WorldWideScience

Sample records for airliner cabin air

  1. Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Duc, M.T.; Stuecker, T.; Venkateswaran, K. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group

    2007-11-15

    Microorganisms that exist in aircraft air systems are considered to be the primary source of microbial contamination that can lead to illness shortly after flying. More than 600 million passengers board commercial airline flights annually in the United States alone. In this study, culture-independent, biomarker-targeted bacterial enumeration and identification strategies were used to estimate total bacterial burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Air-impingement was used to collect samples of microorganisms from 4 flights on 2 commercial carriers. The total viable microbial population ranged from below detection limits to 4.1 x 10{sup 6} cells/m{sup 3} of air. Microbes were found to gradually accumulate from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight. A sharp decline in bacterial abundance was then observed. Representatives of the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} Proteobacteria, as well as Gram-positive bacteria, were isolated in varying abundance. Airline A had large abundances of Neisseria meningitidis rRNA gene sequences and Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Airline B was dominated by pseudomonas synxantha sequences as well as N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. The cabin air samples housed low bacterial diversity and were typically dominated by a particular subset of bacteria, notably opportunistic pathogenic inhabitants of the human respiratory tract and oral cavity. The microbes were found largely around the ventilation ducts and gasper conduits that supply cabin air. 45 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Perception of cabin air quality in airline crew related to air humidification, on intercontinental flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, T; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G

    2007-06-01

    The influence of air humidification in aircraft, on perception of cabin air quality among airline crew (N = 71) was investigated. In-flight investigations were performed in the forward part and in the aft part on eight intercontinental flights with one Boeing 767 individually, equipped with an evaporation humidifier combined with a dehumidifying unit, to reduce accumulation of condensed water in the wall construction. Four flights had the air humidification active when going out, and turned off on the return flight. The four others had the inverse humidification sequence. The sequences were randomized, and double blind. Air humidification increased relative air humidity (RH) by 10% in forward part, and by 3% in aft part of the cabin and in the cockpit. When the humidification device was active, the cabin air was perceived as being less dry (P = 0.008), and fresher (P = 0.002). The mean concentration of viable bacteria (77-108 cfu/m(3)), viable molds (74-84 cfu/m(3)), and respirable particles (1-8 microg/m3) was low, both during humidified and non-humidified flights. On flights with air humidification, there were less particles in the forward part of the aircraft (P = 0.01). In conclusion, RH can be slightly increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganisms in cabin air. The cabin air quality was perceived as being better with air humidification. PRACTICAL IMPLICATION: Relative air humidity is low (10-20%) during intercontinental flights, and can be increased by using ceramic evaporation humidifier, without any measurable increase of microorganism in cabin air. Air humidification could increase the sensation of better cabin air quality.

  3. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  4. Measurements of cosmic-ray doses in commercial airline cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, M.; Fujitaka, K.; Izumo, K.

    1996-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses which aircrew and air passengers receive in airplanes have been calling attention in many countries especially in the last decade. In this relation, various types of information had been reported on cosmic radiation intensity. In Japan, the cosmic radiation intensity had been measured in commercial airline cabins as well as chartered flights. While the intensity depends on altitude, geomagnetic latitude (or cutoff rigidity), and temporal variation of the solar activity, their doses are often speculated based on paper records on airflights combined with the intensity-altitude relationship. In this study, however, efforts were made to estimate more realistic integrated doses in airline cabins based on actual on-board measurements which had been conducted several dozens of times in each year (e.g., 45 times in 1994 and 27 times in 1995). (author)

  5. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  6. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  7. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  8. Prevalence of neck pain among cabin crew of Saudi Airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Hesham M; Al-Sultan, Alanood; Al-Shammari, Anwar; Alyousef, Dana; Al-Hamidi, Hager; Al-Dossary, Nafla; Al-Zahrani, Nuha; Al-Abdulqader, Wala

    2015-01-01

    Neck pain is considered to be a major health problem in modern societies. Many previous studies found that certain occupations are related to this problem or are associated with the risk of developing it in future. Although the pain is caused by mechanical factors, it may progress to a serious problem and give rise to other abnormal symptoms such as vertigo, headache, or migraine. To investigate the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crew of Saudi Airlines. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the available Saudi Airlines cabin crews in King Fahad Airport during our visits, using questionnaires and measurements of several parameters. Neck Pain Questionnaires were distributed to the cabin crews on Saudi Airlines and assessment sheets were completed by all participants of the study to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of neck pain. Physical therapy examination of neck motions in different directions and specific tests were performed by all the participants to identify any symptoms. Using these data the prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews was calculated. Collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS software calculating the mean, median, and score of the questionnaire. According to the scoring system of the study, 31 (30.09%) of 105 cabin crew staff of Saudi Airlines had neck pain. Our study confirmed a positive correlation between this occupation and neck pain, and in fact found that according to the results of logistic regression analysis, this occupation is the only significant factor that affects the positive compression test. The prevalence of neck pain among the cabin crews of Saudi Airlines was emphasized. The results show a high prevalence of neck pain in the participants of the study, with most cases appearing to run a chronic - episodic course. Further research is needed to help us understand more about the long-term course of neck pain and its broader outcomes and impacts.

  9. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  10. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-01

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  11. An evaluation of an airline cabin safety education program for elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Health Effects of Airline Cabin Environments in Simulated 8-Hour Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft. Biomarkers of thrombosis (D-Dimer), inflammation (interleukin-6), and respiratory dysfunction (FEV1) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured, as well as pulse and blood pressure. The wellbeing of the passengers was also monitored. During 36 flights, 1260 healthy subjects [626 women (F) and 634 men (M) (mean age = 43, SD = 16)] were assessed. Additionally, 72 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (F = 32, M = 40, mean age = 48, SD = 17) and 74 with heart failure (F = 50, M = 24, mean age = 54, SD = 14) contributed to 11 flights. Additionally, 76 normal controls were observed while engaged in a usual day's work (F = 38, M = 38, mean age = 39, SD = 15). There were no health-significant changes in D-Dimer, interleukin-6, or FEV1. Spo2 varied as expected, with lowest values at 8000 ft and in patients with cardiopulmonary disease. The only differences from the controls were the loss of the normal diurnal variations in interleukin-6 and D-Dimer. This very large, comparative, controlled study provides much reassurance for the traveling public, who use airline flights of up to 8 h. We did not show evidence of the development of venous thrombosis, inflammation, respiratory embarrassment, nor passenger distress. No significant symptoms or adverse effects were reported.Ideal Cabin Environment (ICE) Research Consortium of the European Community 6th Framework Programme. Health effects of airline cabin environments in simulated 8-hour flights. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):651-656.

  13. Investigating the air quality in aircraft cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Steinar K.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about the air quality in aircraft cabins and its effects on health and safety for crew and passengers. Some of the major worries are risk of communication of infectious diseases, high incidence of respiratory diseases caused by low air moisture, and increased concentration of carbon dioxide from exhaled air due to the cabin air being recirculated. It also happens that fumes and gases enter the cabin by way of the ventilation system. This article describes the EU-funded research programme called CabinAir. The project aims to: (1) establish the current level of air quality in aircraft cabins, (2) establish the relationship between cabin air quality and the performance of environmental control and filtration systems, the air distribution, the energy consumption and the environmental impact of fuel burn. (3) develop new designs and technical solutions to improve the environmental control system and cabin air distribution/control systems, (4) optimise air quality in the cabin and minimise fuel consumption and environmental impacts, (5) develop performance specifications for the components, (6) draft European Pre-Normative Standards

  14. Market Potential Study for Standing Cabin Concept for Domestic Low-Cost Commercial Airlines in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz I.; Dasuki, Norhafizah; Yazdi Harmin, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    An affordable air transportation has become the operational aim of many airlines these days. This is to cater the growing air travel demands from people of different social and economic status. One of the revolutionary proposals to reduce the operational costs, hence the flight ticket price, is by introducing the so-called standing cabin concept. This concept involves transporting passengers during the entire flight in their standing position with a proper support of a vertical seat. As can be expected with many new inventions, despite its clear advantages, the concept has been met with mixed reactions from the public. This study intends to establish whether the standing cabin concept has a market potential to be implemented for domestic flights in Malaysia. The public perception is determined from collected data through a survey done at two major local low-cost airport terminals. It can be concluded from the results that the concept has a good market potential for application on flights with duration of less than two hours.

  15. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  16. An under-aisle air distribution system facilitating humidification of commercial aircraft cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tengfei; Yin, Shi; Wang, Shugang [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Air environment in aircraft cabins has long been criticized especially for the dryness of the air within. Low moisture content in cabins is known to be responsible for headache, tiredness and many other non-specific symptoms. In addition, current widely used air distribution systems on airplanes dilute internally generated pollutants by promoting air mixing and thus impose risks of infectious airborne disease transmission. To boost air humidity level while simultaneously restricting air mixing, this investigation uses a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program to design a new under-aisle air distribution system for wide-body aircraft cabins. The new system supplies fully outside, dry air at low momentum through a narrow channel passage along both side cabin walls to middle height of the cabin just beneath the stowage bins, while simultaneously humidified air is supplied through both perforated under aisles. By comparing with the current mixing air distribution system in terms of distribution of relative humidity, CO{sub 2} concentration, velocity, temperature and draught risk, the new system is found being able to improve the relative humidity from the existent 10% to the new level of 20% and lessen the inhaled CO{sub 2} concentration by 30%, without causing moisture condensation on cabin interior and inducing draught risks for passengers. The water consumption rate in air humidification is only around 0.05 kg/h per person, which should be affordable by airliners. (author)

  17. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  18. The risk of melanoma in airline pilots and cabin crew: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanlorenzo, Martina; Wehner, Mackenzie R; Linos, Eleni; Kornak, John; Kainz, Wolfgang; Posch, Christian; Vujic, Igor; Johnston, Katia; Gho, Deborah; Monico, Gabriela; McGrath, James T; Osella-Abate, Simona; Quaglino, Pietro; Cleaver, James E; Ortiz-Urda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Airline pilots and cabin crew are occupationally exposed to higher levels of cosmic and UV radiation than the general population, but their risk of developing melanoma is not yet established. To assess the risk of melanoma in pilots and airline crew. PubMed (1966 to October 30, 2013), Web of Science (1898 to January 27, 2014), and Scopus (1823 to January 27, 2014). All studies were included that reported a standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), or data on expected and observed cases of melanoma or death caused by melanoma that could be used to calculate an SIR or SMR in any flight-based occupation. Primary random-effect meta-analyses were used to summarize SIR and SMR for melanoma in any flight-based occupation. Heterogeneity was assessed using the χ2 test and I2 statistic. To assess the potential bias of small studies, we used funnel plots, the Begg rank correlation test, and the Egger weighted linear regression test. Summary SIR and SMR of melanoma in pilots and cabin crew. Of the 3527 citations retrieved, 19 studies were included, with more than 266 431 participants. The overall summary SIR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 2.21 (95% CI, 1.76-2.77; P < .001; 14 records). The summary SIR for pilots was 2.22 (95% CI, 1.67-2.93; P = .001; 12 records). The summary SIR for cabin crew was 2.09 (95% CI, 1.67-2.62; P = .45; 2 records). The overall summary SMR of participants in any flight-based occupation was 1.42 (95% CI, 0.89-2.26; P = .002; 6 records). The summary SMR for pilots was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.27-2.63, P = .33; 4 records). The summary SMR for cabin crew was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; P = .97; 2 records). Pilots and cabin crew have approximately twice the incidence of melanoma compared with the general population. Further research on mechanisms and optimal occupational protection is needed.

  19. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, E. [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); Auvinen, A. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Wahlberg, G. [Finnish Flight Attendants Association, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-09

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi`s sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author).

  20. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants. 1967-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A.; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective was to assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.23)) and bone cancer (15.10 (1.82 to 54.40)) was found among female workers. The risk of breast cancer was most prominent 15 years after recruitment. Risks of leukaemia (3.57 (0.43 to 12.9)) and skin melanoma (2.11 (0.43 to 6.15)) were not significantly raised. Among men, one lymphoma and one Kaposi's sarcoma were found (expected number of cases 1.6). Although the lifestyle of cabin attendants is different from that of the reference population - for example, in terms of social status and parity - concentration of the excess risks to primary sites sensitive to radiation suggests that ionising radiation during flights may add to that cancer risk of all flight personnel. Otherwise the lifestyle of cabin attendants did not seem to affect their risks of cancer. (author)

  1. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  2. Komparativ analyse - Scandinavian Airlines & Norwegian Air Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Kallesen, Martin Nystrup; Singh, Ravi Pal; Boesen, Nana Wiaberg

    2017-01-01

    The project is based around a pondering of how that a company the size of Scandinavian Airlines or Norwegian Air Shuttle use their Finances and how they see their external environment. This has led to us researching the relationship between the companies and their finances as well as their external environment, and how they differ in both.To do this we have utilised a myriad of different methods to analyse the companies, including PESTEL, SWOT, TOWS; DCF, risk analysis, Sensitivity, Porter’s ...

  3. Concentrations of selected contaminants in cabin air of airbus aircrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, M; Sohn, H; Steinhanses, J

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of selected air quality parameters in aircraft cabins were investigated including particle numbers in cabin air compared to fresh air and recirculation air, the microbiological contamination and the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The Airbus types A310 of Swissair and A340 of Lufthansa were used for measurements. The particles were found to be mainly emitted by the passengers, especially by smokers. Depending on recirculation filter efficiency the recirculation air contained a lower or equal amount of particles compared to the fresh air, whereas the amount of bacteria exceeded reported concentrations within other indoor spaces. The detected species were mainly non-pathogenic, with droplet infection over short distances identified as the only health risk. The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were well below threshold values. Ethanol was identified as the compound with the highest amount in cabin air. Further organics were emitted by the passengers--as metabolic products or by smoking--and on ground as engine exhaust (bad airport air quality). Cleaning agents may be the source of further compounds.

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants' union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use).

  5. Outsourcing in air transportation industry: the case of Turkish Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Vildan; Adiller, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    Air transportation industry, in all over the world, is developing and changing day by day in a very competitive environment. Airline companies have to adopt themselves using different strategies to give more efficient and effective services to survive in that market. Outsourcing is one of these strategies to be able to reach the sustainability of airline companies. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the importance of outsourcing for the airline companies. For this reason, first outso...

  6. The Role of Budget Airlines in the Air Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasiuk Irina P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary air transport market has been considered and analyzed, key aspects of the emergence of budget airlines (low-cost in the air transport market have been highlighted. The main factors of influence on their functioning and international distribution have been allocated. On exploring the air transport market, it can be argued that low-cost airlines are gaining speed and spreading all around the world. This system was developed specifically for budget tourists and is particularly popular among students. Budget airlines are a profitable alternative to expensive airfares. As a rule, low-cost airlines refuse most traditional services to reduce the cost of transporting passengers, and hence the prices of flights. In the current phase of operation of the budget airlines, it is particularly necessary to study the reasons for such charity and the efficiency factor in providing cheap airfares. In spite of the tempting offer, there are some nuances that are subject of research.

  7. Evaluation of an improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Liping; Xu, Jie; Fang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    An improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin was proposed in this paper. Personalized outlets were introduced and placed at the bottom of the baggage hold. Its ratio of fresh air to recirculation air and the conditioned temperature of different types of inlets were also designed carefully...... to meet the goals of high air quality, thermal comfort and energy saving. Some experiments were conducted to evaluate and compare its performances with two other systems. First the Flow Visualization with Green Laser (FVGL) technology was used to analyze the air flow. The top-in-side bottom-out pattern...... may have the disadvantages of an indirect path to deliver fresh air to passengers, a low fresh air utilization ratio and the potential to widely spreading airborne infectious diseases. The bottom-in-top-out pattern can overcome these disadvantages very well, but it also faces the stratification...

  8. Test of Different Air Distribution Concepts for a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Damsgaard, Charlotte; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will describe different air distribution systems known from other ap...

  9. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  10. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David Peter

    2008-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessment...

  11. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  12. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S.M. [Uludag University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bursa (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO{sub 2}) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO{sub 2} concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO{sub 2} level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin. (orig.)

  13. Experimental investigation of thermal comfort and air quality in an automobile cabin during the cooling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M.; Akyol, S. M.

    2012-08-01

    The air quality and thermal comfort strongly influenced by the heat and mass transfer take place together in an automobile cabin. In this study, it is aimed to investigate and assess the effects of air intake settings (recirculation and fresh air) on the thermal comfort, air quality satisfaction and energy usage during the cooling period of an automobile cabin. For this purpose, measurements (temperature, air velocity, CO2) were performed at various locations inside the cabin. Furthermore, whole body and local responses of the human subjects were noted while skin temperatures were measured. A mathematical model was arranged in order to estimate CO2 concentration and energy usage inside the vehicle cabin and verified with experimental data. It is shown that CO2 level inside of the cabin can be greater than the threshold value recommended for the driving safety if two and more occupants exist in the car. It is also shown that an advanced climate control system may satisfy the requirements for the air quality and thermal comfort as well as to reduce the energy usage for the cooling of a vehicle cabin.

  14. Advanced air distribution for minimizing airborne cross infection in aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Dzhartov, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    was ventilated at 180 L/s. The concentration of Freon mixed with air exhaled by the “infected” manikin was measured. The personalized flow pushed the contaminated exhaled air backwards where it was pulled by the suction and exhausted before mixing with the cabin air. This resulted in substantial decrease...... simulated “infected” polluting passenger and another simulated “exposed” passenger. Personalized ventilation supplied clean air at 10 L/s from front against manikins’ face. Air was sucked at 10 L/s by a suction system of two nozzles positioned on the sides of “infected” manikin’s head. The cabin...... of the tracer gas concentration in the air inhaled by the “exposed” manikin and the exhausted cabin air....

  15. Effects of Cabin Upsets on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) utilizes adsorption technology as part of contaminant removal systems designed for long term missions. A variety of trace contaminants can be effectively removed from gas streams by adsorption onto activated carbon. An activated carbon adsorption column meets NASA's requirements of a lightweight and efficient means of controlling trace contaminant levels aboard spacecraft and space stations. The activated carbon bed is part of the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) which is utilized to purify the cabin atmosphere. TCCS designs oversize the adsorption columns to account for irregular fluctuations in cabin atmospheric conditions. Variations in the cabin atmosphere include changes in contaminant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Excessively large deviations from typical conditions can result from unusual crew activity, equipment malfunctions, or even fires. The research carried out under this award focussed in detail on the effects of cabin upsets on the performance of activated carbon adsorption columns. Both experiments and modeling were performed with an emphasis on the roll of a change in relative humidity on adsorption of trace contaminants. A flow through fixed-bed apparatus was constructed at the NASA Ames Research Center, and experiments were performed there. Modeling work was performed at the University of Virginia.

  16. AirAsia In The Malaysian Domestic Airline Market: Empirical Analysis Of Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mok Kim Man; Jainurin Bin Justine

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the results of the strategic actions of AirAsia in the Malaysian domestic airline market. Firstly, the paper will provide a general background of the airline industry, in particular the Malaysian domestic airline market and a summary of an analysis of the industry using Michael Porters Five Forces Analysis. Secondly, the paper will provide a brief background of AirAsia and Malaysia Airlines. Thirdly, the paper will analyse the results of AirAsias strategy vis--vis oper...

  17. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heejung S; Grady, Michael L; Victoroff, Tristan; Miller, Arthur L

    2017-07-01

    Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO 2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm 3 , although CO 2 levels rose to 3000 ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO 2 levels dropped to 1000 ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm 3 . We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO 2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO 2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO 2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants' exposures to particulate matter and CO 2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO 2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO 2 accumulation.

  18. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments ...

  19. Design of aircraft cabin testbed for stress free air travel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an aircraft cabin testbed that is designed and built for the stress free air travel experiment. The project is funded by European Union in the aim of improving air travel comfort during long haul flight. The testbed is used to test and validate the adaptive system that is capable

  20. Stock Investors’ Confidence on Low-Cost and Traditional Airlines in Asia During Financial Crisis 2007-2009 : Evidence from Air Asia and Singapore Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chin Fei; Tay, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The birth of low-cost carriers (LCC) in recent years, have added a new dimension to the aviation business, especially in Asia. There have been several success stories of these LCCs, compared with conventional full-serviced carriers. Two renowned airlines in Asia, Air Asia and Singapore Airlines have been chosen as our sample companies for the purpose of this research paper. Air Asia will represent the LCC segment, while Singapore Airlines is the proxy for traditional carriers. These two class...

  1. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-01-01

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented

  2. Study of air flow and temperature distribution in ship's crew cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering; Ali, A.A.; Nasr, A.N. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Marine Engineering Technology

    2007-07-01

    Because of low internal heights in ship's crew cabins, the supplied air is directed to the persons at low mixing ratios. However, this does not allow the mixing process between the supplied air and the indoor air to be completed before the air enters human lungs. This paper presented an experimental and numerical simulation study that used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to investigate the effect of the air supply location on thermal air diffusion in the ship's crew cabins space. The paper presented the results in terms of air diffusion performance index. The paper presented the CFD model, including selected space configurations; CFD simulation; boundary conditions; and CFD results. The CFD airflow simulation programs CFD were utilized to calculate the spatial distribution of temperature and velocity. The study focused on the typical Middle East region working vessel under thermal and boundary conditions including the high cooling load used in this region. Experimental data were also introduced to verify the CFD results package. It was concluded that the supply should be located near the high sidewall of the cabin. This gives better air distribution inside the space rather than the center of the room. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Airline Special Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-07-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Treating physicians should advise patients in need of special services to contact the airline well before travel to find out if the required services will be available. Ensuring the required services are available throughout a journey can be challenging, especially when different airlines and aircraft types are involved. For example, airlines carry a limited supply of oxygen for use in the event of an unexpected in-flight emergency; however, this supply is not intended for use by passengers needing supplemental oxygen. Arrangements must be made in advance with the airline. Therefore, early contact with the airline is helpful.

  4. Flow and contaminant transport in an airliner cabin induced by a moving body: Model experiments and CFD predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; Plesniak, Michael W.; Sojka, Paul E.; Chen, Qingyan

    2010-08-01

    The effects of a moving human body on flow and contaminant transport inside an aircraft cabin were investigated. Experiments were performed in a one-tenth scale, water-based model. The flow field and contaminant transport were measured using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) techniques, respectively. Measurements were obtained with (ventilation case) and without (baseline case) the cabin environmental control system (ECS). The PIV measurements show strong intermittency in the instantaneous near-wake flow. A symmetric downwash flow was observed along the vertical centerline of the moving body in the baseline case. The evolution of this flow pattern is profoundly perturbed by the flow from the ECS. Furthermore, a contaminant originating from the moving body is observed to convect to higher vertical locations in the presence of ventilation. These experimental data were used to validate a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model. The CFD model can effectively capture the characteristic flow features and contaminant transport observed in the small-scale model.

  5. Quantifying air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport in an aircraft cabin mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun

    The health, safety and comfort of passengers during flight inspired this research into cabin air quality, which is closely related to its airflow distribution, ventilation effectiveness and airborne pollutant transport. The experimental facility is a full-scale aircraft cabin mockup. A volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (VPTV) technique was enhanced by incorporating a self-developed streak recognition algorithm. Two stable recirculation regions, the reverse flows above the seats and the main air jets from the air supply inlets formed the complicated airflow patterns inside the cabin mockup. The primary air flow was parallel to the passenger rows. The small velocity component in the direction of the cabin depth caused less net air exchange between the passenger rows than that parallel to the passenger rows. Different total air supply rate changed the developing behaviors of the main air jets, leading to different local air distribution patterns. Two indices, Local mean age of air and ventilation effectiveness factor (VEF), were measured at five levels of air supply rate and two levels of heating load. Local mean age of air decreased linearly with an increase in the air supply rate, while the VEF remained consistent when the air supply rate varied. The thermal buoyancy force from the thermal plume generated the upside plume flow, opposite to the main jet flow above the boundary seats and thus lowered the local net air exchange. The airborne transport dynamics depends on the distance between the source and the receptors, the relative location of pollutant source, and air supply rate. Exposure risk was significantly reduced with increased distance between source and receptors. Another possible way to decrease the exposure risk was to position the release source close to the exhaust outlets. Increasing the air supply rate could be an effective solution under some emergency situations. The large volume of data regarding the three-dimensional air velocities was

  6. Increasing EDV Range through Intelligent Cabin Air Handling Strategies: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Ford Focus Electric demonstrated that a split flow heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system with rear recirculation ducts can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 57.4% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Simulations also showed that implementing a continuous recirculation fraction control system into the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) HVAC system can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 50.0% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Identified that continuous fractional recirculation control of the OEM system can provide significant energy savings for EVs at minimal additional cost, while a split flow HVAC system with rear recirculation ducts only provides minimal additional improvement at significant additional cost.

  7. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7... days the Order Temporarily Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air...

  8. Assistive technology and passengers with special assistance needs in air transport: contributions to cabin design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Campese

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been significant growth in air transport worldwide, as well as in Brazil. However, studies have emphasized that disabled, obese, and elderly passengers face difficulties when using this means of transport. Among these difficulties, issues related to passengers’ own assistive devices, including damage, loss, or the impossibility of using during the entire flight, stand out. Therefore, the present study aims to understand the trends in assistive technology focusing on cabin design. This research is based upon literature review, interviews with manufacturers and research centers, visits to specialized trade fairs, and patent search. The results revealed a great diversity of assistive products, its trends, and an increase in their use, which affect aircraft cabin design, especially in terms of space, access, and stowage of these devices.

  9. The effects of the aircraft cabin environment on passengers during simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    enables subjective assessments of the symptoms commonly experienced by passengers and crew during flights. Six investigations with subject exposure have subsequently been carried out in the aircraft cabin facility covering four environmental areas of study, i.e. humidity, air purification techniques...... but intensified complaints of headache, dizziness and claustrophobia, suggesting that air pollutants rather than low humidity cause the distress reported by airline passengers. Three investigations studying the efficacy of various air purification technologies showed that a gas phase adsorption purification unit......A 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated Boeing 767 aircraft cabin has been built in a climate chamber, simulating the cabin environment not only in terms of materials and geometry, but also in terms of cabin air and wall temperatures and ventilation with very dry air. This realistic simulation...

  10. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  11. Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri

    2016-01-01

    Airlines create value for employees, investors, governments, customers and consumers. This chapter focuses on the customers and consumers of the airline product. Airline customers, who include passengers and corporate travel providers, exert considerable market power in the air transport industry through their purchasing decisions and travel behaviour. As a purchaser of a commercial aviation product, customers are responsible for stimulating product and service innovation and their behaviour ...

  12. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  13. Advanced air distribution for minimizing airborne cross-infection in aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Dzhartov, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    The performance of personalized ventilation combined with local exhaust at each seat was studied for the purpose of minimizing airborne cross-infection in spaces whose occupants are sedentary, such as transportation environments. Experiments were carried out in a simulated aircraft cabin section (3...... rows, 21 seats). One breathing thermal manikin simulated an infected passenger as a source of pollution, and a second breathing manikin simulated an exposed passenger. The personalized ventilation supplied clean air at 6 or 10 L/s (12.7 of 21.2 cfm) from in front of each manikin's face. Air...... was withdrawn at a rate of 6 or 10 L/s (12.7 or (21.2 cfm) by the local exhaust system, which consisted of two exhaust terminals, one on each side of the head of the infected manikin. The cabin was ventilated with 180 L/s (381 cfm) of fresh air. Freon was mixed with the air exhaled by the infected manikin...

  14. Passenger evaluation of the optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity from 7-h exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2007-01-01

    A 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber capable of providing fresh outside air at very low humidity. Maintaining a constant 200 l/s rate of total air supply, i.e. recircu-lated and make-up air, to the cabin, experiments simulating 7...

  15. Airline Quality Rating 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month qualit...

  16. Airline Quality Rating 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2013, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2012. AQR scores for 2013 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the calendar year of 2012. The Airline Quality...

