will be given if the distance is less than the ...

  10. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-11-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. PMID:21723309

  11. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  12. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liyasova, Mariya, E-mail: mliyasov@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Nachon, Florian, E-mail: fnachon@nachon.net [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Masson, Patrick, E-mail: pmasson@unmc.edu [Departement de Toxicologie, Institut de Recherche Biomedicale des Armees, 24 avenue des Marquis du Gresivaudan, 38702 La Tronche (France); Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Furlong, Clement E., E-mail: clem@uw.edu [Department of Medicine (Div. Medical Genetics) and Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such 'fume events'. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A possible cause is exposure to

  13. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri-o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80 Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24–48 h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25 ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7 months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers. -- Highlights: ► Travel on jet airplanes is associated with an illness, aerotoxic syndrome. ► A possible cause is exposure to tricresyl phosphate in engine lubricating oil. ► A blood

  14. 14 CFR 125.333 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 125.333 Section 125.333 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  15. 14 CFR 121.577 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during airplane movement on the surface, takeoff, and landing. 121.577 Section 121.577 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  16. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  17. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  18. Exposures on-board airplanes by cosmic radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief explanation of cosmic radiation around the earth, their components and energy, their origins, are given: Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) including solar flare events. On receiving ICRP recommendation in 1990, the Japanese governmental working group is now examining the regularization on occupational exposure for aircraft crews. Model calculations on exposure rate (μSv/h) are given as function of altitude (km) with some observation data. Cut-off rigidity at 11,887 m are given. Exposure for passengers on-board aircraft flying from Narita airport to main cities in the world are given in μSv unit with flight hours. The effect of solar flares (Ground level event: GLE) is given with integrated fluence (cm-2) for each observed particles as function of particle energy (MeV). (S. Ohno)

  19. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  20. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  1. Analysis of airplane boarding via space-time geometry and random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmat, E; Skiena, S S; Stolyarov, N; Berend, D; Bachmat, Eitan; Sapir, Luba; Skiena, Steven; Stolyarov, Natan; berend, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We show that airplane boarding can be asymptotically modeled by 2-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. Boarding time is given by the maximal proper time among curves in the model. Discrepancies between the model and simulation results are closely related to random matrix theory. We then show how such models can be used to explain why some commonly practiced airline boarding policies are ineffective and even detrimental.

  2. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

  3. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of cosmic radiation dose rates (from the neutron and the non-neutron components) on board passenger aircraft were performed using environmental packages with thermoluminescent TL and CR-39 etched track detectors. The packages were calibrated at the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field Facility and evaluated at the Inst. of Nuclear Physics in Krakow (TL + CR-39) and at the German Aerospace Centre in Cologne (CR-39). Detector packages were exposed on board passenger aircraft operated by LOT Polish Airlines, flown between February and May 2001. The values of effective dose rate determined, averaged over the measuring period, ranged between 2.9 and 4.4 μSv h-1. The results of environmental measurements agreed to within 10% with values calculated from the CARI-6 code. (authors)

  4. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    CERN Document Server

    Baek, Yongjoo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-01-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  5. Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such “fume events”. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. ...

  6. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  7. Mathematical adventures in performance analysis from storage systems, through airplane boarding, to express line queues

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmat, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    This monograph describes problems in the field of performance analysis, primarily the study of storage systems and the diverse mathematical techniques that are required for solving such problems. Topics covered include best practices for scheduling I/O requests to a disk drive, how this problem is related to airplane boarding, and how both problems can be modeled using space-time geometry. The author also explains how Riemann's proof of the analytic continuation and functional equation of the Riemann zeta function can be used to analyze express-line queues in a minimarket. Overall, the book reveals the surprising applicability of abstract mathematical ideas that are not usually associated with applied topics. Advanced undergraduate students or graduate students with an interest in the applications of mathematics will find this book a useful resource. It will also be of interest to professional mathematicians who want exposure to the surprising ways that theoretical mathematics may be applied to engineering pr...

  8. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  9. Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

    2009-05-01

    The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

  10. Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements were performed with various LiF-based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the 7LiF detectors used (various types of 7LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues. (author)

  11. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, I.

    Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

  12. 14 CFR 382.111 - What services must carriers provide to passengers with a disability on board the aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... hard-of-hearing, so that these passengers have timely access to information the carrier provides to..., including mobility aids and other assistive devices stowed in the cabin (see also 382.91(c)). To...

  13. Design of Hydraulic System for the LTQ-2000Y Passenger Boarding Bridge%LTQ-2000Y型旅客登机桥液压系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭会歌; 薛鹏; 杨军宁; 王永利

    2012-01-01

    阐述了旅客登机桥的作用及对液压系统的要求.介绍了LTQ-2000Y型旅客登机桥的液压系统的设计实践,包括油源系统、升降回路、行走回路、转向回路、调平回路、回转回路和应急回路的设计.归纳了该液压系统的主要特点:控制、操作方式多样;油源高效、节能;行走、制动可靠;升降同步、可控;调平自动、及时.这些特点在设备使用中得到了良好的体现.%The passenger boarding bridge's function and its requirement to the hydraulic system were expatiated. The design practices of the LTQ-2000Y passenger boarding bridge's hydraulic system were described, including the design of the oil source system, lifting loop, walking loop, steering loop, leveling loop, rotating loop and emergency loop. The main features of the hydraulic system were generalized; the control and operation modes were varied; oil source was efficient and energy-saving; walking and braking was reliable; up & down lifting was synchronized and controllable; leveling was automatically and timely. These features are well reflected when using the device.

  14. Investigation of Neutron Doses On board of Commercia; Passenger Aircraft Usány CR/39 and Thermoluminescence Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horwacik, P.; Bilski, P.; Olko, F.; Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    Delft : TUDelft, 2003. s. 71. [Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry /9./ Advances in Nuclear Particle Dosimetry for Radiation Protection and Medicine. 28.09.2003-03.10.2003, Delft] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : environmental measurements * personal dosimetry * passenger aircraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  15. 78 FR 42727 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... transport category airplanes related to the wiring for the passenger cabin in-flight entertainment (IFE... cabin of various transport category airplanes, related to the wiring for the passenger cabin in-flight... systems and other non-essential electrical systems through a switch in the flight compartment in the...

  16. 14 CFR 125.407 - Maintenance log: Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance log: Airplanes. 125.407 Section... OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6... Maintenance log: Airplanes. (a) Each person who takes corrective action or defers action concerning a...

  17. 14 CFR 121.570 - Airplane evacuation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane evacuation capability. 121.570... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.570 Airplane evacuation capability. (a) No person may cause an airplane carrying passengers to be moved on the surface, take off,...

  18. 14 CFR 125.205 - Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Equipment Requirements § 125.205 Equipment requirements: Airplanes under IFR. No person may operate...

  19. 14 CFR 135.422 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for multiengine airplanes certificated with nine or fewer passenger seats. 135.422 Section 135.422... Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.422 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for...

  20. 78 FR 49248 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... additional time to submit comments. DATES: For the proposed rule published June 25, 2013 (78 FR 38102... passengers with disabilities. See 78 FR 38102, June 25, 2013. In that notice, the Access Board requested... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels...

  1. Flatulence on airplanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans C; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases......, due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should be...... airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers....

  2. Flatulence on airplanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Fischer, Anders; Thomas, William E G; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Flatus is natural and an invariable consequence of digestion, however at times it creates problems of social character due to sound and odour. This problem may be more significant on commercial airplanes where many people are seated in limited space and where changes in volume of intestinal gases...... airplanes, by using a methane breath test or to alter the fibre content of airline meals in order to reduce its flatulent potential. We conclude that the use of active charcoal on airlines may improve flight comfort for all passengers......., due to altered cabin pressure, increase the amount of potential flatus. Holding back flatus on an airplane may cause significant discomfort and physical symptoms, whereas releasing flatus potentially presents social complications. To avoid this problem we humbly propose that active charcoal should be...

  3. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  4. Revolution in airplane construction? Grob G110: The first modern fiber glass composition airplane shortly before its maiden flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorpinghaus, R.

    1982-01-01

    A single engine two passenger airplane, constructed completely from fiber reinforced plastic materials is introduced. The cockpit, controls, wing profile, and landing gear are discussed. Development of the airframe is also presented.

  5. 78 FR 39649 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1196 RIN 3014-AA11 Passenger Vessels Accessibility... Tuesday, June 25, 2013, make the following correction: PART 1196--PASSENGER VESSELS ACCESSIBILITY... ``Figure V703.7.2.1 International Symbol of Accessibility'' and are added to read as set forth...

  6. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

  7. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix D to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor input...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 125 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications E... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD... Appendix E to Part 125—Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications The recorded values must meet the...

  10. 14 CFR 121.344a - Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seat airplanes. 121.344a Section 121.344a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.344a Digital flight data recorders for 10-19 seat airplanes. (a) Except as... airplane having a passenger seating configuration, excluding any required crewmember seat, of 10 to...

  11. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qi; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial doma...

  12. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.75 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  13. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  14. 78 FR 68985 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 777- 200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes. These airplanes, as modified by the Boeing Company, will have novel or unusual design features associated with the architecture and connectivity of the passenger service computer network systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks. This onboard network system will be composed of......

  15. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    Background: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and travelling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim was to analyse the data from...... consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... paramedical assistance and the medicine chest content were considered insufficient in several cases. Passengers and crewmembers with chronic diseases should be thoroughly prepared and advised before their travels....

  16. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS...... chest contents were considered insufficient in several cases. Passengers and crew members with chronic illnesses should be thoroughly prepared and advised before their travels....

  17. Airplane crash simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact loads are considered in nuclear facility design as the result of the loading effects of certain design basis accidents and design basis threats made up of natural as well as man-made hazards. Also, beyond design basis accidents and threats are considered. Typical missiles include objects caused by tornado winds, aircrafts, war or terrorist activities, dropped objects, turbine fragments and other missiles resulting from failure of rotating equipment and whipping pipes and other objects of failure of pressurized fluid systems. The aim of the work is to study the potential of tools for numerical simulations to study the local load effects of airplane missiles impacting concrete structures. Two of the leading commercial computer codes for analysis of highly dynamic events, ABAQUS/Explicit and AUTODYN, have been evaluated. Numerical simulations have been carried out for rigid as well as deformable missiles with the characteristics of airplane engines. The analysis results have been compared with test results from a test program performed in the USA at Sandia National Laboratory and in Japan at Kobori Research Complex and Central Research Institute of the Electric Power industry. Finally, numerical simulations of a large passenger airliner impacting a reactor containment has been carried out using the analysis methodology developed. (author)

  18. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker;

    2013-01-01

    Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that error...

  19. Wind-Tunnel Tests of the 1/25-Scale Powered Model of the Martin JRM-1 Airplane. IV - Tests with Ground Board and with Modified Wing and Hull - TED No. NACA 232. Part 4; Tests with Ground Board and with Modified Wing and Hull, TED No. NACA 232

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Vernard E.; Smith, Bernard J.

    1947-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were made of a 1/25 scale model of the Martin JRM-1 airplane to determine: (1) The longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the JRM-1 model near the water and lateral and directional stability characteristics with power while moving on the surface of the water, the latter being useful for the design of tip floats; (2) The stability and stalling characteristics of the wing with a modified airfoil contour; (3) Stability characteristics of a hull of larger design gross weight; The test results indicated that the elevator was powerful enough to trim the original model in a landing configuration at any lift coefficient within the specified range of centers of gravity. The ground-board tests for evaluating the aerodynamic forces and moments on an airplane in a simulated cross wind indicate a high dihedral effect in the presence of the ground board and, consequently, during low-speed taxying and take-off, large overturning moments would result which would have to be overcome by the tip floats.

  20. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  1. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  2. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  3. 14 CFR 135.391 - Large nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes: En... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.391 Large nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) Except...

  4. 14 CFR 135.379 - Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Turbine... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.379 Large transport category airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a turbine...

  5. Airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  6. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  7. 14 CFR 121.333 - Supplemental oxygen for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. 121.333 Section 121.333... for emergency descent and for first aid; turbine engine powered airplanes with pressurized cabins. (a... passenger cabin occupants. (3) For first-aid treatment of occupants who for physiological reasons...

  8. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  9. Amphibious Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The airplane pictured is the new Air Shark I, a four-place amphibian that makes extensive use of composite materials and cruises at close to 200 miles per hour under power from a 200-horsepower engine. Air Shark I is a "homebuilt" airplane, assembled from a kit of parts and components furnished by Freedom Master Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida. The airplane incorporates considerable NASA technology and its construction benefited from research assistance provided by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) In designing the Shark, company president Arthur M. Lueck was able to draw on NASA's aeronautical technology bank through KSC's computerized "recon" library. As a result of his work at KSC, the wing of the Air Shark I is a new airfoil developed by Langley Research Center for light aircraft. In addition, Lueck opted for NASA-developed "winglets," vertical extensions of the wing that reduce drag by smoothing air turbulence at the wingtips. The NASA technology bank also contributed to the hull design. Lueck is considering application of NASA laminar flow technology-means of smoothing the airflow over wing and fuselage-to later models for further improvement of the Shark's aerodynamic efficiency. A materials engineer, Lueck employed his own expertise in designing and selecting the materials for the composite segments, which include all structural members, exposed surfaces and many control components. The materials are fiber reinforced plastics, or FRP They offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, with a nominal strength rating about one and a half times that of structural steel. They provide other advantages: the materials can be easily molded into finished shapes without expensive tooling or machining, and they are highly corrosion resistant. The first homebuilt to be offered by Freedom Master, Air Shark I completed air and water testing in mid-1985 and the company launched production of kits.

  10. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking into......, especially with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This...... disutility may be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning...

  11. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  12. 75 FR 8476 - Airworthiness Directives; ATR-GIE Avions de Transport Régional Model ATR42 and ATR72 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tom Rodriguez, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport... Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton... extinguishers, usually fitted or stowed in aircraft passenger cabins and flight decks. EASA published...

  13. The Light Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggs, Ivan H.

    1925-01-01

    This report begins with a review and analysis of the work being done to develop light airplanes in the U.S. and abroad. A technical discussion of the construction and innovations in light airplanes is then presented.

  14. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ..., notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 2269, 1-17-2012) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of...

  15. Passenger car market encountered depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Passenger vehicle registrations in April-typically one of the hot seasons for passenger vehicle registrations-showed a poor performance in 2008. All the body types saw low growth for the second time this year except SUVs. The Passenger car market (including sedan, hatchback, coupe, roadster

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Passenger Traffic in a National Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Enciso, Javier; Vargas, Juan; Martínez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal operation of a country's air transport infrastructure plays a major role in the economic development of nations. Due to the increasing use of air transportation in today's world, flights' boarding times have become a concern for both airlines and airports, thus the importance of knowing beforehand how changes in flights demand parameters and physical airport layout will affect passengers flow and boarding times. This paper presents a pedestrian modeling study in which a national airpo...

  17. The airplane: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauteuil, Mark; Geniesse, Pete; Hunniford, Michael; Lawler, Kathleen; Quirk, Elena; Tognarelli, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The 'Airplane' is a moderate-range, 70 passenger aircraft. It is designed to serve demands for flights up to 10,000 feet and it cruises at 32 ft/s. The major drivers for the design of the Airplane are economic competitiveness, takeoff performance, and weight minimization. The Airplane is propelled by a single Astro 15 electric motor and a Zinger 12-8 propeller. The wing section is a Spica airfoil which, because of its flat bottom, provides simplicity in manufacturing and thus helps to cut costs. The wing is constructed of a single load bearing mainspar and shape-holding ribs coated with Monokote skin, lending to a light weight structural makeup. The fuselage houses the motor, flight deck and passenger compartments as well as the fuel and control actuating systems. The wing will be attached to the top of the fuselage as will the fuel and control actuator systems for easy disassembly and maintenance. The aircraft is maneuvered about its pitch axis by means of an aft elevator on the flat plate horizontal tail. The twin vertical tail surfaces are also flat plates and each features a rudder for both directional and roll control. Along with wing dihedral, the rudders will be used to roll the aircraft. The Airplane is less costly to operate at its own maximum range and capacity as well as at its maximum range and the HB-40's maximum capacity than the HB-40.

  18. Passenger life-saving in a badly damaged aircraft scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, A

    2007-01-01

    Offered is a new method for saving passenger lives in any catastrofic situation, including total failure of aircraft control, extreme damage and loss aircraft wings, tail, breakdown all propelling engines, etc. It shown here that previous works which have proposed using only parachutes are useless because their proposers failed to consider the likely overload of the parachute jerk stress (at the moment of parachute release) and the impact of aircraft on Earth surface. These jeck and impact destroy aircraft and kill passengers. Offered is a connected series of related technical innovations which overcome these obvious difficalties and allow for a soft, near zero speed landing in any topographically suitable place, allowing potential to save aircraft. This method may be applied to all existing airplanes and increases their weight only about 1.5 - 2.5%. Also, the method may be used for vertically landing the already built aircraft, for example, when any runway is damaged or would become overloaded.