  17. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  18. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects......, divided into four groups of 17 subjects took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without the GPA purification unit installed in the recirculated air system. During each...... flight the subjects completed questionnaires five times to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms, and thermal comfort. Additionally, the subjects’ visual acuity, finger temperature, skin dryness and nasal peak flow were measured three times during each...

  19. 75 FR 66728 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A... Denying the Export Privileges of Respondents Orion Air, S.L. (``Orion Air'') and Syrian Pearl Airlines...

  20. Specifications and test procedures for airline-type supplied-air suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revoir, W.H.; Pritchard, J.A.; Davis, T.O.; Richards, C.P.; Wheat, L.D.

    1975-05-01

    Procedures and requirements have been established to permit airline-type supplied-air suits needed by contractors of the Energy Research and Development Administration to be tested for performance by the Respirator Research and Development Section, Industrial Hygiene Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and to have the adequacy of the performance of these devices evaluated by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Respirator Advisory Committee. Test equipment, test methods, and performance criteria for airline-type supplied-air suits are prescribed. (U.S.)

  1. A portable solar-powered air-cooling system based on phase-change materials for a vehicle cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Lingfei; Pan, Hongye; Zhu, Xin; Zhang, Xingtian; Salman, Waleed; Zhang, Zutao; Li, Li; Zhu, Miankuan; Yuan, Yanping; Xiang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper proposed a portable solar-powered air cooling system for a vehicle cabin based on Phase-change Materials. The cooling system contains three main parts: a solar-energy collection module, an energy-storage module and a phase-change cooling module. The operating principle can be described as follows. For energy input, the solar-energy-collection module harvests solar energy and converts it to electricity. The power-storage module stores the electrical energy in the supercapacitor to power the electrical equipment, mainly the air pump (AP) and water pump (WP) of the phase-change cooling module. Finally, the phase-change cooling module provides cold air for the vehicle cabin to create a comfortable vehicle interior in a hot summer. The proposed system is demonstrated through thermal simulations, which show the long-duration cooling effect of the system. Temperature drops of were obtained in field tests, predicting that the proposed cooling system is beneficial and practical for cooling vehicle cabins. - Highlights: • A novel portable air cooling system based on PCMs is presented. • Solar energy was adopted to power the proposed air cooling system. • This proposed system is used for cooling vehicle cabins exposed to the sun. • Experimental results show that the proposed system has a good cooling effect. - Abstract: In summer, the temperature is very high inside vehicles parked under the hot sun. This causes consuming more fossil energy to power the air conditioner and generation of harmful gases. There is currently no effective method to address this problem in an energy-saving and environmentally friendly manner. In this paper, a novel solar-powered air-cooling system for vehicle cabins is proposed based on Phase-change Materials (PCMs); the system prevents the temperature inside a vehicle cabin from rising too high when the vehicle is parked outdoor exposure to the sun. The proposed system consists of three main parts: a solar

  2. Predicting Active Duty Air Force Pilot Attrition Given an Anticipated Increase in Major Airline Pilot Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the Air Force in addressing some quality-of-life issues, such as updating 3,800 family housing units, 21 dormitories, and building three child ...of pilots into the airlines (Air Force Personnel Center, FY 07). By allowing this crop of pilots to leave on the Air Force’s terms, the service felt...attrition rates compared with pilots with more general skills (flying mobility aircraft) (Stephen P. Barrows, 1993). This may be due to the phenomenon in

  3. Hava Yolu Yolcularının Kabiniçi Hizmet Algılarının Değerlendirmesi: Türk Hava Yolları Örneği (Evaluation of Airline Passangers' Perceptions of In-Cabin Services: Turkish Airlines Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur GÖRKEM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Airline industry is facing an intense competition as the number of companies, fleet sizes and the network of flight destinations increase with each passing day. In order to maintain or increase market share, the quality of service is an important component of competitiveness. In this study, passengers’ evaluation of in-cabin services, which have significant impact on their purchase decisions, were analyzed. The study sample consisted of 501 passengers who travelled with THY (Turkish Airlines. The data were gathered from an online questionnaire hosted by Skytrax, an England based consultancy and brand positioning firm. Regression, correlation and variance (ANOVA tests were used to analyze data. Findings indicate that American, European and AsiaPacific passengers’ evaluation showed significant differences with regard to either incabin service dimensions or price-value perceptions.

  4. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Natasha Maria; Ng, Tsz Wai; Ma, Kwok Keung; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-03-27

    Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM 0.3 and PM 2.5 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM 0.3 , PM 2.5 , TVOCs, CO, and CO₂ during engine idling. In general, during driving PM 2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM 0.3 . For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO₂ level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  5. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maria Barnes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM0.3 and PM2.5, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM0.3, PM2.5, TVOCs, CO, and CO2 during engine idling. In general, during driving PM2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM0.3. For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO2 level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  6. PTR-MS Assessment of Photocatalytic and Sorption-Based Purification of Recirculated Cabin Air during Simulated 7-h Flights with High Passenger Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Four different air purification conditions were established in a simulated 3-row 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin: no air purifier; a photocatalytic oxidation unit with an adsorptive prefilter; a second photocatalytic unit with an adsorptive prefil-ter; and a two-stage sorptionbased air filter...... (gas-phase absorption and adsorption). The air purifiers placed in the cabin air recirculation system were commercial prototypes developed for use in aircraft cabin systems. The four conditions were established in balanced order on 4 successive days of each of 4 successive weeks during simulated 7-h...... flights with 17 occupants. Protontransfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was effi-ciently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units...

  7. Investigating brand personality of state-owned and private airlines: Maham Versus Iran Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karoubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies need to create exclusion not in the market but in their own capabilities and features in order to gain distinction. The creation and maintenance of distinction through functional features is nearly impossible anymore. Thus, apart from the functional features, companies need to consider their intangible properties, among which brand is one of the most important ones. One of components researchers have detected for brand is personality, which can enhance the preference and loyalty of the customers and influence their decision process. In the service section, due to its specific features, the impacts of brand personality are more important and more complicated and airline companies, as service industries, which provide one of the most intangible products, are no exception. In the current study, using Aaker's Five-Dimension Model for brand personality, brand personality of a state-owned airline company (Iran Air and a private one (Mahan are compared from the perspective of technical directors of travel agencies. The population includes 233 technical directors whose views regarding brand personality of airline companies are studied following the distribution of questionnaires. The results of the data analysis indicate Mahan Airline is superior to Iran Air in all the five dimensions.

  8. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 1: Optimum balance between fresh air supply and humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2005-01-01

    Low humidity in the aircraft cabin environment has been identified as a possible cause of symptoms experienced during long flights. A mock-up of a 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin with realistic pollution sources was built inside a climate chamber, capable of providing fresh outside air at very...

  9. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin, installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which cabin air quality and passenger symptoms are affected by ozone chemistry. A total of 30 subjects were exposed to four conditions: two rates of outside...

  10. Monitoring of Air Quality in Passenger Cabins of the Athens Metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsairidi, Evangelia; Assimakopoulos, Vasiliki D.; Assimakopoulos, Margarita-Niki; Barbaresos, Nicolaos; Karagiannis, Athanassios

    2013-04-01

    The air pollution induced by various transportation means combines the emission of pollutants with the simultaneous presence of people. In this respect, the scientific community has focused its efforts in studying both the air quality within busy streets and inside cars, buses and the underground railway network in order to identify the pollutants' sources and levels as well as the human exposure. The impact of the air pollution on commuters of the underground may be more severe because it is a confined space, extended mostly under heavily trafficked urban streets, relies on mechanical ventilation for air renewal and gathers big numbers of passengers. The purpose of the present work is to monitor the air quality of the city of Athens Metro Network cabins and platforms during the unusually hot summer of 2012. For that cause particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), carbon dioxide (CO2), the number of commuters along with temperature (T) and humidity (RH) were recorded inside the Athens Metro Blue Line trains (covering a route from the centre of Athens (Aigaleo) to the Athens International Airport) and on the platforms of a central (Syntagma) and a suburban-traffic (Doukissis Plakentias) station between June and August. The data collection included six different experiments that took place for 2 consecutive working days each, for a time period of 6 weeks from 6:30 am too 7:00 pm in order to account for different outdoor climatic conditions and for morning and evening rush hours respectively. Measurements were taken in the middle car of the moving trains and the platform end of the selected stations. The results show PM concentrations to be higher (approximately 2 to 5 times) inside the cabins and o the platforms of the underground network as compared to the outdoor levels monitored routinely by the Ministry of Environment. Moreover, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations recorded at the Syntagma Station Platform were almost constantly higher reaching 11 μg m-3 47

  11. Estimated radiation exposure of German commercial airline cabin crew in the years 1960-2003 modeled using dose registry data for 2004-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollschläger, Daniel; Hammer, Gaël Paul; Schafft, Thomas; Dreger, Steffen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2.25 mSv (range 0.01-6.39 mSv). In addition to an inverse association with solar activity, exposure followed age- and sex-dependent patterns related to individual career development and life phases. JEM-derived annual cockpit crew doses agreed with SSR-provided doses for 2004 (correlation 0.90, 0.40 mSv root mean squared error), while the estimated average annual effective dose for cabin crew had a prediction error of 0.16 mSv, equaling 7.2% of average annual dose. Past average annual cabin crew dose can be modeled by exploiting systematic external influences as well as individual behavioral determinants of radiation exposure, thereby enabling future dose-response analyses of the full aircrew cohort including measurement error information.

  12. Esindusteenuseid pakub Airline Management

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lennufirmadele ja teistele turismivaldkonna ettevõtetele esindusteenuseid pakkuvast firmast Airline Management OÜ. Firma poolt Eestis esindatud lennufirmade Air Namibia, SN Brussels Airlines ja Flynordic ning hotelligrupi Wyndham lühitutvustus

  13. International Space Station Common Cabin Air Assembly Condensing Heat Exchanger Hydrophilic Coating Operation, Recovery, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistreri, Steven F.; Steele, John W.; Caron, Mark E.; Laliberte, Yvon J.; Shaw, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to control the temperature and humidity of an environment or habitat is critical for human survival. These factors are important to maintaining human health and comfort, as well as maintaining mechanical and electrical equipment in good working order to support the human and to accomplish mission objectives. The temperature and humidity of the International Space Station (ISS) United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) cabin air is controlled by the Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA). The CCAA consists of a fan, a condensing heat exchanger (CHX), an air/water separator, temperature and liquid sensors, and electrical controlling hardware and software. The CHX is the primary component responsible for control of temperature and humidity. The CCAA CHX contains a chemical coating that was developed to be hydrophilic and thus attract water from the humid influent air. This attraction forms the basis for water removal and therefore cabin humidity control. However, there have been several instances of CHX coatings becoming hydrophobic and repelling water. When this behavior is observed in an operational CHX in the ISS segments, the unit s ability to remove moisture from the air is compromised and the result is liquid water carryover into downstream ducting and systems. This water carryover can have detrimental effects on the ISS cabin atmosphere quality and on the health of downstream hardware. If the water carryover is severe and widespread, this behavior can result in an inability to maintain humidity levels in the USOS. This paper will describe the operation of the five CCAAs within the USOS, the potential causes of the hydrophobic condition, and the impacts of the resulting water carryover to downstream systems. It will describe the history of this behavior and the actual observed impacts to the ISS USOS. Information on mitigation steps to protect the health of future CHX hydrophilic coatings as well as remediation and recovery of the full heat exchanger will be

  14. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations just before and right after the driving tests were also determined. Data were collected under three driving conditions (i.e. no mitigation (NM), window closed (WC), and window closed plus using high efficiency cabin air filters (WC+HECA)) for each taxi and driver. The results show that, compared to NM, the WC+HECA reduced in-cabin PM2.5 and UFP concentrations, by 37% and 47% respectively (p health.

  15. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use

  16. Effects of Gas-Phase Adsorption air purification on passengers and cabin crew in simulated 11-hour flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin that had been installed in a climate chamber, 4 groups of 17 subjects, acting as passengers and crew, took part in simulated 11-hour flights. Each group experienced 4 conditions in balanced order, defined by two outside air supply rates (2.......4 and 3.3 L/s per person), with and without a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) unit in the re-circulated air system. Objective physical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments of symptom intensity were obtained. The GPA unit provided advantages with no apparent disadvantages....

  17. Development of a Prototype Algal Reactor for Removing CO2 from Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajen; Monje, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide in spacecraft cabin air may be accomplished using algal photobioreactors (PBRs). The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a commercial microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, for measuring key photioreactor variables: dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide. The Arduino platform is an opensource physical computing platform composed of a compact microcontroller board and a C++/C computer language (Arduino 1.0.5). The functionality of the Arduino platform can be expanded by the use of numerous add-ons or 'shields'. The Arduino Mega 2560 was equipped with the following shields: datalogger, BNC shield for reading pH sensor, a Mega Moto shield for controlling CO2 addition, as well as multiple sensors. The dissolved oxygen (DO) probe was calibrated using a nitrogen bubbling technique and the pH probe was calibrated via an Omega pH simulator. The PBR was constructed using a 2 L beaker, a 66 L box for addition of CO2, a micro porous membrane, a diaphragm pump, four 25 watt light bulbs, a MasterFiex speed controller, and a fan. The algae (wild type Synechocystis PCC6803) was grown in an aerated flask until the algae was dense enough to used in the main reactor. After the algae was grown, it was transferred to the 2 L beaker where CO2 consumption and O2 production was measured using the microcontroller sensor suite. The data was recorded via the datalogger and transferred to a computer for analysis.

  18. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Das, Anirrudha; Qiu, Youliang; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-08-14

    Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR), to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya) and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements on the air travel network. The framework built provides a flexible

  19. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  20. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  1. Hearing loss in civilian airline and helicopter pilots compared to air traffic control personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony S; Arva, Per

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, a comparative analysis of audiometric data from Norwegian Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline (fixed-wing) pilots, and helicopter pilots was performed. The results may be of use in giving advice regarding preventive measures. Male ATC, airline, and helicopter pilots were selected randomly from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) medical files. There were 182 subjects included in the study: 50, 81, and 51 subjects for ATC, helicopter, and airline pilots, respectively. Two audiograms with a 2-3-yr interval were analyzed for each individual. Age correction was performed using data from ISO 7129. Threshold changes per year for the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz were examined in particular after age correction. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above (worse than) ISO 7129 predictions for most frequencies. As expected, hearing thresholds increased with age in the group as a whole. Looking at the 3-, 4-, and 6-kHz frequencies in particular, all groups had small but highly significant increases in hearing thresholds at 4 kHz between the first and second audiogram. The mean hearing thresholds for this group of aviation personnel are higher than International Standard ISO-7129 would predict according to age. Highly significant changes in hearing threshold after age correction, indicating possible noise-induced hearing loss, were found in all groups at 4 kHz. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters.

  2. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  3. Radiation exposure of the Yugoslav Airlines crews according to new radiation limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation exposure of the Yugoslav Airlines (JAT) crews in commercial air traffic has been studied according to the new radiation limits (ICRP 60). Selected pilots make the groups, for different types in use by JAT, and two groups of the co-pilots ('flight engineers' for B-727 and DC-10 aircraft's). Cabin crew members make three groups of pursers and two groups of STW/STD (they include both male and female workers). Annual doses and added risks have been assessed. (author)

  4. Time Series Forecasting of the Number of Malaysia Airlines and AirAsia Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrah, N. M.; Nor, M. E.; Rahim, S. N. A.; Leng, W. K.

    2018-04-01

    The standard practice in forecasting process involved by fitting a model and further analysis on the residuals. If we know the distributional behaviour of the time series data, it can help us to directly analyse the model identification, parameter estimation, and model checking. In this paper, we want to compare the distributional behaviour data from the number of Malaysia Airlines (MAS) and AirAsia passenger’s. From the previous research, the AirAsia passengers are govern by geometric Brownian motion (GBM). The data were normally distributed, stationary and independent. Then, GBM was used to forecast the number of AirAsia passenger’s. The same methods were applied to MAS data and the results then were compared. Unfortunately, the MAS data were not govern by GBM. Then, the standard approach in time series forecasting will be applied to MAS data. From this comparison, we can conclude that the number of AirAsia passengers are always in peak season rather than MAS passengers.

  5. Future aircraft cabins and design thinking: optimisation vs. win-win scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With projections indicating an increase in mobility over the next few decades and annual flight departures expected to rise to over 16 billion by 2050, there is a demand for the aviation industry and associated stakeholders to consider new forms of aircraft and technology. Customer requirements are recognized as a key driver in business. The airline is the principal customer for the aircraft manufacture. The passenger is, in turn, the airline's principal customer but they are just one of several stakeholders that include aviation authorities, airport operators, air-traffic control and security agencies. The passenger experience is a key differentiator used by airlines to attract and retain custom and the fuselage that defines the cabin envelope for the in-flight passenger experience and cabin design therefore receives significant attention for new aircraft, service updates and refurbishments. Decision making in design is crucial to arriving at viable and worthwhile cabin formats. Too little innovation will result in an aircraft manufacturer and airlines using its products falling behind its competitors. Too much may result in an over-extension with, for example, use of immature technologies that do not have the necessary reliability for a safety critical industry or sufficient value to justify the development effort. The multiple requirements associated with cabin design, can be viewed as an area for optimisation, accepting trade-offs between the various parameters. Good design, however, is often defined as developing a concept that resolves the contradictions and takes the solution towards a win-win scenario. Indeed our understanding and practice of design allows for behaviors that enhance design thinking through divergence and convergence, the use of abductive reasoning, experimentation and systems thinking. This paper explores and defines the challenges of designing the aircraft cabin of the future that will deliver on the multiple

  6. Can the Air Force and Airlines Collaborate for Mutual Benefit An Exploration of Pilot and Maintenance Workforce Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Virgin America UNIQUE_CARRIER_NAME 14 Figure 8. Air Force and Commercial Maintenance Personnel Salaries NOTE: AF Annual = Air Force, enlisted. Avg...have drill weekends Holiday : blue No week 5: orange Weekend split over 2 months: purple We also considered the overlap between ARC...ebb in the winter. Cargo airlines have a sustained busy season in November and December with holiday package shipping. We obtained five years of

  7. Interplay between air passengers' service quality, satisfaction, loyalty and loyalty programmes in South African owned airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Mantey, Nicholas O.; Naidoo, Vannie

    2017-01-01

    Orientation: Delivering service quality is crucial for the continuous operation and sustainability of South African owned airlines. The term ‘South African owned airlines’ refers to six South African owned registered airlines, and is used for purpose of anonymity and confidentiality. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the interplay between service quality delivery, satisfaction, loyalty programmes and passengers’ loyalty to South African owned airlines. Motivati...

  8. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry. Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  9. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  10. Long-term monitoring of air crew exposure onboard of Czech Airlines aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Ploc, O.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents new results related to the aircraft crew exposure onboard aircraft of Czech air companies. First, the results of long term monitoring onboard of an aircraft of Czech Airlines are presented. In the period May-December 2005, 494 individual flights have been followed using MDU-Liulin Si-diode based spectrometer, together with thermoluminescent and track detectors. The results of measurements are analyzed and compared with those of calculation performed with CARI6 and EPCARD3.2 codes. Monitoring period represented about 4.6 times more than usual annual engagement of an aircrew (600 hours). Total effective dose during these 2 755 hours was between Il and 12 mSv, following the considered method of evaluation. Both the measuring and calculation methods correlate well. This fact leads to confirmation of the routine method evaluating the level of aircraft crew exposure using CARI6 code as correct for this purpose. Second, the results of individual monitoring of aircrew members obtained during few last years by this routine method are presented; general tendencies of aircraft crew onboard exposure of Czech air companies are outlined. The contribution of aircrew exposure to total occupational exposure in the Czech Republic represents about 20%. (authors)

  11. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  12. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: In-Flight Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Pettyjohn, Frank S; Alves, Paulo M

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. All airlines are required to provide first aid training for cabin crew, and the crew are responsible for managing any in-flight medical events. There are also regulatory requirements for the carriage of first aid and medical kits. AsMA has developed recommendations for first aid kits, emergency medical kits, and universal precaution kits.

  13. Factors of Airline Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mišetić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses several marketing related notions associatedwith airline strategic planning and positioning. Besideexamining the distinctions between network operator and nicheplayer, this paper treats the state of Croatia Airlines within thereported AEA benchmarking of the specific elements of airlinebusiness. It also studies certain aspects of the air market that influencepricing and demand elasticity, such as the impact oflow cost carriers and the practice of network hubbing.

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  15. Effective doses received by air crew of airlines registered in the Czech and Slovak Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubancak, Jan; Orcikova, H.; Kovar, I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of effective dose monitoring for airlines registered in the Czech Republic since 1999 and in Slovakia since 2011 are presented. The recommended effective dose limits were apparently exceeded in over 75% Czech crew members. The dependence of the effective doses on the heliocentric potential was also examined. (orig.)

  16. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Interactive aircraft cabin testbed for stress-free air travel system experiment: an innovative concurrent design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a study of the concurrent engineering design for the environmental friendly low cost aircraft cabin simulator is presented. The study describes the used of concurrent design technique in the design activity. The simulator is a testbed that was designed and built for research on

  18. The Airplane Cabin Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Howard; Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Dupont, Chris; Espinoza, Josh L; Levy, Shawn; Nelson, Karen; Norris, Sharon

    2018-06-06

    Serving over three billion passengers annually, air travel serves as a conduit for infectious disease spread, including emerging infections and pandemics. Over two dozen cases of in-flight transmissions have been documented. To understand these risks, a characterization of the airplane cabin microbiome is necessary. Our study team collected 229 environmental samples on ten transcontinental US flights with subsequent 16S rRNA sequencing. We found that bacterial communities were largely derived from human skin and oral commensals, as well as environmental generalist bacteria. We identified clear signatures for air versus touch surface microbiome, but not for individual types of touch surfaces. We also found large flight-to-flight beta diversity variations with no distinguishing signatures of individual flights, rather a high between-flight diversity for all touch surfaces and particularly for air samples. There was no systematic pattern of microbial community change from pre- to post-flight. Our findings are similar to those of other recent studies of the microbiome of built environments. In summary, the airplane cabin microbiome has immense airplane to airplane variability. The vast majority of airplane-associated microbes are human commensals or non-pathogenic, and the results provide a baseline for non-crisis-level airplane microbiome conditions.

  19. Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Baxter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture.

  20. Building Airline Passenger Loyalty Through an Understanding of Customer Value: A Relationship Segmentation of Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores means of restoring profitability to the airline industry by cultivating intrinsically motivated brand loyalty between passengers and airlines in today’s fragile environment. The air transport industry is caught up in traditional transaction-based strategies. Airlines rely on archaic frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to maintain loyalty which deter customers from choosing alternative airlines by increasing the cost associated with switching. In contrast, oth...

  1. In-flight cabin smoke control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, T I

    1996-12-31

    Fatal accidents originating from in-flight cabin fires comprise only about 1% of all fatal accidents in the civil jet transport fleet. Nevertheless, the impossibility of escape during flight accentuates the hazards resulting from low visibility and toxic gases. Control of combustion products in an aircraft cabin is affected by several characteristics that make the aircraft cabin environment unique. The aircraft fuselage is pressurized in flight and has an air distribution system which provides ventilation jets from the ceiling level air inlets running along the cabin length. A fixed quantity of ventilation air is metered into the cabin and air discharge is handled primarily by pressure controlling outflow valves in the rear lower part of the fuselage. Earlier airplane flight tests on cabin smoke control used generators producing minimally buoyant smoke products that moved with and served as a telltales for overall cabin ventilation flows. Analytical studies were done with localized smoke production to predict the percent of cabin length that would remain smoke-free during continuous generation. Development of a buoyant smoke generator allowed simulation of a fire plume with controllable simulated temperature and heat release rates. Tests on a Boeing 757, modified to allow smoke venting out through the top of the cabin, showed that the buoyant smoke front moved at 0.46m/s (1.5ft/sec) with and 0.27m/sec (0.9ft/sec) against, the axial ventilation airflow. Flight tests in a modified Boeing 727 showed that a ceiling level counterflow of about 0.55m/sec (1.8ft/sec) was required to arrest the forward movement of buoyant smoke. A design goal of 0.61m/s (2ft/sec) axial cabin flow would require a flow rate of 99m3/min (3500ft3/min) in a furnished Boeing 757. The current maximum fresh air cabin ventilation flow is 78m3/min (2756 ft3/min). Experimental results indicate that buoyancy effects cause smoke movement behaviour that is not predicted by traditional design analyses and

  2. The Cabin Crew Blues. Middle-aged Cabin Attendants and Their Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bergman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how an airline company uses the labor of a group of middle-aged cabin attendants in an industry increasingly characterized by deregulation and competiveness. The study was based on in-depth interviews with seven women, all with between 24 and 30 years of work experience as cabin attendants. The article focuses on the women’s working conditions and well-being and the analysis reveals three key aspects—intensification of work, vulnerability, and aging—that affect the cabin attendants’ experiences and emotions in relation to the work. It is at the intersection of these three aspects that the cabin attendants’ concerns must be understood. The study’s findings indicated that positive emotions such as job satisfaction and commitment have diminished because of exploitative and otherwise poor working conditions. Taking the cabin attendants’ concerns as its point of departure, the article shows that there is a need to move away from a discussion about emotional labor toward a discussion of working conditions.

  3. Low-cost airlines consolidation as a feature of air transpoet globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev Andrey A.; Matveeva Anastasiya V.

    2017-01-01

    The increased industry consolidation resulting in the formation of new highly organized forms of cooperation is referred as one of the main features of air transport globalization at the present stage. Consolidation allows carriers to overcome the excessive competition and to strengthen their market position. It also helps them to optimize the route network and organizational structure of the company. This article includes the analysis of the dynam-ics of global air passenger traffic by low-c...

  4. Maximum vehicle cabin temperatures under different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Meentemeyer, Vernon; Dowd, John

    2009-05-01

    A variety of studies have documented the dangerously high temperatures that may occur within the passenger compartment (cabin) of cars under clear sky conditions, even at relatively low ambient air temperatures. Our study, however, is the first to examine cabin temperatures under variable weather conditions. It uses a unique maximum vehicle cabin temperature dataset in conjunction with directly comparable ambient air temperature, solar radiation, and cloud cover data collected from April through August 2007 in Athens, GA. Maximum cabin temperatures, ranging from 41-76°C, varied considerably depending on the weather conditions and the time of year. Clear days had the highest cabin temperatures, with average values of 68°C in the summer and 61°C in the spring. Cloudy days in both the spring and summer were on average approximately 10°C cooler. Our findings indicate that even on cloudy days with lower ambient air temperatures, vehicle cabin temperatures may reach deadly levels. Additionally, two predictive models of maximum daily vehicle cabin temperatures were developed using commonly available meteorological data. One model uses maximum ambient air temperature and average daily solar radiation while the other uses cloud cover percentage as a surrogate for solar radiation. From these models, two maximum vehicle cabin temperature indices were developed to assess the level of danger. The models and indices may be useful for forecasting hazardous conditions, promoting public awareness, and to estimate past cabin temperatures for use in forensic analyses.

  5. Irregular working hours and fatigue of cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Carvalhais, José; Teles, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Beyond workload and specific environmental factors, flight attendants can be exposed to irregular working hours, conflicting with their circadian rhythms and having a negative impact in sleep, fatigue, health, social and family life, and performance which is critical to both safety and security in flight operations. This study focuses on the irregular schedules of cabin crew as a trigger of fatigue symptoms in a wet lease Portuguese airline. The aim was to analyze: what are the requirements of the cabin crew work; whether the schedules being observed and effective resting timeouts are triggering factors of fatigue; and the existence of fatigue symptoms in the cabin crew. A questionnaire has been adapted and applied to a sample of 73 cabin crew-members (representing 61.9% of the population), 39 females and 34 males, with an average age of 27.68 ± 4.27 years. Our data indicate the presence of fatigue and corresponding health symptoms among the airline cabin crew, despite of the sample favorable characteristics. Senior workers and women are more affected. Countermeasures are required. Recommendations can be made regarding the fatigue risk management, including work organization, education and awareness training programmes and specific countermeasures.