  19. 76 FR 35324 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787 Series Airplanes; Seats With Inflatable Lapbelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... galley loading, passenger baggage, etc.); airplanes also operate where exposure to high intensity.... The inflatable material may not have an average burn rate of greater than 2.5 inches/minute when... materials are needed. The standard normally applied to fabrics is a 12-second vertical ignition...

  20. Fear of Flying in Airplanes: Effects of Minimal Therapist Guided Stress Inoculation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Jean C.; And Others

    Flight phobia is an area which has received little controlled investigation, even though between 10 and 20 percent of flight passengers report a fear of flying in airplanes. A study was conducted to examine the efectiveness of a minimal therapist guided form of stress inoculation training (SIT) for flight phobia. Flight phobic volunteers (N=28)…

  1. Advanced Subsonic Airplane Design and Economic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeck, Robert H.; Andrastek, Donald A.; Chau, Johnny; Girvin, Raquel; Lyon, Roger; Rawdon, Blaine K.; Scott, Paul W.; Wright, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    A study was made to examine the effect of advanced technology engines on the performance of subsonic airplanes and provide a vision of the potential which these advanced engines offered. The year 2005 was selected as the entry-into-service (EIS) date for engine/airframe combination. A set of four airplane classes (passenger and design range combinations) that were envisioned to span the needs for the 2005 EIS period were defined. The airframes for all classes were designed and sized using 2005 EIS advanced technology. Two airplanes were designed and sized for each class: one using current technology (1995) engines to provide a baseline, and one using advanced technology (2005) engines. The resulting engine/airframe combinations were compared and evaluated on the basis on sensitivity to basic engine performance parameters (e.g. SFC and engine weight) as well as DOC+I. The advanced technology engines provided significant reductions in fuel burn, weight, and wing area. Average values were as follows: reduction in fuel burn = 18%, reduction in wing area = 7%, and reduction in TOGW = 9%. Average DOC+I reduction was 3.5% using the pricing model based on payload-range index and 5% using the pricing model based on airframe weight. Noise and emissions were not considered.

  2. Child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  3. 77 FR 50644 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; Cessna Airplane Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Cessna Airplane Company Model 525 airplanes equipped with certain part number (P/N)...

  4. Telemetry Boards Interpret Rocket, Airplane Engine Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the data gathered by the space shuttle while in orbit, NASA engineers are just as concerned about the information it generates on the ground. From the moment the shuttle s wheels touch the runway to the break of its electrical umbilical cord at 0.4 seconds before its next launch, sensors feed streams of data about the status of the vehicle and its various systems to Kennedy Space Center s shuttle crews. Even while the shuttle orbiter is refitted in Kennedy s orbiter processing facility, engineers constantly monitor everything from power levels to the testing of the mechanical arm in the orbiter s payload bay. On the launch pad and up until liftoff, the Launch Control Center, attached to the large Vehicle Assembly Building, screens all of the shuttle s vital data. (Once the shuttle clears its launch tower, this responsibility shifts to Mission Control at Johnson Space Center, with Kennedy in a backup role.) Ground systems for satellite launches also generate significant amounts of data. At Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, across the Banana River from Kennedy s location on Merritt Island, Florida, NASA rockets carrying precious satellite payloads into space flood the Launch Vehicle Data Center with sensor information on temperature, speed, trajectory, and vibration. The remote measurement and transmission of systems data called telemetry is essential to ensuring the safe and successful launch of the Agency s space missions. When a launch is unsuccessful, as it was for this year s Orbiting Carbon Observatory satellite, telemetry data also provides valuable clues as to what went wrong and how to remedy any problems for future attempts. All of this information is streamed from sensors in the form of binary code: strings of ones and zeros. One small company has partnered with NASA to provide technology that renders raw telemetry data intelligible not only for Agency engineers, but also for those in the private sector.

  5. ROCKET LAUNCH FROM THE BOARD OF AIRPLANE

    OpenAIRE

    Makarov, I.A.; National aviation university, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

     Every respectable state which obtains the space branches of science and technology must have the space launching site. But Ukraine has not yet got such constructions. Naturally it is necessary to have such space launching site for being independent in cosmic exploration. This scientific project is proposed and initiated to solve the practically important problem of absence of the space launching site in our country.

  6. Radiated Emissions from a Remote-Controlled Airplane-Measured in a Reverberation Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Mielnik, John J.; Hogge, Edward F.; Hill, Boyd L.; Strom, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    A full-vehicle, subscale all-electric model airplane was tested for radiated emissions, using a reverberation chamber. The mission of the NASA model airplane is to test in-flight airframe damage diagnosis and battery prognosis algorithms, and provide experimental data for other aviation safety research. Subscale model airplanes are economical experimental tools, but assembling their systems from hobbyist and low-cost components may lead to unforseen electromagnetic compatibility problems. This report provides a guide for accommodating the on-board radio systems, so that all model airplane systems may be operated during radiated emission testing. Radiated emission data are provided for on-board systems being operated separately and together, so that potential interferors can be isolated and mitigated. The report concludes with recommendations for EMI/EMC best practices for subscale model airplanes and airships used for research.

  7. 78 FR 22432 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...: Vladimir Ulyanov, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA... airplanes. One existing AD currently requires revising the airplane flight manual (AFM) to include... provide appropriate operational procedures to prevent the airplane flight directors (FDs), autopilot...

  8. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  9. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database: Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  10. The Bristol "Badminton" Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1926-01-01

    The Bristol Badminton, Type 99 airplane has a radial aircooled engine (a Bristol Jupiter 9 cylinder 450 HP.) and three fuel tanks. It is a single seat biplane weighing 1,840 lbs. empty and 2,460 lbs. loaded.

  11. Mars Gashopper Airplane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2...

  12. The EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) System and Human Rights : Transferring Passenger Data or Passenger Freedom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission presented the ‘EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system’ in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger dat

  13. Subjective response to combined noise and vibration during flight of a large twin-jet airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A NASA twin-jet airplane was used to obtain controlled noise and vibration environments during flight while obtaining subjective responses from 13 passenger-subjects (6 females and 7 males). Subjective ratings of overall comfort, comfort when considering only vibration, and comfort when considering only noise were obtained during times of different vibration and noise environments. Passenger-subjects were able to distinguish and rate noise better than vibration. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in ratings of ride comfort due to both sex type and flight experience. Males rated flying discomfort much more severely than females when rating the overall ride and the ride when considering only the noise environment. Experienced passengers also rated the overall ride to be more uncomfortable than inexperienced passengers.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Interference Pathloss Coupling Patterns on B-737 VS. B757 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Portable wireless technology provides many benefits to modern day travelers. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters, both intentional and unintentional, and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). IPL data is required for assessing the threat of PEDs to aircraft radios, and is very dependent upon airplane size, the interfering transmitter position within the airplane, and the location of the particular antenna for the aircraft system of concern. NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines personnel performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes. In the Spring of 2004, extensive IPL measurements were also taken on several Boeing 757 airplanes under a cooperative agreement between NASA Langley Research Center and Delta Airlines. The objective of this paper is to analyze IPL measurement data, to better understand the impact on coupling levels based on the different locations of the aircraft radio antennas on B-757 and B-737 airplanes, and to provide a basis for future fuzzy logic modeling of airplane IPL. This effort will build upon previous fuzzy modeling of IPL data for B-737 airplane data.

  15. 75 FR 76647 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 747-8 Airplanes, Systems and Data Networks Security-Isolation or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... passenger domain computer systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks. The applicable...: Digital systems architecture composed of several connected networks. The proposed network architecture... Domain), and 4. The capability to allow access to or by external network sources. Discussion The...

  16. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships and...... passenger ferries for possible improvements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data for seafarers from 1997, 2002 and 2007 and for passengers on Swedish ferries for the years 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012 from the Swedish Radio Medical were studied. Symptoms and diseases were classified according to the International...

  17. Prospect of ultralight airplanes development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam KONICZEK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic of ultralight airplanes, rules and current interest of them. The purpose is to determine prospect of ultralight airplanes development on the basis of Civil Aviation Authority statistics analysis and trend of aviation market.

  18. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from...

  19. 14 CFR 36.7 - Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes and jet airplanes. 36.7 Section 36.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... § 36.7 Acoustical change: Transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all transport category large airplanes and jet airplanes for which an acoustical...

  20. Traian Vuia – the Romanian inventor who first flew a powered airplane in 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu FILIMON

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As observed the beginning of heavier than air devices started with Wright Brothers who flew in 1903 the first catapulted airplane equipped with an engine, similar to present motor gliders. In March 1906 took place the first flight of Vuia’s monoplane using on board installations. Since then a real competition between manufacturers has started to improve their airplanes as they become more efficient. Traian Vuia’s first flights and his beginnings are explained below.

  1. The evolution of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Charles, J. D.; Lorente, S.

    2014-07-01

    The prevailing view is that we cannot witness biological evolution because it occurred on a time scale immensely greater than our lifetime. Here, we show that we can witness evolution in our lifetime by watching the evolution of the flying human-and-machine species: the airplane. We document this evolution, and we also predict it based on a physics principle: the constructal law. We show that the airplanes must obey theoretical allometric rules that unite them with the birds and other animals. For example, the larger airplanes are faster, more efficient as vehicles, and have greater range. The engine mass is proportional to the body size: this scaling is analogous to animal design, where the mass of the motive organs (muscle, heart, lung) is proportional to the body size. Large or small, airplanes exhibit a proportionality between wing span and fuselage length, and between fuel load and body size. The animal-design counterparts of these features are evident. The view that emerges is that the evolution phenomenon is broader than biological evolution. The evolution of technology, river basins, and animal design is one phenomenon, and it belongs in physics.

  2. Unmanned Airplane Autopilot Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Getsov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers different approaches for autopilot controller gain values adjustment. The correct autopilot performance is tested using modeling methods. A variant of land-based autopilot is considered. Examined are scenarios of UAV airplanes in level flight. The latter are applicable to tasks such as remote sensing, controlled area surveillance, etc.

  3. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  4. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  5. Passenger flows prediction in major transportation hubs

    OpenAIRE

    Ozerova, O. O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linea...

  6. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  7. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  8. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use for...

  9. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Zone of limited suspension for domestic... and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This... except upon a clear showing of abuse of market power that the Board does not expect to be...

  10. A simulation study regarding different aircraft boarding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Sílvia; Juan Pérez, Angel Alejandro; Arias, Pol; Fonseca Casas, Pau

    2013-01-01

    The airline industry is constantly subject to the search of new methods in order to increase efficiency, profitability, and customer satisfaction. Since airlines only generate revenue when their airplanes are on the air, the time they spend at the airports should be the shortest possible. Hence, the airplane turnaround time becomes a process which airlines pay special attention on. The boarding process has a very important role, since it is one of the significant elements of...

  11. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding...

  12. Vibration issues in passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał BURDZIK; Konieczny, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  13. Vibration issues in passenger car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał BURDZIK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vibration phenomena occurring in vehicles are very relevant for safety and comfort. Passenger car must be considered as a multi-technical system in which there are non-linear phenomena. Therefore, vibrations occurring in vehicles should be analyzed in many points of car structure and relate them to other criteria analysis. The paper presents examples of the results of vibration and their distribution at selected points during laboratory research and road tests.

  14. Physical and situational inequality on airplanes predicts air rage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCelles, Katherine A; Norton, Michael I

    2016-05-17

    We posit that the modern airplane is a social microcosm of class-based society, and that the increasing incidence of "air rage" can be understood through the lens of inequality. Research on inequality typically examines the effects of relatively fixed, macrostructural forms of inequality, such as socioeconomic status; we examine how temporary exposure to both physical and situational inequality, induced by the design of environments, can foster antisocial behavior. We use a complete set of all onboard air rage incidents over several years from a large, international airline to test our predictions. Physical inequality on airplanes-that is, the presence of a first class cabin-is associated with more frequent air rage incidents in economy class. Situational inequality-boarding from the front (requiring walking through the first class cabin) versus the middle of the plane-also significantly increases the odds of air rage in both economy and first class. We show that physical design that highlights inequality can trigger antisocial behavior on airplanes. More broadly, these results point to the importance of considering the design of environments-from airplanes to office layouts to stadium seating-in understanding both the form and emergence of antisocial behavior. PMID:27140642

  15. A shared " passengers & goods " city logistics system

    OpenAIRE

    Trentini, Anna; Masson, Renaud; Lehuédé, Fabien; Malhéné, Nicolas; Péton, Olivier; Tlahig, Houda

    2012-01-01

    Many strategic planning models have been developed to help decision making in city logistics. Such models do not take into account, or very few, the flow of passengers because the considered unit does not have the same nature (a person is active and a good is passive). However, it seems fundamental to gather the goods and the passengers in one model when their respective transports interact with each other. In this context, we suggest assessing a shared passengers & goods city logistics syste...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1524 - Maximum passenger seating configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum passenger seating configuration. 23... Operating Limitations and Information § 23.1524 Maximum passenger seating configuration. The maximum passenger seating configuration must be established....

  17. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  18. 14 CFR 91.519 - Passenger briefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger briefing. 91.519 Section 91.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... be supplemented by printed cards for the use of each passenger containing— (1) A diagram of,...

  19. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... rule on passenger train emergency preparedness that was codified at 49 CFR part 239. See 63 FR 24629... accident scene, and from the ability of the railroad personnel to minimize health and safety risks through... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY:...

  20. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... See 69 FR 69244 and 69245, November 26, 2004. The ANPRM requested comment on whether and how to... guidelines for comment. See 71 FR 38563, July 7, 2006. We received more than 175 comments on the 2006 draft... include onboard accessible routes connecting passenger decks and passenger amenities within...

  1. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance tr

  2. Passenger and Naturalization Lists: The New Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filby, P. William

    1983-01-01

    Reviews information sources designed to assist the genealogical researcher with the arrival of his/her ancestors: "A Bibliography of Ship Passenger Lists 1538-1825"; "Passenger and Immigration Lists Index"; "Philadelphia Naturalization Records." Examples provided include name entry, source citation, annotation, and subject entries. Nineteen…

  3. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  4. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  5. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  6. Simulating disturbances and modelling expected train passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    to estimate the actual passenger delays. The combination of the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software is described, demonstrating the possibility of predicting future passenger delays. The described passenger regularity model is run daily to calculate the passenger delays of the......Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...

  7. 75 FR 39804 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 13, 2008 (73 FR 13483). That NPRM... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3) Will... Model 757 Airplanes, Model 767 Airplanes, and Model 777-200 and -300 Series Airplanes AGENCY:...

  8. 78 FR 53640 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... this AD, before further flight, repair using a method approved by either the Manager, International...: Vladimir Ulyanov, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA... of Compliance (AMOCs): The Manager, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane...

  9. 77 FR 58785 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW... fuselage, using a method approved by either the Manager, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane... door frame shells, which could result in in-flight decompression of the airplane and consequent...

  10. 14 CFR 121.605 - Airplane equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 121.605 Section 121.605..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.605 Airplane equipment. No person may dispatch or release an airplane unless it is airworthy and is equipped as prescribed in §...

  11. 76 FR 79560 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes; Model A330-223F and -243F airplanes; and Model A340-200, -300, -500, and -600 series...

  12. 76 FR 79558 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... F4-600R series airplanes, and Model C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called A300-600...

  13. 78 FR 28152 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010), exempted airplanes on which Airbus Modification 34804..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for Model A318-121 and -122 airplanes, and except...) of AD 2010-24-07, Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for airplanes on...

  14. 76 FR 77934 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... series airplanes. Since we issued AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005), The... certain ACT equipped airplanes, produced after AD 2005-23-02, Amendment 39-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14...-14360 (70 FR 69067, November 14, 2005). Applicability (c) This AD applies to Airbus airplanes listed...

  15. 77 FR 51717 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... visual inspection of the forward fitting at frame (FR) 40 on both sides of the airplane for cracks, and..., Amendment 39-16229 (75 FR cycles. 11435, March 11, 2010)), whichever occurs later; except, for airplanes... inspection for cracks of the forward fitting at FR 40 without nut removal on both sides of the airplane,...

  16. 77 FR 59149 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., and F4-600R series airplanes, and Model A300 C4-605R Variant F airplanes (collectively called...

  17. 77 FR 75833 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... fitting at frame (FR) 40 on both sides of the airplane for cracks, and repair if necessary. This new AD...-time detailed visual inspection of the forward fitting at FR 40 on both sides of the airplane, in..., Amendment 39- 16229 (75 FR 11435, March 11, 2010)), whichever occurs later; except, for airplanes that,...

  18. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). Airbus also stated that for Model A340-541 and A340-642 airplanes.... Airbus stated that this requirement for Model A330 MRTT airplanes is equivalent to one in the NPRM (78 FR... (f) of AD 2009-04-07, Amendment 39-15813 (74 FR 7549, February 18, 2009). For all airplanes...

  19. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  20. Designing the optimum watch keeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and more safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewmembers but ...