  6. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  7. The association between airline flight and sinonasal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargorodsky, Josef; Zheng, Laura; Stillman, Frances; Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Reh, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Airplane cabin supply air has been shown to contain multiple possible respiratory irritants. In addition, changes in barometric pressure in flight may contribute to specific respiratory conditions. Therefore, there may be an association between commercial airline flight and sinus disease. Participants of the Secondhand-Smoke, Air Quality and Respiratory Health Among Flight Attendants Study were administered an online questionnaire pertaining to their flight experience and respiratory health. Working years, working days per month, and number of trips per month were quantified, as well as smoking exposure and self-reported physician diagnoses of sinusitis, asthma, and rhinitis. The sinonasal outcomes were quantified using a Respiratory Questionnaire Survey (RQS) score. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between flight time and sinus disease. A total of 579 participants met the inclusion criteria for this study, with cohort prevalence of sinusitis, asthma, and rhinitis of 25.3%, 14.4%, and 20.5%, respectively. Tertiles 2 and 3 of working days per month were associated with higher RQS scores compared to tertile 1 (p for trend <0.01). Individual symptoms significantly associated with increasing number of working days per month included "need to blow nose," "sneezing," and "thick nasal discharge," and the number of international trips per month was significantly associated with "coughing" and "facial pain and pressure," among other symptoms. This is the largest study to analyze the relations between airline flight time and sinonasal disease. The results suggest a possible association between sinusitis diagnosis, symptom scores, and specific sinonasal symptoms, and airline flight time. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  8. Literature review of the passenger airline business models : Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  9. Air Charter - The Business Airline of the Future...But, Does the Business Traveler Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaps, Robert W.; Gardner, Robin C.; Hartung, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, FAR Part 121 commercial carriers have provided efficient, economical and safe air transportation for corporate and business users. Recently, however, corporate and business travelers find their travel plans disrupted by delays, bankruptcies, poor service, lost baggage, fare increases, labor strikes and other systemic difficulties that degrade their travel experience to unsatisfactory levels. This article examines these Part 121 service delivery problems and, utilizing a tripartite investigative methodology, examines an alternative air transport mode: FAR Part 135 on-demand charter travel products. This long extant segment of our national air transportation system is set prime to support increased demand for charter services. Corporate and business travelers are set prime to utilize viable, cost effective alternatives to commercial travel products. Two research questions emerge. First is whether corporate and business travelers are aware of Part 135 travel alternatives. Second is whether Part 135 charter service providers are aware of this latent demand and are effectively targeting this demand segment in their marketing efforts. The three-part surveys employed to investigate these questions examined demand side

  10. Radiation resistant fiber Bragg grating in random air-line fibers for sensing applications in nuclear reactor cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Mohamed A S; Wang, Mohan; Huang, Sheng; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Grobnic, Dan; Mihailov, Stephen; Li, Ming-Jun; Carpenter, David; Hu, Lin-Wen; Daw, Joshua; Laffont, Guillaume; Nehr, Simon; Chen, Kevin P

    2018-04-30

    This paper reports the testing results of radiation resistant fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in random air-line (RAL) fibers in comparison with FBGs in other radiation-hardened fibers. FBGs in RAL fibers were fabricated by 80 fs ultrafast laser pulse using a phase mask approach. The fiber Bragg gratings tests were carried out in the core region of a 6 MW MIT research reactor (MITR) at a steady temperature above 600°C and an average fast neutron (>1 MeV) flux >1.2 × 10 14 n/cm 2 /s. Fifty five-day tests of FBG sensors showed less than 5 dB reduction in FBG peak strength after over 1 × 10 20 n/cm 2 of accumulated fast neutron dose. The radiation-induced compaction of FBG sensors produced less than 5.5 nm FBG wavelength shift toward shorter wavelength. To test temporal responses of FBG sensors, a number of reactor anomaly events were artificially created to abruptly change reactor power, temperature, and neutron flux over short periods of time. The thermal sensitivity and temporal responses of FBGs were determined at different accumulated doses of neutron flux. Results presented in this paper reveal that temperature-stable Type-II FBGs fabricated in radiation-hardened fibers can survive harsh in-pile conditions. Despite large parameter drift induced by strong nuclear radiation, further engineering and innovation on both optical fibers and fiber devices could lead to useful fiber sensors for various in-pile measurements to improve safety and efficiency of existing and next generation nuclear reactors.

  11. Polish air transport among structural changes in the world civil airline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted tripling of regional air carriage before the year 2027 sets extremely high requirements on future aircraft choice. The main competitors for a share of this market are Bombardier from Canada and Embraer from Brazil, followed by the French-Italian combination ATR. Having gone through a series of important changes since 1989, PLL LOT S.A. must also compete in this highly dynamic market. Its choices in equipment will have an important effect on its future market position.

  12. Air pollution during the 2003 European heat wave as seen by MOZAIC airliners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tressol

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of both MOZAIC profiles above Frankfurt and Lagrangian dispersion model simulations for the 2003 European heat wave. The comparison of MOZAIC measurements in summer 2003 with the 11-year MOZAIC climatology reflects strong temperature anomalies (exceeding 4°C throughout the lower troposphere. Higher positive anomalies of temperature and negative anomalies of both wind speed and relative humidity are found for the period defined here as the heat wave (2–14 August 2003, compared to the periods before (16–31 July 2003 and after (16–31 August 2003 the heat wave. In addition, Lagrangian model simulations in backward mode indicate the suppressed long-range transport in the mid- to lower troposphere and the enhanced southern origin of air masses for all tropospheric levels during the heat wave. Ozone and carbon monoxide also present strong anomalies (both ~+40 ppbv during the heat wave, with a maximum vertical extension reaching 6 km altitude around 11 August 2003. Pollution in the planetary boundary layer (PBL is enhanced during the day, with ozone mixing ratios two times higher than climatological values. This is due to a combination of factors, such as high temperature and radiation, stagnation of air masses and weak dry deposition, which favour the accumulation of ozone precursors and the build-up of ozone. A negligible role of a stratospheric-origin ozone tracer has been found for the lower troposphere in this study. From 29 July to 15 August 2003 forest fires burnt around 0.3×106 ha in Portugal and added to atmospheric pollution in Europe. Layers with enhanced CO and NOy mixing ratios, advected from Portugal, were crossed by the MOZAIC aircraft in the free troposphere over Frankfurt. A series of forward and backward Lagrangian model simulations have been performed to investigate the origin of anomalies during the whole heat wave. European anthropogenic emissions present the strongest

  13. In-flight monitoring of particle deposition in the environmental control systems of commercial airliners in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Xu, Qiuyu; Liu, Wei; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Wei, Daniel; Baughcum, Steven; Norris, Sharon; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-04-01

    Severe air pollution and low on-time performance of commercial flights in China could increase particle deposition in the environmental control systems (ECSs) of commercial airliners. The particles deposited in the ECSs could negatively affect the performance of the airplanes. In addition, particles that penetrate into the aircraft cabin could adversely impact the health of passengers and crew members. This investigation conducted simultaneous measurements of particle mass concentration and size distribution inside and outside the cabin during 64 commercial flights of Boeing 737 and Airbus 320 aircraft departing from or arriving at Tianjin Airport in China. The results showed that the PM2.5 mass concentration deposition in the ECSs of these airplanes ranged from 50% to 90%, which was much higher than that measured in an airplane with a ground air-conditioning unit. The average deposition rates of particles with diameters of 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-5 μm, 5-10 μm, and >10 μm were 89 ± 8%, 85 ± 13%, 80 ± 13%, 73 ± 15%, and 80 ± 14%, respectively. The in-flight measurement results indicated that the particle concentration in the breathing zone was higher than that in the air-supply zone, which implies a significant contribution by particles in the interior of the cabin. Such particles come from human emissions or particle resuspension from interior surfaces.

  14. The Rise of the Low Cost Model in the Airline Industry : A Study of the Strategies of Southwest, RyanAir and Air Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh, Saraogi

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen a major overhaul in the Airline Industry, with the emergence of a new breed of Airlines, the Low Cost Airlines. The trend that started from the United States, with Southwest being the pioneer, slowly and gradually replicated its way through Europe, Asia and the Rest of the World. Today, more than 1 flight in every five worldwide is now operated by a low cost carrier (LCC). The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons for the growth of the Low Cost Carrier Mo...

  15. Airline Quality Rating 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1996-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1996, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  16. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Nu; Shu, Shi; Lin, Yan; She, Jianwen; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhu, Yifang

    2017-01-01

    Commuters who spend long hours on roads are exposed to high levels of traffic related air pollutants (TRAPs). Despite some well-known multiple adverse effects of TRAPs on human health, limited studies have focused on mitigation strategies to reduce these effects. In this study, we measured fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations inside and outside 17 taxis simultaneously while they were driven on roadways. The drivers' urinary monohydroxylated polycyclic ar...

  17. Occupant evaluation of 7-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin - Part 2: Thermal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a simulated section of an aircraft cabin with 21 seats installed in a climate chamber, to determine the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by air temperature. The temperature inside the cabin was set at three differ-ent levels, 20......, and thermal sensation - the lower the temperature, the higher the perceived air quality and freshness....

  18. NASA Airline Operations Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  19. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  20. Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jitendra K; Lin, Chao-Hsin; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-02-01

    The droplets exhaled by an index patient with infectious disease such as influenza or tuberculosis may be the carriers of contagious agents. Indoor environments such as the airliner cabins may be susceptible to infection from such airborne contagious agents. The present investigation computed the transport of the droplets exhaled by the index patient seated in the middle of a seven-row, twin-aisle, fully occupied cabin using the CFD simulations. The droplets exhaled were from a single cough, a single breath, and a 15-s talk of the index patient. The expiratory droplets were tracked by using Lagrangian method, and their evaporation was modeled. It was found that the bulk airflow pattern in the cabin played the most important role on the droplet transport. The droplets were contained in the row before, at, and after the index patient within 30 s and dispersed uniformly to all the seven rows in 4 minutes. The total airborne droplet fraction reduced to 48, 32, 20, and 12% after they entered the cabin for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, because of the ventilation from the environmental control system. It is critical to predict the risk of airborne infection to take appropriate measures to control and mitigate the risk. Most of the studies in past either assume a homogenous distribution of contaminants or use steady-state conditions. The present study instead provides information on the transient movement of the droplets exhaled by an index passenger in an aircraft cabin. These droplets may contain active contagious agents and can be potent enough to cause infection. The findings can be used by medical professionals to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of risk of infection to various passengers in the cabin. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Individual and collective climate control in aircraft cabins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Gids, W.F. de

    2006-01-01

    A new concept for aircraft cabin climatisation has been developed in which the seat is the main Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and temperature control system for the passengers containing provisions for local supply and local exhaust of air. Direct supply of clean outside air in the breathing zone,

  2. Attribute Perception Mapping Services Domestic Airlines Using Correspondence Analysis (59-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Heviandri Riandarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning analysis provides a better understanding of the position based on the perception of passenger flights to service these attributes attached to each airline. This study aims to perform positioning of the domestic airline services based attributes, which characterize the airline based on the perception of consumers. Correspondence Analysis (CA is used to determine the positioning of the six commercial airlines in Indonesia. The results of correspondence analysis showed that the airline Garuda, Lion Air, Citilink and Air Asia already has its own characteristics inherent in the minds of consumers, while the two other airlines, namely Batik Air and Sriwijaya Air has not had a special identifier.Keywords: Positioning, Correspondence Analysis, Full Service Airline (FSA, Low Fare Airline (LFA

  3. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L.

    2018-01-01

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. PMID:29555754

  4. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Weiss, Howard; Elon, Lisa; Si, Wenpei; Norris, Sharon L

    2018-04-03

    With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories and anecdotes, the risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. Our results indicate there is low probability of direct transmission to passengers not seated in close proximity to an infectious passenger. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique. To measure the true pathogen burden, our team collected 229 environmental samples during the flights. Although eight flights were during Influenza season, all qPCR assays for 18 common respiratory viruses were negative. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Airline Safety: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    shrinking FAA inspector force handling a rapidly growing number of air carriers. These studies have always shown an improvement in airline safety in the...EhCLhEmohhhhhhhEoo EhhshhEEmhhhhE EhhEohhEshhhhE EhhhEEEohEohEE EohEEEmhshEmhE IEEE...mmmo 1-2. jI. Mi6 NEW - secuRily CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When De

  6. Price rules in airline marketing / Elina Krauja-Veide, Marina Jõgi, Toms Andersons...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Air Baltic, Estonian Air, British Airways ja Lithuanian Airlines turundusjuhid olukorrast Baltimaade lennundusturul ja lennufirmade turundustegevusest. Kommenteerivad Priit Kivik, Ilona Kbejan, Julia Brjuhanova. Tabel

  7. The Evolution of U.S. Airline Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    1992-01-01

    The next section reviews the evolution of the domestic airline industry since the late 1970s, when it was abruptly freed from most regulatory constraints on pricing, entry, and exit. (International air travel is considered here only as it relates to competition in the domestic industry.) The following sections will examine structure issues and strategic developments in airline competition and discuss public policy options in dealing with the airline industry.

  8. Airlines 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Hvass, Kristian A.; Munar, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Over the years online marketing has grown in importance in the airline industry. This media space offers airlines numerous marketing tools, one of the most recent being social media. Social media allows airlines to interact directly with customers via various Internet platforms, and monitor customer opinions and evaluations of services. This exploratory paper studies airlines’ use of social media on Facebook and Twitter for a defined period of time. The paper analyses the content of social me...

  9. The Office of Airline Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Office of Airline Information (OAI) mandate is to collect, validate, compile and disseminate data on airline traffic, performance, finances, and fares. Each quarter, BTS Office of Airline Information (OAI) processes more than 3,800 filings sub...

  10. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, Vicente R.; Oliveri, Pedro V.; Di Giovan B, Gustavo; Ciancio, Vanina L.; Lewis, Brent J.; Green, Anna R.; Bennet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  11. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  12. Understanding Consumer Preference Between Low Cost Airlines and Full Service Carriers : A Study on Consumer Choice and Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alex Hoong Onn

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of low cost or no frills airlines in last decade or so have posed considerable threat to the businesses of traditional full service airlines. The competition between the different type of airlines have changed the landscape of the airline industry tremendously and have provided air travelers with options which are unprecedented. The aim of this study is to understand consumer preference between low cost and full service airlines and to determine what are the motivations or facto...

  13. Radiation Protection: The Specific Case of Cabin Crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecouturier, B.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation is one important element of the in-flight working environment. The new requirements of the Council Directive 96/29 Euratom set out basic safety standards in radiation protection which are particularly important to cabin crew. There are two major reasons why they relate specifically to this category of crew member. One is the great diversity of or in some cases the lack of, medical requirements and surveillance. The situation in this area notably differs from that relating to the cockpit crew, who have an aeronautical licence with detailed and rigid medical requirements. The other major reason is the very high percentage of women among the cabin crew (from 65% to 100% depending on the airline concerned), which emphasises the question of protection during pregnancy. The issue of radiation protection of aircrew therefore differs not only according to country and airline, but also according to the crew members concerned. The need is stressed for a harmonised application of the new requirements of the Council Directive 96/29 Euratom and, hopefully in the future, for equivalent protective provisions to be applied worldwide. (author)

  14. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI reveal that airlines of Western countries exhibit a more remarkable CSR performance than Asia-Pacific airlines, suggesting that the CSR programs of Asia-Pacific airlines need improvement. By constructing an evaluation hierarchy and applying the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study found that the key strategic factors in the airline industry’s implementation of CSR include corporate governance, risk and crisis management, brand management, and product responsibility (safety.

  15. 14 CFR 23.841 - Pressurized cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... probable failure or malfunction in the pressurization system. (b) Pressurized cabins must have at least the following valves, controls, and indicators, for controlling cabin pressure: (1) Two pressure relief valves... compressor or to divert airflow from the cabin if continued rotation of an engine-driven cabin compressor or...

  16. Creative thinking of design and redesign on SEAT aircraft cabin testbed: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented.. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that used for European Project SEAT (Smart tEchnologies for Stress free Air Travel). The SEAT project aims to

  17. Products of Ozone-initiated Chemistry during 4-hour Exposures of Human Subjects in a Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to examine organic compounds in the air of a simulated aircraft cabin under four conditions: low ozone, low air exchange rate; low ozone, high air exchange rate; high ozone, low air exchange rate; high ozone, high air exchange rate....... The results showed large differences in the chemical composition of the cabin air between the low and high ozone conditions. These differences were more pronounced at the low air exchange condition....

  18. 14 CFR 399.91 - Air carrier participation in programs of technical assistance to airlines of less developed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... performance at reasonable cost and within a reasonable period of time consistent with the ability of the... interfere with the primary business of the subsidized carrier which is to provide air transportation in the... effectiveness in a technical assistance program would not only divert the attention of top management from...

  19. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Fitness to Fly and Medical Clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Dowdall, Nigel P

    2015-07-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Not everyone is fit to travel by air and physicians should advise their patients accordingly. They should review the passenger's medical condition, giving special consideration to the dosage and timing of any medications, contagiousness, and the need for special assistance during travel. In general, an individual with an unstable medical condition should not fly; cabin altitude, duration of exposure, and altitude of the destination airport are all considerations when recommending a passenger for flight.

  20. A Moderator’s Perspective From Service Quality and Purchase Intentions Relationship: A Case Study of AirAsia Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Meysam Salimi; Hamid Reza Hadjali; Shahryar Sorooshian

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the relationships between service quality, brand loyalty and intention to buy among AirAsia passengers in Malaysia. The results obtained indicate that there is a positive relationship between service quality, brand loyalty and purchase intentions, while there is a moderator effect of ticket price affecting the relationship between service quality and intention to buy among customers. With more scrutinizing, it was revealed that the effect of service qual...

  1. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  2. Improved airline-type supplied-air plastic suit. [For personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, L. Jr.; Zippler, D.B.; Cofer, C.H.; Harper, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    Two piece supplied-air plastic suits are used extensively at the Savannah River Plant for personnel protection against inhalation of airborne plutonium and tritium. Worker comfort and noise level problems gave impetus to development of an improved suit and aid distribution system. The resulting plastic suit and development work are discussed. The plastic suit unit cost is less than $20, the hearing zone noise level is less than 75 dBA, protection factors exceed 10,000, and user comfort is approved. This suit is expected to meet performance requirements for unrestricted use.

  3. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  4. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  5. Airline Crew Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  6. airline revenue management

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, K.; Piersma, Nanda

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing interest in decision support systems and the continuous advance of computer science, revenue management is a discipline which has received a great deal of interest in recent years. Although revenue management has seen many new applications throughout the years, the main focus of research continues to be the airline industry. Ever since Littlewood (1972) first proposed a solution method for the airline revenue management problem, a variety of solution methods ha...

  7. Assessment of the thermal environment in an aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingers, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    equivalent temperature, up to 5.8°C, was identified in the outer seats. The results reveal that in an aircraft cabin, passengers in the outer seats may be exposed to thermal asymmetry and draught and may not find the thermal environment acceptable if the ventilation air is not properly supplied....

  8. Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in an Occupied Simulated Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Wisthaler, Armin; Cowlin, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each expos...

  9. On-the-Spot Problem Solving of Airline Professionals: A Case Study of Sky Business School Personnel Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This research explores how chief cabin crew members of major airlines made their decisions on-the-spot when they had unexpected problems. This research also presents some insights that may improve personnel training programs for future stewardesses and stewards based on the investigation of their decision-making styles. The theoretical framework…

  10. Discussion of "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins--a source of human exposure?" by Anna Christiansson et al. [Chemosphere 73(10) (2008) 1654-1660].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in American airline workers. This pilot study did not find elevated total PBDEs in the blood of nine flight attendants and one aircraft pilot who have worked in airplanes for at least the past 5 years. These findings are not consistent with the findings of elevated blood levels of PBDEs from the 2008 Christiansson et al. publication "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in aircraft cabins - A source of human exposure?" We agree that more research needs to be done on larger, more representative samples of airline workers to better characterize exposure of airline workers and other frequent flyers to PBDEs.

  11. The Fate of Trace Contaminants in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Trace chemical contaminants produced via equipment offgassing, human metabolic sources, and vehicle operations are removed from the cabin atmosphere by active contamination control equipment and incidental removal by other air quality control equipment. The fate of representative trace contaminants commonly observed in spacecraft cabin atmospheres is explored. Removal mechanisms are described and predictive mass balance techniques are reviewed. Results from the predictive techniques are compared to cabin air quality analysis results. Considerations are discussed for an integrated trace contaminant control architecture suitable for long duration crewed space exploration missions.

  12. Experimental Study of Interior Temperature Distribution Inside Parked Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Mohammed Ali Aljubury

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperature inside the vehicle cabin is very important to provide comfortable conditions to the car passengers. Temperature inside the cabin will be increased, when the car is left or parked directly under the sunlight. Experimental studies were performed in Baghdad, Iraq (33.3 oN, 44.4 oE to investigate the effects of solar radiation on car cabin components (dashboard, steering wheel, seat, and inside air. The test vehicle was oriented to face south to ensure maximum (thermal sun load on the front windscreen. Six different parking conditions were investigated. A suggested car cover was examined experimentally. The measurements were recorded for clear sky summer days started at 8 A.M. till 5 P.M. Results show that interior air temperature in unshaded parked car reaches 70oC and dashboard temperature can approach 100 oC. While, cardboard car shade inside the car not reduce the air temperature inside it. Suggested car cover with 1 cm part-down side windows reduced temperature of cabin components by 70 % in average compare to the base case.

  13. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  14. Oil Shocks and Stock Prices of Airlines - An East Asia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pau Boon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to study and analyse the impact of oil price shock on the share prices of airline companies in East Asia, in particular international air carriers from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia by looking at how the companies‘ share prices respond to the news of oil shocks. The companies involved in this study were Japan Airlines ("JAL"), All Nippon Airways ("ANA"), Cathay Pacific Airways ("Cathay"), Korean Air ("KAL"), Malaysian Airlines ("MAS") an...

  15. Ozone-initiated chemistry in an occupied simulated aircraft cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J; Wisthaler, Armin; Cowlin, Shannon; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Hodgson, Alfred T; Destaillats, Hugo; Herrington, Jason; Zhang, Junfeng; Nazaroff, William W

    2007-09-01

    We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each exposed to four conditions: low air exchange (4.4 (h-1)), exchange, 61-64 ppb ozone; high air exchange (8.8 h(-1)), exchange, 73-77 ppb ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin air increased the levels of identified byproducts from approximately 70 to 130 ppb at the lower air exchange rate and from approximately 30 to 70 ppb at the higher air exchange rate. Most of the increase was attributable to acetone, nonanal, decanal, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO), formic acid, and acetic acid, with 0.25-0.30 mol of quantified product volatilized per mol of ozone consumed. Several of these compounds reached levels above their reported odor thresholds. Most byproducts were derived from surface reactions with occupants and their clothing, consistent with the inference that occupants were responsible for the removal of >55% of the ozone in the cabin. The observations made in this study have implications for other indoor settings. Whenever human beings and ozone are simultaneously present, one anticipates production of acetone, nonanal, decanal, 6-MHO, geranyl acetone, and 4-OPA.

  16. A parametric study of influence of material properties on car cabin environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorny Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently the author presented the paper describing a car cabin heat load model for the prediction of the car cabin environment. The model allowed to simulate a transient behavior of the car cabin, i.e. radiant temperature of surfaces, air temperature and relative humidity. The model was developed in Dymola and was built on the basic principles of thermodynamics and heat balance equations. The model was validated by experiments performed on the Škoda Felicia during various operational conditions. In this paper the authors present a parametric study investigating influence of material properties on a car cabin environment. The Matlab version of the car cabin heat load model has been developed and used. The model was extended by simple graphical user interface and it was deployed into the stand alone executable application. The aim of this parametric study is to identify most important material properties and its effect on the cabin environment during specific operational conditions of car. By means of a sensitive analysis it can identified which material parameters have to be defined precisely and which parameters are not so important for the prediction of the air temperature inside cabin.

  17. Factors affecting ozone removal rates in a simulated aircraft cabin environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas, Gyöngyi; Weschler, Charles J.; Bako-Biro, Zsolt

    2006-01-01

    of people, soiled T-shirts, aircraft seats and a used HEPA filter, we have been able in the course of 24 experiments to isolate the contributions of these and other factors to the removal of ozone from the cabin air. In the case of this simulated aircraft, people were responsible for almost 60% of the ozone...... present, the measured ratio of ozone's concentration in the cabin versus that outside the cabin was 0.15-0.21, smaller than levels reported in the literature. The results reinforce the conclusion that the optimal way to reduce people's exposure to both ozone and ozone oxidation products is to efficiently...

  18. Modeling the Fate of Expiratory Aerosols and the Associated Infection Risk in an Aircraft Cabin Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, M.P.; To, G.N.S.; Chao, C.Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    to estimate the risk of infection by contact. The environmental control system (ECS) in a cabin creates air circulation mainly in the lateral direction, making lateral dispersions of aerosols much faster than longitudinal dispersions. Aerosols with initial sizes under 28 m in diameter can stay airborne......The transport and deposition of polydispersed expiratory aerosols in an aircraft cabin were simulated using a Lagrangian-based model validated by experiments conducted in an aircraft cabin mockup. Infection risk by inhalation was estimated using the aerosol dispersion data and a model was developed...

  19. An Opportunity for Hydrogen Fueled Supersonic Airliners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Forbes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a new look at the prospects for developing supersonic civil airliners, considering global demographics, climate change issues, fuel prices and technological advances. Dramatic changes have occurred in the demographics, economics, and market intensity of the Eastern Hemisphere since the 1990s. Carbon reduction imperatives provide a major incentive to invest in developing hydrogen-fueled airliners. The “point-to-point” air route architecture has proved viable with long range mid-size airliners. With a cruise Mach number of 1.4, a large number of destinations become viable for overland supersonic flight. A conceptual design process is used to estimate cost per seat mile for a range of hydrocarbon and hydrogen fuel costs. An argument based on the ideal shape for minimal wave drag, estimates the drag penalty from using hydrogen. Viable aircraft geometries are shown to exist, that match the theoretical ideal shape, showing that the drag estimate is achievable. Conservative design arguments and market estimates suggest that hydrogen-fueled airliners can achieve seat-mile costs low enough to open a large worldwide market and justify a viable fleet size.

  20. Energy management in the Canadian airline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this report was to outline the current status of the Canadian airline industry's energy performance and to outline energy management programs undertaken within the industry. The study also provides an aviation energy management information base developed through a comprehensive computer bibliographical review. A survey of the industry was undertaken, the results of which are incorporated in this report. The Canadian airline industry has recognized the importance of energy management and considerable measures have been introduced to become more energy efficient. The largest single contributor to improved productivity is the acquisition of energy efficient aircraft. Larger airlines in particular have implemented a number of conservation techniques to reduce fuel consumption. However, both large and small airlines would further benefit through incorporating techniques and programs described in the annotated bibliography in this study. Rising fuel prices and economic uncertainties will be contributing factors to a smaller average annual growth in fuel consumption during the 1980s. The lower consumption levels will also be a result of continuing energy conservation awareness, new technology improvements, and improvements in air traffic control. 98 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Assessing flight safety differences between the United States regional and major airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Broderick H.