  1. Designing the optimum watchkeeping schedule for a passenger vessel bridge team

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    A well-designed watch schedule is the backbone of the working environment for the bridge team on board ships. The rhythm on passenger vessels is quite different when compared to cargo ships: there are more drills and safety related work. Actual watchkeeping is also different due to more internal communication and alarm management. Understanding the unique features is paramount when setting up the watch system. Sleep deprivation and fatigue causes health issues for the crewme...

  2. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  3. 46 CFR 122.515 - Passenger safety bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accommodations for more than 49 passengers. (b) Each passenger safety bill required by this section must list: (1... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety bill. 122.515 Section 122.515 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN...

  4. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  5. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built...

  6. Building concepts against airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of a fatal airplane crash: autopsy, computed tomography, and injury pattern analysis used to determine who was steering the plane at time of accident. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Christian Bjerre; Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nagel, Lise Loft;

    2012-01-01

    A fatal accident is reported in which a small single-engine light airplane crashed. The airplane carried two persons in the front seats, both of whom possessed valid pilot certificates. Both victims were subject to autopsy, including post-mortem computed tomography scanning (PMCT) prior to the...... autopsy. The autopsies showed massive destruction to the bodies of the two victims but did not identify any signs of acute or chronic medical conditions that could explain loss of control of the airplane. PMCT, histological examination, and forensic chemical analysis also failed to identify an explanation...... for the crash. A detailed review of an airplane identical to the crashed airplane was performed in collaboration with the Danish Accident Investigation Board and the Danish National Police, National Centre of Forensic Services. The injuries were described using the abbreviated injury scale, the injury...

  8. Airplane stroke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2016-07-01

    Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, patheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism. PMID:26898578

  9. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First the...... paper describes the passenger regularity model used to calculate passenger delays of the Copenhagen suburban rail network the previous day. Secondly, the paper describes how it is possible to estimate future passenger delays by combining the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software....... The paper demonstrates the possibility of predicting future passenger delays by calculating the expected passenger regularity of the entire Copenhagen suburban network. The results obtained with the passenger regularity model used together with the simulation software are very similar to the daily...

  10. OF THE CUSTOMER VALUE OF PASSENGERS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalinsky, O.

    2013-01-01

    The customer's service value is creating at interaction between service provider and client. The customer service value determinants are influent to the client’s behavior. Studies of passenger transportation customer value usually are limited to the identification of the reaction to the quality of transport services and the money expenses for the purchasing of a ticket. Passenger transportation service at the long-distance trips is characterized by considerable complexity and divergence of th...

  11. Discovering Family Groups in Passenger Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万怀宇; 王志伟; 林友芳; 贾旭光; 周元炜

    2015-01-01

    People usually travel together with others in groups for different purposes, such as family members for visiting relatives, colleagues for business, friends for sightseeing and so on. Especially, the family groups, as a kind of the most com-mon consumer units, have a considerable scale in the field of passenger transportation market. Accurately identifying family groups can help the carriers to provide passengers with personalized travel services and precise product recommendation. This paper studies the problem of finding family groups in the field of civil aviation and proposes a family group detection method based on passenger social networks. First of all, we construct passenger social networks based on their co-travel behaviors extracted from the historical travel records; secondly, we use a collective classification algorithm to classify the social relationships between passengers into family or non-family relationship groups; finally, we employ a weighted com-munity detection algorithm to find family groups, which takes the relationship classification results as the weights of edges. Experimental results on a real dataset of passenger travel records in the field of civil aviation demonstrate that our method can effectively find family groups from historical travel records.

  12. Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsdorf Andreas; Morgan Dilys; Leitmeyer Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marbu...

  13. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  14. 49 CFR 27.72 - Boarding assistance for aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-carrying as defined in 14 CFR 382.39(a)(2). (5) The agreement shall ensure that all lifts and other... available means to which the passenger consents, except hand-carrying as defined in 14 CFR 382.39(a)(2). (5... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boarding assistance for aircraft. 27.72 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 77.40-1 - Pilot boarding equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilot boarding equipment. 77.40-1 Section 77.40-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND... point of access to the water's edge during each condition of loading and trim, with an adverse list...

  16. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V.; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-01

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  17. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  18. Environmental assessment of passenger transportation should include infrastructure and supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy use and emissions. Most current decision-making relies on analysis at the tailpipe, ignoring vehicle production, infrastructure provision, and fuel production required for support. We present results of a comprehensive life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and selected criteria air pollutant emissions inventory for automobiles, buses, trains, and airplanes in the US, including vehicles, infrastructure, fuel production, and supply chains. We find that total life-cycle energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions contribute an additional 63% for onroad, 155% for rail, and 31% for air systems over vehicle tailpipe operation. Inventorying criteria air pollutants shows that vehicle non-operational components often dominate total emissions. Life-cycle criteria air pollutant emissions are between 1.1 and 800 times larger than vehicle operation. Ranges in passenger occupancy can easily change the relative performance of modes.

  19. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  20. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 135 - Additional Airworthiness Standards for 10 or More Passenger Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... factor accounting for propeller control system malfunction, including quick feathering action... structure is shown by analysis, tests, or both to be able to withstand the repeated loads of variable... the approach speed established under section 7 and not less than the greater of 1.05V MC or 1.10V S...

  1. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade the......The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...

  2. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  3. Supersonic airplane study and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samson

    1993-01-01

    A supersonic airplane creates shocks which coalesce and form a classical N-wave on the ground, forming a double bang noise termed sonic boom. A recent supersonic commercial transport (the Concorde) has a loud sonic boom (over 100 PLdB) and low aerodynamic performance (cruise lift-drag ratio 7). To enhance the U.S. market share in supersonic transport, an airframer's market risk for a low-boom airplane has to be reduced. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to design airplanes to meet the dual constraints of low sonic boom and high aerodynamic performance. During the past year, a research effort was focused on three main topics. The first was to use the existing design tools, developed in past years, to design one of the low-boom wind-tunnel configurations (Ames Model 3) for testing at Ames Research Center in April 1993. The second was to use a Navier-Stokes code (Overflow) to support the Oblique-All-Wing (OAW) study at Ames. The third was to study an optimization technique applied on a Haack-Adams body to reduce aerodynamic drag.

  4. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  5. STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PASSENGER RAILWAY TRANSPORTATIONS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Tokmakova, I.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of the state of passenger railway transportations is conducted at the domestic transport market, strategic directions are exposed them subsequent development and way of providing of the effective functioning of railway passenger complex.

  6. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  7. MODERNISATION OF PASSENGERS STOCK DEPOT AT THE REGIONAL DIVISION BRASOV

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the latest accomplishments at the Regional Division Brasov regarding the modernisation of stock depot for passengers but also future programs that will continue this process. The rolling stock used in passenger transport was followed: passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, diesel engines, electric engines. Passenger transport organization should aim the accomplishment of the following requirements: ensuring passengers’ security on the route and in stations;...

  8. Auto-immune concept for dealing with the problem of airplane hijacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, Dov Y.

    2003-08-01

    This paper analyzes the inherent contradictions that exist in most of the conventional approaches dealing with airplane hijacking, and presents a completely different approach, employing innovative technological and operational solution. The suggested techno-operational concept is derived from the Systematic Inventive Thinking (SIT) methodology which enforces the problem solver to search for a solution under a few constraining rules -- causing the solution (if found) to be very cost effective. The basic problem that arises from most existing conventional concepts is their very poor cost effectiveness. Passengers, airport operators and aviation companies are all forced to invest on a continual basis, huge amounts of resources and time in order to prevent a hijacking event. The "Auto Immune" concept, discussed here, is based upon enlisting the passengers (in a case of "Hijacking Event" only) to foil the event successfully by releasing, in real-time, a very effective "One-time Non-Lethal Apparatus" (ONLA). This new paradigm changes dramatically the balance of power in favor of the "good guys", and the few hijackers will be neutralized at low risk to the passengers and the aircraft. The detailed technological and operational concept is described, including: operation modes of ONLA, location, release method, safety issues, psychological and legal issues, etc.

  9. 14 CFR 135.117 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 135... Flight Operations § 135.117 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff each pilot in... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance...

  10. 14 CFR 125.327 - Briefing of passengers before flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing of passengers before flight. 125... § 125.327 Briefing of passengers before flight. (a) Before each takeoff, each pilot in command of an... briefing shall include a statement that the Federal Aviation Regulations require passenger compliance...

  11. 46 CFR 185.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 185.502 Section 185.502... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner.... (b) The master of a vessel required to prepare a crew and passenger list by paragraph (a) of...

  12. 46 CFR 122.502 - Crew and passenger list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew and passenger list. 122.502 Section 122.502... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.502 Crew and passenger list. (a) The owner, charterer, managing operator, or... and passenger list by paragraph (a) of this section shall see that the list is prepared prior...

  13. 46 CFR 185.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 185.506 Section 185.506... TONS) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as... safety orientation. If only a small number of passengers embark at a port after the original muster...

  14. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  15. CO2 emissions from passenger transport: a comparison of international trends from 1973 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the changes in energy use and CO2 emissions from passenger transport in nine OECD countries. Unlike most previous analyses, we base our analysis on a newly published international data set covering vehicle activity, passenger travel and fuel use by mode. We calculate how changes in activity, modal composition and the energy intensity of each mode contributed to changes in total energy use from travel in nine countries between 1973 and 1992. Increased travel activity and modal shifts boosted energy use, while reduction in modal energy intensities reduced energy use from automobiles in the USA and in air travel throughout the sample of countries. As a result, travel related energy use increased sharply in every country except in Denmark and the USA. Using these calculations, we then show how activity, modal shift and modal energy intensities affected CO2 emissions from travel. Noting that the shifts of fuels within transport has been small, even counting shifts in the fuels used to produce the small amount of electricity used for passenger transport in every country, we find that increased activity and modal shifts also raised CO2 emissions from travel energy in every country except the USA. We discuss briefly how a change in fuel mix, lower transport energy intensities, or even reduced levels of travel might lead to restraining or reducing CO2 emissions from travel. Recalling that real prices for road fuels have fallen to near their 1973 levels while energy intensities remain level or are falling slowly, we foresee continued increases in travel, particularly in cars and airplanes, pushing emissions even higher. We ask what could restrain CO2 in the future, should stringent restraints become a clear policy goal. (Author)

  16. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger awareness. 91.1035 Section 91.1035 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... noise levels. (f) The oral briefing required by paragraph (a) of this section must be supplemented...

  17. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF CITY PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aulin, V.; Golub, D.

    2008-01-01

    The specific process of city passenger transportation is given. The aggregate of parameters of transportation process on subsystems has been analysed. The model of one-day operation of motor transport enterprise using the system approach and process simulating by stages has been built.

  18. Border Effects in Passenger Air Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    2003-01-01

    National borders substantially matter in passenger air traffic. Empirical estimates based upon a new data set on domestic and international departures from German airports indicate that the German border reduces air traffic activity by a factor of four to five. This result adds a further piece of evidence to the significance of border effects in various kinds of economic activity.

  19. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  20. 77 FR 7523 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-055-AD; Amendment 39-16952; AD 2012-03-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires modifying the fire extinguishing system from a...

  1. 78 FR 72834 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Directives; SOCATA Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... (AD) for SOCATA Model TBM 700 airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory...

  2. 78 FR 1723 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...-227-AD; Amendment 39-17312; AD 2012-26-51] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes. This emergency AD was sent previously to all known U.S. owners and operators of these...

  3. 78 FR 46536 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... B4-600R series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of cracks found in the bottom...

  4. 78 FR 40057 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of certain sliding windows that...

  5. 78 FR 37498 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... Freighter, and -300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that a certain wire...

  6. 77 FR 11793 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... airplanes). (k) Terminating Action for AD 2007-03-18, Amendment 39-14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007..., Amendment 39-14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007), for that airplane. (l) Reporting Submit a report..., Amendment 39- 14929 (72 FR 5919, February 8, 2007)] was to mandate, for A300 and A300-600...

  7. 76 FR 50706 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes... SOCATA Model TBM 700 Airplanes. This proposed AD results from mandatory continuing...

  8. 77 FR 51729 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes..., A340-200 and A340-300 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report that revealed...

  9. 77 FR 69391 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... A310-204, -222, -304, -322, and -324 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by the manufacturer...

  10. 77 FR 19067 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation...-047-AD; Amendment 39-16992; AD 2012-06-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321-131, -211, -212, and -231 airplanes. This AD requires a rotating probe inspection for cracking...

  11. 77 FR 19065 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not affect intrastate...-057-AD; Amendment 39-16993; AD 2012-06-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires a detailed inspection for abnormalities of the ball...

  12. 77 FR 15636 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... Directives; Airbus Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., A319, and A320 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of unsuccessful...

  13. 76 FR 72350 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ..., A319, A320, and A321 airplanes. Since we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April..., Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April 14, 2008), With Revised Affected Airplanes Referenced Conditions (j... proposed AD. Discussion On March 31, 2008, we issued AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975,...

  14. 77 FR 16492 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports that some nuts installed on the wing, including...

  15. 78 FR 40074 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a determination that oxygen generators installed on...

  16. 77 FR 19071 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will...-056-AD; Amendment 39-16991; AD 2012-06-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A330-200, A330-300, A340-500, and A340-600 series airplanes. This AD requires a detailed inspection...

  17. 78 FR 39190 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... A321 series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a determination that certain special...

  18. Loudness models in the very low frequency range: application to the prediction of airplane cockpit noise comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Parizet, Etienne; Lermé, Fanette; Padayashi, Yogen; Collery, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise is a major design stake with respect to airline requirements for passenger and crew comfort. A study dealing with airplane cockpit noise annoyance had shown that loudness computed according to ISO 532-B standard was a good gauge of qualitative evaluation. This was not true for loudness computed according to ANSI S3.4 standard. It seems that this was due to differences of the two models for very low frequency sounds, as these models were adjusted to fit to different iso...

  19. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  20. 14 CFR 21.5 - Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. 21.5... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.5 Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (a) With each airplane or rotorcraft that was not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight...

  1. 14 CFR 91.821 - Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits... Noise Limits § 91.821 Civil supersonic airplanes: Noise limits. Except for Concorde airplanes having... airplane that does not comply with Stage 2 noise limits of part 36 in effect on October 13, 1977,...

  2. 14 CFR 91.853 - Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes... Noise Limits § 91.853 Final compliance: Civil subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in § 91.873, after... airplane subject to § 91.801(c) of this subpart, unless that airplane has been shown to comply with Stage...

  3. Airline return-on-investment model for technology evaluation. [computer program to measure economic value of advanced technology applied to passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This report presents the derivation, description, and operating instructions for a computer program (TEKVAL) which measures the economic value of advanced technology features applied to long range commercial passenger aircraft. The program consists of three modules; and airplane sizing routine, a direct operating cost routine, and an airline return-on-investment routine. These modules are linked such that they may be operated sequentially or individually, with one routine generating the input for the next or with the option of externally specifying the input for either of the economic routines. A very simple airplane sizing technique was previously developed, based on the Brequet range equation. For this program, that sizing technique has been greatly expanded and combined with the formerly separate DOC and ROI programs to produce TEKVAL.

  4. Enhancing board effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Connie R; Totten, Mary K

    2010-01-01

    Like any other job, board work is associated with specific competencies. Competencies are the combination of knowledge, skills, personal characteristics, and behaviors needed to perform a job or task effectively. Boards are only as strong as their weakest member. Board education should focus on improving the knowledge and skills of the board and individual members and on overall board performance. Assessment of individual board member performance is designed to evaluate the trustee's knowledge of board roles and responsibilities and the expectations of board members. Board effectiveness is built through competency-based board member recruitment and selection; board member education and development; and evaluation of board, board member, and meeting performance. PMID:21291066

  5. Visual servoing of an airplane for auto-landing

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquardez, O.; Chaumette, François

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this paper, a visual servoing scheme is proposed to control an airplane during its landing. A linearized model of the airplane dynamics and decoupled visual features are used to build the control scheme. A desired trajectory which takes into account the airplane dynamic is designed. Coupling this trajectory and the control law enables the airplane to join its desired path. Then the airplane is controlled to follow the glide path, realize the flare manoeuvre and fi...

  6. Landing and Braking of Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Louis

    1929-01-01

    In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

  7. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members, representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research. They are from 47 countries, including Argentina (3), Australia (13), Austria (4), Belarus (1), Belgium (3), Brazil (10), Canada (10), China (41), Czech Republic (1), Denmark (1), Egypt (3), Estonia (1), Finland

  8. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2011-2015 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark

  9. Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers during some Czechoslovak airlines commercial flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers on boards of Czechoslovak Airlines (CSA) subsonic aircraft was studied. It was found that the exposure levels depends on flights altitude, changes also with geographical position (latitude and longitude). Measurements were performed during 1991 to 1993 years; i.e. at the period of sun maximum and immediately after it. Total dose equivalent rates did not exceed 10 μSv per hour of flight. An increasing of its level with decreasing sun activity has been already registered. (orig.)