    During 2008, the U.S. domestic airline departures exceeded 28,000 flights per day. Thirty-nine or less than 0.2 of 1% of these flights resulted in operational incidents or accidents. However, even a low percentage of airline accidents and incidents continue to cause human suffering and property loss. The charge of this study was the comparison of U.S. major and regional airline safety histories. The study spans safety events from January 1982 through December 2008. In this quantitative analysis, domestic major and regional airlines were statistically tested for their flight safety differences. Four major airlines and thirty-seven regional airlines qualified for the safety study which compared the airline groups' fatal accidents, incidents, non-fatal accidents, pilot errors, and the remaining six safety event probable cause types. The six other probable cause types are mechanical failure, weather, air traffic control, maintenance, other, and unknown causes. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated each airline safety event, and assigned a probable cause to each event. A sample of 500 events was randomly selected from the 1,391 airlines' accident and incident population. The airline groups' safety event probabilities were estimated using the least squares linear regression. A probability significance level of 5% was chosen to conclude the appropriate research question hypothesis. The airline fatal accidents and incidents probability levels were 1.2% and 0.05% respectively. These two research questions did not reach the 5% significance level threshold. Therefore, the airline groups' fatal accidents and non-destructive incidents probabilities favored the airline groups' safety differences hypothesis. The linear progression estimates for the remaining three research questions were 71.5% for non-fatal accidents, 21.8% for the pilot errors, and 7.4% significance level for the six probable causes. These research questions' linear regressions are greater than

  2. Customers' expectations of complaint handling by airline service: privilege status and reasonability of demands from a social learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2009-04-01

    In the airline industry, membership and cabin class are noticeable servicescape features of customers' privilege status. Customers may learn that higher privilege customers are more desired and endured by the airline. From the customers' point of view, those with higher privilege may expect their demands to be complied with when they complain. The present study employed hypothetical scenarios to investigate how the privilege status of passengers and reasonability of their demands influenced their expectations toward the compliance of airline personnel. Analysis showed that higher privilege customers were more likely to expect airline personnel to comply with their demands. Moreover, participants with medium or high levels of privilege status had greater expectations of compliance even when demands were unreasonable. In sum, customer expectations toward complaint handling reflected predictions based on social learning.

  3. Sustainable business models for the state-owned African airlines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available , state-owned airlines, African airlines 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years the civil aviation industry has witnessed rapid corporate, structural and operational changes enabling it to be described as one of the fastest changing sectors within...%), publicly held (19.97%), Port Louis Fund (6.32%), the State Investment Corporation (4.72%), government of Mauritius (4.53%), Rogers and Company (4.28%), British Airways (3.84%), Air France (2.78%) and Air India (2.56%) Morrocco Royal Air Maroc 95...

  4. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  5. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  6. Airline Deregulation and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

    1989-08-01

    An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

  7. Sustainable development of cabins. An investigation of cabin owners' attitudes towards the environment and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velvin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    An investigation on private cabin owners in the three Buskerud (Norway) municipalities: Sigdal, Rollag and Hol. The main purpose has been to evaluate the state of local value-creation related to cabin tourism, energy and environmental aspects of the cabin-usage, and other conditions related to sustainable development. This report deals in specific with environment and energy questions concerning cabin owners, and their attitudes towards energy-saving measures. Results from the investigation show that the standard on facilities of cabins has increased, indicating that the energy consumption will rise accordingly. Income is the primary explanation factor in relation to energy consumption. More results are presented in the report (ml)

  8. Proposing a framework for airline service quality evaluation using Type-2 Fuzzy TOPSIS and non-parametric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on evaluating airline service quality from the perspective of passengers' view. Until now a lot of researches has been performed in airline service quality evaluation in the world but a little research has been conducted in Iran, yet. In this study, a framework for measuring airline service quality in Iran is proposed. After reviewing airline service quality criteria, SSQAI model was selected because of its comprehensiveness in covering airline service quality dimensions. SSQAI questionnaire items were redesigned to adopt with Iranian airlines requirements and environmental circumstances in the Iran's economic and cultural context. This study includes fuzzy decision-making theory, considering the possible fuzzy subjective judgment of the evaluators during airline service quality evaluation. Fuzzy TOPSIS have been applied for ranking airlines service quality performances. Three major Iranian airlines which have the most passenger transfer volumes in domestic and foreign flights were chosen for evaluation in this research. Results demonstrated Mahan airline has got the best service quality performance rank in gaining passengers' satisfaction with delivery of high-quality services to its passengers, among the three major Iranian airlines. IranAir and Aseman airlines placed in the second and third rank, respectively, according to passenger's evaluation. Statistical analysis has been used in analyzing passenger responses. Due to the abnormality of data, Non-parametric tests were applied. To demonstrate airline ranks in every criterion separately, Friedman test was performed. Variance analysis and Tukey test were applied to study the influence of increasing in age and educational level of passengers on degree of their satisfaction from airline's service quality. Results showed that age has no significant relation to passenger satisfaction of airlines, however, increasing in educational level demonstrated a negative impact on

  9. Interference elimination: nuclear spin in the cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Constructed on Michael Faraday's cage principle, such cabins enable nuclear spin tomographs to operate undisturbed by foreign radiation. The working signals of these medical research apparatus are screened from the environment so that radio and television reception are not affected. Details are given of the structure of the cabin, of the prefabricated structural elements of non-magnetic materials (chromium-nickel steel). (Auth.)

  10. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality... Reports'' pursuant to 14 CFR 234.4 and 234.6. These reports are used to monitor the quality of air service.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234...

  11. 77 FR 18306 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality...'' pursuant to 14 CFR 234.4 and 234.6. These reports are used to monitor the quality of air service that... INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service Quality Performance Reports--Part 234. Form No...

  12. Cabin Environment Physics Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Mathias, Donovan Leigh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Cabin Environment Physics Risk (CEPR) model that predicts the time for an initial failure of Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) functionality to propagate into a hazardous environment and trigger a loss-of-crew (LOC) event. This physics-of failure model allows a probabilistic risk assessment of a crewed spacecraft to account for the cabin environment, which can serve as a buffer to protect the crew during an abort from orbit and ultimately enable a safe return. The results of the CEPR model replace the assumption that failure of the crew critical ECLSS functionality causes LOC instantly, and provide a more accurate representation of the spacecraft's risk posture. The instant-LOC assumption is shown to be excessively conservative and, moreover, can impact the relative risk drivers identified for the spacecraft. This, in turn, could lead the design team to allocate mass for equipment to reduce overly conservative risk estimates in a suboptimal configuration, which inherently increases the overall risk to the crew. For example, available mass could be poorly used to add redundant ECLSS components that have a negligible benefit but appear to make the vehicle safer due to poor assumptions about the propagation time of ECLSS failures.

  13. Experimental Study of Airborne Contaminant Migration in an Aircraft Cabin Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane; Sojka, Paul; Plesniak, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The cabin air ventilation system in wide body jetliners is designed to provide a comfortable and controlled environment for passengers. Inside the cabin, the air flows continuously from overhead vents into sidewall exhausts, forming a circular pattern designed to minimize cross flow between adjacent seat rows. However, spreading of gaseous or particulate contaminants is possible when flight attendants or passengers walk along an aisle, perturbing the ventilation flow. Such unsteady flow perturbations have been found to alter the cabin air distribution and quality. A better fundamental understanding of the turbulent transport phenomena is needed to improve air quality monitoring and control systems and to validate numerical simulations. The velocity field in a 15:1 model of a simplified aircraft cabin is probed to investigate the wake of a rectangular body moving through a steady two-dimensional flow at a Reynolds number (based on body height) of the order of 50,000. Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence is used to visualize wake structure and scalar contaminant transport. The interaction between the wake and the ventilation flow is measured with PIV. The data are compared to numerical studies of cabin airflows in the literature.

  14. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... air quality issues; food/beverage carts; and ergonomics. OSHA's noise, bloodborne pathogens, and... exposure, cabin air quality, food and beverage cart and ergonomic issues are not being considered at this... comments from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health that cited several studies it...

  15. Marketing implications of loyalty programs on customer relationship management within the airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamata Ema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most remarkable tendencies on the market of airline services is that nowadays almost every airline company strive to build long-term relationships with customers/users of airline services through loyalty programs. The subject of the paper is to explore the role of Frequent Flyer Programs (FFPs in the scope of customer relationship management in airline industry and to determine whether affiliation to FFPs affects customers to buy tickets from the same airline carrier. For this purpose, an empirical analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the survey conducted at the Belgrade airport Nikola Tesla, in September 2015. Hypothesis is formed in accordance with the stated aim of the work and was tested by using descriptive and graphical presentation as well as Chi-square statistical test. The results have shown that loyalty programs influence customers when choosing airlines, meaning that Frequent Flyer members tend to use air transportation services of airline carriers which are part of Frequent Flyer Program they belong to, whenever price and timing suit them. Furthermore, the chance of choosing the airline whose Frequent Flyer Program one is member of, increases proportionally to the length of membership and, more importantly, the number of flights that one has realized so far. Based on the tested hypothesis and observed preferences of the travelers, possible marketing implications of the results are pointed out in this article, as well as the analysis of the status and rating of our national airline according to surveyed passengers.

  16. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  17. Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle's cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Alexandra; Catalina, Tiberiu; Vartires, Andreea

    2018-02-01

    Thermal and acoustic comfort, inside a vehicle's cabin, are highly interconnected and can greatly influence the health of the passengers. On one hand, the H.V.A.C. system brings the interior air parameters to a comfortable value while on the other hand, it is the main source of noise. It is an intriguing task to find a balance between the two. In this paper, several types of air diffusers were used in order to optimize the ratio between thermal and acoustic interior comfort. Using complex measurements of noise and thermal comfort parameters we have determined for each type of air diffuser the sound pressure level and its impact on air temperature and air velocity.

  18. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African domestic passenger airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mostert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past decade, including the significant decline in demand for air travel together with rising costs and the worldwide economic downturn. This study investigates the effect which a strategy by airlines of building relationships with customers has on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and ultimately customer retention. The effect of service failures on customers' relationships with airlines are also considered as a negative experience could results in customers defecting to competitors. A questionnaire, comprising six sections, was specifically compiled to determine customer retention in the South African domestic passenger airline industry. Data were collected by trained fieldworkers from OR Tambo International Airport by means of a non-probability convenience sampling method from 324 passengers flying with the various domestic airlines. Findings indicate that most respondents were satisfied with the airlines' overall service; respondents who formed relationships with domestic airlines were more loyal toward the airlines; and the relationships of respondents who were satisfied with airlines' service recovery efforts were either strengthened or unchanged. The findings from this study support findings from international studies by providing a unique South African perspective on the effect of a strategy of building relationships with customers on their satisfaction, loyalty and ultimately retention. It can therefore be recommended that the organisations competing in the South

  19. Food irradiation and airline catering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed

  20. Food irradiation and airline catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, F S

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  1. Food irradiation and airline catering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, F.S.

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

  2. Business Model Innovation in Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alencar Pereira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The business models innovation in airlines can contribute to the creation of value, competitive advantage and profitability with new possibilities of action. The proposed paper aimed to identify the business models adopted by airlines and identify how the innovation occurs at these organizations. The methodology adopted is characterized as empirical, exploratory and descriptive research by multiple case study with three major Brazilian airlines. The results demonstrate that the search for paradigm breaks, related to the dichotomic traditional models of low-cost and full-service, toward hybrid business models occur linearly, as examples highlighted by companies, in which internal changes in business models are considered major organizational innovations.

  3. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  4. Airline Operations Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  5. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  6. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  7. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  8. Airline's choice of aircraft size-explanations and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Givoni, M.

    2009-01-01

    When facing a growth in demand, airlines tend to respond more by means of increasing frequencies than by increasing aircraft size. At many of the world's largest airports there are fewer than 100 passengers per air transport movement, although congestion and delays are growing. Furthermore, demand

  9. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify measures to reduce airline fuel consumption and to evaluate the impact of these alternatives on fuel consumption through 1990. To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. The need for strategies to conserve airline fuel is based on air transportation's dependence upon petroleum; the current lack of alternative energy sources; the potential for disruption of air service due to crises in fuel availability such as experienced during the OPEC oil embargo; and the overall national goal of energy independence through energy conservation in all consuming sectors. The transition from the current situation to that described by strategies and policy options may require difficult adjustments by the airline industry in the short term. In the long term, however, conservation strategies can enhance the health of the airline industry as well as its fuel efficiency.

  10. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  11. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  12. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  13. Optimization in the airline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhart, C.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we discuss applications of operations research techniques in the airline industry. Specifically, we present models and solution procedures for crew scheduling, fleet assignment and service design. The crew scheduling problem involves the assignment of crews to scheduled flights, and the fleet assignment problem involves the assignment of aircraft to flights. Service design requires the determination of both the flight schedule and the fleet assignment. We summarize our computational experiences in solving various problems for large domestic and international airlines.

  14. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  15. Dietary Advice for Airline Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat; Nowak

    1997-03-01

    In addition to their regular meal service, most of the major domestic and international airlines offer special meals. It should be noted that regular meal services on international flights often give a choice of meals, even in economy class, and often include a salad and or fruit dish, which could be consumed by most people. More airlines also seem to be moving towards having at least one more culturally appropriate meal on the menu, particularly for relevant flight sectors. However, these meals may be inappropriate for some passengers, and there is a need for this special meals service. Meals services on airlines have improved greatly in recent years, particularly with the employment of consultant dietitians to the catering staff of airlines and advances in chef training. Special meal services are designed to cater to the most common variations of meals required by most passengers for medical, religious, or other reasons. The special requirements for these meals are described elsewhere.1 It is important to realize that the meals are designed and the ingredients interpreted by that airline, and may not necessarily reflect what the traveler might eat at home. So it is important to advise travelers not to have high expectations of this special meal service. This paper aims to provide some basic practical advice for selection of special diets for airline travelers.

  16. Environmental charges in airline markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Economics, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental charge and the effects of a charge differ between different types of aviation markets. In this paper, we derive optimal flight (environmental) charges for different types of airline markets. The first type of market is a multiproduct monopoly airline operating either a point-to-point network or a hub-and-spoke network. The optimal charge is shown to be similar in construction to an optimal charge for a monopolist. We also compare the environmental impact of the two types of networks. Given no differences in marginal damages between airports we find that an airline will always choose the network with the highest environmental damages. The second type of market we investigate is a multiproduct duopoly, where two airlines compete in both passengers and flights. The formulation of the optimal charge is similar to the optimal charge of a single product oligopoly. However, we also show that it is, because of strategic effects, difficult to determine the effects of the charge on the number of flights. (Author)

  17. Crane cabins' interior space multivariate anthropometric modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essdai, Ahmed; Spasojević Brkić, Vesna K; Golubović, Tamara; Brkić, Aleksandar; Popović, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that today's crane cabins fail to meet the needs of a large proportion of operators. Performance and financial losses and effects on safety should not be overlooked as well. The first aim of this survey is to model the crane cabin interior space using up-to-date crane operator anthropometric data and to compare the multivariate and univariate method anthropometric models. The second aim of the paper is to define the crane cabin interior space dimensions that enable anthropometric convenience. To facilitate the cabin design, the anthropometric dimensions of 64 crane operators in the first sample and 19 more in the second sample were collected in Serbia. The multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the population on the basis of a set of 8 anthropometric dimensions, have been developed. The percentile method was also used on the same set of data. The dimensions of the interior space, necessary for the accommodation of the crane operator, are 1174×1080×1865 mm. The percentiles results for the 5th and 95th model are within the obtained dimensions. The results of this study may prove useful to crane cabin designers in eliminating anthropometric inconsistencies and improving the health of operators, but can also aid in improving the safety, performance and financial results of the companies where crane cabins operate.

  18. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  19. Operating cost model for local service airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Several mathematical models now exist which determine the operating economics for a United States trunk airline. These models are valuable in assessing the impact of new aircraft into an airline's fleet. The use of a trunk airline cost model for the local service airline does not result in representative operating costs. A new model is presented which is representative of the operating conditions and resultant costs for the local service airline. The calculated annual direct and indirect operating costs for two multiequipment airlines are compared with their actual operating experience.

  20. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  1. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014 and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

  2. Intuitive thinking of design and redesign on innovative aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the intuition approach in the design and redesign of the environmental friendly innovative aircraft cabin simulator is presented. The simulator is a testbed that was designed and built for research on aircraft passenger comfort improvement of long haul air travel. The simulation

  3. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  4. Investigating ozone-induced decomposition of surface-bound permethrin for conditions in aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, B K; Wells, J R; Nazaroff, W W

    2010-02-01

    The reaction of ozone with permethrin can potentially form phosgene. Published evidence on ozone levels and permethrin surface concentrations in aircraft cabins indicated that significant phosgene formation might occur in this setting. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene with a lower limit of detection of 2 ppb. Chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated materials (glass, carpet, seat fabric, and plastic) exposed to ozone under cabin-relevant conditions (150 ppb O(3), 4.5/h air exchange rate, means of material-balance modeling indicates that the upper limit on the phosgene level in aircraft cabins resulting from this chemistry is approximately 1 microg/m(3) or approximately 0.3 ppb. It was thus determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in aircraft cabins, is not likely to exceed relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines. Phosgene formation from ozone-initiated oxidation of permethrin in the aircraft cabin environment, if it occurs, is estimated to generate levels below the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment acute reference exposure level of 4 microg/m(3) or approximately 1 ppb.

  5. Airline travel since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Airline capacity (expressed in available seats) has : increased more slowly than the increase in airline passenger : travel. : Low-cost carriers represent a growing portion of the : domestic aviation market. This change has been accompanied :...

  6. Dual direction blower system powered by solar energy to reduce car cabin temperature in open parking condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, N. S.; Radzi, M. F. M.; Damanhuri, A. A. M.; Mokhtar, S. N.

    2017-10-01

    El-nino phenomenon that strikes Malaysia with temperature recorded more than 35°C can lead to extreme temperature rise in car cabin up to 80°C. Various problems will arise due to this extreme rising of temperature such as the occupant are vulnerable to heat stroke, emission of benzene gas that can cause cancer due to reaction of high temperature with interior compartments, and damage of compartments in the car. The current solution available to reduce car cabin temperature including tinted of window and portable heat rejection device that are available in the market. As an alternative to reduce car cabin temperature, this project modifies the car’s air conditioning blower motor into dual direction powered by solar energy and identifies its influence to temperature inside the car, parked under scorching sun. By reducing the car cabin temperature up to 10°C which equal to 14% of reduction in the car cabin temperature, this simple proposed system aims to provide comfort to users due to its capability in improving the quality of air and moisture in the car cabin.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Dana; Conlon, Helen Acree

    2018-02-01

    The health of an airline pilot is imperative to the safe travels of millions of people worldwide. Medical providers evaluate the cardiovascular risks for airline pilots and the medical requirements to obtain and maintain licensure as an airline pilot. It is the role of the occupational health nurse practitioner to evaluate and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  8. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  9. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  10. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.134 Section 122.134 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a...

  11. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135 Section 122.135 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor...

  12. Pulmonary and symptom threshold effects of ozone in airline passenger and cockpit crew surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lategola, M.T.; Melton, C.E.; Higgins, E.A.

    1980-09-01

    Previous studies showed that the ozone concentration for pulmonary and symptom threshold effects in flight attendant surrogates lies between 0.20 and 0.30 ppMv for a 3-h exposure with intermittent treadmill exercise at 1829 m (MSL) stimulated cabin altitude. In the present study of sedentary occupants of the in-flight airline cabin, the same protocol was used except for omitting all treadmill exercise. Symptoms were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Pulmonary function was assessed using standardized quantitative spirometry. Male smoker and nonsmoker airline passenger and cockpit crew surrogates 40 to 59 years of age were used. Small but statistically significant displacements occurred in symptoms and in some spirometry parameters. In general, the younger subjects appeared more sensitive to ozone than the older subjects. No significant differences appeared between smokers' and nonsmokers' responses to ozone exposure. It is concluded that the ozone threshold of these sedentary surrogates under these experimental conditions is right at 0.30 ppMv.

  13. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  14. Astronaut Ronald Sega in crew cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald M. Sega suspends himself in the weightlessness aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery's crew cabin, as the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm holds the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) aloft. The mission specialist is co-principle investigator on the the WSF project. Note the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs banner above his head.

  15. The study of customer relationship management in Thai airline industry: A case of Thai travelers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Law

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers.  This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is an attempt to study and identify the factors, including loyalty program, distribution channel, customer services, promotions and other influence causes that affected the customer preference in the airline ticket purchasing behavior in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample identified through unrestricted non probability sampling technique at four major airports in Thailand. The data collected are analyzed to identify the favorable drivers that lead to customer decision on airline choice. Findings: The result from the study has demonstrated that price, and promotion has a significant impact on customer preference and positively leads to repurchase intention for their future travel. Moreover, flight schedules are also a main factor influencing the travelers’ final decision on airline choice. However, when the promotional strategies and schedule are comparable between airlines, customers are attracted by the airline amenities and services. Loyalty program (frequent-flier program flier program is showing a less attractive motivator while distribution channel demonstrates the least important affecting the travelers’ choice of airline. Originality/value: The paper begins with an overview of previous research in the area of airlines customer relationship management and then moves on to what is currently being implemented by the airlines. The authors then propose several customer relationship strategies and identify the most attractive one that

  16. Transient thermal model of passenger car's cabin and implementation to saturation cycle with alternative working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Song, Ilguk; Jang, Kilsang

    2015-01-01

    A transient thermal model of a passenger car's cabin is developed to investigate the dynamic behavior of cabin thermal conditions. The model is developed based on a lumped-parameter model and solved using integral methods. Solar radiation, engine heat through the firewall, and engine heat to the air ducts are all considered. Using the thermal model, transient temperature profiles of the interior mass and cabin air are obtained. This model is used to investigate the transient behavior of the cabin under various operating conditions: the recirculation mode in the idling state, the fresh air mode in the idling state, the recirculation mode in the driving state, and fresh air mode in the driving state. The developed model is validated by comparing with experimental data and is within 5% of deviation. The validated model is then applied for evaluating the mobile air conditioning system's design. The study found that a saturation cycle concept (four-stage cycle with two-phase refrigerant injection) could improve the system efficiency by 23.9% and reduce the power consumption by 19.3%. Lastly, several alternative refrigerants are applied and their performance is discussed. When the saturation cycle concept is applied, R1234yf MAC (mobile air conditioning) shows the largest COP (coefficient of performance) improvement and power consumption reduction. - Highlights: • The transient thermal model of the passenger car cabin is developed. • The developed model is validated with experimental data and showed 5% deviation. • Saturation cycle concept is applied to the developed cabin model. • There is 24% COP improvement by applying the saturation cycle concept. • R1234yf showed the highest potential when it is applied to the saturation cycle.

  17. Study of recent fuel oil cost in air lines (Part 2). Saikin no airline no nenyuhi ni kansuru ichikosatsu (2); Nenryo shohi to hiyo tai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Yoshikazu.

    1989-03-01

    Through an arrangement of published data about American air lines during 1985 through 1987, the overall expense vs. transportation fee (expense vs. effect) was studied as a main viewpoint. As a result, the fuel oil cost, even in case of wide fuselage plane, high in transportation efficiency, was high in ratio, 32 to 52% (3 to 5 times as high as that 12 to 14 years ago), and fluctuated connectedly with the oil price. While the jet fuel price fluctuated connectedly with the oil price per equal volume with 1.3 to 1.4 of price ratio. Further, the flight range ratio was recorded to be approx. 0.06 to 0.24 km/kg. While the transportation efficiency was lower than approx. 5000kg*km/kg with a wide range of overall expense, approx. 9 to 87 cents per compensative transportation ton*km. Because even a sudden decrease in transportation quantity did not decrease the overall expense, it was known to be important in management to secure the transportation quantity. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Radiation exposure of German aircraft crews under the impact of solar cycle 23 and airline business factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Gerhard; Kammerer, Lothar; Karofsky, Ralf; Schlosser, Andrea; Stegemann, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of German aircraft crews to cosmic radiation varies both with solar activity and operational factors of airline business. Data come from the German central dose registry and cover monthly exposures of up to 37,000 German aircraft crewmembers that were under official monitoring. During the years 2004 to 2009 of solar cycle 23 (i.e., in the decreasing phase of solar activity), the annual doses of German aircraft crews increased by an average of 20%. Decreasing solar activity allows more galactic radiation to reach the atmosphere, increasing high-altitude doses. The rise results mainly from the less effective protection from the solar wind but also from airline business factors. Both cockpit and cabin personnel differ in age-dependent professional and social status. This status determines substantially the annual effective dose: younger cabin personnel and the elder pilots generally receive higher annual doses than their counterparts. They also receive larger increases in their annual dose when the solar activity decreases. The doses under this combined influence of solar activity and airline business factors result in a maximum of exposure for German aircrews for this solar cycle. With the increasing solar activity of the current solar cycle 24, the doses are expected to decrease again.

  19. Hybrid” airlines – Generating value between low-cost and traditional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoenescu Cristina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, the rise of low-cost airlines has determined significant changes in the airline industry and has shaped the evolution of the existing business models. Low-cost airlines started by offering basic services at very low prices; traditional airlines responded by equally cutting costs and reinventing the services offered, with an orientation towards braking down the fare and implementing add-ons, in order to become cost-efficient. As traditional airlines developed strategies to become competitive in this new environment, low-cost airlines started focusing on new ways of enhancing passenger experience and attracting new market segments. As a result, the fragmentation of the market segments addressed by low cost carriers and traditional airlines became less obvious and the characteristics of both business models started to blend at all levels (airline operation, distribution channels, loyalty programs, fleet selection. Thus, this new competition became the foundation of the development of a new „hybrid” carrier, between the low-cost and the traditional models. This article investigates the characteristics of the newly created business model, both from a theoretical perspective and by analysing several case studies. A particular attention will be granted to the evolution of the Romanian carrier Blue Air towards the “hybrid” model. The article focuses on determining the position of the “hybrid” airline in a market with carriers situated along both sides of this business model: lower cost vs. “better” experience and raises the question on how value can be generated in this context. Another aspect tackled is the understanding of the new segmentation of the market, as a consequence of the development of the new business model. In order to achieve this purpose, a survey has been conducted, aiming to mark out the travel preferences of the passengers travelling through the Henri Coandă International Airport.

  20. Competition in the Malaysian Airline Industry: An Exploratory Study using Game-Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Kevin Swee Aun

    2005-01-01

    The competitive landscape of the Malaysian airline industry is facing changes due to the presence of a low-cost carrier, AirAsia. AirAsia has gain much market share by introducing low-fares much to the expense of the national carrier, MAS. Due to the increased competition, the national carrier must react in order to stop the decline of its domestic operations. This aim of this study is to understand the strategies of the two dominant carriers in the Malaysian airline industry, MAS and AirAsia...

  1. In-flight medical emergencies during airline operations: a survey of physicians on the incidence, nature, and available medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinkelbein J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jochen Hinkelbein,1,2 Christopher Neuhaus,2,3 Lennert Böhm,1 Steffen Kalina,1 Stefan Braunecker1,2 1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, 2Working group “Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue”, German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (DGLRM, Munich, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Data on the incidence of in-flight medical emergencies on-board civil aircraft are uncommon and rarely published. Such data could provide information regarding required medical equipment on-board aircraft and requisite training for cabin crew. The aim of the present study was to gather data on the incidences, nature, and medical equipment for in-flight medical emergencies by way of a survey of physician members of a German aerospace medical society.Materials and methods: Using unipark.de (QuestBack GmbH, Cologne, Germany, an online survey was developed and used to gather specific information. Members of the German Society for Aviation and Space Medicine (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin e.V.; DGLRM were invited to participate in the survey during a 4-week period (21 March 2015 to 20 April 2015. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Altogether, 121 members of the society responded to the survey (n=335 sent out. Of the 121 respondents, n=54 (44.6% of the participants (89.9% male and 10.1% female; mean age, 54.1 years; n=121 were involved in at least one in-flight medical emergency. Demographic parameters in this survey were in concordance with the society members’ demographics. The mean duration of flights was 5.7 hours and the respondents performed 7.1 airline flights per year (median. Cardiovascular (40.0% and neurological disorders (17.8% were the most frequent diagnoses. The medical equipment (78.7% provided was sufficient. An emergency diversion was

  2. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... report on experiences from a large research and development project on airline disruption management. Within the project the first prototype of a multiple resource decision support system at the operations control center in a major airline, has been implemented....... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost e cient methods to handle airline...

  3. Airline network structure in competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Danica D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airline's network is the key element of its business strategy and selected network structure will not have influence only on the airline's costs but could gain some advantage in revenues, too. Network designing implies that an airline has to make decisions about markets that it will serve and how to serve those markets. Network choice raises the following questions for an airline: a what markets to serve, b how to serve selected markets, c what level of service to offer, d what are the benefits/cost of the that decisions and e what is the influence of the competition. We analyzed the existing airline business models and corresponding network structure. The paper highlights the relationship between the network structures and the airline business strategies. Using a simple model we examine the relationship between the network structure and service quality in deregulated market.

  4. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics included in the proceedings are: The effect of liberalized air transport bilaterals; cost competitiveness of major airlines; economic effects of duopoly competition in Korea; transforming Canada's aviation regulations; liberalization in Europe; airline labor cost in a liberalized Europe; noncooperative collusion; European air transport deregulation; public ownership and deregulation in the Scandanavian airline industry; airline competition between London and Amsterdam; and a banker's view of the European airline industry.

  5. Location-Price Competition in Airline Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses location-then-price competition in airline market as a two-stage game of n players on the graph. Passenger’s demand distribution is described by multinomial logit model. Equilibrium in price game is computed through best response dynamics. We solve location game using backward induction, knowing that airlines will choose prices from equilibrium for the second-stage game. Some numerical results for airline market under consideration are presented.

  6. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...This action extends the comment period for an NPRM on enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 9, 2010, to September 23, 2010. This extension is a result of requests from a number of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period for the proposal.

  7. An Exploratory Analysis of Sound Field Characteristics using the Impulse Response in a Car Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Soeta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sound environments in cars are becoming quieter and receiving attention because of the prevalence of low-noise engines such as hybrid and electric engines and the manifestation of automated driving. Although the car cabin has potential as a listening space, its acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. The present study investigated sound field characteristics in the car cabin using acoustic parameters obtained by impulse response analysis. In particular, effects of the passenger position, open windows and the use of an air conditioner on acoustic parameters were investigated. The passenger position affected the sound strength at low frequencies. Rear seats, except for the rear central seat, had lower interaural correlation than the front seats, suggesting that rear seats have more diffused sound fields. The opening of windows and use of air conditioners attenuated the ratio of early- and late-arriving energy at high frequencies, suggesting a loss of clarity for music.

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 1997 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, T. H.; Bowen, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers topics such as: Safety and Air Fares; International Airline Safety; Multi-fare Seat Allocation Problem; Dynamic Allocation of Airline Seat Inventory; Seat Allocation on Flights with Two Fares; Effects of Intercontinental Alliances; Domestic Airline Mergers; Simulating the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Frequency Choice; and Firm Size Inequality and Market Power.

  9. The effect of airline deregulation on automobile fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, L F; Savage, I

    1991-10-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the effects of airline deregulation in the United States on intercity automobile travel and consequently on the number of highway fatalities. A demand model is constructed for auto travel, which includes variables representing the price and availability of air service. A reduced form model of the airline market is then estimated. Finding that deregulation has decreased airfares and increased flights, it is estimated that auto travel has been reduced by 2.2% per year on average. Given assumptions on the characteristics of drivers switching modes and the types of roads they drove on, the number of automobile fatalities averted since 1978 is estimated to be in the range 200-300 per year.

  10. Design Concept for a Minimal Volume Spacecraft Cabin to Serve as a Mars Ascent Vehicle Cabin and Other Alternative Pressurized Vehicle Cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The Evolvable Mars Campaign is developing concepts for human missions to the surface of Mars. These missions are round-trip expeditions, thereby requiring crew launch via a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). A study to identify the smallest possible pressurized cabin for this mission has developed a conceptual vehicle referred to as the minimal MAV cabin. The origin of this concept will be discussed as well as its initial concept definition. This will lead to a description of possible configurations to integrate the minimal MAV cabin with ascent vehicle engines and propellant tanks. Limitations of this concept will be discussed, in particular those that argue against the use of the minimal MAV cabin to perform the MAV mission. However, several potential alternative uses for the cabin are identified. Finally, recommended forward work will be discussed, including current work in progress to develop a full scale mockup and conduct usability evaluations.

  11. A new calcineurin inhibition domain in Cabin1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyonchol; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2007-01-01

    Calcineurin (CN), a calcium-activated phosphatase, plays a critical role in various biological processes including T cell activation. Cabin1, a calcineurin binding protein 1, has been shown to bind directly to CN using its C-terminal region and inhibit CN activity. However, no increase in CN activity has been found in Cabin1ΔC T cells, which produce a truncated Cabin1 lacking the C-terminal CN binding region. Here, we report that Cabin1 has additional CN binding domain in its 701-900 amino acid residues. Cabin1 (701-900) blocked both CN-mediated dephosphorylation and nuclear import of NFAT and thus inhibited IL-2 production in response to PMA/ionomycin stimulation. This fact may explain why Cabin1ΔC mice previously showed no significant defect in CN-mediated signaling pathway

  12. Exploitation Strategies of Cabin and Galley Thermal Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabe, Daniel; Zimmer, Dirk; Pollok, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The thermal inertia of aircraft cabins and galleys is significant for commercial aircraft. The aircraft cabin is controlled by the Environment Control System (ECS) to reach, among other targets, a prescribed temperature. By allowing a temperature band of ± 2 K instead of a fixed temperature, it is possible to use this thermal dynamic of the cabin as energy storage. This storage can then be used to reduce electrical peak power, increase efficiency of the ECS, reduce thermal cooling peak power...

  13. An Agent-based Model for Airline Evolution, Competition, and Airport Congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Junhyuk

    2005-01-01

    The air transportation system has grown significantly during the past few decades. The demand for air travel has increased tremendously as compared to the increase in the supply. The air transportation system can be divided into four subsystems: airports, airlines, air traffic control, and passengers, each of them having different interests. These subsystems interact in a very complex way resulting in various phenomena. On the airport side, there is excessive flight demand during the peak ...

  14. The development and validation of a thermal model for the cabin of a vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, David; Pino, Francisco J.; Bordons, Carlos; Guerra, José J.

    2014-01-01

    Energy management in modern vehicles is a crucial issue, especially in the case of electric vehicles (EV) or hybrid vehicles (HV), in which different energy sources and loads must be considered for the operation of a vehicle. Air conditioning is an important load that must be thoroughly analysed because it can constitute a considerable percentage of the energy demand. In this paper, a simplified and dynamic thermal model for the cabin of a vehicle is proposed and validated. The developed model can be used for the design and testing of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle and for the study of its effects on the performance and fuel consumption of vehicles, such as EVs or HVs. The model is based on theoretical heat transfer, thermal inertia, and radiation treatment equations. The model results obtained from simulations are compared with the cabin air temperature of a vehicle under different conditions. This comparison demonstrates the accuracy between the simulation results and actual results. - Highlights: •A thermal model of a vehicle cabin with two thermal inertias is developed. •The model is validated with experimental data. •The simulation results and the experimental data fit

  15. Improving driver comfort in commercial vehicles : modeling and control of a low-power active cabin suspension system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Comfort enhancement of commercial vehicles has been an engineering topic ever since the first trucks emerged around 1900. Since then, significant improvements have been made by implementing cabin (secondary) and seat suspensions. Moreover, the invention of the air spring and its application to the

  16. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology. Findi...

  17. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  18. The spatial scope of airline competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Behrens, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate whether alternative city- or airport pairs are viable substitutes and the extent to which they impact airline competition between the United Kingdom and continental Europe. To this end, we employ and measure airlines’ best responses in equilibrium. Using monthly airline-route seat

  19. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  20. Overseas airlines woo Chinese tourists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A well-known ancient Chinese poet, Su Shi (1037-1101), used to describe the natural scene in April as: "Two or three sprays of peach behind bamboo; When spring warms the river the ducks are the first to know."As for the potential of China’s tourism industry, airline companies from other countries seem to be the "ducks" who have very good foresight about passenger loads as more Chinese travellers prefer overseas destinations as their first choice for holidays, especially the three week-long holidays, Spring Festival, May Day and National Day.As the May Day holiday approaches,

  1. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... part we report on experiences from a large research and development project on airline disruption management. Within the project the first prototype of a multiple resource decision support system at the operations control center in a major airline, has been implemented....... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost efficient methods to handle...

  2. Managing airlines: the cost of complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapote-Barreira, C.; Deutschmann, A.; Robuste, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper is dedicated to the structure of airline networks as a sink of efficient airline operations. Parameters of complexity were derived and mirrored on level of service as well as efficiency parameters. Airlines usually considerers an operational overhead to predict the total flight operation cost. This parameter includes the expected cost for disruptions and delays. When an airline has to mobilize an aircraft in a base for recovering the service or for breaking an emergent dynamic, then it is running extra costs. The cost of managing complexity in the airline industry has a direct impact on profit and loss account. Therefore, this paper presents an integrated approach to evaluate this cost, based on padding and aircrafts dedicated to recover disruptions. Finally, some additional indicators are derived to evaluate reliability improvement as part of complex performance. (Author)

  3. Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the accounting and stock price performance of two Canadian airlines, WestJet and Air Canada, over a five year period, taking into account the aftermath of the systemic shock to the airline industry produced by the September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorist attacks and subsequent events such as the 2002 SARS outbreak, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the accompanying rise in jet fuel prices. Our study focuses on the viability of low-cost versus conventional-cost business models in Canada under the current business environment and the ability of airlines to withstand and effectively respond to catastrophic industry events. Furthermore, we link the effectiveness of the airlines responses to these events to specific elements of their respective business models. We test our hypothesis through a case study. We focus on WestJet as a typical low-cost airline and compare its accounting and stock performance to Air Canada, a legacy carrier and rival in several business sectors. We find WestJet to be much less affected by catastrophic industry events. By decomposing each airline s return volatility, we observe that WestJet s systematic and unsystematic risk increased only slightly during the industry's post-9-11 turmoil when compared to Air Canada. In addition, we find that both WestJet s accounting and stock performance have been highly superior to those of Air Canada. We argue that WestJet s business model provides the firm with significantly more financial and operational flexibility than its legacy rival, Air Canada. WestJet's lower operating costs, high consumer trust, product offering, corporate structure, workforce and work practices, as well as operational procedures are all factors that appear to contribute to its relative success.

  4. A YEN FOR THE DOLLAR: Airlines and the Transformation of US-Japanese Tourism, 1947-1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Karsner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of transpacific tourism between the United States and Japan from 1947 to 1977, focusing on the key role that Pan American World Airways, Northwest Orient Airlines, and Japan Airlines played in this development. In the late 1940s, travel was mostly by a small upper class leisure market cruising on ships. Linkages between the air carriers and other factors, including governmental policy, travel organizations, and changes in business and culture influenced the industry. By the 1970s, these elements had reshaped the nature and geography of tourism, into a mass airline tourist market characterized by package tours, special interest trips, and consumer values.

  5. Formulation and demonstration of a robust mean variance optimization approach for concurrent airline network and aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davendralingam, Navindran

    Conceptual design of aircraft and the airline network (routes) on which aircraft fly on are inextricably linked to passenger driven demand. Many factors influence passenger demand for various Origin-Destination (O-D) city pairs including demographics, geographic location, seasonality, socio-economic factors and naturally, the operations of directly competing airlines. The expansion of airline operations involves the identificaion of appropriate aircraft to meet projected future demand. The decisions made in incorporating and subsequently allocating these new aircraft to serve air travel demand affects the inherent risk and profit potential as predicted through the airline revenue management systems. Competition between airlines then translates to latent passenger observations of the routes served between OD pairs and ticket pricing---this in effect reflexively drives future states of demand. This thesis addresses the integrated nature of aircraft design, airline operations and passenger demand, in order to maximize future expected profits as new aircraft are brought into service. The goal of this research is to develop an approach that utilizes aircraft design, airline network design and passenger demand as a unified framework to provide better integrated design solutions in order to maximize expexted profits of an airline. This is investigated through two approaches. The first is a static model that poses the concurrent engineering paradigm above as an investment portfolio problem. Modern financial portfolio optimization techniques are used to leverage risk of serving future projected demand using a 'yet to be introduced' aircraft against potentially generated future profits. Robust optimization methodologies are incorporated to mitigate model sensitivity and address estimation risks associated with such optimization techniques. The second extends the portfolio approach to include dynamic effects of an airline's operations. A dynamic programming approach is

  6. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  7. 14 CFR 23.571 - Metallic pressurized cabin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metallic pressurized cabin structures. 23... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Fatigue Evaluation § 23.571 Metallic pressurized cabin structures. For normal, utility, and acrobatic...

  8. Application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Boomen, van den G.J.A.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an application of automation for low cost aircraft cabin simulator. The aircraft cabin simulator is a testbed that was designed for research on aircraft passenger comfort mprovement product. The simulator consists of an economy class section, a business class section, a lavatory

  9. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    . It is also proven possible to create an acceptable draught level in the cabin. Experiments with tracer gas indicated that the contaminant from exhalation of one manikin is fully mixed in the cabin, and the experiment with personalised ventilation did not show much improvement in this situation....

  10. Perceptions of Service Quality: An Empirical Assessment of Modified SERVQUAL Model among Domestic Airline Carriers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Rahim A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature is replete with a large number of theories related to service quality measurement and dimensions in an airline context. To date, there is no consensus of opinion on the generic model and of the number of dimensions most appropriate to evaluate service quality in airline industry. This study investigates service quality dimensions in the Nigerian airline industry. The cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to select 800 respondents among departing air travellers in Lagos State. A structured questionnaire containing 28 items was developed to evaluate the perceived service quality of domestic airlines. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and one-sample t-test. The dimensionality of perceived service quality in Nigeria’s airline industry was explored using exploratory factor analysis. From the analysis carried out, it was established that the modified SERVQUAL model provided a satisfactory level of overall reliability in Nigeria’s airline context, which implies that all the items were cohesive in forming the SERVQUAL dimensions. According to the findings of this study, all service quality dimensions are positively and significantly interrelated. The perceived service quality of domestic airlines across these dimensions was found to be poor. The most dissatisfied dimensions in order of ranking were: flight pattern, reliability, facilities, assurance, responsiveness, employee, and customization. On the basis of the aforementioned findings, this study concludes that airline operators should redefine their service standards to one that is customer-focused by identifying the dimension of service quality most preferred by the passengers and continuously strive to improve service delivery. The study recommends that airline operators should recognize the changing needs and expectations of air travellers and customize their range of services

  11. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  12. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF ALLIANCES, AGREEMENTS AND PARTNERSHIPS IN THE AIRLINE INDUSTRY; THE CASE OF APG NETWORK WITHIN THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA MONICA GHEORGHE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the airline industry had a dynamic evolution, due to significant changes such as: the liberalization of air traffic with two important consequences, the development of the hub and spoke model, as well as the emergence of low-cost companies; the commercialization and privatization of airports; the evolution of technology. In order to be competitive in this new context, taking part of an alliance or network, creating a partnership or an agreement became a key strategy for airlines and as well as other stakeholders involved. This article examines the different partnerships in the airline industry, starting from code-share agreements between airlines or the emergence of airline alliances as a consequence of the hub and spoke system up to the more recent airline-airports partnerships, code-share agreements involving low-cost companies or airline representation agreements for several (new markets. The case study of APG Network will be examined, in order to emphasize the role of GSAs (General Sales Agents in the development strategy of airlines. Moreover, a questionnaire was distributed among travel agencies and airlines operating in Romania, to identify their perception on APG and its impact on the Romanian market.

  13. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future

  14. A conceptual framework for measuring airline business model convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Jost; Albers, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a measurement framework that synthesizes the airline and strategy literature to identify relevant dimensions and elements of airline business models. The applicability of this framework for describing airline strategies and structures and, based on this conceptualization, for assessing the potential convergence of airline business models over time is then illustrated using a small sample of five German passenger airlines. For this sample, the perception of a rapprochement ...

  15. The Effect of Golden Pothos in Reducing the Level of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursprung, Matthew; Amiri, Azita; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Golden Pothos on indoor air quality was studied against a simulated spacecraft trace contaminant load model, consistent with the International Space Station (ISS), containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. Previous research provides inconclusive results on the efficacy of plant VOC removal which this projects seeks to rectify through a better experimental design. This work develops a passive system for removing common VOC's from spacecraft and household indoor air and decreasing the necessity for active cabin trace contaminant removal systems.

  16. Airline company management: 'Defining of necessary number of employees in airline by using artificial intelligence tools'

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Dragan M.; Puharic, Mirjana A.; Jovanović, Tomislav Ž.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the model for preliminary estimation of number of employees in airline by using of artificial intelligence tools. It is assumed that the tools of artificial intelligence can be applied even for complex tasks such as defining the number of employees in the airline. The results obtained can be used for planning the number of employees, ie. planning the necessary financial investments in human resources, and may also be useful for a preliminary analysis of the airlines that choose ...

  17. In-flight radiation measurements aboard French airliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, C.; Donne, J.P.; Pelcot, D.; Nguyen, V.D.; Bouisset, P.; Kerlau, G.

    1993-01-01

    Routine radiation monitoring has been carried out for more than 15 years aboard Air France airliners. Annual dose received by aircrews can be estimated in the 2-3 mSv range for subsonic long-haul aircrews. Recent dosimetric measurements, using CIRCE devices based on low-pressure TEPC microdosimetry techniques and by using new types of bubble damage detectors, seem to confirm partly these results. More investigations by these new techniques could be undertaken at other phases of the 11 year solar cycle. (author)

  18. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  19. Experimental investigation of airborne contaminant transport by a human wake moving in a ventilated aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane B.

    The air ventilation system in jetliners provides a comfortable and healthy environment for passengers. Unfortunately, the increase in global air traffic has amplified the risks presented by infectious aerosols or noxious material released during flight. Inside the cabin, air typically flows continuously from overhead outlets into sidewall exhausts in a circular pattern that minimizes secondary flow between adjacent seat rows. However, disturbances frequently introduced by individuals walking along an aisle may alter air distribution, and contribute to spreading of contaminants. Numerical simulation of these convoluted transient flow phenomena is difficult and complex, and experimental assessment of contaminant distribution in real cabins often impractical. A fundamental experimental study was undertaken to examine the transport phenomena, to validate computations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body was modeled in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body diameter) of the order of 10,000. An experimental facility was designed and constructed to permit measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Contaminant migration was imaged using the planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The effect of ventilation was estimated by comparison with a companion baseline study. Results indicate that the evolution of a downwash predominant behind finite bodies of small aspect ratio is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. The reorganization of vortical structures in the near-wake leads to a shorter longitudinal recirculation region. Furthermore, mixing in the wake is modified and contaminant is observed to convect to higher vertical locations corresponding to seated passenger breathing level.

  20. Effect of relative humidity and temperature control on in-cabin thermal comfort state: Thermodynamic and psychometric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, A.; Omar, M.A.; Mayyas, A.; Dongri, Shan

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the effect of manipulating the Relative Humidity RH of in-cabin environment on the thermal comfort and human occupants' thermal sensation. The study uses thermodynamic and psychometric analyses, to incorporate the effect of changing RH along with the dry bulb temperature on human comfort. Specifically, the study computes the effect of changing the relative humidity on the amount of heat rejected from the passenger compartment and the effect of relative humidity on occupants comfort zone. A practical system implementation is also discussed in terms of an evaporative cooler design. The results show that changing the RH along with dry bulb temperature inside vehicular cabins can improve the air conditioning efficiency by reducing the heat removed while improving the Human comfort sensations as measured by the Predicted Mean Value PMV and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied PPD indices. - Highlights: → Investigates the effect of controlling the RH and dry bulb temperature on in-cabin thermal comfort and sensation. → Conducts the thermodynamic and psychometric analyses for changing the RH and temperature for in-cabin air conditioning. → Discusses a possible system implementation through an evaporative cooler design.

  1. The potential role of maglev in short-haul airline operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Intercity travel is predominately by commercial air transport. However, airports are becoming increasingly congested at a time when there is often substantial local opposition to the expansion of airport infrastructure because of the environmental impacts. This paper explores the potential for integrating high-speed maglev systems into the airport infrastructure, but more importantly into airline operations. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  2. • New guidelines for national airline caterers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-24

    The Government is to issue new guidelines to prevent food poisoning from airline meals. The proposed action comes in response to recent survey evidence which found contaminated meals served up to passengers.

  3. Airline energy conservation options : summary options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-27

    In late May, 1973 the task of determining and evaluating measures for conserving fuel consumed by the airline industry was undertaken. This task was a part of the larger effort conducted by the Transportation Systems Center to determine measures that...

  4. Financial Analysis Report: Malaysia Airlines 2007 - 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert O'Neil Mushure

    2014-01-01

    This work is an analysis of the annual reports of Malaysia Airlines Berhad from 2007 to 2011. Profitability analysis was done on the financial statements of the company from 2007 to 2011. Cash and working capital management analysis were done on the financial statements of 2010 and 2011. It was found that Malaysia Airlines Berhad was constantly suffering from high costs of operations which resulted in consecutive negative gross profit over the years.Net profit remained positive only as a resu...

  5. Fuel conservation integrated into airline economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel conservation efforts at most major airlines involve close scrutiny and intensive analysis in all areas - flight, maintenance and ground handling. Yet, despite the concern and attention devoted, the fundamental question of fuel saving versus time trade-offs remains unanswered. This paper introduces and defines the concept ''The value of an airplane to an airline is that airplane's earning power.

  6. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  7. Optimised Sound Absorbing Trim Panels for the Reduction of Aircraft Cabin Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Ivanov, N.I.; Crocker, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The EU project FACE (Friendly Aircraft Cabin Environment) aims to improve the environmental comfort in aircraft cabins. As part of this project, this paper focuses on the reduction of noise in aircraft cabins. For modern aircraft flying at cruise conditions, this cabin noise is known to be dominated

  8. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets.

  9. Determination of thermal and acoustic comfort inside a vehicle’s cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and acoustic comfort, inside a vehicle’s cabin, are highly interconnected and can greatly influence the health of the passengers. On one hand, the H.V.A.C. system brings the interior air parameters to a comfortable value while on the other hand, it is the main source of noise. It is an intriguing task to find a balance between the two. In this paper, several types of air diffusers were used in order to optimize the ratio between thermal and acoustic interior comfort. Using complex measurements of noise and thermal comfort parameters we have determined for each type of air diffuser the sound pressure level and its impact on air temperature and air velocity.

  10. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  11. The Role of Consumer Experiences in Building the image of brands: A Study in Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iris Tomás Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on brand and consumer experience gained emphasis from the twentieth century, however the relationship between these themes still has gaps. Therefore, this study examines the role of consumer experiences in building the brand image through the identification of thoughts, feelings and actions arising from consumer experiences with airlines, and the types of associations that the consumer makes such marks. Therefore, a variation of qualitative critical incident technique was used, considering those remembered experiences that have excelled in consumer perception, interviewing ten users of air services, based on a two parts semi-structured form: description of experiences with airlines and information about the image of the brands of airlines. The analyzed data have revealed that thoughts, feelings and actions arising from consumer experiences become important elements in shaping the perception of brands of airlines. Through the consumption experience, consumers mainly use the service attributes to build their perception of the marks of the airlines. These attributes are used either directly as to support other types of associations such as those related to company size.

  12. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  13. Vibro-acoustic model of an active aircraft cabin window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and design of an active structural acoustic control (ASAC) system for controlling the low frequency sound field transmitted through an aircraft cabin window. The system uses stacked piezoelectric elements arranged in a manner to generate out-of-plane actuation point forces acting on the window panel boundaries. A theoretical vibro-acoustic model for an active quadruple-panel system is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the system and achieve a good understanding of the active control performance and the physical phenomena of the sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics. The quadruple-panel system represents the passenger window design used in some classes of modern aircraft with an exterior double pane of Plexiglas, an interior dust cover pane and a glazed dimmable pane, all separated by thin air cavities. The STL characteristics of identical pane window configurations with different piezoelectric actuator sets are analyzed. A parametric study describes the influence of important active parameters, such as the input voltage, number and location of the actuator elements, on the STL is investigated. In addition, a mathematical model for obtaining the optimal input voltage is developed to improve the acoustic attenuation capability of the control system. In general, the achieved results indicate that the proposed ASAC design offers a considerable improvement in the passive sound loss performance of cabin window design without significant effects, such as weight increase, on the original design. Also, the results show that the acoustic control of the active model with piezoelectric actuators bonded to the dust cover pane generates high structural vibrations in the radiating panel (dust cover) and an increase in sound power radiation. High active acoustic attenuation can be achieved by designing the ASAC system to apply active control forces on the inner Plexiglas panel or dimmable panel by installing the actuators on the

  14. Experimental Model of Contaminant Transport by a Moving Wake Inside an Aircraft Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussou, Stephane; Sojka, Paul; Plesniak, Michael

    2008-11-01

    The air cabin environment in jetliners is designed to provide comfortable and healthy conditions for passengers. The air ventilation system produces a recirculating pattern designed to minimize secondary flow between seat rows. However, disturbances are frequently introduced by individuals walking along the aisle and may significantly modify air distribution and quality. Spreading of infectious aerosols or biochemical agents presents potential health hazards. A fundamental study has been undertaken to understand the unsteady transport phenomena, to validate numerical simulations and to improve air monitoring systems. A finite moving body is modeled experimentally in a 10:1 scale simplified aircraft cabin equipped with ventilation, at a Reynolds number (based on body height) of the order of 10,000. Measurements of the ventilation and wake velocity fields are obtained using PIV and PLIF. Results indicate that the evolution of the typical downwash behind the body is profoundly perturbed by the ventilation flow. Furthermore, the interaction between wake and ventilation flow significantly alters scalar contaminant migration.

  15. Ship cabin leakage alarm based on ARM SCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liyan

    2018-03-01

    If there is a leakage in the cabin of a sailing ship, it is a major accident that threatens the personnel and property of the ship. If we can’t take timely measures, there will be a devastating disaster. In order to judge the leakage of the cabin, it is necessary to set up a leakage alarm system, so as to achieve the purpose of detecting and alarming the leakage of the cabin, and avoid the occurrence of accidents. This paper discusses the design of ship cabin leakage alarm system based on ARM SCM. In order to ensure the stability and precision of the product, the hardware design of the alarm system is carried out, such as circuit design, software design, the programming of SCM, the software programming of upper computer, etc. It is hoped that it can be of reference value to interested readers.

  16. Multifunctional Coating for Crew Cabin Surfaces and Fabrics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's crewed spacecrafts require routine cleaning of particulate, moisture, organic, and salt contaminants on the crew cabin surfaces and fabrics. Self-cleaning...

  17. Cabin crew collectivism: labour process and the roots of mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, P.; Moore, S.

    2015-01-01

    The protracted dispute (2009–11) between British Airways and BASSA (British Airways Stewards and Stewardesses Association) was notable for the strength of collective action by cabin crew. In-depth interviews reveal collectivism rooted in the labour process and highlight the key agency of BASSA in effectively articulating worker interests. This data emphasizes crews’ relative autonomy, sustained by unionate on-board Cabin Service Directors who have defended the frontier of control against mana...