  10. F-16XL Airplane Research Paint Scheme Aerials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA F-16XL research airplane is shown in flight over Eastern Shore of Virginia During the Cranked-Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project (CAWAP). The aircraft is shown in the research paint scheme utilized for on-surface flow visualization. During CAWAP, tufts, oil, and liquid crystals were used to document the flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings. The images were recorded by onboard video cameras and hand-held video and still cameras in a chase aircraft. The visual images are being correlated with on board measurements of surface pressures, boundary-layer velocity profiles, and skin friction. Ultimately, the in-flight data will be combined with wind-tunnel results and computational-fluid-dynamics solutions to document the aerodynamics of cranked-arrow wings. CAWAP is a cooperative venture of the Langley Research Center and the Dryden Flight Research Center.

  11. Considerations for Passenger Transport by Advanced Spaceplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Scott, J. L.; Harrison, M.; Woodrow, A. D.

    One of the strongest incentives to space industry development in the 21st century is likely to be space tourism. At present the greatest handicaps to the exploitation of this opportunity are the prohibitive cost of access to space (few tourists could afford the ticket) and safety (astronautics remains an inherently dangerous occupation). This paper addresses both of these issues. First, the characteristics required of a vehicle suitable for carrying passengers into space are discussed in the context of the SKYLON spaceplane concept. Attention is focused on the design of the cabin module. Then the needs of the passengers are considered both from the perspectives of safety (the unique environmental hazards), health, and comfort. The paper concludes with a review of the key issues.

  12. Passenger comfort technology for system decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    Decisions requiring passenger comfort technology were shown to depend on: the relationship between comfort and other factors (e.g., cost, urgency, alternate modes) in traveler acceptance of the systems, serving a selected market require technology to quantify effects of comfort versus offsetting factors in system acceptance. Public predict the maximum percentage of travelers who willingly accept the overall comfort of any trip ride. One or the other of these technology requirements apply to decisions on system design, operation and maintenance.

  13. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqian Qu; Jinfu Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the dif...

  14. Hydrogen in Passenger Transport: A macroeconomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mennel, Tim; Jokisch, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen is often seen as a promising future energy carrier given the major reliance of today?s transport sector on finite fossil fuels. This working paper assesses the macroeconomic effects of introducing hydrogen as fuel in passenger transport within the framework of the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model PACE-T(H2). Our simulation results suggest small improvements in the macroeconomic performance in almost all European countries from the introduction of hydrogen. The magnitude of ...

  15. Disruption management in passenger railway transportation.

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen-Groth, J.; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, J.; Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Maróti, Gábor; Nielsen, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an o...

  16. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics such as shu...

  17. Operations research in passenger railway transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics as shuntin...

  18. 14 CFR 121.331 - Supplemental oxygen requirements for pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. 121.331 Section 121.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND... pressurized cabin airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered airplanes. (a) When operating a reciprocating...

  19. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  20. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  1. Airplane impacts on reinforced concrete shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of nonlinear and ultimate load finite element analyses of reinforced concrete shells subject to airplane impact loads are presented. Algorithmic difficulties and impact-release conditions are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Installing paparazzi autopilot into a model airplane

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor degree study explores the open source Autopilot “Paparazzi” that was installed into a model airplane. The aim for this was to get the model airplane to fly short flight and study what difficulties there are in a project like this. The field of UAV research is innovative and number of companies selling ready UAV products is growing, also many education institutes and amateurs are making their own implementations of UAVs. Paparazzi autopilot is a complete system of hardware a...

  3. EMI Standards for Wireless Voice and Data on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.

    2002-01-01

    The use of portable electronic devices (PEDs) on board aircraft continues to be an increasing source of misunderstanding between passengers and flight-crews, and consequently, an issue of controversy between wireless product manufacturers and air transport regulatory authorities. This conflict arises primarily because of the vastly different regulatory objectives between commercial product and airborne equipment standards for avoiding electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper summarizes international regulatory limits and test processes for measuring spurious radiated emissions from commercially available PEDs, and compares them to international standards for airborne equipment. The goal is to provide insight for wireless product developers desiring to extend the freedom of their customers to use wireless products on-board aircraft, and to identify future product characteristics, test methods and technologies that may facilitate improved wireless freedom for airline passengers.

  4. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    2012-2016 The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery Editorial Board consists of 341 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in pediatrics.They are from 37 countries,including Australia(6),Austria(2),Belgium(6),Brazil(9),Bulgaria(2),Canada(8),China(29),Denmark(1),Finland(2),France(9),Germany(21),Greece(7),India(11),Ireland(3),Israel(3),Italy(50),Jamaica(1),Japan(47),Lithuania(1),Malaysia(1),Netherlands(11),Pakistan(1),Poland(1),Portugal(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(1),Serbia(2),Singapore(5),South Korea(8),Spain(5),Sweden(2),Switzerland(3),Thailand(2),Tunisia(1),Turkey(8),United Kingdom(11),and United States(59).

  5. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Michael; Morrosch, Stephan; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation fo...

  6. 77 FR 2238 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will not... Industries PC-6 airplanes, Fairchild Heli Porter PC-6 airplanes, or Fairchild-Hiller Corporation...

  7. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Water vapour (H2O) and NOx emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  8. Editorial Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    2011-2015The World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics Editorial Board consists of 411 members,representing a team of worldwide experts in surgery research.They are from 47 countries,including Argentina(3),Australia(13),Austria(4),Belarus(1),Belgium(3),Brazil(10),Canada(10),China(41),Czech Republic(1),Denmark(1),Egypt(3),Estonia(1),Finland(1),France(5),Germany(21),Greece(6),Hungary(4),India(18),Iran(6),Ireland(1),Israel(4),Italy(35),Japan(34),Lebanon(1),Lithuania(3),Mexico(2),Netherlands(10),New Zealand(2),Norway(2),Pakistan(2),Philippines(1),Poland(3),Portugal(2),Romania(1),Russia(1),Saudi Arabia(2),Singapore(3),Slovenia(1),South Africa(1),South Korea(16),Spain(13),Sweden(3),Switzerland(1),Thailand(4),Turkey(7),United Kingdom(20),and United States(84).

  9. 14 CFR 121.141 - Airplane flight manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 121.141 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Manual Requirements § 121.141 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved airplane flight manual for each type...

  10. 78 FR 23458 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... CONTACT: Tom Rodriguez, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, Washington... Dassault Aviation Model FALCON 7X airplanes. This AD requires revising the aircraft flight manual...

  11. 14 CFR 121.303 - Airplane instruments and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane instruments and equipment. 121.303... Airplane instruments and equipment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, the instrument and equipment... airspeed limitation and item of related information in the Airplane Flight Manual and pertinent...

  12. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a...

  13. 14 CFR 121.161 - Airplane limitations: Type of route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations: Type of route. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.161 Airplane... specifications, no certificate holder may operate a turbine-engine-powered airplane over a route that contains...

  14. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Performance § 23.71 Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  15. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  16. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  17. Nonlinear analysis of a reactor building for airplane impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose is to analyze the influence of material nonlinear behavior on the response of a reinforced concrete reactor building and on equipment response for airplane impact loadings. Two analyses are performed: first, the impact of a slow-flying commercial airplane (Boeing 707), then the impact of a fast flying military airplane (Phantom). (orig./HP)

  18. 14 CFR 121.503 - Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes... Operations § 121.503 Flight time limitations: Pilots: airplanes. (a) A certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot to fly in an airplane for eight hours or less during any...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  20. 78 FR 42417 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... during production could reduce the structural integrity of the airplane. We are issuing this AD to... faulty rivets installed in the airframes during production could reduce the structural integrity of the airplane. We are issuing this AD to ensure the structural integrity of the airplane. (f) Actions...

  1. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... all cars. Emergency lighting power sources that include batteries located under passenger cars may not... was codified as a Federal regulatory requirement for all passenger cars in 1999. See 64 FR 25540. FRA... recent accidents support NTSB's implied concern that placement of electrical conduits and battery...

  2. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  3. 14 CFR 121.573 - Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing passengers: Extended overwater... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.573 Briefing passengers: Extended overwater operations. (a) In addition to the oral briefing required by §...

  4. NECESSITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND INTRODUCTION OF PASSENGER COMPLEX COMMERCIAL SERVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, U.; Dergousova, A.

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of development and introduction of complex commercial services is in-process considered for the passenger economy of railways. Expediency of their development is shown with the purpose of increase of profitableness and diminishing of losses of passenger transportations.

  5. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. See 76 FR 41726. You may review comments to... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger... (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline...

  6. 46 CFR 122.506 - Passenger safety orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger safety orientation. 122.506 Section 122.506... Preparations for Emergencies § 122.506 Passenger safety orientation. (a) Except as allowed by paragraphs (b... requested to don life jackets and go to the appropriate embarkation station during the safety...

  7. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  8. 75 FR 739 - Use of Additional Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ..., ``Use of Certain Portable Oxygen Concentrator Devices on Board Aircraft'' (70 FR 40156). SFAR 106 is the result of a notice the FAA published in July 2004 (69 FR 42324) to address the needs of passengers who... Inogen, Inc.'s Inogen One POCs. SFAR 106 was amended on September 12, 2006, (71 FR 53954) to add...

  9. Level of Service Analysis Based on Maximum Number of Passengers in Waiting Room of Railway Passenger Station Using Arena Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of service is an important aspect of the operation and management at a railway passenger station. Particularly, the level of service in waiting room (LOSWR is one of the most important influential factors in deciding passengers’ satisfaction. This paper proposes a model for finding the LOSWR based on the maximum number of passengers, and an Arena simulation model that simulates passengers’ aggregation behaviors in the waiting room is presented for analyzing the LOSWR. Through the simulation, we demonstrate how the passenger advanced arrival time and the accompany rate influence the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR. In addition, the simulation also illustrates the effect utilities and the priority of different measures that can be used to improve the LOSWR. In detail, the simulation results demonstrate that the passenger advanced arrival time and advanced check-out time have much stronger effect utilities on the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR than other discussed factors. The simulation suggests that the Arena is an effective simulation platform for analyzing complex passengers-related behaviors at railway passenger station.

  10. 49 CFR 39.29 - May PVOs limit the number of passengers with a disability on a passenger vessel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mobility disability on your vessel. However, if in the Captain's judgment, weight or stability issues are presented by the presence of mobility devices and would conflict with legitimate safety requirements pertaining to the vessel and its passengers, then the number of passengers with mobility aids may be...

  11. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  12. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  13. Inferring Passenger Type from Commuter Eigentravel Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Legara, Erika Fille

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient knowledge of the demographics of a commuting public is essential in formulating and implementing more targeted transportation policies, as commuters exhibit different ways of traveling. With the advent of the Automated Fare Collection system (AFC), probing the travel patterns of commuters has become less invasive and more accessible. Consequently, numerous transport studies related to human mobility have shown that these observed patterns allow one to pair individuals with locations and/or activities at certain times of the day. However, classifying commuters using their travel signatures is yet to be thoroughly examined. Here, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating a procedure to characterize passenger types (Adult, Child/Student, and Senior Citizen) based on their three-month travel patterns taken from a smart fare card system. We first establish a method to construct distinct commuter matrices, which we refer to as eigentravel matrices, that capture the characteristic travel routines...

  14. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS. These...... are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  15. Demand Discipline of Air Transportation for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqian Qu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China is taken for an example to research demand discipline of air transportation for passengers in this paper. The discipline includes three parts: demand generation, distribution and flow. First of all, the key factors influencing demand generation are got with information entropy. A threshold is set to choose more important factors and weights of these factors are calculated at the same time. Contribution rate of a factor is definedto analyze the difference of the factors for different city. By comparing demand distribution with airports’ throughput, we can analyze the demand flow. There are some conclusions. The factors have different contribution rate to different city for demand generation. Aircraft movement is the most important factor influencing demand flow. It provides more accurate basis for market positioning and developing, airport layout in a multi-airport system.

  16. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...... between model, data and estimation are described, with a focus of possibilities/limitations of different techniques. Two special issues of modelling are addressed in further detail, namely data segmentation and estimation of Mixed Logit models. Both issues are concerned with whether individuals can be...... assumed ’homogeneous’, that is, can be described by the same model (fixed coefficients). First, a new method for data segmentation is proposed, which segments data by individual preferences. Segmentation by individual preferences will diminish the severeness of the assumed homogeneity of individuals...

  17. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  18. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... levels. The model validity is strongly asserted by the fact that the forecasting results for 2000 exhibit a very good fir to the observed car and public transport traffic, and that some modfel results (e.g. car driving cost elesticity) match the results from other well established models well. This paper...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well the...

  19. Stresses Produced in Airplane Wings by Gusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussner, Hans Georg

    1932-01-01

    Accurate prediction of gust stress being out of the question because of the multiplicity of the free air movements, the exploration of gust stress is restricted to static method which must be based upon: 1) stress measurements in free flight; 2) check of design specifications of approved type airplanes. With these empirical data the stress must be compared which can be computed for a gust of known intensity and structure. This "maximum gust" then must be so defined as to cover the whole ambit of empiricism and thus serve as prediction for new airplane designs.

  20. Atmospheric electron flux at airplane altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a new detector to systematically measure the cosmic-ray electron flux at airplane altitudes. We loaded a lead-glass-based electron telescope onto a commercial cargo airplane. The first experiment was carried out using the air route between Narita (Japan) and Sydney (Australia); during this flight we measured the electron flux at various altitudes and latitudes. The thresholds of the electron energies were 1, 2, and 4 GeV. The results agree with a simple estimation using one-dimensional shower theory. A comparison with a Monte Carlo calculation was made

  1. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  2. Headache attributed to airplane travel (“airplane headache”: first italian case

    OpenAIRE

    Mainardi, Federico; Lisotto, Carlo; Palestini, Claudia; Sarchielli, Paola; Maggioni, Ferdinando; Zanchin, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    A new form of headache, whose attacks seem to be stereotyped, has been recently reported; because of the peculiarity of its onset, strictly related to airplane travel, the name of “Airplane headache” was proposed. A total of 7 cases have been published. Here we present the first Italian one. Furthermore the revision of the clinical characteristics of each patient leads us to propose provisional diagnostic criteria.

  3. European type-approval test procedure for evaporative emissions from passenger cars against real-world mobility data from two Italian provinces

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINI Giorgio; PAFFUMI Elena; DE GENNARO MICHELE; MELLIOS Giorgos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the European type-approval test procedure for evaporative emissions from passenger cars based on real-world mobility data. The study relies on two large databases of driving patterns from conventional fuel vehicles collected by means of on-board GPS systems in the Italian provinces of Modena and Firenze. Approximately 28,000 vehicles were monitored, corresponding to approximately 36 million kilometres over a period of one month. The driving pat...

  4. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Petersen, Bjørn; Røpke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost, by...... modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  5. 77 FR 14314 - Airworthiness Directives; SOCATA Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Albert Mercado, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small Airplane..., the U.S. regulatory system requires all actions of this AD to be done by a certified mechanic....

  6. 78 FR 66861 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... required repetitive inspections to check the play of the eye-end of the piston rod of the elevator servo... piston rod of the elevator servo controls, which could result in failure of the elevator servo-control... replacing certain retraction brackets of the main landing gear; and revising the airplane flight...

  7. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  8. 78 FR 70207 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... (FR) 41 and FR 46, on one A300-600 aeroplane a crack was detected in the area 2 of the foot of frame... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dan Rodina, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Discussion We issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part...

  9. 78 FR 78294 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Vladimir Ulyanov, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane...-1149. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Comments Invited We invite you to send any written relevant data... specified products. The MCAI states: During Final Assembly Line tests on an A330 aeroplane, the...

  10. 78 FR 64162 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... of the mask tube at the end of the oxygen supply causing a high temperature oxygen generator and mask... of supplemental oxygen. DATES: This AD becomes effective December 2, 2013. The Director of the...: Sanjay Ralhan, Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate,...

  11. 78 FR 31386 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... 2010-02-10, Amendment 39-16181 (75 FR 4477, January 28, 2010)): Not earlier than 2,500 flight cycles or...- 16181 (75 FR 4477, January 28, 2010)): Not earlier than 2,500 flight cycles or 22 months from the..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton,...

  12. 78 FR 8054 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...-07, Amendment 39-13741 (69 FR 44592, July 27, 2004). For airplanes on which Airbus Modification 5106...-07, Amendment 39-13741 (69 FR 44592, July 27, 2004). That AD required actions intended to address an... (69 FR 44592, July 27, 2004), the manufacturer has done a reassessment of the previous...

  13. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial...

  14. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). Except for airplanes on which Airbus Modification 34804... publications listed in this AD as of January 11, 2011 (75 FR 75878, December 7, 2010). ADDRESSES: You may... 14, 2013 (78 FR 28152), and proposed to supersede AD 2010-24-07, Amendment 39-16526 (75 FR...