  18. Mortality from cancer and other causes in commercial airline crews: a joint analysis of cohorts from 10 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël P; Auvinen, Anssi; De Stavola, Bianca L; Grajewski, Barbara; Gundestrup, Maryanne; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Lagorio, Susanna; Linnersjö, Anette; Pinkerton, Lynne; Pukkala, Eero; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Storm, Hans H; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Tzonou, Anastasia; Zeeb, Hajo; Blettner, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Commercial airline crew is one of the occupational groups with the highest exposures to ionising radiation. Crew members are also exposed to other physical risk factors and subject to potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study analyses mortality in a pooled cohort of 93 771 crew members from 10 countries. The cohort was followed for a mean of 21.7 years (2.0 million person-years), during which 5508 deaths occurred. The overall mortality was strongly reduced in male cockpit (SMR 0.56) and female cabin crews (SMR 0.73). The mortality from radiation-related cancers was also reduced in male cockpit crew (SMR 0.73), but not in female or male cabin crews (SMR 1.01 and 1.00, respectively). The mortality from female breast cancer (SMR 1.06), leukaemia and brain cancer was similar to that of the general population. The mortality from malignant melanoma was elevated, and significantly so in male cockpit crew (SMR 1.57). The mortality from cardiovascular diseases was strongly reduced (SMR 0.46). On the other hand, the mortality from aircraft accidents was exceedingly high (SMR 33.9), as was that from AIDS in male cabin crew (SMR 14.0). This large study with highly complete follow-up shows a reduced overall mortality in male cockpit and female cabin crews, an increased mortality of aircraft accidents and an increased mortality in malignant skin melanoma in cockpit crew. Further analysis after longer follow-up is recommended.

  19. Airline Applications of Business Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANDRONIE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Airline industry is characterized by large quantities of complex, unstructured and rapid changing data that can be categorized as big data, requiring specialized analysis tools to explore it with the purpose of obtaining useful knowledge as decision support for companies that need to fundament their activities and improve the processes they are carrying on. In this context, business intelligence tools are valuable instruments that can optimally process airline related data so that the activities that are conducted can be optimized to maximize profits, while meeting customer requirements. An airline company that has access to large volumes of data (stored into conventional or big data repositories has two options to extract useful decision support information: processing data by using general-purpose business intelligence systems or processing data by using industry specific business intelligence systems. Each of these two options has both advantages and disadvantages for the airline companies that intend to use them. The present paper presents a comparative study of a number of general-purpose and airline industry specific business intelligence systems, together with their main advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Finger temperature as a predictor of thermal comfort for sedentary passengers in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Wyon, David Peter; Zukowska, Daria

    2009-01-01

    .1°C. A total of 68 subjects were exposed to each of the three conditions. The subjects completed questionnaires to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. Objective physiological measurements...... that were made included finger temperature. The purpose of the present paper is to show that mean finger temperature is a good predictor of mean thermal vote (MTV) on the seven-point scale of thermal sensation. The results indicate that women and younger subjects have slightly colder fingers....

  1. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    so that the demand and airline operations evolve over time. The studies indicate that, despite an increased cost, improved equipage provides benefits to airline profits as long as equipped airports are available. Improved equipage also reduces fuel burn on a per-flight basis, but depending on the percentage of equipped aircraft in the fleet, the overall airline fuel burn may increase. Improved equipage does increase capacity at busy airports - such as Chicago O'Hare - allowing a greater number of aircraft to operate at the airport on any given day. A sensitivity study indicates that, in the FLEET model, airline profits are most sensitive to changes in the underlying demand for air travel, followed by the price of jet fuel. Equipage related factors, such as the number of equipped airports in the network or the cost of improved equipage, have a comparatively minor influence on airline profit. Of these secondary factors, the assumed decrease in trip or segment distance enabled by improved equipage systems has the greatest impact on profit. Ability to retrofit aircraft and entry-in-service date of equipped aircraft has the greatest impact on the number of equipped aircraft in the fleet.

  2. Validation of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire for Airline Pilots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AAQ), which assesses airline pilots' perceptions about operating advanced commercial aircraft. A total of 262 airline pilots from a large South African carrier participated in the validation of the instrument. A five-factor measurement model was ...

  3. An analysis of the proposed Airline Competition Enhancement Act

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Janice S.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This analysis examines problem issues in the passenger airline industry and determines how the proposed Airline Competition Enhancement Act would impact these issues. A summarization of the history of airline deregulation is followed by an assessment of the factors that are contributing to the call for re-regulation. From this assessment, recommendations for changes to the proposed Airline Competition Enhancement Act are made. Lieut...

  4. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay ORHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: flight scheduling, aircraft scheduling, crew scheduling and disruptions management. These aforementioned scheduling and planning problems faced by all airline companies in the airline sector were examined in detail. Studies reveal that companies using the advanced methods might gain significant cost reductions. However, even then, the time required for solving large scale problems may not satisfy the decision quality desired by decision makers. In such cases, using modern decision methods integrated with advanced technologies offer companies an opportunity for significant cost-advantages.

  5. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers.

  6. Airline company management: 'Defining of necessary number of employees in airline by using artificial intelligence tools'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the model for preliminary estimation of number of employees in airline by using of artificial intelligence tools. It is assumed that the tools of artificial intelligence can be applied even for complex tasks such as defining the number of employees in the airline. The results obtained can be used for planning the number of employees, ie. planning the necessary financial investments in human resources, and may also be useful for a preliminary analysis of the airlines that choose to do restructuring or plan to increase/decrease the number of operations. Results were compared with those obtained by regression analysis.

  7. The Design of a Large Scale Airline Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Airlines invest a lot of money before opening new pax transportation services, for this reason, airlines have to analyze if their profits will overcome the amount of money they have to invest to open new services. The design and analysis of the feasibility of airlines networks can be done by using

  8. Adaptation strategies of airline travel agencies to the dynamics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of airline travel agencies in a changing operational environment depends on their ability to adapt and survive in the airline travel industry. This paper examines the adaptation strategies airline travel agencies adopt to remain in business. Data for this paper was obtained through multi-stage sampling system that ...

  9. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...

  10. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2009-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However, ...

  11. Jet fuels of higher volatility: An airline view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, M.H.

    1982-05-01

    Use of jet fuels of higher volatility is reviewed by some airlines periodically on a routine basis. Most often, however, airlines become concerned when aviation kerosine supply problems are encountered or anticipated. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the known principles of fuel selection and how they influence airline consideration.

  12. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATRS held its Annual conference at Jeju Island, Korea in July 2001. The conference was a success with nearly 140 participants including 70 presenters. This report contains presentations from Volume 1 on the following: Airline and Travel Agent Relationships in Asia;Benchmarking Aviation Safety in the Commercial Airline Industry;Impact of Frequent Flyer Program on the Demand for Air Travel; Application of Genetic Algorithm on Airline Schedule;The Effects of Dual Carrier Designation and Partial Liberalization: The Case of Canada;Defense of Air Carriers and Air Agencies in FAA Enforcement proceedin gs - Damage Control Before the Case Arises; Cost Incentives for Airline Mergers? - An examination on the cost impact of U.S. airline mergers and acquisitions;Airport Regulation, Airline Competition and Canada's Airport System; Airline Competition: The Case of Israel's Domestic Doupoly; Non-Financial Indicators of Airline Distress: A Conceptual Approach;and Airport Privatization: An Empirical Analysis of Financial and Operational Efficiency.

  13. Investigation of in-cabin volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in taxis; influence of vehicle's age, model, fuel, and refueling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Reza; Hadei, Mostafa; Hopke, Philip K; Shahsavani, Abbas; Rastkari, Noushin; Kermani, Majid; Yarahmadi, Maryam; Ghaderpoori, Afshin

    2018-06-01

    The air pollutant species and concentrations in taxis' cabins can present significant health impacts on health. This study measured the concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the cabins of four different taxi models. The effects of taxi's age, fuel type, and refueling were investigated. Four taxi models in 3 age groups were fueled with 3 different fuels (gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)), and the concentrations of 6 air pollutants were measured in the taxi cabins before and after refueling. BTEX, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde sampling were actively sampled using NIOSH methods 1501, 2541, and 2538, respectively. The average BTEX concentrations for all taxi models were below guideline values. The average concentrations (±SD) of formaldehyde in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 889 (±356), 806 (±323), 1144 (±240), and 934 (±167) ppbv, respectively. Acetaldehyde average concentrations (±SD) in Model 1 to Model 4 taxis were 410 (±223), 441 (±241), 443 (±210), and 482 (±91) ppbv, respectively. Refueling increased the in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants primarily the CNG and LPG fuels. BTEX concentrations in all taxi models were significantly higher for gasoline. Taxi age inversely affected formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In conclusion, it seems that refueling process and substitution of gasoline with CNG and LPG can be considered as solutions to improve in-vehicle air concentrations for taxis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Spacecraft Cabin Air CO2 Recovery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An advanced Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for long duration manned space missions ?such as planetary flight missions or planetary bases-...

  15. Spontaneous pneumocephalus after commercial air travel complicated by meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Ramin; Duszak, Richard; Eisenberg, Alan D; Eggers, Frank M

    2011-12-01

    Pneumocephalus usually results from trauma, infection, neoplasm, or iatrogenic causes. Barotrauma-induced spontaneous pneumocephalus is extremely rare, usually seen in divers or occassionally with air travel. We report a case of a 61-yr-old female presenting with confusion, fever, and respiratory failure one day after developing sudden nausea, vomiting, and headache during descent on a commercial airliner. Pneumocephalus and meningitis were present on admission. Sinus computed tomography (CT) showed pansinusitis and a tiny bone defect in the posterior wall of the right sphenoid sinus, through which a cisternogram later showed free communication with the prepontine cistern. An orbital CT 2 yr earlier after a fall showed the bone defect, with no other areas of abnormality or fracture. After repair of defects by otolaryngology and appropriate antibiotics, she did well and was eventually discharged. Changes in aircraft cabin pressure likely resulted in rupture of dura and arachnoid layers beneath the pre-existing bony defect, predisposed by existing sinus disease. The pathophysiology, implications, and potential sources of spontaneous pneumocephalus, as well as risks of postcraniotomy and post-trauma air-travel, are discussed.

  16. Airline service quality performance reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this federal regulation (Citation 14CFR234) is to set forth required data that certain air carriers must submit to the Department of Transportation and to computer reservations system vendors in computerized form, except as otherwise p...

  17. Cooperative Game Study of Airlines Based on Flight Frequency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the game theory, the relationship between airline ticket price and optimal flight frequency is analyzed. The paper establishes the payoff matrix of the flight frequency in noncooperation scenario and flight frequency optimization model in cooperation scenario. The airline alliance profit distribution is converted into profit distribution game based on the cooperation game theory. The profit distribution game is proved to be convex, and there exists an optimal distribution strategy. The results show that joining the airline alliance can increase airline whole profit, the change of negotiated prices and cost is beneficial to profit distribution of large airlines, and the distribution result is in accordance with aviation development.

  18. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  19. Tips for Airline Travelers with Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sjogrens.org for more information on Sjögren’s syndrome. New airline rules can have a profound effect on those with Sjögren’s syndrome. The Sjögren’s Syndrome Foundation continues to work closely with the Transportation Safety Administration (TSA) to ...

  20. European vs. U.S. Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study measures and compares the efficiency and productivity of European and U.S. airlines, over the period from 2001 to 2008. We measure efficiency by estimating a Bayesian distance frontier model subject to regularity constraints. Productivity estimates are also derived parametrically, based...... growth and related market discussions are also provided....

  1. LEASING AS IMPORTANT TOOL OF AIRLINE FINANCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Afanasiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article corers current state of airline financing using such instrument as aviation leasing indifferent forms, such as finance leasing its different forms, operational leasing and its different types, sale and lease back analyzed all pluses and minuses of each form. The main questions of Capetown Convention on international warranties concerning moving equipment also discussed.

  2. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... if submitted on behalf of an association, a business, a labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's... businesses, and local government entities, that rulemaking is occurring in areas of interest to them; (2... complaints received through social networking mediums such as Facebook or Twitter. Do airlines currently...

  3. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  4. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to

  5. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  6. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  7. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  8. An Examination of How Ratings of Airlines are Effected by Different Types of Information: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Abdullah Selim

    Many dynamics directly or indirectly influence the decision-making process. An individual's demographic features, such as gender, country of origin, and emotions are some of the dynamics. In the aviation domain, air passengers purchase their air travel tickets under those dynamics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the airline type, gender of participants, and participants' country of origin had an effect on ratings of an individual's perception of safety and willingness to fly, and which emotions had a mediating effect on this relationship. The study included Lufthansa Airlines and Turkish Airlines from Europe. The affect was the participants' feeling outcomes of presented airline information. The feelings were Ekman and Friesen's (1971) universal emotions that include happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness. The results of the study indicated that airline type, gender, and country of origin had a statistically significant effect and significant interaction on safety perception and willingness to fly. Also, emotions were found significant mediators on the mediation paths. Particularly happiness, fear, anger, and disgust emotions had a significant influence on participants' decision outcomes.

  9. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  10. Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: A Study of Interrelationships and Effects in Nigerian Domestic Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim A. Ganiyu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate concerning the interrelationships and effects between customer satisfaction and loyalty has been tossed back and forth, without a consensus opinion. This study examines the linkages between customer satisfaction and loyalty in Nigerian domestic airline industry. The study adopted correlation research design to elicit information via questionnaire from 600 domestic air passengers drawn through convenience sampling technique. The data obtained from the respondents were analysed with Pearson correlation analysis, linear regression, and One-way analysis of variance. Based on 383 completed data, the results provide support for the association and influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The study also found out that frequent air travelers displayed more loyalty tendency towards airline carriers compared to non-frequent air passengers. On the basis of aforementioned findings, the study concludes that customer satisfaction is extremely important in building and enhancing customer loyalty. Therefore, airline carriers should implement strategies that will guarantee long-term relationship with air travellers by offering service quality that will meet and exceeds their expectations and by extension customer satisfaction.

  11. Experimental study on occupant's thermal responses under the non-uniform conditions in vehicle cabin during the heating period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong

    2014-03-01

    The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in

  12. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. System for routine testing of self-contained and airline breathing equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, H.J.; Hermens, G.A.

    1980-07-01

    A system for routine testing of self-contained and airline breathing equipment, developed by Shell Oil Co., for testing breathing equipment at one of its refineries, consists of an 80 psig air supply for airline respirators; a 500-2100 psig air supply for self-contained units; a regulator test system which uses a mannequin head that simulates human inhalation and which tests the ability of the regulator to keep the mask interior at the correct positive pressure; and an exhalation valve test system which identifies a leaky or sticking valve. The testing system has been in use for about 30 mo and has led to increased acceptance of respiratory protective equipment by workers.

  14. International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

    2009-03-01

    During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.

  15. Structure and external factors of chinese city airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Tao

    2010-08-01

    Abstract We investigate the structural properties of Chinese city airline network (CCAN), where nodes and edges denote cities and direct flights. The degree distribution follows a double power law and a clear hierarchical layout is observed. The population exhibits a weakly positive correlation with the number of flights, yet it does not show obvious correlation with the transportation flow. The distance is an important parameter in CCAN, that is, the number of flights decays fast with the increasing of the distance. In comparison, the tertiary industry has the most important influence on the Chinese air passenger transportation. Statistically speaking, when the tertiary industry value increases by 1%, the next period's volume will increase by 0.73%.

  16. Cosmic microwave background science at commercial airline altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Gudmundsson, Jon E.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia; Errard, Josquin

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining high-sensitivity measurements of degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is the most direct path to detecting primordial gravitational waves. Robustly recovering any primordial signal from the dominant foreground emission will require high-fidelity observations at multiple frequencies, with excellent control of systematics. We explore the potential for a new platform for CMB observations, the Airlander 10 hybrid air vehicle, to perform this task. We show that the Airlander 10 platform, operating at commercial airline altitudes, is well suited to mapping frequencies above 220 GHz, which are critical for cleaning CMB maps of dust emission. Optimizing the distribution of detectors across frequencies, we forecast the ability of Airlander 10 to clean foregrounds of varying complexity as a function of altitude, demonstrating its complementarity with both existing (Planck) and ongoing (C-BASS) foreground observations. This novel platform could play a key role in defining our ultimate view of the polarized microwave sky.

  17. The role of the airline industry in the safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouchaar, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    For the transport of dangerous goods, including radioactive material, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) - representing its member airlines - works towards greater standardization, streamlining of traffic-handling procedures, more automation, reduced government-clearance procedures and documentary requirements, improved handling at airports, and adequate terminal facilities. The paper provides an overview of how IATA works with other international agencies to accomplish these goals and how it reflects the IAEA Transport Regulations in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. (author)

  18. Strategic Responses of Airlines in Malaysia to the ASEAN Open Skies Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei Ghen

    2008-01-01

    Despite its dependence on global operations, airline industry is excluded from the general agreements on trade in services (GATS). Due to the restrictions imposed by individual countries, the industry was highly regulated. However, pressures for changes have emerged lately due to the economic trend. From bilateral to multilateral agreements, these air services agreements are gradually being substituted by “open skies” arrangement. Most of these arrangements are made through regional or supran...

  19. Quality management practices in the south east Asian airlines' operations function

    OpenAIRE

    Subagyo, Toto Hardiyanto

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent Asian economics crisis (1997-1998), air traffic volumes in Asia- Pacific will continue to grow over the next decade. As the market is becoming more and more attractive, the competition amongst the airlines operating in the region has challenged the Southeast Asian carriers. The demanded quality of product/service by the customer has become a crucial issue. The ability to provide quality products and services is increasingly becoming a key determinant of an...

  20. Towards comfortable and efficient man-machine interaction in the cabins of vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Roetting, M.; Vink, P.; Luczak, H.

    2000-01-01

    The comfort of the operators in the cabins of vehicles is getting an increasingly important issue. At first glance, the cabins of professional machines (earth-moving equipment, busses, harvesting equipment) might look modern and highly comfortable. However, this does not imply that the cabins

  1. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  2. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  3. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-11-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.).

  4. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  5. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  6. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana G. Feoktistova; Igor K. Turkin; Sergey V. Barinov

    2017-01-01

    The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate pre...

  7. Fatigue Monitoring Tool for Airline Operators (FMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislason Sigurdur Hrafn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Fatigue Monitoring Tool (FMT model was constructed for an operational airline in order to manage the fatigue levels of their crews in accordance with Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS practices. This article describes the implementation of the Fatigue Monitoring Tool model and the airline’s aims to put the recent scientific findings on aviation fatigue into practical use. The model consists of proxy points allotted to various duties and rest periods.

  8. The Low Cost Airline Consumer Price Sensitivity. An Investigation on The Mediating Role of Promotion and Trust in Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janfry Sihite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN Open Sky Policy is one of ASEAN policy to open the airspace between the ASEAN member countries. Aviation services based companies including the Low Cost airlines will experience tight com-petition among ASEAN airline companies. This research aim to explore the effect of price on customer loyalty through the mediating role of promotion and trust in brand. The original sample collected from 100 Indonesian low-cost airline Citilink consumer that just arrived in Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, the bootstrapped techniques conducted for 500 sub-samples and further analyzed with structural equation modelling partial least square. The research findings support the low cost airline consumer price sensitivity, furthermore price affect the trust in brand more severe compared with the promotion. Price effect fully mediated through the trust in brand and promotion toward the consumer loyalty. Further research should consider the sensitivity of price to elaborate the decision making process for the low cost air-line consumer.

  9. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana G. Feoktistova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate precautionary measures will allow airlines to avoid incidents leading to drastic consequences for staff, as well as to direct and indirect costs for the enterprise among which there could be singled out both direct property damage and loss of profit and expenses connected to incident investigation, penalty and compensation payment, loss of business reputation and so on. To reduce the rate of accidents and to develop safe activities skills for airlines staff a risk assessment chart is supposed to be implemented, which will be an efficient accidents prevention involving the staff in the process and making them follow safe working conditions.Process risk assessment is an integral part of assessment of the whole enterprise activity and work efficiency of a department and particular workers evaluation system. Labour protection activity should be based on risk identification and its control. Risk assessment is a keystone of labour protection activity planning.

  10. Pulmonary artery pressure increases during commercial air travel in healthy passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas G; Talbot, Nick P; Chang, Rae W; Wilkinson, Elizabeth; Nickol, Annabel H; Newman, David G; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2012-07-01

    It is not known whether the mild hypoxia experienced by passengers during commercial air travel triggers hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and increases pulmonary artery pressure in flight. Insidious pulmonary hypertensive responses could endanger susceptible passengers who have cardiopulmonary disease or increased hypoxic pulmonary vascular sensitivity. Understanding these effects may improve pre-flight assessment of fitness-to-fly and reduce in-flight morbidity and mortality. Eight healthy volunteers were studied during a scheduled commercial airline flight from London, UK, to Denver, CO. The aircraft was a Boeing 777 and the duration of the flight was 9 h. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was assessed by portable Doppler echocardiography during the flight and over the following week in Denver, where the altitude (5280 ft/1610 m) simulates a commercial airliner environment. Cruising cabin altitude ranged between 5840 and 7170 ft (1780 to 2185 m), and mean arterial oxygen saturation was 95 +/- 0.6% during the flight. Mean sPAP increased significantly in flight by 6 +/- 1 mmHg to 33 +/- 1 mmHg, an increase of approximately 20%. After landing in Denver, sPAP was still 3 +/- 1 mmHg higher than baseline and remained elevated at 30 +/- 1 mmHg for a further 12 h. Pulmonary artery pressure increases during commercial air travel in healthy passengers, raising the possibility that hypoxic pulmonary hypertension could develop in susceptible individuals. A hypoxia altitude simulation test with simultaneous echocardiography ('HAST-echo') may be beneficial in assessing fitness to fly in vulnerable patients.

  11. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR AIRLINE COMPANIES IN UAE WITH REFERENCE TO PROFITABILITY, LIQUIDITY, EFFICIENCY, EMPLOYEE STRENGTH AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Hazarika

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The demand for air transport has been consistently increasing in UAE and has made significant growth in the aviation sector in terms of expansion and modernization. Within Dubai’s services sector, transport ranks first accounting for 14.8% of Dubai’s GDP in 2014.As per the Economics Report commissioned by Emirates and Dubai Airports, aviation sector is expected to contribute $53.1 billion to Dubai’s economy, 37.5 per cent to its GDP and will support over 750,000 jobs by 2020. The present study makes a comparative analysis of the top airline companies in UAE – Emirate Airlines and Air Arabia in terms of profitability, liquidity, efficiency and also Etihad Airways on employee strength and productivity from 2010 to 2014.Dubai’s aviation sector is projected to support over 1,194,700 jobs by 2030 and the total economic impact on UAE is expected to increase to $88.1 billion. The financial performance indicators of Emirates Airlines and Air Arabia has been compared and further analyzed to see if there is any significant impact of the macroeconomic indicators on the financial performance of the airline companies. Companies can create wealth either by increasing profit per employee or by increasing the number of employees earning such profits, or both.

  12. Air traffic and cosmic radiation. An epidemiological study among aircraft crews in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blettner, M.; Hammer, G.P.; Langner, I.; Zeeb, H.

    2003-01-01

    Airline pilots and cabin crew are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation and other occupational factors that may influence their health status. The mortality of some 6,000 pilots and 20,000 cabin crew members was investigated in a cohort study. Overall a pronounced healthy worker effect was seen. The cancer mortality risk is slightly lower than in the general population. Currently there is no indication for an increase in cancer mortality due to cosmic radiation. A further follow-up is planned. (orig.) [de

  13. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  14. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  15. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  16. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  17. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  18. Receipt and use of half-fare airline coupons at selected Department of Energy field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    The receipt and use of half-fare coupons obtained by employees of DOE field offices and DOE contractors while traveling at DOE expense were reviewed. These coupons, issued by United Airlines and American Airlines, provided for air travel at half-fare if used before December 15, 1979. Potential savings to DOE through coupon use ranging from $50,000 to $100,000 were lost, because of ineffective management action by both federal and contractor officials. Recommendations were that DOE ascertain the extent of the failure of contractors to recover coupons from their employees and recover from the contractors the amounts lost. IG submitted a draft of this final report for comment and received the comments of the Controller, the Director of Administration, and the Director of Procurement and Contracts Management. The comments included useful information; and where appropriate, the final report was changed to reflect the comments. In addition, the comments in their entirety are contained in the appendices.

  19. Analisis Tingkat Kepuasan Pelanggan terhadap Pelayanan Jasa Maskapai AirAsia

    OpenAIRE

    Erdiansyah, M. Rheza

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study "To determine the level of customer satisfaction which consists of physical evidence (tangible), reliability (reliability), responsiveness (responsiveness), assurance (assurance) and empathy (empathy) on AirAsia airline services.". The method used in this research is the empirical study method with the approach of associative research. The population in this study is the airline customers who buy airline tickets AirAsia in Reza Travel Medan. The data used are primary...

  20. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-11-01

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  2. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using metaheuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take-off.  Jobs (flights) must...

  3. Approaches to construction of systems of safety management in airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three approaches of building a safety management system (SMS in airlines in the framework of implementation of ICAO SARPs that apply methods of risk assessment based on use of operational activity of airline taking into account existing and implementing "protections" or "safety barriers".

  4. Solving a robust airline crew pairing problem with column generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muter, I.; Birbil, S.I.; Bülbül, K.; Sahin, G.; Yenigün, H.; Tas, D.; Tüzün, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we solve a robust version of the airline crew pairing problem. Our concept of robustness was partially shaped during our discussions with small local airlines in Turkey which may have to add a set of extra flights into their schedule at short notice during operation. Thus, robustness

  5. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9 Section 806.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship...

  6. New physical model calculates airline crews' radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Airline pilots and crews, who spend hundreds of hours each year flying at high altitude, are exposed to increased doses of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar energy particles, enough that airline crew members are actually considered radiation workers by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  7. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  8. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  9. AIRLINE ACTIVITY FORECASTING BY REGRESSION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. Білак

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Proposed linear and nonlinear regression models, which take into account the equation of trend and seasonality indices for the analysis and restore the volume of passenger traffic over the past period of time and its prediction for future years, as well as the algorithm of formation of these models based on statistical analysis over the years. The desired model is the first step for the synthesis of more complex models, which will enable forecasting of passenger (income level airline with the highest accuracy and time urgency.

  10. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  11. Influence of a controlled environment simulating an in-flight airplane cabin on dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesón, Marisa; González-García, María J; López-Miguel, Alberto; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Martín-Montañez, Vicente; Benito, María Jesús; Mateo, María Eugenia; Stern, Michael E; Calonge, Margarita

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate symptoms, signs, and the levels of 16 tears inflammatory mediators of dry eye (DE) patients exposed to an environment simulating an in-flight air cabin in an environmental chamber. Twenty DE patients were exposed to controlled environment simulating an in-flight airplane cabin (simulated in-flight condition [SIC]) of 23°C, 5% relative humidity, localized air flow, and 750 millibars (mb) of barometric pressure. As controls, 15 DE patients were subjected to a simulated standard condition (SSC) of 23°C, 45% relative humidity, and 930 mb. A DE symptoms questionnaire, diagnostic tests, and determination of 16 tear molecules by multiplex bead array were performed before and 2 hours after exposure. After SIC exposure, DE patients became more symptomatic, suffered a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in tear stability (tear break up time) (from 2.18 ± 0.28 to 1.53 ± 0.20), and tear volume (phenol red thread test), and a significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in corneal staining, both globally (0.50 ± 0.14 before and 1.25 ± 0.19 after) and in each area (Baylor scale). After SSC, DE patients only showed a mild, but significant (P ≤ 0.05), increase in central and inferior corneal staining. Consistently, tear levels of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 significantly increased and tear epidermal growth factor (EGF) significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) only after SIC. The controlled adverse environment conditions in this environmental chamber can simulate the conditions in which DE patients might be exposed during flight. As this clearly impaired their lacrimal functional unit, it would be advisable that DE patients use therapeutic strategies capable of ameliorating these adverse episodes.