  15. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25...

  16. Operation peculiarities of airplane brake systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Г. Докучаев

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed is the loading of airplane brake systems. Complex methods are proposed for investi­gation of highly loaded brake systems. The results of investigation of the influence of various factors on technical condition of friction units are given

  17. 78 FR 78694 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ..., Amendment 39-16068 (74 FR 62208, November 27, 2009)), whichever occurs first. (B) For airplanes on which... as of December 14, 2009 (74 FR 62208, November 27, 2009). ADDRESSES: You may examine the AD docket on... products. The NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 8, 2013 (78 FR 26716), and proposed...

  18. 77 FR 2928 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Airbus Model A310 series...

  19. Safety and design in airplane construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Alfred

    1934-01-01

    The author gives a survey of the principles of stress analysis and design of airplane structures, and discusses the fundamental strength specifications and their effect on the stress analysis as compared with the safety factors used in other branches of engineering.

  20. Radiation exposure of airplane crews. Exposure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even at normal height levels of modern jet airplanes, the flying crew is exposed to a radiation level which is higher by several factors than the terrestrial radiation. There are several ways in which this can be hazardous; the most important of these is the induction of malignant growths, i.e. tumours. (orig./MG)

  1. 77 FR 60325 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...) of AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April 14, 2008). For airplanes on which none of... published in the Federal Register on November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72350). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2008-08-04, Amendment 39-15456 (73 FR 19975, April 14, 2008), which superseded AD...

  2. 78 FR 71992 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ..., Amendment 39-14523 (71 FR 15023, March 27, 2006). For Model A318-111 and -112 airplanes; Model ] A319-111... as of May 1, 2006 (71 FR 15023, March 27, 2006). ADDRESSES: You may examine the AD docket on the... published in the Federal Register on August 20, 2013 (78 FR 51117), and proposed to supersede AD...

  3. 78 FR 21227 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... SNPRM (77 FR 55163, September 7, 2012) be changed from ``* * * first flight of the airplane,'' to... specified products. That SNPRM was published in the Federal Register on September 7, 2012 (77 FR 55163... consistent with the intent that was proposed in the SNPRM (77 FR 55163, September 7, 2012) for correcting...

  4. 77 FR 63716 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Amendment 39-16097 (74 FR 62219, November 27, 2009). For Model A318-111 and -112 airplanes, and Model A319... this AD as of December 14, 2009 (74 FR 62219, November 27, 2009). The Director of the Federal Register..., 2007 (72 FR 40222, July 24, 2007). ADDRESSES: You may examine the AD docket on the Internet at...

  5. 78 FR 79292 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... and A340-642 airplanes), and installing ground fault interrupters to the center tank fuel pump control... corresponds to FAA AD 2007-14-01, Amendment 39-15123, (72 FR 38006, July 12, 2007)] to require compliance with... 2007-14-01, Amendment 39-15123, (72 FR 38006, July 12, 2007)] to require compliance with FAL...

  6. 77 FR 48425 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... that Ground Fault Interrupters (GFI) are installed into the electrical power supply circuits of fuel... protection is to electrically isolate the pump if a ground fault condition occurs downstream of the GFI. The..., 2012 (for Model A340-200 and -300 series airplanes); to include a test procedure for a certain...

  7. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, (Sweden); Laurikko, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Ryden, C. [Tima, (Sweden)

    1998-11-01

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm`s Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV`s and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Emission characteristics when using bioethanol as a fuel for passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991 the Swedish Transport and Communication Research Board (KFB), was asked by the Swedish Government to carry out investigations and field tests in order to demonstrate the possibility of using bioethanol and biogas as automotive fuels. A five-year programme was set up for the investigations and demonstrations and the programme was later extended to a seven-year programme. Despite the fact that most of the work has been directed towards heavy-duty vehicles and especially buses in city traffic some important investigations have been carried out in order to demonstrate the use of bioethanol and biogas in passenger cars. The programme for passenger cars has consisted of running and testing 53 Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFV), fuelled with bioethanol (E85), a project run by the Swedish Ethanol Development Foundation, and 20 other cars fuelled with biogas, a project carried out by the City of Stockholm's Material Supply Organisation, and sponsored by KFB. For both fleets of vehicles the exhaust emissions have been extensively characterised at a laboratory in Finland owned by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim of this paper is to present some interesting results from the demonstrations of the use of E85 in FFV's and thereby especially focus on the results of the characterisation of both regulated and non-regulated emissions 23 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  9. [Flight and altitude medicine for anesthetists-part 3: emergencies on board commercial aircraft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürgen; Stüben, Uwe; Pump, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The demographic trend of industrialized societies is also reflected in commercial airlines' passengers: passengers are older nowadays and long-haul flights are routine mode of transport despite considerable chronic and acute medical conditions. Moreover, duration of non-stop flight routes and the number of passengers on board increase. Thus, the probability of a medical incident during a particular flight event increases, too.Due to international regulations minimum standards for medical equipment on board, and first aid training of the crews are set. However, it is often difficult to assess whether a stopover at a nearby airport can improve the medical care of a critically ill passenger. Besides flight operations and technical aspects, the medical infrastructure on the ground has to be considered carefully.Regardless of the amount of experience of a physician medical emergencies on board an aircraft usually represent a particular challenge. This is mainly due to the unfamiliar surroundings, the characteristics of the cabin atmosphere, the often existing cultural and language barriers and legal liability concerns. PMID:23633251

  10. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  11. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...... modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired by the...... express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen Area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger waiting times in the network of 10-20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining largely unaffected....

  12. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    2013-01-01

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost, by...... modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...... by the express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger transfer waiting times in the network of up to 20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining mostly unaffected....

  13. 14 CFR 121.205 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.205 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  14. Marginalizing Out Future Passengers in Group Elevator Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nikovski, Daniel N.; Brand, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Group elevator scheduling is an NP-hard sequential decision-making problem with unbounded state spaces and substantial uncertainty. Decision-theoretic reasoning plays a surprisingly limited role in fielded systems. A new opportunity for probabilistic methods has opened with the recent discovery of a tractable solution for the expected waiting times of all passengers in the building, marginalized over all possible passenger itineraries. Though commercially competitive, this solution does not c...

  15. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental acco...

  16. ACTIVE VIBRATION ISOLATION OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION IN RAILWAY PASSENGER CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander SŁADKOWSKI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt of numerical description of the active vibration isolation system of railway passenger car. Computer simulations were performed for different speeds of the passenger car riding along the same track. Formal basis to solve the formulated research problem was achieved by using the law and the principles of mechanics and control theory. Model results clearly indicate that the use of active vibration reduction systems in rail transport can significantly increase comfort

  17. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Dou Dou; Jie Xu; Li Wang; Limin Jia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during...

  18. Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal. PMID:20093000

  19. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  20. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Perturbed Motion of Airplane and Safe Store Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Raisinghani

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented to predict the perturbed motion of an airplane following stores jettisoning. The mass, moment of inertia, forces, and moments acting on the airplane are suitable split into contributions from the stores and the rest of the airplane parts. The seperation of stores is assumed to result in a step change of mass, moment of intertai, forces, and moments contributed by stores. The resulting set of perturbed state equations of motion are solved for two illustrative airplane stroes combination. A criterion is evolved to qualitatively indicate locations for safe store separation. It is suggested that the present method be used to predict airplane perturbed motion following stores separation for a given airplane store combination and results be used in conjunction with store trajectory analysis for finally declaring a store location as safe unsafe.

  2. Open-Source Conceptual Sizing Models for the Hyperloop Passenger Pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey C.; Gray, Justin S.; Jones, Scott M.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperloop is a new mode of transportation proposed as an alternative to California's high speed rail project, with the intended benefits of higher performance at lower overall costs. It consists of a passenger pod traveling through a tube under a light vacuum and suspended on air bearings. The pod travels up to transonic speeds resulting in a 35 minute travel time between the intended route from Los Angeles and San Francisco. Of the two variants outlined, the smaller system includes a 1.1 meter tall passenger capsule traveling through a 2.2 meter tube at 700 miles per hour. The passenger pod features water-based heat exchangers as well as an on-board compression system that reduces the aerodynamic drag as it moves through the tube. Although the original proposal looks very promising, it assumes that tube and pod dimensions are independently sizable without fully acknowledging the constraints of the compressor system on the pod geometry. This work focuses on the aerodynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the two largest systems; the tube and the pod. Using open-source toolsets, a new sizing method is developed based on one-dimensional thermodynamic relationships that accounts for the strong interactions between these sub-systems. These additional considerations require a tube nearly twice the size originally considered and limit the maximum pod travel speed to about 620 miles per hour. Although the results indicate that Hyperloop will need to be larger and slightly slower than originally intended, the estimated travel time only increases by approximately five minutes, so the overall performance is not dramatically affected. In addition, the proposed on-board heat exchanger is not an ideal solution to achieve reasonable equilibrium air temperatures within the tube. Removal of this subsystem represents a potential reduction in weight, energy requirements and complexity of the pod. In light of these finding, the core concept still remains a compelling

  3. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control o...

  4. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  5. 14 CFR 135.177 - Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. 135.177 Section 135.177... § 135.177 Emergency equipment requirements for aircraft having a passenger seating configuration of more than 19 passengers. (a) No person may operate an aircraft having a passenger seating...

  6. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  7. 77 FR 53159 - Passenger Use of Portable Electronic Devices on Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo... transmitting and receiving signals wirelessly using radio waves, such as Wi-Fi,\\4\\ Bluetooth,\\5\\ and various... Engineers' (IEEE) 802.11 standards.'' Wi-Fi is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance. \\5\\ Bluetooth is...

  8. Investigations of doses on board commercial passenger aircraft using CR-39 and thermoluminescent detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horwacik, T.; Bilski, P.; Olko, P.; Spurný, František; Turek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, 1-4 (2004), s. 377-380. ISSN 0144-8420 Grant ostatní: EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : Aircrew * thermoluminescent detectors * environmental measurements Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2003

  9. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  10. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage...

  11. Airplane impact on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short report on investigations of nuclear power plants under airplane attack is given. It concerns the modeling of planes with regard to mass and stiffness, the relevant plane velocity and finally the determination of load-time functions. The necessary analysis of the concrete containment structure is shortly addressed. Finally a proposal for a structure to keep planes from such building structures is discussed. (author)

  12. Strong managers, weak boards?

    OpenAIRE

    Renee B. Adams; Ferreira, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Many governance reform proposals are based on the view that boards have been too friendly to executives, for example, by awarding them excessive pay. Although boards are often on friendly terms with executives, it is less clear that they have systematically failed to function in the interests of shareholders. Understanding board monitoring requires a theory of boards that takes into account how firms provide incentives for their Chief Executive Officer's (CEOs) through other means. We develop...

  13. Board independence and competence

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Alexander F

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes board independence and competence as distinct, but inextricably linked aspects of board effectiveness. Competent directors add shareholder value because they have better information about the quality of projects. While a CEO cares about shareholder value, he also wants his board to behave loyally to him by agreeing to projects that give him private benefits. Because many aspects of the CEO-board relationship are not contractible, the paper studies a model of relational con...

  14. Scrum Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oord, Stefan; van de Goor, Wim

    The Scrum Board Game is a workshop for beginners. It is for people with any role (customer, developer, tester, etc.), who don’t exactly know what a Scrum Board is, or how to create one themselves. The workshop teaches the benefits of a Scrum Board, how to use it, and how to introduce it in projects.

  15. Training Circuit Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Young Electronics Company's new product is a testboard developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a tool for training and qualifying personnel in board assembly and in the art of soldering components without damaging boards or components. The boards are used for pre- employment testing and employee requalification.

  16. MiBoard: Multiplayer Interactive Board Game

    CERN Document Server

    Dempsey, Kyle B; Jackson, G Tanner; Boonthum, Chutima; Levinstein, Irwin B; McNamara, Danielle S

    2010-01-01

    Serious games have recently emerged as an avenue for curriculum delivery. Serious games incorporate motivation and entertainment while providing pointed curriculum for the user. This paper presents a serious game, called MiBoard, currently being developed from the iSTART Intelligent Tutoring System. MiBoard incorporates a multiplayer interaction that iSTART was previously unable to provide. This multiplayer interaction produces a wide variation across game trials, while also increasing the repeat playability for users. This paper presents a demonstration of the MiBoard system and the expectations for its application.

  17. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  18. Some Practical Design Aspects of Appendages for Passenger Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hag Soo; Lee, Hwa Joon; Joo, Young Ryeol; Kim, Jung Joong; Chun, Ho Hwan

    2009-09-01

    The hydrodynamic effect of appendages for high-speed passenger vessels, such as Ro-Pax, Ro-Ro and cruiser vessels, is very severe and, therefore, it is essential to carry out the design of appendages for high-speed passenger vessels from the preliminary design stage to the final detail design stage through a full survey of the reference vessels together with sufficient technical investigation. Otherwise, many problems would be caused by mismatches between the appendages and the hull form. This paper investigates the design characteristics of some appendages, such as the side thruster, the shaft-strut, and the stern wedge, based on the design experience accumulated at Samsung, on CFD, and on model test results for high-speed passenger vessels. Further to this investigation, some practical and valuable design guidelines for such appendages are suggested.

  19. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  20. On the take-off of heavily loaded airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Louis

    1928-01-01

    This report examines the take-off conditions of airplanes equipped with tractive propellers, and particularly the more difficult take-off of airplanes heavily loaded per unit of wing area (wing loading) or per unit of engine power (power loading).

  1. 78 FR 61220 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...) Subject Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 27, Flight Controls. (e) Reason This AD was..., International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW., Renton, WA 98057-3356... necessary. This proposed AD would require revising the airplane flight manual (AFM) to include procedures...

  2. Variable-Structure Control of a Model Glider Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    A variable-structure control system designed to enable a fuselage-heavy airplane to recover from spin has been demonstrated in a hand-launched, instrumented model glider airplane. Variable-structure control is a high-speed switching feedback control technique that has been developed for control of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  3. 78 FR 7647 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... trunnions will lead to a disconnect of the horizontal stabilizer and subsequent loss of the aeroplane...-2B19 (Regional Jet Series 100 & 440) airplanes. This AD was prompted by a report that the safe life... stabilizer and subsequent loss of controllability of the airplane. DATES: This AD becomes effective March...

  4. 78 FR 25905 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... airplane is operated long enough without any intervention. The FAA's WFD final rule (75 FR 69746, November... fly an airplane beyond its LOV, unless an extended LOV is approved. The WFD rule (75 FR 69746... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4)...

  5. 78 FR 21854 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... certain The Boeing Company Model 747-400 and -400F series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  6. 14 CFR 91.805 - Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. 91... § 91.805 Final compliance: Subsonic airplanes. Except as provided in §§ 91.809 and 91.811, on and after January 1, 1985, no person may operate to or from an airport in the United States any subsonic...

  7. Prospect of atomic airplane and mini-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History of R and D of atomic airplane was reviewed. inclusive of problem and actuality, principle and attaching. Prospect of R and D of atomic airplane in China is described extensively. Some suggestions to the government and establishments were made as well. (authors)

  8. Boards to combine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The National Research Council's Board on Earth Sciences and the Board on Mineral and Energy Resources were eliminated during the summer by a decision of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, which oversees both bodies, and Frank Press, president of the National Academy of Sciences. The responsibilities of the two boards will be merged into a Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, not yet formed.Raphael Kasper, executive director of the Commission, said that the boards were dissolved for two reasons. “There's been a general trend within the Academy toward bringing together the pure and applied branches of particular sciences.” BES had dealt largely with basic Earth science research, while BMER had addressed questions related to mineral resources, land use, and public policy. The Space Science Board and the Space Applications Board, also under the jurisdiction of the Commission, were combined this fall into a single body (Eos, October 18, p. 961).

  9. 14 CFR 121.177 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.177 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may takeoff that airplane unless it...

  10. 14 CFR 121.185 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.185 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight on arrival, allowing...

  11. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  12. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  13. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane...

  14. 14 CFR 91.863 - Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base... Noise Limits § 91.863 Transfers of Stage 2 airplanes with base level. (a) Stage 2 airplanes may be... the corresponding number of Stage 2 airplanes. (b) No portion of a U.S. operator's base...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1045 - Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... powered airplanes. 23.1045 Section 23.1045 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Cooling § 23.1045 Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes. (a) Compliance with § 23.1041 must be shown for all phases of operation. The airplane must...

  16. Cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebende, G. F.; Filho, A. Machado

    2009-12-01

    We study in this paper a cross-correlation between time series of vehicles and passengers collected in the ferry-boat system (sea route that connects the city of Salvador and Itaparica island, Bahia, Brazil), this study is based on the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) method. The DCCA method is designed to investigate power-law cross correlations between different simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity. Here in this paper we show that is possible to discriminate cross-correlation between vehicles and passengers and also identify seasonal components.

  17. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  18. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristache, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistical analysis of the main indicators concerning passenger transport for the southern part of Romania, respectively for the historical provinces Muntenia (excluding Bucharest Municipality and Oltenia.

  19. Competitiveness of rail in long-distance passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Knotek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This master's thesis describes the current state of passenger rail transport and the most important long-distance projects in Europe in the 20th century. It also deals with current changes in the European rail market and its further development. The aim of this master's thesis is to analyze the state of long-distance rail passenger transport in the Czech Republic and abroad, a general view on the high speed rail, which is described in terms of its development, technology, benefits and costs a...

  20. 76 FR 12405 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... (radios). Airfield vault replacement. Flight information display system. Airport master plan update... of PFC notice of intent. Construct passenger terminal replacement: terminal building structure and enclosure (phase 2: bid package 1A). Construct passenger terminal replacement: terminal building...

  1. Comparison of cosmic rays radiation detectors on-board commercial jet aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircrew members and passengers are exposed to increased rates of cosmic radiation on-board commercial jet aircraft. The annual effective doses of crew members often exceed limits for public, thus it is recommended to monitor them. In general, the doses are estimated via various computer codes and in some countries also verified by measurements. This paper describes a comparison of three cosmic rays detectors, namely of the (a) HAWK Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter; (b) Liulin semiconductor energy deposit spectrometer and (c) TIMEPIX silicon semiconductor pixel detector, exposed to radiation fields on-board commercial Czech Airlines company jet aircraft. Measurements were performed during passenger flights from Prague to Madrid, Oslo, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg and Almaty, and back in July and August 2011. For all flights, energy deposit spectra and absorbed doses are presented. Measured absorbed dose and dose equivalent are compared with the EPCARD code calculations. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of all detectors are discussed. (authors)

  2. 空调客车外翻转型车窗的设计%Design of Eversible Window for Air-conditioning Passenger Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐剑波; 杨佳宙; 赵跃; 黄东云; 曾俊延

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design idea of eversible flashing board in the food truck, a design scheme of eversible window for the air-conditioning passenger car was designed, and a physical model was made. The eversible window frame can be controlled by the electromagnetic relay and window fault prevention device. It provides the possibility for passengers escaping in case of emergency.%基于流动餐车的外翻转遮雨板的设计灵感,提出了空调客车外翻转型车窗的设计方案,制作出了实物模型,通过电磁继电器以及车窗防故障装置控制可外翻转车窗框,为空调客车发生意外时逃生提供了可能。

  3. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Dingjun Chen; Shaoquan Ni; Chang’an Xu; Hongxia Lv; Simin Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model i...

  4. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  5. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  6. 76 FR 14443 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY: Federal... for high-speed and intercity passenger rail projects. SUMMARY: This notice details the application requirements and procedures for obtaining funding under FRA's High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail...

  7. 75 FR 38343 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Transportation Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program; Notices #0;#0... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program AGENCY.... Agency Contact Appendix 1: Definition of High-Speed and Intercity Passenger Rail Appendix 2:...

  8. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  11. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... series airplane. The requirements in this SFAR are in addition to the requirements of 14 CFR parts 61, 91... CFR 91.109(b), and no passengers or cargo are carried on board the airplane. (c) A person is required.... (c) Satisfactory completion of the competency check required by 14 CFR 135.293 within the...

  12. 77 FR 153 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... capacity. See 64 FR 25598. As FRA was issuing comprehensive Federal requirements for passenger train safety... Preparedness (PTEP) final rule. See 63 FR 24629. The rule contains minimum Federal safety standards for the... rule. See 64 FR 25540. This rule established comprehensive safety standards for railroad...

  13. PASSENGER CAR MOTION RESISTANCE AT COAST-DOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rabinovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the real dependence of the movement resistance of a passenger car speed during the free coast-down is significantly different from the theoretical one. Partially, the differences can be eliminated by taking into account the loss of transmission idling.

  14. Autotransporters with GDSL passenger domains: molecular physiology and biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Susanne; Rosenau, Frank; Kolmar, Harald; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2011-07-01

    Autotransporters are large proteins produced and secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain, which typically harbours enzymatic activity and exerts a virulence function, and a C-terminal membrane anchor domain. Somehow, the membrane domain facilitates the transport of the passenger domain into the extracellular space. Several autotransporters possess hydrolase passenger domains that belong to the GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. GDSL autotransporters represent a functionally distinct family and are characterized by several features of their passenger domains; these include 1) the absence of a conserved right-handed parallel β-helix, 2) lipolytic activity, and thus the capability to hydrolyse membranes, and 3) covalent attachment to the respective C-terminal β-domain, with the hydrolase domain exposed to the exterior. The esterase EstA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a typical enzyme of this type. Its physiological role was studied, its potential biotechnological application has been demonstrated, and its crystal structure was solved recently. Furthermore, it is capable of displaying different classes of enzymes in a range of Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, and FACS-based high-throughput screening for enantioselective esterases could be achieved using EstA. PMID:21598370

  15. 49 CFR 177.870 - Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 177.870 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulations for passenger carrying vehicles. 177.870 Section 177.870 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND...

  16. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... the FAA issued an NPRM, Crewmember Requirements When Passengers Are Onboard (74 FR 3469; January 21... Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that would, if adopted... Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that proposes to change the...

  17. 14 CFR 121.571 - Briefing passengers before takeoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... citations affecting § 121.571, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Briefing passengers before takeoff. 121.571... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.571 Briefing...

  18. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published on September 7, 2011 (76 FR 55335), FRA proposed an alternate... in that list is the net cash used in operating activities per passenger-mile. FRA is making one... 44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979. FRA has prepared and placed in the docket a regulatory...

  19. Passenger Transportation and Travel Curriculum Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Carol

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course in passenger transportation and travel. The four-credit, competency-based program provides students with skills necessary to obtain employment in the aviation industry, travel agencies, hotel/motel management, and car rental agencies. An overview of vocational-technical education at the school…

  20. 75 FR 38877 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities: Passenger Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... transporting people. DOJ's regulations applicable to public accommodations apply to ensure nondiscrimination by... disability for almost every mode of passenger transportation, including public transportation (bus, subway..., 2007 (72 FR 2833). In response to the NPRM, hundreds of comments were received from disability...

  1. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger

    2011-01-01

    We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...

  2. Low-floor bus design preferences of walking aid users during simulated boarding and alighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James; Steinfeld, Edward; Bareria, Piyush

    2012-01-01

    Low-floor buses represent a significant improvement in accessible public transit for passengers with limited mobility. However, there is still a need for research on the inclusive design of transit buses to identify specific low-floor bus design conditions that are either particularly accommodating or challenging for passengers with functional and mobility impairments. These include doorway locations, seating configuration and the large front wheel-well covers that collectively impact boarding, alighting and interior movement of passengers. Findings from a laboratory study using a static full-scale simulation of a lowfloor bus to evaluate the impact of seating configuration and crowding on interior movement and accessibility for individuals with and without walking aids are presented (n=41). Simulated bus journeys that included boarding, fare payment, seating, and alighting were performed. Results from video observations and subjective assessments showed differences in boarding and alighting performance and users' perceptions of task difficulty. The need for assistive design features (e.g. handholds, stanchions), legroom and stowage space for walking aids was evident. These results demonstrate that specific design conditions in low-floor buses can significantly impact design preference among those who use walking aids. Consideration of ergonomics and inclusive design can therefore be used to improve the design of low-floor buses. PMID:22317485

  3. Simulation of Dynamics of a Flexible Miniature Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    A short report discusses selected aspects of the development of the University of Florida micro-aerial vehicle (UFMAV) basically, a miniature airplane that has a flexible wing and is representative of a new class of airplanes that would operate autonomously or under remote control and be used for surveillance and/or scientific observation. The flexibility of the wing is to be optimized such that passive deformation of the wing in the presence of aerodynamic disturbances would reduce the overall response of the airplane to disturbances, thereby rendering the airplane more stable as an observation platform. The aspect of the development emphasized in the report is that of computational simulation of dynamics of the UFMAV in flight, for the purpose of generating mathematical models for use in designing control systems for the airplane. The simulations are performed by use of data from a wind-tunnel test of the airplane in combination with commercial software, in which are codified a standard set of equations of motion of an airplane, and a set of mathematical routines to compute trim conditions and extract linear state space models.

  4. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  6. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  7. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  8. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one. PMID:15146740

  9. Holding Effective Board Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    Advice and tested methods for management of meetings from superintendents and board members are combined in this reference book on conducting effective school board meetings. Intended for a wide readership, it contains three chapters and an exhibit section comprising over one-third of the document. Following a brief introduction, chapter 1,…

  10. Board Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This guidance is produced to assist companies in understanding, and consequently managing, some of the major issues involved when considering how to carry out board performance evaluation. Different issues will apply to different companies, thus this guidance should not be considered as exhaustive. Hopefully it will trigger the thought processes so that boards may consider for themselves t...

  11. Atomic Energy Control Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been prepared to provide an overview of the responsibilities and activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is designed to address questions that are often asked concerning the establishment of the Atomic Energy Control Board, its enabling legislation, licensing and compliance activities, federal-provincial relationships, international obligations, and communications with the public

  12. Embracing an International Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new international stock board will soon be established in Shanghai,allowing foreign companies to list their businesses and tap into the China market China is moving closer to launching its own international stock board,a market for foreign companies to list their stocks in China,said Shang Fulin,

  13. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  14. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit...... analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far...... necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed...

  15. Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever to the wider scientific community in order to advise the relevant stakeholders in the decision and scale of a possible passenger trace back. Method The evidence was collected through review of published literature and through the views of an expert panel. The guidance was agreed by consensus. Results Only a few events of VHF cases during air travel are reported in literature, with no documented infection in followed up contacts, so that no evidence of transmission of VHF during air travel exists to date. Based on this and the expert opinion, it was recommended that passenger trace back was undertaken only if: the index case had symptoms during the flight; the flight was within 21 days after detection of the event; and for Lassa fever if exposure of body fluid has been reported. The trace back should only be done after confirmation of the index case. Passengers and crew with direct contact, seat neighbours (+/− 1 seat), crew and cleaning personal of the section of the index case should be included in the trace back. Conclusion No evidence has been found for the transmission of VHF in airplanes. This information should be taken into account, when a trace back decision has to be taken, because such a measure produces an enormous work load. The procedure suggested by the expert group can guide decisions made in future events, where a patient with suspected VHF infection travelled on a plane. However, the actual decision on start and scale of a trace back always lies

  16. Guidance for contact tracing of cases of Lassa fever, Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fever on an airplane: results of a European expert consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilsdorf Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Travel from countries where viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF are endemic has increased significantly over the past decades. In several reported VHF events on airplanes, passenger trace back was initiated but the scale of the trace back differed considerably. The absence of guidance documents to help the decision on necessity and scale of the trace back contributed to this variation. This article outlines the recommendations of an expert panel on Lassa fever, Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever to the wider scientific community in order to advise the relevant stakeholders in the decision and scale of a possible passenger trace back. Method The evidence was collected through review of published literature and through the views of an expert panel. The guidance was agreed by consensus. Results Only a few events of VHF cases during air travel are reported in literature, with no documented infection in followed up contacts, so that no evidence of transmission of VHF during air travel exists to date. Based on this and the expert opinion, it was recommended that passenger trace back was undertaken only if: the index case had symptoms during the flight; the flight was within 21 days after detection of the event; and for Lassa fever if exposure of body fluid has been reported. The trace back should only be done after confirmation of the index case. Passengers and crew with direct contact, seat neighbours (+/− 1 seat, crew and cleaning personal of the section of the index case should be included in the trace back. Conclusion No evidence has been found for the transmission of VHF in airplanes. This information should be taken into account, when a trace back decision has to be taken, because such a measure produces an enormous work load. The procedure suggested by the expert group can guide decisions made in future events, where a patient with suspected VHF infection travelled on a plane. However, the actual decision on start and scale

  17. A numerical study of airplanes flying in proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited During an emergency such as an unsafe landing gear indication, a second aircraft is often used to perform an airborne visual inspection of the landing gear. The chase airplane may be quite dissimilar in size and wing loading and consequently experience unexpected aerodynamic forces and moments caused by the other airplane. A numerical study of the inherent danger involved with the aerodynamic interaction of aircraft flying in proximity...

  18. Mathematical model of induced flow on the airplane vertical tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ; Edu, Raluca Ioana

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is presented a mathematical model of the flow around the vertical tail of an airplane, based on the general elements of the aerodynamic design, with details leading to the separate formulation of the Fourier coefficients in the series solution of the Prandtl's lifting-line equation. Numerical results are obtained in Maple soft environment, for a standard configuration of an airplane geometry. The results include the discussion of the vortex model for the sidewash gradient on the vertical stabilizer.

  19. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  20. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  2. Implementation of a Real Time Passenger Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, K; Kuri, Joy; Dagale, Haresh; Sudhakar, G; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are gaining recognition in developing countries like India. This paper describes the various components of our prototype implementation of a Real-time Passenger Information System (RTPIS) for a public transport system like a fleet of buses. Vehicle-mounted units, bus station units and a server located at the transport company premises comprise the system. The vehicle unit reports the current position of the vehicle to a central server periodically via General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). An Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) algorithm running on the server predicts the arrival times of buses at their stops based on real-time observations of the buses' current Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. This information is displayed and announced to passengers at stops using station units, which periodically fetch the required ETA from the server via GPRS. Novel features of our prototype include: (a) a route creator utility which automatically creates new routes from scra...

  3. Simple Electromagnetic Modeling of Small Airplanes: Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of simple electromagnetic models of small airplanes, which can contain composite materials in their construction. Electromagnetic waves can penetrate through the surface of the aircraft due to the specific electromagnetic properties of the composite materials, which can increase the intensity of fields inside the airplane and can negatively influence the functionality of the sensitive avionics. The airplane is simulated by two parallel dielectric layers (the left-hand side wall and the right-hand side wall of the airplane. The layers are put into a rectangular metallic waveguide terminated by the absorber in order to simulate the illumination of the airplane by the external wave (both of the harmonic nature and pulse one. Thanks to the simplicity of the model, the parametric analysis can be performed, and the results can be used in order to train an artificial neural network. The trained networks excel in further reduction of CPU-time demands of an airplane modeling.

  4. Measured Engine Installation Effects of Four Civil Transport Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzig, David A.; Fleming, Gregg G.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2001-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Integrated Noise Model (INM) is one of the primary tools for land use planning around airports. The INM currently calculates airplane noise lateral attenuation using the methods contained in the Society of Automotive Engineer's Aerospace Information Report No. 1751 (SAE AIR 1751). Researchers have noted that improved lateral attenuation algorithms may improve airplane noise prediction. The authors of SAE AIR 1751 based existing methods on empirical data collected from flight tests using 1960s-technology airplanes with tail-mounted engines. To determine whether the SAE AIR 1751 methods are applicable for predicting the engine installation component of lateral attenuation for airplanes with wing-mounted engines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a series of flight tests during September 2000 at their Wallops Flight Facility. Four airplanes, a Boeing 767-400, a Douglas DC-9, a Dassault Falcon 2000, and a Beech KingAir, were flown through a 20 microphone array. The airplanes were flown through the array at various power settings, flap settings, and altitudes to simulate take-off and arrival configurations. This paper presents the preliminary findings of this study.

  5. Modeling and identification of passenger car dynamics using robotics formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Venture, Gentiane; Ripert, Pierre-Jean; Khalil, Wisama; Gautier, Maxime; Bodson, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of dynamicmodeling and identification of passenger cars. It presents a new method that is based on robotics techniques for modeling and description of tree-structured multibody systems. This method enables us to systematically obtain the dynamic identification model, which is linear with respect to the dynamic parameters. The estimation of the parameters is carried out using a weighted least squares method. The identification is tested using vehicle dynamics ...

  6. ESTIMATION OF PASSENGER CAR UNIT FOR HETROGENEOUS TRAFFIC IN VISAKHAPATNAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dadi.Vasavi Swetha*

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries including India, mixed traffic condition prevails on road and highways. Transportation grew to become the ‘economic’ backbone of any country. It assumes greater significance in urban context. There is a wide variation in the static and dynamic characteristics of different types of traffic. The method of accounting for traffic analysis in traffic stream is to convert all vehicles into a common unit known as passenger car unit (PCU). A number of factors have ...

  7. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Pauna Dan

    2011-01-01

    A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers ...

  8. Energy consumption of passenger vehicles on standard test cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Mälkönen, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which are proven to cause warming of the atmosphere. Transportation accounts for a high share of these emissions. Therefore, the energy consumption and CO2 emission levels of passenger vehicles are regulated in many countries. The regulations are becoming more and more stringent, forcing manufacturers to develop alternative technologies to meet the requirements. Furthermore, the consumers are showing more an...

  9. Reaction of passengers to public service vehicle ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of questionnaire studies is described, which was carried out on passengers in public service vehicles in the United Kingdom particularly cross-channel hovercraft, helicopter and train. The effectiveness of the different rating techniques employed is examined and it is demonstrated that useful and reliable information can be obtained on the effects of such physical parameters as vibration, vehicle motion and noise using rating methods which involve no external standards. Some results obtained from analysis of the survey returns are presented.