  12. Assessment of noise in the airplane cabin environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevitas, Christopher D; Spengler, John D; Jones, Byron; McNeely, Eileen; Coull, Brent; Cao, Xiaodong; Loo, Sin Ming; Hard, Anna-Kate; Allen, Joseph G

    2018-03-15

    To measure sound levels in the aircraft cabin during different phases of flight. Sound level was measured on 200 flights, representing six aircraft groups using continuous monitors. A linear mixed-effects model with random intercept was used to test for significant differences in mean sound level by aircraft model and across each flight phase as well as by flight phase, airplane type, measurement location and proximity to engine noise. Mean sound levels across all flight phases and aircraft groups ranged from 37.6 to >110 dB(A) with a median of 83.5 dB(A). Significant differences in noise levels were also observed based on proximity to the engines and between aircraft with fuselage- and wing mounted engines. Nine flights (4.5%) exceeded the recommended 8-h TWA exposure limit of 85 dB(A) by the NIOSH and ACGIH approach, three flights (1.5%) exceeded the 8-h TWA action level of 85 dB(A) by the OSHA approach, and none of the flights exceeded the 8-h TWA action level of 90 dB(A) by the OSHA PEL approach. Additional characterization studies, including personal noise dosimetry, are necessary to document accurate occupational exposures in the aircraft cabin environment and identify appropriate response actions. FAA should consider applying the more health-protective NIOSH/ACGIH occupational noise recommendations to the aircraft cabin environment.

  13. Sentimental Analysis for Airline Twitter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Das, Deb; Sharma, Sharan; Natani, Shubham; Khare, Neelu; Singh, Brijendra

    2017-11-01

    Social Media has taken the world by surprise at a swift and commendable pace. With the advent of any kind of circumstances may it be related to social, political or current affairs the sentiments of people throughout the world are expressed through their help, making them suitable candidates for sentiment mining. Sentimental analysis becomes highly resourceful for any organization who wants to analyse and enhance their products and services. In the airline industries it is much easier to get feedback from astute data source such as Twitter, for conducting a sentiment analysis on their respective customers. The beneficial factors relating to twitter sentiment analysis cannot be impeded by the consumers who want to know the who’s who and what’s what in everyday life. In this paper we are classifying sentiment of Twitter messages by exhibiting results of a machine learning algorithm using R and Rapid Miner. The tweets are extracted and pre-processed and then categorizing them in neutral, negative and positive sentiments finally summarising the results as a whole. The Naive Bayes algorithm has been used for classifying the sentiments of recent tweets done on the different airlines.

  14. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 11, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); EspiritoSanto, Jr. Respicio (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    The following topics were covered: How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?; Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model; Consequences of Feeder Delays for the Success of A380 Operations; Inside the Mechanics of Network Development: How Competition and Strategy Reorganize European Air Traffic; The Opportunities and Threats of Turning Airports into Hubs; Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using System Safety Tools; A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Activities in Airline Hubs; and The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One- Historical Foundation.

  15. Progress in airline distribution systems: The threat of new entrants to incumbent players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Sismanidou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, distribution has been a key ICT (Information and Communication Technology area for airlines and this sector has been dominated by four (now three Global Distribution Systems (GDSs whose primacy has been threatened over the last four years by a set of new players, the so called GDS New Entrants (GNEs.  GNEs emerged with the advent of the Internet and open source technology as ‘disintermediation’ facilitators and generated vast interest from airlines because they promised to reduce the cost of distribution. This paper explores the impact of ICTs on airlines with a focus on GDSs. It provides an overview of the changing market dynamics, analyses the environment that led to the appearance of GNEs and pinpoints the issues behind their until now failure to provide a true alternative to the GDSs.  This analysis complements existing academic research in that it clarifies critical issues in the air travel distribution field and provides an overview of current industry developments.

  16. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  17. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R. (Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Cousins, T. (Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Space Systems and Technology Section); Hudson, D.F. (Air Canada Flight Operations, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Guery, G. (Air France-Direction des Operations Aeriennes, Roissy Charles de Gaulle (France))

    1994-06-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm[sup 2][center dot]s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 [mu]S[nu]/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes [approximately] 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public.

  18. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R.; Guery, G.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm 2 ·s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 μSν/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes ∼ 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public

  19. Normobaric hypoxia inhalation test vs. response to airline flight in healthy passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul T; Swanney, Maureen P; Frampton, Chris; Seccombe, Leigh M; Peters, Matthew J; Beckert, Lutz E

    2006-11-01

    There is little data available to determine the normal response to normobaric hypoxia inhalation testing (NHIT) and air travel. Quantifying a healthy response may assist in the evaluation of passengers considered at risk for air travel. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the degree of desaturation in healthy subjects during a NHIT and air travel; and (2) assess the validity of the NHIT when compared with actual in-flight responses. There were 15 healthy adults (age 23-57; 10 women) who volunteered for this study. Preflight tests included lung function, arterial blood gas, pulse oximetry (SpO2), and NHIT (inspired oxygen 15%). SpO2 and cabin pressure were measured continuously on each subject during a commercial air flight (mean cabin altitude 2178 m; range 1719-2426 m). In-flight oxygenation was compared with the preflight NHIT. Lung function testing results were normal. There was significant desaturation (SpO2) during the NHIT (pre: 98 +/- 2%; post: 92 +/- 2%) and at cruising altitude (pre: 97 +/- 1%; cruise: 92 +/- 2%). There was no difference between the final NHIT SpO2 and the mean in-flight SpO2. There was a significant difference between the lowest in-flight SpO2 (88 +/- 2%) vs. the lowest NHIT SpO2, (90 +/- 2%). Oxygen saturation decreases significantly during air travel in normal individuals. In this group of healthy passengers the NHIT approximates some, but not all, aspects of in-flight oxygenation. These results can be used to describe a normal response to the NHIT and air-travel.

  20. Commercial air travel after intraocular gas injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Stephen; Graf, Jürgen; Sharkey, James

    2012-08-01

    Passengers with intraocular gas are at risk of profound visual loss when exposed to reduced absolute pressure within the cabin of a typical commercial airliner. Information provided on the websites of the world's 10 largest airlines offer a considerable range of opinion as to when it might be safe to fly after gas injection. Physicians responsible for clearing pseassengers as 'fit to fly' should be aware modern retinal surgical techniques increasingly employ long-acting gases as vitreous substitutes. The kinetics of long-acting intraocular gases must be considered when deciding how long after surgery it is safe to travel. It is standard practice to advise passengers not to fly in aircraft until the gas is fully resorbed. To achieve this, it may be necessary to delay travel for approximately 2 wk after intraocular injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and for 6 wk after injection of perfluoropropane (C3F8).

  1. Determinants of Profitability in the Airline Industry: A Comparison with Turkish Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Alahyari, Amirhassan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In order to be competitive, the profitability of a firm plays an undeniable role. Therefore, investigation of the factors determining profitability of a firm would provide useful insights for firms in the process of decision making and strategic planning. The airline industry of Turkey has been known as a prominent sector because of its significant contribution to economic development and growth of employment over time. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate the det...

  2. Airline Maintenance Manpower Optimization from the De Novo Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, James J. H.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    Human resource management (HRM) is an important issue for today’s competitive airline marketing. In this paper, we discuss a multi-objective model designed from the De Novo perspective to help airlines optimize their maintenance manpower portfolio. The effectiveness of the model and solution algorithm is demonstrated in an empirical study of the optimization of the human resources needed for airline line maintenance. Both De Novo and traditional multiple objective programming (MOP) methods are analyzed. A comparison of the results with those of traditional MOP indicates that the proposed model and solution algorithm does provide better performance and an improved human resource portfolio.

  3. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  4. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  5. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation.

  6. Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Omar, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the analysis and modeling of vehicular thermal comfort parameters using a set of designed experiments aided by thermography measurements. The experiments are conducted using a full size climatic chamber to host the test vehicle, to accurately assess the transient and steady state temperature distributions of the test vehicle cabin. Further investigate the thermal sensation (overall and local) and the human comfort states under artificially created relative humidity scenarios. The thermal images are calibrated through a thermocouples network, while the outside temperature and relative humidity are manipulated through the climatic environmental chamber with controlled soaking periods to guarantee the steady state conditions for each test scenario. The relative humidity inside the passenger cabin is controlled using a Total Humidity Controller (THC). The simulation uses the experimentally extracted boundary conditions via a 3-D Berkeley model that is set to be fully transient to account for the interactions in the velocity and temperature fields in the passenger compartment, which included interactions from turbulent flow, thermal buoyancy and the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. The model investigates the human comfort by analyzing the effect of the in-cabin relative humidity from two specific perspectives; firstly its effect on the body temporal variation of temperature within the cabin. Secondly, the Local Sensation (LS) and Comfort (LC) are analyzed for the different body segments in addition to the Overall Sensation (OS) and the Overall Comfort (OC). Furthermore, the human sensation is computed using the Fanger model in terms of the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices. The experimental and simulation results show that controlling the RH levels during the heating and the cooling processes (winter and summer conditions respectively) aid the A/C system to

  7. adaptation strategies of airline travel agencies to the dynamics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bawa et al.

    strategies airline travel agencies adopt to remain in business. Data for this paper was ... that in 2013, travel and tourism's total contribution to the global economy rose to ... reality of today's tourism industry as it has penetrated the decision.

  8. Defense.gov Special Report: Search For Malaysian Airline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Navy Ships, Aircraft Enter Fifth Day of Airliner Search U.S. Ships, Planes Join Search for Missing About DOD Leaders Biographies Organization Mission History Frequently Asked Questions Available jobs

  9. Strategic management of a family-owned airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP) observing a firm’s ability to value, assimilate and utilize new external knowledge is applied in this paper. This case study analysis focuses on strategic management processes and competitiveness of the Cimber Sterling airline. The aim is to discover...... external factors and the strategic management of other selected low-cost airlines. The analysis shows to what extent Cimber Sterling Group A/S as a Danish family business copes with increasing competition and critical situations, such as the volcanic ash cloud and financial crisis. Identifying...... resources and capabilities leading to competitive advantages within the aviation industry. From an ACAP perspective Cimber Sterling Group A/S was analyzed by interviewing selected owners, managers and employees of the airline. A comparison within the airline industry is part of the ACAP concept regarding...

  10. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  11. Air Carrier Traffic Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report contains airline operating statistics for large certificated air carriers based on data reported to U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) by carriers that hold a certificate issued under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 a...

  12. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... [Docket No. FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin... announced a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The...

  13. Dynamic Oligopoly Pricing: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Siegert, Caspar; Ulbricht, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We explore how pricing dynamics in the European airline industry vary with the competitive environment. Our results highlight substantial variations in pricing dynamics that are consistent with a theory of intertemporal price discrimination. First, the rate at which prices increase towards the scheduled travel date is decreasing in competition, supporting the idea that competition restrains the ability of airlines to price-discriminate. Second, the sensitivity to competition is substantially ...

  14. Effect of hypobaric hypoxia, simulating conditions during long-haul air travel, on coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet function, and endothelial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toff, William D.; Jones, Chris I.; Ford, Isobel; Pearse, Robert J.; Watson, Henry G.; Watt, Stephen J.; Ross, John A. S.; Gradwell, David P.; Batchelor, Anthony J.; Abrams, Keith R.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Goodall, Alison H.; Greaves, Michael

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: The link between long-haul air travel and venous thromboembolism is the subject of continuing debate. It remains unclear whether the reduced cabin pressure and oxygen tension in the airplane cabin create an increased risk compared with seated immobility at ground level. OBJECTIVE: To

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  16. An analytical model for the assessment of airline expansion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Emboaba Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983 industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s  (1996 sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place.  A system of points and weights is developed to create a score among the 904,736 possible combinations considered. The model’s outputs are generic expansion strategies with quantitative assessments for each specific combination of elements inputted. Originality and value: The analytical model developed is original because it combines for the first time and explicitly elements of the general environment, industry environment, airline business models and the generic expansion strategy types. Besides it creates a system of scores that may be used to drive the decision process toward the choice of a specific strategic expansion path. Research implications: The analytical model may be adapted to other industries apart from the airline industry by substituting the element “airline business model” by other industries corresponding elements related to the different specific business models.

  17. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  18. Development of automatic air intake door control system for exhaust gas. Prevention of contaminated air by controlling A/C air intake door; Haiki gas taio auto naigaiki system no kaihatsu. Eakon suikomiguchi seigyo ni yoru haiki gas no shashitsunai eno shinnyu boshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Y; Samukawa, K [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Thermal comfort in the cabin of vehicle is upgraded by developing the climate control system Passengers must control the intake door of air conditioner to reduce entering Exhaust Gas into the cabin. This paper is concerned with development the automatic intake door control system to acquire high comfort performance of passengers. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Analyzing Factors Of In-flight Services Of Garuda Indonesia And Batik Air Towards Passengers Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Tulandi, Victor Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transportation services play an important role in supporting any activity, of human. Various types of the transportation that we use. Among them, are air transportation or airplane. Talk about the satisfaction of airline passenger, nowadays many airlines competing to provide the best service for the passengers, one of the things that can influence passenger satisfaction is through airline service especially in-flight service. The objective of this research is to identify the factors of in-fli...

  20. Radiation exposure of airline crew members to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, G. De; Ballard, T.; Lagorio, S.; Verdecchia, A.

    2000-01-01

    All risk assessment techniques for possible health effects from low dose rate radiation exposure should combine knowledge both of the radiation environment and of the biological response, whose effects (e.g. carcinogenesis) are usually evaluated through mathematical models and/or animal and cell experiments. Data on human exposure to low dose rate radiation exposure and its effects are not readily available, especially with regards to stochastic effects, related to carcinogenesis and therefore to cancer risks, for which the event probability increases with increasing radiation exposure. The largest source of such data might be airline flight personnel, if enrolled for studies on health effects induced by the cosmic-ray generated atmospheric ionizing radiation, whose total dose, increasing over the years, might cause delayed radiation-induced health effects, with the high-LET and highly ionizing neutron component typical of atmospheric radiation. In 1990 flight personnel has been given the status of 'occupationally exposed to radiation' by the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP), with a received radiation dose that is at least twice larger than that of the general population. The studies performed until now were limited in scope and cohort size, and moreover no information whatsoever on radiation occupational exposure (e.g. dose, flight hours, route haul, etc.) was used in the analysis, so no correlation has been until now possible between atmospheric ionizing radiation and (possibly radiation-induced) observed health effects. Our study addresses the issues, by considering all Italian civilian airline flight personnel, both cockpit and cabin crew members, with about 10,000 people selected, whose records on work history and actual flights (route, aircraft type, date, etc. for each individual flight for each person where possible) are considered. Data on actual flight routes and profiles have been obtained for the whole time frame. The actual dose

  1. Public health response to commercial airline travel of a person with Ebola virus infection - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Joanna J; Jungerman, Robynne; Montiel, Sonia H; Newsome, Kimberly; Objio, Tina; Washburn, Faith; Roland, Efrosini; Petersen, Emily; Twentyman, Evelyn; Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Naughton, Mary; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Lippold, Susan A; Tabony, Laura; McCarty, Carolyn L; Kinsey, Cara Bicking; Barnes, Meghan; Black, Stephanie; Azzam, Ihsan; Stanek, Danielle; Sweitzer, John; Valiani, Anita; Kohl, Katrin S; Brown, Clive; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-30

    Before the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, there were few documented cases of symptomatic Ebola patients traveling by commercial airline, and no evidence of transmission to passengers or crew members during airline travel. In July 2014 two persons with confirmed Ebola virus infection who were infected early in the Nigeria outbreak traveled by commercial airline while symptomatic, involving a total of four flights (two international flights and two Nigeria domestic flights). It is not clear what symptoms either of these two passengers experienced during flight; however, one collapsed in the airport shortly after landing, and the other was documented to have fever, vomiting, and diarrhea on the day the flight arrived. Neither infected passenger transmitted Ebola to other passengers or crew on these flights. In October 2014, another airline passenger, a U.S. health care worker who had traveled domestically on two commercial flights, was confirmed to have Ebola virus infection. Given that the time of onset of symptoms was uncertain, an Ebola airline contact investigation in the United States was conducted. In total, follow-up was conducted for 268 contacts in nine states, including all 247 passengers from both flights, 12 flight crew members, eight cleaning crew members, and one federal airport worker (81 of these contacts were documented in a report published previously). All contacts were accounted for by state and local jurisdictions and followed until completion of their 21-day incubation periods. No secondary cases of Ebola were identified in this investigation, confirming that transmission of Ebola during commercial air travel did not occur.

  2. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  3. Risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.

  4. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the

  5. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  6. Investigation on the Temporal Surface Thermal Conditions for Thermal Comfort Researches Inside A Vehicle Cabin Under Summer Season Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proposes of improving occupant's thermal comfort and reducing the air conditioning power consumption, the present research carried out a comprehensive study on the surface thermal conductions and their influence parameters. A numerical model was built considering the transient conduction, convective and radiation heat transfer inside a vehicle cabin. For more accurate simulation of the radiation heat transfer behaviors, the radiation was considered into two spectral bands (short wave and long wave radiation, and the solar radiation was calculated by two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse solar radiation. An experiment was conducted to validate the numerical approach, showing a good agreement with the surface temperature. The surface thermal conditions were numerically simulated. The results show that the solar radiation is the most important factor in determining the internal surface thermal conditions. Effects of the window glass properties and the car body surface conditions were investigated. The numerical calculation results indicate that reducing the transitivity of window glass can effectively reduce the internal surface temperature. And the reflectivity of the vehicle cabin also has an important influence on the surface temperature, however, it's not so obvious as comparison to the window glass.

  7. Multi-parameter decoupling and slope tracking control strategy of a large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale high altitude environment simulation test cabin was developed to accurately control temperatures and pressures encountered at high altitudes. The system was developed to provide slope-tracking dynamic control of the temperature–pressure two-parameter and overcome the control difficulties inherent to a large inertia lag link with a complex control system which is composed of turbine refrigeration device, vacuum device and liquid nitrogen cooling device. The system includes multi-parameter decoupling of the cabin itself to avoid equipment damage of air refrigeration turbine caused by improper operation. Based on analysis of the dynamic characteristics and modeling for variations in temperature, pressure and rotation speed, an intelligent controller was implemented that includes decoupling and fuzzy arithmetic combined with an expert PID controller to control test parameters by decoupling and slope tracking control strategy. The control system employed centralized management in an open industrial ethernet architecture with an industrial computer at the core. The simulation and field debugging and running results show that this method can solve the problems of a poor anti-interference performance typical for a conventional PID and overshooting that can readily damage equipment. The steady-state characteristics meet the system requirements.

  8. Human Capital, Bonuses, Compensating Differentials and Air Force Pilot Retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrows, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    .... Low retention rates imply that the Air Force is not offering a competitive wage; pilots are finding better opportunities in other occupations, especially in employment with the civilian airlines...

  9. Air Transport Liberalization in Europe: The Progress So Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The gradual liberalization of intra-community air services began when Europe's airlines were going through a profitable period (1983-1989), but the more fundamental changes arising from the second (effective November 1990) and especially the third (e...

  10. Aircraft Accident Report; Uncontrolled Impact with Terrain, Fine Airlines Flight 101, Douglas DC-8-61, N27UA, Miami, Florida, August 7, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-16

    Transcolombiana de Carga ATI Air Transport International ATOS Air Transportation Oversight System ATP airline transport pilot CAM cockpit area microphone...495,000 fine against Aero Transcolombiana de Carga (ATC) for operating a DC-8-51 "over the weight limits set forth in its FAA-approved flight manual...PB98-910402 NTSB/AAR-98/02 DCA97MA059 NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 20594 AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT REPORT c>C== UNCONTROLLED IMPACT

  11. The Development of Low-Cost Airlines and Tourism as a Competitiveness Complementor: Effects, Evolution and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between the development of the airline industry and tourism. On the one hand, air transport has triggered the growth of tourism throughout the world, while, on the other hand, tourism has acted as a complementary product for developing new flight routes. This process has intensified with the emergence of low-cost carriers. A profound change has been observed in companies’ strategy to adapt to the demands of this type of market. To conduct this study, a review of the existing literature related to tourism and lowcost carriers was carried out. To conclude, an analysis of the positioning and price-fixing strategies of low-cost airlines operating on some of the most important tourist routes in Europe was performed. The results indicate different level of fares among the five companies in the sample, especially between Ryanair and easyJet, but similar pricing behaviour on the routes studied.

  12. Prevalence of fatigue in a group of airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a common phenomenon in airline pilots that can impair alertness and ability of crewmembers to safely operate an aircraft and perform safety related tasks. Fatigue can increase the risk of an incident or even an accident. This study provides the first prevalence values for clinically significant fatigue in Portuguese airline pilots. The hypothesis that medium/short-haul pilots may currently present different levels of fatigue than long-haul pilots was also tested. A survey was conducted by requesting Portuguese airline pilots to complete questionnaires placed in the pilots' personal lockers from 1 April until 15 May 2012. The questionnaire included the self-response Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure subjective fatigue and some additional questions concerning perception of fatigue by pilots. The prevalence values for total and mental fatigue achieved in the Portuguese airline pilots were: 89.3% (FSS > or = 4) and 94.1% (FSS > or = 4) when splitting the sample in two subsamples, long- and medium/short-haul pilots. Levels of total and mental fatigue were higher for medium/short-haul pilots. The analysis of fatigue levels in each type of aviator showed that medium/short-haul pilots presented the highest levels of total and mental fatigue. This study produced the first prevalence values of total and mental fatigue among Portuguese airline pilots, which represents a great step to understanding and addressing this critical phenomenon.

  13. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration [Docket ID Number RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041 Title: Airline Service Quality Performance -Part 234. Form...

  14. Assessing the Structure of Non-Routine Decision Processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge airline operations control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of airline operations control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive

  15. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Heerkens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive

  16. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... policy questions related to foreign airline operators' revenues and expenses in the United States. There... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  17. The importance of choice attributes and the positions of the airlines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Consumers base their purchase decisions and behaviour on their own ... product, price, place and promotion – should be designed to add up to the .... airline industry, few studies have looked at the attributes affecting domestic airline choice ...

  18. B2B E-marketplaces in the Airline Industry: Process Drivers and Performance indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Claudia-Maria; Huber, Bernd; Sweeney, Edward; Smyth, Austin

    2005-01-01

    Competitive pressures are increasing within and between different strategically oriented groups of airlines. This paper focuses on the level of efficiency improvements gained by using e-Marketplaces in the procurement process. Findings from a survey among 88 international airlines reveal that the use of Business-to-Business (B2B) e-Marketplaces does play different roles across the various airline groupings. Airlines that are involved in strategic alliances show higher joint procurement activi...

  19. Public Relations in enhancing brand values: case study Virgin Atlantic and Vietnam Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Viet, Thang

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the Public Relations (PR) activities of Vietnam Airlines and give the airline some recommendations to improve its PR performance. In order to achieve this purpose, there are three issues needed to be solved: 1) how PR helps to enhance brand personality and brand values 2) the differences in PR activities between Vietnam Airlines and Virgin Atlantic and 3) what approaches Vietnam Airlines should implement to improve its PR performance. ...

  20. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Measuring service quality and a comparative analysis in airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Izadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of services in airline industry plays an important role in market penetration and customer retention. In this paper, we present a factor analysis to find important factors in Iranian Airline industry. The study designs a questionnaire consist of 35 questions and distribute it among 200 customers who regularly use services from 16 different airlines and they are investigated based on the implementation of factor analysis. The results of our survey determines seven important factors including physical features of the environment, Kettering, Pre-flight passenger services, Ability to respond, Reliability, Passenger service flight and Virtual Passenger Services. The paper discusses that improving these seven factors can significantly improve service quality in this sector.

  2. CFD simulation of a cabin thermal environment with and without human body - thermal comfort evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danca, Paul; Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Meslem, Amina

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, thermal comfort became one of the criteria in choosing a vehicle. In last decades time spent by people in vehicles had risen substantially. During each trip, thermal comfort must to be ensured for a good psychological and physical state of the passengers. Also, a comfortable environment leads to a higher power concentration of the driver thereby to a safe trip for vehicle occupants and for all traffic participants. The present study numerically investigated the effect of human body sited in the driver's place, over the air velocity distribution and over the thermal comfort in a passenger compartment. CFD simulations were made with different angles of the left inlet grill, in both cases, with and without driver presence. In majority of the actual vehicles environment studies, are made without consideration of human body geometry, in this case, the results precision can be affected. The results show that the presence of human body, lead to global changing of the whole flow pattern inside the vehicular cabin. Also, the locations of the maximum velocities are changing with the angle of the guiding vanes. The thermal comfort PMV/PPD indexes were calculated for each case. The presence of human body leads to a more comfortable environment.

  3. Has airline efficiency affected by the inclusion of aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme? Evidences from 22 airlines during 2008–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Yan-zhang; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of including aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme on airline efficiency since 2008. Airline efficiency is divided into three stages: Operations Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage, and Greenhouse Gases Emission is treated as an undesirable output of Services Stage. Two models, Network Slacks-Based Measure with weak disposability and Network Slacks-Based Measure with strong disposability, are established to evaluate the efficiencies of 22 international airlines from 2008 to 2012. The results show that: (1) Most airlines' efficiencies have increased in the period. (2) The average efficiency of European airlines is much higher than that of non-European airlines. (3) The model with weak disposability is more reasonable in distinguishing the airline efficiency while strong disposability is a more reasonable way in treating undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of airlines efficiency is built. • Network Slacks-Based Measure models with weak disposability and strong disposability are proposed. • The efficiencies of 22 airlines from 2008 to 2012 are evaluated. • The impacts of including airlines into European Union Emission Trading Scheme are analyzed.

  4. “A PERSISTENT EXCEPTION TO TEXTBOOK ECONOMICS”: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent centennial of the Wright Brothers' flight stimulated study of the history of aviation in general and this historical overview of international airlines in particular. International airlines are commercial enterprises, but their history suggests that the economics behind their development was often overridden lypolitical, diplomatic, strategic, imperial, cultural, and emotional pressures. International airlines have not always been economically rational enterprises.

  5. Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) Decontamination of a Section of a Boeing 747 Cabin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffstall, Robert M; Garner, Robert P; Bishop, Joshua; Cameron-Landis, Lora; Eddington, Donald L; Hau, Gwen; Spera, Shawn; Mielnik, Thaddeus; Thomas, James A

    2006-01-01

    The use of STERIS Corporation's Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP)* technology as a potential biocide for aircraft decontamination was demonstrated in a cabin section of the Aircraft Environment Research Facility...

  6. Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Larsen, Lisbeth Højkjær; Crenshaw, Albert Guy

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON)....

  7. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Building clusters for CRM strategies by mining airlines customer data

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Helena Sofia Guerreiro de

    2013-01-01

    Trabalho de Projeto apresentado como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Estatística e Gestão de Informação As airlines strive to gain market share and sustain profitability in today’s economically challenging environment, they should develop new ways to optimize their frequent flyer programs while increase revenues. Aware of the challenges, airlines want to implement a customer relationship management (CRM) strategy based on customer analytics and data mining ...

  9. Strategic Management of a Family-Owned Airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP) observing a firm’s ability to value, assimilate and utilize new external knowledge is applied in this paper. This comparative study focuses on strategic management processes and competitiveness of different airlines. The aim is to discover differences...... in resources and capabilities leading to competitive advantages within the aviation industry. From a competence and ACAP perspective family and non-family airlines are analysed by interviewing the owners, managers and selected employees of the businesses. The analysis shows how Cimber Sterling Group A...

  10. Model for the growth of the world airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Nagler, J.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a probabilistic growth model for transport networks which employs a balance between popularity of nodes and the physical distance between nodes. By comparing the degree of each node in the model network and the World Airline Network (WAN), we observe that the difference between the two is minimized for α≈2. Interestingly, this is the value obtained for the node-node correlation function in the WAN. This suggests that our model explains quite well the growth of airline networks.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the exposure level onboard Czech Airlines aircraft - measurements verified the routine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Spurny, F.; Turek, K.; Kovar, I.