  10. Infant Passenger Safety Education in Perinatal Services in California

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Albert; Levy, Esther

    1982-01-01

    Of 166 hospitals surveyed in California, 53 (31.9 percent) routinely provide some information on infant car-safety to parents of newborns and 115 (69.2 percent) were interested in developing a more comprehensive program of infant passenger safety. More than 80 percent of the hospitals estimated that less than a fourth of the infants were safely restrained on leaving the hospital. Larger hospitals provided more car safety education and expressed greater interest in developing comprehensive pro...

  11. Passengers' perception on airport service and quality satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    MK CHING

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate passengers’ expected and perceived service and quality satisfaction of the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) as the overall quality perceived would affect the number of future travelers to Hong Kong. After determining a list of known factors affecting airport service quality, passengers’ satisfaction survey was carried out at the main entrances and exits of the HKIA. Based on the collected data, a passenger satisfaction rating was compiled reflecting the us...

  12. Managing Autonomous Mobility on Demand Systems for Better Passenger Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Wen; Lopes, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobility on demand systems, though still in their infancy, have very promising prospects in providing urban population with sustainable and safe personal mobility in the near future. While much research has been conducted on both autonomous vehicles and mobility on demand systems, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows how to manage autonomous mobility on demand systems for better passenger experience. We introduce the Expand and Target algorithm which can ...

  13. Trends and perspectives of the Romanian regional passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Cristache, S. E.; Iacob, A. I.; Serban, D; Frâncu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Today, passenger transport has become an indispensable life element, because it offers to the society members many travel possibilities. Modern civilisation, characterised by a massive trade of material and spiritual values, claims a continuous movement of goods and people from a place to another. Transport services are strongly influenced by the transition to the market economy, Romania’s geographical position and also by the life standard. The purpose of this paper is to realize a statistic...

  14. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR

    OpenAIRE

    Khomenko, I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Existing mathematical models of unsteady heat exchange in a passenger car do not satisfy the need of the different constructive decisions of the life support system efficiency estimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreover quite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisions of the life support s...

  16. The brace position for passenger aircraft: a biomechanical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Brownson, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Hypothesis A modified brace position would help to prevent injury to some aircraft passengers in the event of an impact accident. Aim of Experiments To evaluate a modified crash brace position. Materials and Methods 1. Impact Testing Impact testing was performed at the RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine, Farnborough. Aircraft seats, mounted on a sled, were propelled down a track at an acceleration of 16G. A 50% Hybrid III dummy was used as the experimental model. Four ...

  17. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xue; Daniel (Jian) Sun; Shukai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM) filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhi...

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  19. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  20. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  1. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  2. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  3. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  4. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  5. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  9. Chicago Transit Authority train passenger environmental noise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffee, Matt R.; Karner, Chris

    2003-04-01

    The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) train system is referred to as the ``L'' because most of the track throughout the city is elevated. Passengers riding aboard the ``L'' are often subjected to high levels of noise due to the aging metal girder system that the tracks are perched on, as well as some train cars that are in disrepair. The environmental acoustics class of nine students at Columbia College Chicago decided to quantify exactly how much noise an ``L'' passenger is subjected to. Using a Quest 2900 integrating sound level meter the class split up and took Leq measurements on all of the seven train lines. Each line was tested in both directions of travel twice, with the meter taking samples every 3 s, which added up to a total of approximately 65 000 samples. The data were then averaged and synthesized into a graph using ESRI ArcView software. The graph is actually a map of the CTA ``L'' system that is color coded according to the Leq level that the passengers are subjected to between each station. It was interesting to see the difference in noise levels according to the type of track construction.

  10. Environmental effects of driving behaviour and congestion related to passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, I.; De Keukeleere, D.; Kretzschmar, J. G.

    Using Vito's on-board measuring system the influence of track, driving behaviour and traffic conditions on fuel consumption and emissions were studied for a small test fleet of passenger cars. City traffic resulted in the highest fuel consumption and emissions. Fuel consumption was about two times higher than for ring roads, which generally gave the lowest values. This was even more pronounced for emissions. Depending on road type and technology, fuel consumption increased with up to 40% for aggressive driving compared to normal driving. Again, this was more pronounced for emissions, with increases up to a factor 8. Driving behaviour had a greater influence on petrol-fuelled than on diesel-fuelled cars.Traffic condition also has a major effect on fuel consumption and emissions. For city driving intense traffic increased fuel consumption by 20-45%. The increase in fuel consumption and emissions during rush hours were the highest on ring roads, with increases between 10 and 200%. In absolute terms, a surplus of up to 5 l fuel per 100 km was measured. More environment-friendly route option requires the use of ring roads and motorways during rush hours instead of short cuts.

  11. Checking a printed board

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    An 'Interactive Printed Circuit Board Design System' has been developed by a company in a Member-State. Printed circuits are now produced at the SB's surface treatment workshop using a digitized photo-plotter.

  12. CMS Collaboration Board Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The first CMS Collaboration Board meeting of the year (2013) provided an opportunity to thank Teresa Rodrigo, Matthias Kasemann and Randy Ruchti, the 2011-12 CB Chair, Deputy Chair and Secretary, respectively.

  13. An Opportunity for Board Development: The Director-Board Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann; Lipton, Linda

    2004-01-01

    One of the very unique characteristics of child care boards is the prevalence of parent volunteers serving as board members. When parents serve as board members, a number of challenges are created. Because most parents do not have previous board experience and they are both clients as well as trustees, there is the potential for conflicts of…

  14. RS-232 Led Board

    OpenAIRE

    Tskhvaradze, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to develop a Microchip PIC16F84 based device that supports RS-232 interface with PC. Circuit (LED Board) design and software development will be discussed. PicBasic Pro Compiler from microEngineering Labs, Inc. is used for PIC programming. Development of LED Board Control Console using C/C++ is also briefly discussed. The project requires basic work experience with Microchip PICs, serial communication and programming.

  15. Battery Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  16. COLLABORATION BOARD (CB55)

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Cousins

    Open Access Publication Policy ATLAS had recently issued a short statement in support of open access publishing. The mood of the discussions in the December CMS Collaboration Board had appeared to be in favour and so it was being proposed that CMS issue the same statement as that made by ATLAS (the statement is attached to the agenda of this meeting). The Collaboration Board agreed. Election of the Chair of the Collaboration Board Following the agreement to shorten the terms of both the Spokesperson and the Collaboration Board Chair, and to introduce a longer overlap period between the election and the start of the term, the election for the next Collaboration Board Chair was due in December 2007. If the old standard schedule specified in the Constitution were adapted to this date, then the Board should be informed at the present meeting that the election was being prepared. However, it was felt that the experience of the previous year's election of the Spokesperson had shown that it would be desirable to...

  17. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  18. 76 FR 25229 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G250 Airplane, Dynamic Test Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ..., Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington... contact surface of this structure be covered with at least two inches of energy-absorbing protective.... Yanamura, Acting Manager, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. BILLING CODE...

  19. 75 FR 65052 - Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Consensus Standards, Standard Practice for Maintenance of Airplane... Practice for Maintenance of Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems (Standard Practice) as an acceptable means... FAA finds the standards to be acceptable methods and procedures for maintenance of electrical...

  20. Board incentives and board independence in dynamic agency

    OpenAIRE

    Katolnik, Svetlana; Kukec, Sandra K.; Schöndube, Jens Robert

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency of the board structure is usually perceived as linked to a higher degree of monitoring. If monitoring improves performance measurement signals, on which a manager is compensated, it can be considered desirable from the manager's point of view. As a result, having a low degree of board independence (many insiders on the board) may incentivize the board to improve its monitoring technology. However, from a dynamic perspective board monitoring is not always desirable, since it can des...

  1. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  2. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  3. 7 CFR 1160.105 - Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.105 Board. Board means the National Processor Advertising and Promotion Board established... Promotion Board or Board)....

  4. 75 FR 69706 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION: Notice... by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more SES Performance Review Boards. The board...

  5. 78 FR 60321 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION: Notice... by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more SES Performance Review Boards. The board...

  6. 77 FR 60146 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD SES Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Transportation Safety Board. ACTION: Notice... by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more SES Performance Review Boards. The board...

  7. Differential Risk of Injury in Child Occupants by Passenger Car Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Kallan, Michael J.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.; Menon, Rajiv A.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both co...

  8. Gaseous Emissions from Euro 3 Motorcycles and Euro 5 Passenger Cars Measured Over Different Driving Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    MARTINI Giorgio; MANFREDI Urbano; DE GENNARO MICHELE

    2013-01-01

    Regulated gaseous emissions from two Euro 3 motorcycles and three Euro 5 passenger cares were measured over different driving cycles. The purpose of this study was to get data on typical emission levels and patterns of motorcycles and passenger cars currently circulating on the road in Europe. In respect to this, three driving cycles were selected: the current type approval driving cycles used to certify the test vehicles for emissions (NEDC for passenger cars and the EDC for motorcycles) and...

  9. LOGISTIC APPROACH IN CREATING AN EFFECTIVE MECHANISM OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT BY RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kopytko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The logical concept of passenger transportation management on the railway transport is considered. This concept provides the creation of logical centers, which must combine the market mechanism with the government regulation. It is motivated that the efficient work condition of logical centers is a determination of main factors, due to which it is possible to realize the classification of passenger traffic that will allow forecasting the behavior of a logistic structure at the passenger market.

  10. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, ...

  11. Board independence and CEO turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Laux, Volker

    2005-01-01

    It is widely believed that the ideal board in corporations is composed almost entirely of independent (outside) directors. In contrast, this paper shows that some lack of board independence can be in the interest of shareholders. This follows because a lack of board independence serves as a substitute for commitment. Boards that are dependent on the incumbent CEO adopt a less aggressive CEO replacement rule than independent boards. While this behavior is inefficient ex post, it has positive e...

  12. The board: a change agent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolltveit, Bjørn; Hennestad, Bjørn; Grønhaug, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into why shareholders often claim dissatisfaction with the results delivered by their boards. A central reason is that boards fail to get their critical decisions effectively implemented. The paper also focuses on whether boards apply essentials developed in the change management discipline. Design/methodology/approach – The research is based on a study of board documents to capture what boards actually do. The documents...

  13. 14 CFR 121.179 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.179 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: All engines operating. (a) No person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off...

  14. 14 CFR 135.375 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. 135.375 Section 135.375 Aeronautics and... Limitations § 135.375 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Landing limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane, unless its weight...

  15. 14 CFR 135.371 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. 135.371 Section 135.371 Aeronautics... Limitations § 135.371 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: En route limitations... reciprocating engine powered large transport category airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  16. 14 CFR 121.175 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.175 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off a reciprocating engine powered airplane from an airport located at...

  17. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... January 15, 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section 3.19 for airplanes of 6,000 pounds... service test requirement was removed for airplanes ] of 6,000 pounds maximum weight or less...

  18. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.605 Transport category civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix M to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specifications M... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. M Appendix M to Part 121—Airplane... airplanes operated under § 121.344(f) 0.5° A sampling rate of 0.25 is recommended. 7. Roll attitude 2...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 121 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification B... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. B Appendix B to Part 121—Airplane... airplanes that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input on control movement...

  1. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators... Program § 121.409 Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Training courses utilizing airplane simulators and other training devices may be included in the certificate...

  2. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane... Program § 121.407 Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. (a) Each airplane simulator and other training device that is used in a training course permitted under §...

  3. 14 CFR 121.412 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). 121.412 Section 121.412 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... OPERATIONS Training Program § 121.412 Qualifications: Flight instructors (airplane) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.414: (1) A flight instructor (airplane) is...

  4. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  5. 14 CFR 121.1105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... Improvements § 121.1105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews. (a) Applicability. This section applies to all airplanes operated by a certificate holder under this part, except for those...

  6. 14 CFR 121.411 - Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and... § 121.411 Qualifications: Check airmen (airplane) and check airmen (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this section and § 121.413: (1) A check airman (airplane) is a person who is qualified, and...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 135 - Airplane Flight Recorder Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane Flight Recorder Specification D.... D Appendix D to Part 135—Airplane Flight Recorder Specification Parameters Range Accuracy sensor.... 3 For airplanes that can demonstrate the capability of deriving either the control input on...

  8. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  9. 14 CFR 121.193 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two engines inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.193 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: Two...). No person may operate a turbine engine powered airplane along an intended route unless he...

  10. 14 CFR 121.191 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.191 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that...

  11. 14 CFR 121.509 - Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.509 Section 121.509 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.509 Flight time limitations: Four pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  12. 14 CFR 121.189 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.189 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  13. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  14. 14 CFR 121.203 - Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Landing...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.203 Nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations:...

  15. 14 CFR 121.201 - Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: En route...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.201 Nontransport category airplanes: En route limitations: One...

  16. 14 CFR 125.375 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes. 125.375 Section 125.375 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.375 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbopropeller-powered airplanes....

  17. 14 CFR 91.819 - Civil supersonic airplanes that do not comply with part 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil supersonic airplanes that do not... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.819 Civil supersonic airplanes that do not comply with part 36. (a) Applicability. This section applies to civil supersonic airplanes that have not been shown to comply with...

  18. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  19. 14 CFR 121.198 - Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.198 Cargo service airplanes: Increased zero fuel and landing...

  20. 14 CFR 23.574 - Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation of commuter category airplanes. 23.574 Section 23.574 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.574 Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes. For commuter category airplanes— (a) Metallic damage tolerance....

  1. 14 CFR 91.323 - Increased maximum certificated weights for certain airplanes operated in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Civil Air Regulations (14 CFR part 4a, 1964 ed.) if that airplane is operated in the State of Alaska by... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. 91.323 Section 91.323 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... certain airplanes operated in Alaska. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the Federal...

  2. 14 CFR 121.505 - Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.505 Section 121.505 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.505 Flight time limitations: Two pilot crews: airplanes. (a) If a certificate holder... relieve that pilot of all duty with it during that rest period. (b) No pilot of an airplane that has...

  3. 14 CFR 121.643 - Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-powered airplanes: Supplemental operations. 121.643 Section 121.643 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.643 Fuel supply: Nonturbine and turbo-propeller-powered airplanes... flight or takeoff a nonturbine or turbo-propeller-powered airplane unless, considering the wind and...

  4. 14 CFR 121.507 - Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: airplanes. 121.507 Section 121.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Operations § 121.507 Flight time limitations: Three pilot crews: airplanes. (a) No certificate holder conducting supplemental operations may schedule a pilot— (1) For flight deck duty in an airplane that has...

  5. 14 CFR 21.7 - Continued airworthiness and safety improvements for transport category airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... improvements for transport category airplanes. 21.7 Section 21.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... § 21.7 Continued airworthiness and safety improvements for transport category airplanes. (a) On or... subchapter. (b) For new transport category airplanes manufactured under the authority of the FAA, the...

  6. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... operating at Southwest Florida International Airport (RSW). Determination: Approved. Based on information... vehicles and equipment. Extend and rehabilitate apron (airline). Demolish old passenger terminal...

  7. PERFORMANCE OF AIR INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO PASSENGER FLUCTUATION-A FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sujin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Air transportation is the only one mode which reduces the time to travel from one place to another. Air India is only one air line owned by Indian Government with the fleet size of 222 flights and covering various domestic and international destinations to transfer goods and services. Past 10 year from 2002-03 to 2011-12 data was collected for this current study. Total passenger kilometer and passengers load factor was analysed to identify fluctuations of every year in passengers carried and passengers load factor. In this study Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR was applied to know the growth variations on every year.

  8. Differential risk of injury in child occupants by passenger car classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallan, Michael J; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Menon, Rajiv A; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, passenger cars are the most common passenger vehicle, yet they vary widely in size and crashworthiness. Using data collected from a population-based sample of crashes in State Farm-insured vehicles, we quantified the risk of injury to child occupants by passenger car size and classification. Injury risk is predicted by vehicle weight; however, there is an increased risk in both Large vs. Luxury and Sports vs. Small cars, despite similar average vehicle weights in both comparisons. Parents who are purchasing passenger cars should strongly consider the size of the vehicle and its crashworthiness. PMID:12941234

  9. Solar Airplanes and Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    2007-01-01

    A solar electric aircraft with the potential to "fly forever" has captured NASA's interest, and the concept for such an aircraft was pursued under Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Feasibility of this aircraft happens to depend on the successful development of solar power technologies critical to NASA's Exploration Initiatives; hence, there was widespread interest throughout NASA to bring these technologies to a flight demonstration. The most critical is an energy storage system to sustain mission power during night periods. For the solar airplane, whose flight capability is already limited by the diffuse nature of solar flux and subject to latitude and time of year constraints, the feasibility of long endurance flight depends on a storage density figure of merit better than 400-600 watt-hr per kilogram. This figure of merit is beyond the capability of present day storage technologies (other than nuclear) but may be achievable in the hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell (RFC). This potential has led NASA to undertake the practical development of a hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell, initially as solar energy storage for a high altitude UAV science platform but eventually to serve as the primary power source for NASAs lunar base and other planet surface installations. Potentially the highest storage capacity and lowest weight of any non-nuclear device, a flight-weight RFC aboard a solar-electric aircraft that is flown continuously through several successive day-night cycles will provide the most convincing demonstration that this technology's widespread potential has been realized. In 1998 NASA began development of a closed cycle hydrogen oxygen PEM RFC under the Aeronautics Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project and continued its development, originally for a solar electric airplane flight, through FY2005 under the Low Emissions Alternative Power (LEAP) project. Construction of

  10. Cosmic Rays Induced Background Radiation on Board of Commercial Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, S; Núñez, L A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the total integrated flux of cosmic radiation which a commercial aircraft is exposed to along specific flight trajectories. To study the radiation background during a flight and its modulation by effects such as altitude, latitude, exposure time and transient magnetospheric events, we perform simulations based on Magnetocosmics and CORSIKA codes, the former designed to calculate the geomagnetic effects on cosmic rays propagation and the latter allows us to simulate the development of extended air showers in the atmosphere. In this first work, by considering the total flux of cosmic rays from 5 GeV to 1 PeV, we obtained the expected integrated flux of secondary particles on board of a commercial airplane during the Bogot\\'a-Buenos Aires trip by point-to-point numerical integration.

  11. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  12. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  13. Pension Fund Governing Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Note The CERN pension scheme is based on the principle of defined benefits, so beneficiaries continue to receive the benefits to which they are entitled in accordance with the Rules of the Pension Fund. This means that pension entitlements under the Rules are not directly affected by the financial crisis and the current economic situation. However, the adjustment of pensions to the cost of living is not automatic and, under the method applied since 2006, must take into account the Fund’s financial position. Meeting of the Pension Fund Governing Board The Pension Fund Governing Board held its eighth meeting at ESO in Garching, Germany (near Munich) on 24 October 2008. Before starting its work, the Governing Board had the privilege of hearing an opening address by Professor Tim de Zeeuw, the Director General of ESO. Professor de Zeeuw described the mission of ESO and the ambitious projects of his organisation, which performs astronomy observations using telescopes located in...

  14. Atmospheric mercury measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H.; Bödewadt, Jan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Weber, Stefan; Hermann, Markus; Becker, Julia; Zahn, Andreas; Martinsson, Bengt

    2016-05-01

    Goal of the project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) is to carry out regular and detailed observations of atmospheric composition (particles and gases) at cruising altitudes of passenger aircraft, i.e. at 9-12 km. Mercury has been measured since May 2005 by a modified Tekran instrument (Tekran Model 2537 A analyser, Tekran Inc., Toronto, Canada) during monthly intercontinental flights between Europe and South and North America, Africa, and Asia. Here we describe the instrument modifications, the post-flight processing of the raw instrument signal, and the fractionation experiments.

  15. Panorama 2009 - trends and challenges in passenger mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current demand for mobility encourages people to seek fast, individual means of transport. The automobile accounts for the bulk of passenger travel worldwide. This mode of transport is a source of annoying and harmful effects including noise, accidents, deteriorating infrastructure, traffic congestion and pollution (local and atmospheric). Some of these issues are now under regulation and have become less acute, but traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions are still major problems. Before assessing any policy undertaken to curb nuisance levels and harmful effects, one must be familiar with global mobility trends and the challenges involved

  16. Solar Airplane Concept Developed for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    An airplane is the ideal vehicle for gathering atmospheric data over a wide range of locations and altitudes, while having the freedom to maneuver to regions of scientific interest. Solar energy is available in abundance on Venus. Venus has an exoatmospheric solar flux of 2600 W/m2, compared with Earth's 1370 W/m2. The solar intensity is 20 to 50 percent of the exoatmospheric intensity at the bottom of the cloud layer, and it increases to nearly 95 percent of the exoatmospheric intensity at 65 km. At these altitudes, the temperature of the atmosphere is moderate, in the range of 0 to 100 degrees Celsius, depending on the altitude. A Venus exploration aircraft, sized to fit in a small aeroshell for a "Discovery" class scientific mission, has been designed and analyzed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. For an exploratory aircraft to remain continually illuminated by sunlight, it would have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed, about 95 m/sec at the cloud-top level. The analysis concluded that, at typical flight altitudes above the cloud layer (65 to 75 km above the surface), a small aircraft powered by solar energy could fly continuously in the atmosphere of Venus. At this altitude, the atmospheric pressure is similar to pressure at terrestrial flight altitudes.

  17. New Service Status Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On Monday 14 October, the Service Status Board for GS and IT will change. The new Status Board will be integrated with the CERN Service Portal and with the CERN Service Catalogue.   As of today, the SSB will display “Service Incidents”, “Planned Interventions” and “Service Changes”. References valid from 14 October: CERN SSB at https://cern.ch/ssb Computing SSB (previously IT SSB) at https://cern.ch/itssb   Nicole Cremel, IT and GS Service Management Support

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  19. The corporate boards networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Catanzaro, Michele

    2004-07-01

    In this work we apply network theory to detect in a quantitative fashion some of the characters of the system composed by companies and their boards of directors. Modelling this as a bipartite graph, we can derive two networks (one for the companies and one for the directors) and apply to them the standard graph analysis instruments. The emerging picture shows an environment where the exchange of information and mutual influences, conveyed by interlocks between boards, is predominant. Such a result should be taken into account when modelling this system.

  20. Boards of Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An earlier version of this paper won the Best Paper Award of the Corporate Governance SIG at EURAM. Abstract We construct a comprehensive data set with detailed biographic data on 12,010 board directors working for 740 large banks from 41 countries over the period 2000-2008. The data allow us to create a novel and reliable measure of director independence. We report many new findings. Bank board independence increases rapidly and substantially in the pre-crisis period, peaking at abou...

  1. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants in Germany are to be designed against airplane crash. Two problems arise: first, the local problem of penetration as well as local destruction of the building and secondly the airplane induced vibrations of the whole building which cause loadings for secondary systems (equipment). This paper deals especially with the second problem. Floor response spectra due to airplane crash are presented for two different power plant buildings. The influence of various parameters (time history of excitation, direction and location of impact, mathematical model, soil, damping, etc.) are discussed. A comparison with the results of earthquake loading is given. Suggestions are made for developing suitable floor design spectra and using them to analyse multidegree-of-freedom systems. However, the paper gives only a partial answer to the questions arising because of some important restrictions which had to be made. Studies concerning these restrictions are still being conducted and will be presented in a separate paper. (Auth.)

  2. Flight test results for several light, canard-configured airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip W.

    1987-01-01

    Brief flight evaluations of two different, light, composite constructed, canard and winglet configured airplanes were performed to assess their handling qualities; one airplane was a single engine, pusher design and the other a twin engine, push-pull configuration. An emphasis was placed on the slow speed/high angle of attack region for both airplanes and on the engine-out regime for the twin. Mission suitability assessment included cockpit and control layout, ground and airborne handling qualities, and turbulence response. Very limited performance data was taken. Stall/spin tests and the effects of laminar flow loss on performance and handling qualities were assessed on an extended range, single engine pusher design.

  3. Collusion in board of directors

    OpenAIRE

    Bourjade, Sylvain; Germain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature on the composition of the boards as well as the monitoring role and the advisory role of the boards. Nevertheless, the problem of collusion between the CEO and the board has receive little attention. The aim of this paper is to study collusive aspects of the board of directors. Our paper sheds light on the problem of composition of the board of directors. We study what is the optimal composition of the board of directors in particular if it is preferable to have a ...

  4. Board Effectiveness in Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Söderqvist, Anette; WÀgar, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates boards of directors in small firms and explores the link between board effectiveness and the composition, roles and working styles of the boards. Design/methodology/approach: The study analyses data from a telephone survey of boards in 45 small firms. The survey included both the CEO and the chairperson of the board. Findings: The study identifies three groups of small firms: ‘paperboards’, ‘professional boards’, and ‘management ...

  5. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglan; Chen; Hui; Ma; Danlu; Bu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap.Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  6. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  7. Seat inventory control methods for Chinese passenger railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云; 刘军; 马敏书; 孟令云

    2014-01-01

    Railway seat inventory control strategies play a crucial role in the growth of profit and train load factor. The railway passenger seat inventory control problem in China was addressed. Chinese passenger railway operation features and seat inventory control practice were analyzed firstly. A dynamic demand forecasting method was introduced to forecast the coming demand in a ticket booking period. By clustering, passengers’ historical ticket bookings were used to forecast the demand to come in a ticket booking period with least squares support vector machine. Three seat inventory control methods:non-nested booking limits, nested booking limits and bid-price control, were modeled under a single-fare class. Different seat inventory control methods were compared with the same demand based on ticket booking data of Train T15 from Beijing West to Guangzhou. The result shows that the dynamic non-nested booking limits control method performs the best, which gives railway operators evidence to adjust the remaining capacity in a ticket booking period.

  8. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  9. Baseline tests of the Kordesch hybrid passenger vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltis, R. F.; Bozek, J. M.; Denington, R. J.; Dustin, M. O.

    1978-06-01

    The Kordesch hybrid passenger vehicle is propelled by an electric motor that receives its energy from a spark-ignition-engine-driven alternator and an electric battery system. It was tested at the Transportation Research Center of Ohio Test Track, East Liberty, Ohio, between August 17 and September 22, 1977. The tests are part of an Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) project to assess the state-of-the-art of electric and hybrid vehicles. The Kordesch hybrid vehicle performance test results are presented. The Kordesch hybrid is a four-passenger Austin A40 sedan that has been converted to a heat-engine-alternator- and battery-powered hybrid. It is propelled by a conventional, gasoline-fueled, heat-engine-driven alternator and a traction battery pack powering a series-wound, 7.5-kilowatt (10-hp) direct-current electric drive motor. The 12-kilowatt (16-hp) gasoline engine drives the 7-kilowatt alternator, which provides electrical power to the drive motor or to the 96-volt traction battery through a rectifier. The propulsion battery consists of eight 12-volt batteries connected in series. The electric motor is coupled to a four-speed standard Austin transmission, which drives the rear wheels. Power to the motor is controlled by a three-step foot throttle, which actuates relays that control armature current and field excitation. Conventional hydraulic brakes are used. There is no regenerative braking.

  10. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  11. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina;

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses recent calls to narrow the micro–macro gap in management research (Bamberger, 2008), by incorporating a macro-level context variable (country) in exploring micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Following the integrated model proposed by Forbes and Milliken (1999), ...

  12. Board of Governors enlarged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Professor Carlo Salvetti, of Italy, was elected Chairman by the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency for 1963-64, when the new Board met for the first time on 2 October 1963. Professor Salvetti is Head of the Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Milan. He is also a member of the Executive Board of the Italian National Committee for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), President of the OECD Study Group on High Flux Reactors, and Italian Representative of the Working Group of the European Nuclear Energy Society. Formerly he was Director of the IAEA Division of Research. The election of seven new members at the seventh session of the General Conference in October 1963 increased the membership of the Board of Governors from 23 to 25. This resulted from a decision of the General Conference in 1961, designed to provide more equitable representation for Africa and the Middle East. The necessary amendment to the Agency's Statute came into force in January 1963, when the requisite number of instruments of acceptance had been deposited.

  13. Estimation of fatigue damage of airplane landing gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke-ge; YAN Chu-liang; ZHANG Shu-ming

    2006-01-01

    Taking the main landing gears of fighter and transport airplanes as examples,the fatigue life was estimated by means of the Miner's rule and from the spectrum of the real measurements.The computed results show that the landing damage to the fighter and transport airplanes is 75% and 60% of the total damage,and the damage caused by the landing stroke is 40% of the landing-gear damage.The fatigue damage properties can provide important information for reliable designing and the structural optimization.

  14. Advances in Thrust-Based Emergency Control of an Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Gray; Burken, John J.; Burcham, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center have received a patent on an emergency flight-control method implemented by a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system. Utilizing the preexisting auto-throttle and engine-pressure-ratio trim controls of the airplane, the PCA system provides pitch and roll control for landing an airplane safely without using aerodynamic control surfaces that have ceased to function because of a primary-flight-control-system failure. The installation of the PCA does not entail any changes in pre-existing engine hardware or software. [Aspects of the method and system at previous stages of development were reported in Thrust-Control System for Emergency Control of an Airplane (DRC-96-07), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (March 2001), page 68 and Emergency Landing Using Thrust Control and Shift of Weight (DRC-96-55), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 5 (May 2002), page 58.]. Aircraft flight-control systems are designed with extensive redundancy to ensure low probabilities of failure. During recent years, however, several airplanes have exhibited major flight-control-system failures, leaving engine thrust as the last mode of flight control. In some of these emergency situations, engine thrusts were successfully modulated by the pilots to maintain flight paths or pitch angles, but in other situations, lateral control was also needed. In the majority of such control-system failures, crashes resulted and over 1,200 people died. The challenge lay in creating a means of sufficient degree of thrust-modulation control to safely fly and land a stricken airplane. A thrust-modulation control system designed for this purpose was flight-tested in a PCA an MD-11 airplane. The results of the flight test showed that without any operational control surfaces, a pilot can land a crippled airplane (U.S. Patent 5,330,131). The installation of the original PCA system entailed modifications not only of the flight-control computer (FCC) of the airplane but

  15. The span as a fundamental factor in airplane design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, G

    1928-01-01

    Previous theoretical investigations of steady curvilinear flight did not afford a suitable criterion of "maneuverability," which is very important for judging combat, sport and stunt-flying airplanes. The idea of rolling ability, i.e., of the speed of rotation of the airplane about its X axis in rectilinear flight at constant speed and for a constant, suddenly produced deflection of the ailerons, is introduced and tested under simplified assumptions for the air-force distribution over the span. This leads to the following conclusions: the effect of the moment of inertia about the X axis is negligibly small, since the speed of rotation very quickly reaches a uniform value.

  16. Solar-Powered Airplane with Cameras and WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Robert G.; Dunagan, Steve E.; Sullivan, Don; Slye, Robert; Brass, James; Leung, Joe G.; Gallmeyer, Bruce; Aoyagi, Michio; Wei, Mei Y.; Herwitz, Stanley R.; Johnson, Lee; Arvesen, John C.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental airborne remote sensing system includes a remotely controlled, lightweight, solar-powered airplane (see figure) that carries two digital-output electronic cameras and communicates with a nearby ground control and monitoring station via a wireless local-area network (WLAN). The speed of the airplane -- typically <50 km/h -- is low enough to enable loitering over farm fields, disaster scenes, or other areas of interest to collect high-resolution digital imagery that could be delivered to end users (e.g., farm managers or disaster-relief coordinators) in nearly real time.

  17. The frequency content of the control input and airplane response obtained during service operations of fighter airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John P; Hamer, Harold A

    1957-01-01

    The frequency content of the control input and resulting airplane motions is presented as power spectral densities for one operational flight of the fighter airplane (Republic F-84G). The frequency content, which is described by the shape of the spectrum, may be useful in providing inputs for the design of power control systems. For normal load factors, the results presented for the operational flight considered are in general agreement with the results of more complete data on three fighter airplanes (Republic F-84G, Republic F-84F, and North American F-86A) . The frequency content for the three control positions was similar and the frequency content for the three angular velocities was also similar when normalized by dividing the mean-square value.

  18. How do passengers influence drivers' propensities for angry driving? Different effects of supervisors versus friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Xie, Xiaofei; Han, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Qin

    2012-11-01

    A lot of researchers discussed the influence of passengers on drivers' behaviors without reaching a consistent conclusion. This study aimed to offer some new evidence concerning this issue. The study examined different effects of supervisors and friends as passengers on drivers' propensities for angry driving. In Study 1, drivers were asked to freely imagine a passenger either as their supervisor or friend. Results showed that compared with driving alone, drivers' propensities for angry driving increased when the passenger was a friend but decreased when the passenger was a supervisor. These findings were consistent with the generally accepted social norm. In Study 2, drivers read a description about either an aggressive supervisor or a cautious friend. Results showed that the effects of passengers on drivers' angry driving propensities were correspondingly reversed, indicating that a clearer behavior standard conveyed by a passenger had a stronger effect on drivers. Self-monitoring propensity showed a main effect on drivers' propensities for angry driving in a standard-free situation. And self-monitoring propensity moderated the effect of a passenger's role on angry driving propensities in a standard-set situation. Impression management processes were discussed with respect to these findings. PMID:23036422

  19. Survivin mediates targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex to the centromere and midbody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vader, G; Kauw, JJW; Medema, RH; Lens, SMA

    2006-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) coordinates chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. The enzymatic core of this complex (Aurora-B) is guided through the mitotic cell by its companion chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin and Borealin/Dasra-B, ther

  20. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY... interested parties of the availability of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) database system to report PFC... public agency. The FAA has developed a national PFC database system in order to more easily track the...