    2008-01-01

    Air-crew members are exposed to ionizing radiation due to their work on board of air-crafts. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1990 recommends that exposure to cosmic radiation in the operation of jet aircraft should be recognised as occupational exposure. Czech air transport operators are therefore obliged to ensure: - Air-crew members to be well informed about the exposure level and health risks; - An analysis of complete exposure level of aircraft crew and its continuing monitoring in cases of exceeding the informative value 1 mSv; - A compliance of limit 1 mSv during pregnancy Since 1998, after receiving a proper accreditation, the Department of Radiation Dosimetry of Nuclear Physics Institute of Czech Academy of Sciences (DRD) is the competent dosimetric service realized requirements of Notice No.307 of the State Office for Nuclear Safety concerning air-crew exposure (paragraphs 87-90). The DRD has developed routine method of personal dosimetry of aircraft crew in 1998 which has been applied after receiving a proper accreditation in the same year. DRD therefore helps Czech airlines a.s. (CSA) with their legislative obligations mentioned above, and in return, once per four years, in terms of business contract, CSA allows scientific measurements performed by DRD onboard its air-crafts with the aim to verify the method of routine individual monitoring of aircraft crew exposure. (authors)

  12. Airline view of LH2 as a fuel for commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Fuel for air transport is a particularly important matter, because it is an energy-intensive form of transport. Price and energy density are therefore correspondingly critical. Airlines views tend to be short term because there is no future if they do not survive tomorrow. Thus, although petroleum supply and price has been unstable since 1973, airlines' primary concern has been with economizing the use of fuel and specifying more fuel economic equipment for the future, rather than serious pursuit of more radical solutions. LH2 gives promise of being a serious candidate for the longer term, but there is not yet convincing proof that cheaper seat mile costs could be produced in today's circumstances. The situation could be changed by the realization of laminar flow by surface cooling at subsonic speeds. There is a strong case for a modest programme of carefully aimed research on an international basis to fill the most important gaps in our knowledge on the design of LH2 fueled aircraft. Future crises in energy supplies may well raise questions of transport fuel strategy which will heed this background for wise decision-making. Particular significance attaches to the place of nuclear power in world energy policy since this dominates the question of LH2 availability and price. 2 references, 2 figures.

  13. Aircrew radiation exposure assessment for Yugoslav airlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antic, Dragoljub [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Petrovic, Zika [Yugoslav Airlines, JAT, Bulevar umetnosti 16, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    The presented study shows that the crews of the intercontinental flights can receive significant annual effective doses (1.5-2.0 mSv). The exposure of the crews is comparable with natural radiation level on the ground level (it can be up to 5 times higher for some air crew members in the intercontinental flights), but smaller than maximum permissible dose for general population. The annual exposures of the passengers are generally smaller than the exposures of tile air crews. because the passengers have a limited number of flights per year compared with the members of the air-crews. (author).

  14. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Department of Transportation is clarifying its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010, which, among other issues, solicits comments on options to provide greater access to air travel for persons with peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers have accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions when selecting flights.

  15. Evaluation of exposure to cosmic radiation of flight crews of Lithuanian Airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Pilkyte, L.; Ereminas, D.

    2003-01-01

    In Lithuania the average annual effective dose due to cosmic radiation at the sea level is 0.38 mSv. The dose rate caused by cosmic radiation increases with altitude due to the decrease in attenuation of cosmic radiation by atmosphere. Dose rates altitudes of commercial flights are tens times higher than those at the sea level. For this reason people who frequently fly receive higher doses which might even be subject to legal regulations. The European Council Directive (96/29 EURATOM) on basic radiation safety standards requires that doses of air crews members be assessed and appropriate measures taken, depending on the assessment results. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential doses, which can be received by members of air crews of Lithuania Airlines. The assessment was done by performing measurements and calculations. Measurements were performed in flying aircraft by thermoluminescent detectors, Geiger Muller counters and neutron rem counter. Such an approach lead to evaluation of doses due to directly ionizing particles and neutrons. Calculations were done with the help of the code CARI-6M. Such parameters as flight route, solar activity, duration and altitudes of flight were taken into account. Doses received during different flights and in different air crafts were assessed. The results of measurements and calculations were compared and differences discussed. The results were also compared with the data obtained in other similar studies. It was found that the highest doses are received in flights to Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Frankfurt by aircraft B737. A number of flights causing annual doses higher than 1 mSv was estimated. Despite the fact that only European flights are operated by Lithuanian Airlines the dose of 1 mSv may be exceeded under some circumstances. If it happens some radiation protection measures shall be taken. These measures are also discussed. (author)

  16. Pressure-equalizing earplugs do not prevent barotrauma on descent from 8000 ft cabin altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klokker, Mads; Vesterhauge, Søren; Jansen, Erik C

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure-equalizing earplugs available in major airports and drugstores. No previous study has focused on preventing barotrauma using these earplugs. Blinded and double-blinded, one type of pressure-equalizing earplugs (JetEars) was studied in 27 volunteers disposed to ear barotrauma. They acted as their own controls with an active earplug in one ear and a placebo earplug in the other ear at random. All were exposed to the same well-defined pressure profile for 1 h at 8000 ft, comparable to the environment in civil commercial air travel in a pressurized cabin. Satisfaction was assessed by questionnaire and objective results were evaluated prior to and after the pressure exposure by tympanometry and otoscopy using the Teed classification. The majority of the volunteers (78%) reported a pleasant noise-reducing feeling using the earplugs. However, 75% also experienced ear pain during descent. In comparing the middle ear pressure before and after pressurization, a decrease was found in ears with both active earplugs and placebo earplugs. No difference between the active and the placebo earplugs were found. Furthermore, after evaluation of the two groups of ears using otoscopy, no prevention of barotrauma was found. In fact, the ears using an active pressure-equalizing earplug scored significantly worse (p = 0.033). Feelings of noise reduction were reported, but no prevention of barotrauma could be demonstrated with the use of pressure-equalizing earplugs. Pressure-equalizing earplugs cannot be recommended in air travel for preventing ear barotrauma.

  17. Leasing as a Source of Finance by the Major US Airlines: Hidden Debt and its Changes Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritta, Richard D.; Lippman, Ellen J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper updates prior research on aircraft leasing and contrasts the findings of current data with prior results. Usage of leases by air carriers is a means to lessen the impact of financial obligations from fleet purchases. The study revisits two previous studies, one in 1969 and one in 1991, which is analyzed the incidence of leases by major air carriers. The current study updates these past studies to consider air carriers current usage of leases. Additionally, since operating leases are not reflected in the balance sheets of airlines, operating lease information was capitalized using a present value of future operating lease payments. Then, financial debt burden ratios were computed to determine the impact from the capitalization of lease information. The usage of operating leases increased, significantly from the first study to the 1991 study, and this trend continues. The incidence of leasing, the classification of leases as operating, and the percentage of operating leases to total fleet have all increased for the majority of the airlines reviewed. When operating lease data were capitalized, debt ratios weakened, providing further evidence of deterioration in the financial health of air carriers.

  18. Scenario tree airline fleet planning for demand uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repko, M.G.J.; Lopes dos Santos, Bruno F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative multi-period modeling approach to solve the airline fleet planning problem under demand uncertainty. The problem is modeled using a scenario tree approach. The tree is composed of nodes, which represent points of decision in multiple time stages of the planning

  19. 75 FR 41579 - Submitting Airline Data via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... via the Internet; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 136 / Friday, July 16, 2010... Airline Data via the Internet AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S..., operational and consumer data reports electronically via the Internet using the comma separated value (CSV...

  20. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...., third checked bag or more) Overweight/Oversized Baggage/Sports Equipment Carry-On Baggage 4. In-Flight Medical Equipment 5. In-Flight Entertainment/Internet Access 6. Sleep Sets 7. In-Flight Food/Non Alcoholic... baggage performance is outdated. Airline passengers would [[Page 41728

  1. Mitigation of airspace congestion impact on airline networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In recent years European airspace has become increasingly congested and airlines can now observe that en-route capacity constraints are the fastest growing source of flight delays. In 2010 this source of delay accounted for 19% of all flight delays in Europe and has been increasing with an average...

  2. The effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Geven, Richard W; Williams, Kent T

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of airline pilot training for abnormal in-flight events. Numerous accident reports describe situations in which pilots responded to abnormal events in ways that were different from what they had practiced many times before. One explanation for these missteps is that training and testing for these skills have become a highly predictable routine for pilots who arrive to the training environment well aware of what to expect. Under these circumstances, pilots get plentiful practice in responding to abnormal events but may get little practice in recognizing them and deciding which responses to offer. We presented 18 airline pilots with three abnormal events that are required during periodic training and testing. Pilots were presented with each event under the familiar circumstances used during training and also under less predictable circumstances as they might occur during flight. When presented in the routine ways seen during training, pilots gave appropriate responses and showed little variability. However, when the abnormal events were presented unexpectedly, pilots' responses were less appropriate and showed great variability from pilot to pilot. The results suggest that the training and testing practices used in airline training may result in rote-memorized skills that are specific to the training situation and that offer modest generalizability to other situations. We recommend a more complete treatment of abnormal events that allows pilots to practice recognizing the event and choosing and recalling the appropriate response. The results will aid the improvement of existing airline training practices.

  3. Examining Informal Learning in Commercial Airline Pilots' Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…

  4. Airline loyalty (programs) across borders : A geographic discontinuity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gerben; Behrens, Christiaan; van Ommeren, Jos

    2018-01-01

    We analyze brand loyalty advantages of national airlines in their domestic countries using geocoded data from a major international frequent flier program. We employ a geographic discontinuity design that estimates discontinuities in program activity at the national borders of the program's

  5. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  6. Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-geek” and opened to new technologies, which allows them to rate the airline companies through apps or connect more often with the airline through social-media. Technology has become an important part in developing and marketing the airline services for a better quality, more customer-focused and for better flight experience which ultimately makes the difference when choosing to fly an airline company.

  7. Reduction of the heat demand of cabins of electric-powered vehicles by means of an alternative glass technology; Reduzierung des Heizbedarfs von Elektrofahrzeugkabinen durch alternative Scheibentechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Manuel; Spinnler, Markus; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    Cruising range is a key factor in market penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) for the near future. Today, EVs achieve acceptable cruising range only through heavy and expensive batteries. Air-conditioning - and in temperate zones especially heating - of the passenger cabin are significant auxiliary loads that can reduce range substantially. At low ambient temperatures the necessary heating power can exceed the average drive power, thus reducing range by over 50%. This study, carried out in cooperation with AUDI AG under the BMBF research project ''e performance'' addresses measures that can potentially lead to a reduced heating demand. In addition to the rather poor insulation of today's vehicles, ventilation losses have been identified as a source of heating and defrosting load of up to 12kW in wintry conditions. At low ambient temperatures a high rate of air exchange is required to keep the humidity level low enough to avoid window fogging. Due to poor window insulation and high exterior heat transfer for a moving vehicle, temperatures at the inside surface of glass windows lie only slightly above the ambient temperature. Improving window insulation leads not only to reduced heat losses but also to higher allowable air humidity before condensation occurs, since the interior window surface is warmer. The air exchange rate can then be minimized as long as air quality standards remain satisfied. In this study steady-state air and window surface temperatures as well as humidity distributions in the cabin are determined by CFD-simulation of the interior flow-field. Window materials such as polycarbonate and double-pane glass are compared to glass at partly recirculated and fresh-air flow. (orig.)

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Air network performance and hub competitive position: evaluation of primary airports in East and South-East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, J.; Veldhuis, J.; Matsumoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of hub-and-spoke operations has changed the structure of competition among airlines and airports, meaning that airlines now compete both directly (air services from A to B) as well as indirectly (services from A to B via H). Traditional measures of airport performance, such as passenger

  10. NASA and FAA Programs in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will present an overview of NASA and joint NASA/FAA R&D programs related to Air Traffic Management. In addition it will address the plans for the new Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program, which will investigate methods for achieving the airline industries needs for increased flexibility in the nation's air traffic management system.

  11. Propagation Measurements and Comparison with EM Techniques for In-Cabin Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektarios Moraitis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a narrowband measurement campaign conducted inside a Boeing 737–400 aircraft, the objective being the development of a propagation prediction model which can be used in the deployment of in-cabin wireless networks. The measurements were conducted at three different frequency bands: 1.8, 2.1, and 2.45 GHz, representative of several wireless services. Both a simple, empirical, inverse distance power law and a deterministic, site-specific model were investigated. Parameters for the empirical model were extracted from the measurements at different locations inside the cabin: aisle and seats. Additionally, a statistical characterization of the multipath scenario created by the transmitted signal and the various cabin elements is presented. The deterministic model, based on Physical Optics (PO techniques, provides a reasonable match with the empirical results. Finally, measurements and modeling results are provided for the penetration loss into the cabin (or out of the cabin, representative of interference scenarios.

  12. Loss of cabin pressurization in U.S. Naval aircraft: 1969-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, R; Yacavone, D W

    1992-05-01

    During the 22-year period from 1 January 1969 to 31 December 1990, there were 205 reported cases of loss of cabin pressure in US Naval aircraft; 21 were crew-initiated and 184 were deemed accidental. The ambient altitudes varied from 10,000 ft (3048 m) to 40,000 ft. (12192 m). The most common reason for crew-initiated decompression was to clear smoke and fumes from the cockpit/cabin (95%). The most common cause for accidental loss of cabin pressure was mechanical (73.37%), with aircraft structural damage accounting for the remaining 26.63%. Serious physiological problems included 1 pneumothorax, 11 cases of Type I decompression sickness, 23 cases of mild to moderate hypoxia with no loss of consciousness, 18 cases of hypoxia with loss of consciousness, and 3 lost aircraft with 4 fatalities due to incapacitation by hypoxia. In addition, 12 ejections were attributed to loss of cockpit pressure. Nine of the ejections were deliberate and three were accidental, caused by wind blast activation of the face curtain. Three aviators lost their lives following ejection and seven aircraft were lost. While the incidence of loss of cabin pressure in Naval aircraft appears low, it none-the-less presents a definite risk to the aircrew. Lectures on the loss of cabin/cockpit pressurization should continue during indoctrination and refresher physiology training.

  13. Calculating load factors for the transatlantic airline market using supply and demand data: a note on the identification of gaps in the available airline statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriendt, L.; Burghouwt, G.; Derudder, B.; de Wit, J.; Witlox, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a critical view of the verification of load factors for the direct transatlantic airline market by combining supply and demand-data. The supply-related data originate from the Official Airline Guide, a well-known data source that contains information on scheduled flights. The

  14. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report (Volume 1) is comprised of 5 sessions of the Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) Conference held in Antwerp, Belgium, July 1998. The sessions contain 3-4 papers (presentations) each. The session numbers and their respective headings are: (1) Airline alliances; (2) Airline Competition and Market Structure; (4) Liberalization, Open Skies, and Policy Issues; (5) Yield Management and Other Models; and (11) Air Traffic Control (ATC) and Air Navigational Systems (ANS).

  15. Study of Naval Air Station Operations to Reduce Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    reasons and loyalty of frequent business customers , schedules rarely change significantly from week to week. Following the schedule generation, aircraft...Air Station ppm pounds per minute xiv rft ready for tasking SHARP Sierra Hotel Aviation Readiness Program Simio Simulation Modeling Framework...America, the U.S. airline industry experienced a total of $7.18 billion in delay costs in 2013 at an average cost per minute of $78.17 (Airlines

  16. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  17. Twelve Years in the Life of Airline Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michael Powell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps no innovation in history has affected marketing management as pervasively as has the advent of e-commerce. This revolutionary new channel has required businesses to acquire an entirely new set of skills and approaches to promotion, pricing, and distribution. The necessity for e-commerce website operators to more deeply understand consumer behavior when engaged in e-commerce has become a central and crucial factor in website success or failure. As predicted nearly 20 years ago, travel bookings have moved almost entirely to the World Wide Web (WWW. For the past 12 years, data have been collected concerning traveler’s preferences, concerns, and perceptions of airline websites in particular. This research reviews and comments on the evolution of those sites and consumer perceptions of efficiency, ease of use, and usefulness. The results of this study are intended to guide airlines in their pursuit of customer satisfaction and increased profits.

  18. The Interaction of Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Quality and Water Processing System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Croomes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although designed to remove organic contaminants from a variety of waste water streams, the planned U.S.- and present Russian-provided water processing systems onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have capacity limits for some of the more common volatile cleaning solvents used for housekeeping purposes. Using large quantities of volatile cleaning solvents during the ground processing and in-flight operational phases of a crewed spacecraft such as the ISS can lead to significant challenges to the water processing systems. To understand the challenges facing the management of water processing capacity, the relationship between cabin atmospheric quality and humidity condensate loading is presented. This relationship is developed as a tool to determine the cabin atmospheric loading that may compromise water processing system performance. A comparison of cabin atmospheric loading with volatile cleaning solvents from ISS, Mir, and Shuttle are presented to predict acceptable limits to maintain optimal water processing system performance.

  19. The Incidence and Fate of Volatile Methyl Siloxanes in a Crewed Spacecraft Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) arise from diverse, pervasive sources aboard crewed spacecraft ranging from materials offgassing to volatilization from personal care products. These sources lead to a persistent VMS compound presence in the cabin environment that must be considered for robust life support system design. Volatile methyl siloxane compound stability in the cabin environment presents an additional technical issue because degradation products such as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) are highly soluble in water leading to a unique load challenge for water purification processes. The incidence and fate of VMS compounds as observed in the terrestrial atmosphere, water, and surface (soil) environmental compartments have been evaluated as an analogy for a crewed cabin environment. Volatile methyl siloxane removal pathways aboard crewed spacecraft are discussed and a material balance accounting for a DMSD production mechanism consistent with in-flight observations is presented.

  20. European Charter Airlines and In-Flight Catering Provision

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Tara

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the main UK and European charter airlines. The report will be split into three main sections which correspond to the three main European charter markets, • the UK, • Germany and • Scandinavia/Benelux. Each section considers the current market demand for charter flights before looking more closely at each individual charter carriers. As this report is focussing on charter airline’s onboard catering provision, the report will look at eac...

  1. Mergers and Product Quality: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Gayle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies of horizontal mergers have focused on their price effects, leaving the important question of how mergers affect product quality largely unanswered. This paper empirically investigates this issue for two recent airline mergers: Delta/Northwest and Continental/United. Consistent with the theoretical premise that mergers improve coordination but diminish competitive pressure for quality provision, we find: (i) each merger is associated with a quality increase in markets whe...

  2. Anteseden Customer Loyalty Pada Low Cost Carrier Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Harlan, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  3. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive crite...

  4. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Marco Tulio de [UNIFESP; Esteves, Andrea Maculano [UNIFESP; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira [UNIFESP; Santos, Dayane C. [UNIFESP; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo [UNIFESP; Silva, Rogério Santos [UNIFESP; Tufik, Sergio [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airlin...

  5. An analysis of ongoing trends in airline ancillary revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock-Smith, David; O'Connell, John F.; Maleki, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the two core classifications of airline ancillary revenues, which are unbundled products and commission based income. It also investigates the willingness of passengers to pay (WTP) for these services together with what type of ancillary items are acceptable at a particular price point. The study found that passengers value a narrow range of perceived ‘necessity’ products and services such as food and drink, checked baggage and seat assignment as opposed...

  6. An examination of ongoing trends in airline ancillary revenues

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock-Smith, David; O'Connell, John Frankie; Maleki, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    The airline industry seems permanently embedded in producing thin margins and continuously combatting downward pressure on yields. To perpetuate the problem, the industry remains eclipsed with high cost structures and low barriers to entry. However, a new sizzling concept continues to counterbalance these effects in the form of ancillary revenues. Globally, these revenues have increased by 121% from 2010 to 2014 – and the trend is set to continue as carriers are quickly implementing structura...

  7. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  8. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  9. Crying wolf? On the price discrimination of online airline tickets

    OpenAIRE

    Vissers, Thomas; Nikiforakis, Nick; Bielova, Nataliia; Joosen, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Price discrimination refers to the practice of dynamically varying the prices of goods based on a customer's purchasing power and willingness to pay. In this paper, motivated by several anecdotal ac-counts, we report on a three-week experiment, conducted in search of price discrimination in airline tickets. Despite presenting the companies with multiple opportunities for discriminating us, and contrary to our expectations, we do not find any evidence for systematic pri...

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  11. Design and Testing of a Thermal Storage System for Electric Vehicle Cabin Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingyu [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; WolfeIV, Edward [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; Craig, Timothy [MAHLE Behr Troy Inc.; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Without the waste heat available from the engine of a conventional automobile, electric vehicles (EVs) must provide heat to the cabin for climate control using energy stored in the vehicle. In current EV designs, this energy is typically provided by the traction battery. In very cold climatic conditions, the power required to heat the EV cabin can be of a similar magnitude to that required for propulsion of the vehicle. As a result, the driving range of an EV can be reduced very significantly during winter months, which limits consumer acceptance of EVs and results in increased battery costs to achieve a minimum range while ensuring comfort to the EV driver. To minimize the range penalty associated with EV cabin heating, a novel climate control system that includes thermal energy storage has been designed for use in EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The system uses the stored latent heat of an advanced phase change material (PCM) to provide cabin heating. The PCM is melted while the EV is connected to the electric grid for charging of the electric battery, and the stored energy is subsequently transferred to the cabin during driving. To minimize thermal losses when the EV is parked for extended periods, the PCM is encased in a high performance insulation system. The electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was designed to provide enough thermal energy to heat the EV s cabin for approximately 46 minutes, covering the entire daily commute of a typical driver in the U.S.

  12. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  13. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  14. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive criteria and effective measurement techniques as the fundamentals of a valuable framework. In this paper, service quality models improvement is described based on three major service quality concepts, the disconfirmation, performance and hierarchical concepts which are developed subsequently. Reviewing various criteria and different measurement techniques such a statistical analysis and multi-criteria decision making assist researchers to have a clear understanding of the development of the evaluation framework in the airline industry. This study aims at promoting reliable frameworks for evaluating airline service quality in different countries and societies due to economic, cultural and social aspects of each society.

  15. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  16. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  17. Characterizing ultrafine particles and other air pollutants in and around school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifang; Zhang, Qunfang

    2014-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP*, diameter emissions from idling school buses to air pollutant levels in and around school buses under different scenarios; 3. Retrofit tests to evaluate the performance of two retrofit systems, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) muffler and a crankcase filtration system (CFS), on reducing tailpipe emissions and in-cabin air pollutant concentrations under idling and driving conditions; and 4. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air purifier tests to evaluate the effectiveness of in-cabin filtration. In total, 24 school buses were employed to cover a wide range of school buses commonly used in the United States. Real-time air quality measurements included particle number concentration (PNC), fine and UFP size distribution in the size range 7.6-289 nm, PM2.5 mass concentration, black carbon (BC) concentration, and carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. For in-cabin measurements, instruments were placed on a platform secured to the rear seats inside the school buses. For all other tests, a second set of instruments was deployed to simultaneously measure the ambient air pollutant levels. For tailpipe emission measurements, the exhaust was diluted and then measured by instruments identical to those used for the in-cabin measurements. The results show that when driving on roads, in-cabin PNC, fine and UFP size distribution, PM2.5, BC, and CO varied by engine age, window position, driving speed, driving route, and operating conditions. Emissions from idling school buses increased the PNC close to the tailpipe by a factor of up to 26.0. Under some circumstances, tailpipe emissions of idling school buses increased the in-cabin PNC by factors ranging from 1.2 to 5.8 in the 10-30 nm particle size range. Retrofit systems significantly reduced the tailpipe emissions of idling school buses. With both DOC and CFS installed, PNC in tailpipe emissions dropped by 20

  18. The perceptual influence of the cabin acoustics on the reproduced sound of a car audio system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo

    2015-01-01

    -end car audio system was performed for different physical settings of the car's cabin. A novel spatial auralization methodology was then used, and participants were asked to describe verbally the perceived acoustical characteristics of the stimuli. The elicited attributes were then analyzed following...... a previous review [Kaplanis et al., in 55th Int. Conf. Aud. Eng. Soc. (2014)] and possible links to the acoustical properties of the car cabin are discussed. [This study is a part of Marie Curie Network on Dereverberation and Reverberation of Audio, Music, and Speech. EU-FP7 under agreement ITN-GA-2012-316969.]...

  19. A method for Perceptual Assessment of Automotive Audio Systems and Cabin Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplanis, Neofytos; Bech, Søren; Sakari, Tervo

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques. The for......This paper reports the design and implementation of a method to perceptually assess the acoustical prop- erties of a car cabin and the subsequent sound reproduction properties of automotive audio systems. Here, we combine Spatial Decomposition Method and Rapid Sensory Analysis techniques...

  20. Application and Simulation of Fuzzy Neural Network PID Controller in the Aircraft Cabin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Fang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering complex factors of affecting ambient temperature in Aircraft cabin, and some shortages of traditional PID control like the parameters difficult to be tuned and control ineffective, this paper puts forward the intelligent PID algorithm that makes fuzzy logic method and neural network together, scheming out the fuzzy neural net PID controller. After the correction of the fuzzy inference and dynamic learning of neural network, PID parameters of the controller get the optimal parameters. MATLAB simulation results of the cabin temperature control model show that the performance of the fuzzy neural network PID controller has been greatly improved, with faster response, smaller overshoot and better adaptability.

  1. Simulations of heat transfer through the cabin walls of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with industrial application of numerical methods to the prediction of thermal situation in the rail vehicle interior. Basic principles of heat transfer are summarised to explain both theoretical background of simulations and engineering approach to solving temperature conditions in the vehicle interior. The main part of the contribution describes the solution of the locomotive driver’s cabin heating and controlling the temperature levels. This contribution is a brief overview of both possibilities of engineering modelling of heat transfer modes and results in the simulation of the real locomotive cabin heating/ventilation system design.

  2. AIRLINE LOGISTICS AS A PREFERRED GLOBAL LOGISTICS SUPPLY CHAIN WITH REFERENCE TO EXPORTERS IN COIMBATORE DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mani Mekalai; Dr. I. Parvinbanu

    2018-01-01

    Forecast of Airline volume for India made in the report suggests that the domestic and international Airline throughput is expected to grow by eight to ten times the present level in the next twenty years. Catering to the growth of this magnitude would involve expansion of infrastructure facilities, simplification of procedures and adoption of Information Technology/ Automation besides development of Human Resources in the sector. Out of the competitive analysis made on airline logistics serv...

  3. An integrated marketing approach for a medium-sized South African airline in a deregulated market

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Comm. The overall goal of this study is to provide a medium-sized South African airline with the theoretical framework and necessary research and analyses, in developing an integrated marketing approach in a deregulated environment. The objectives of the study are : to analyse the macro and market variables that could impact on the marketing efforts of a medium-sized South African airline. to assess a medium-sized South African airline's marketing efforts (in response to external variabl...

  4. Measuring Strategic Firm Interaction in Product-Quality Choices: The Case of Airline Flight Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Jan K. Brueckner; Dan Luo

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates strategic interaction among airlines in product-quality choices. Using an instrumental variables approach, the paper estimates flight-frequency reaction functions, which relate an airline’s frequency on a route to its own characteristics and to the frequencies of competing airlines. A positive reaction function slope is found in some cases, indicating the presence of strategic interaction in the choice of frequencies. The paper also asks whether multimarket contact g...

  5. Bankruptcy and Product-Market Competition: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliberto, Federico; Schenone, Carola

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effects of Chapter 11 bankruptcy filings on product market competition using data from the US airline industry. We find that bankrupt airlines permanently downsize their national route structure, their airport-specific networks, and their route-specific flight frequency and capacity. We also find that bankrupt airlines lower their route-specific prices while under bankruptcy protection, and increase them after emerging. We do not find robust evidence of significant changes ...

  6. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J.

    2000-01-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated dose rate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years reflect the

  7. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J

    2000-07-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated doserate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years

  8. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  9. Baseline energy forecasts and analysis of alternative strategies for airline fuel conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of fuel conservation strategies, baseline forecasts of airline activity and energy consumption to 1990 were developed. Alternative policy options to reduce fuel consumption were identified and analyzed for three baseline levels of aviation activity within the framework of an aviation activity/energy consumption model. By combining the identified policy options, a strategy was developed to provide incentives for airline fuel conservation. Strategies and policy options were evaluated in terms of their impact on airline fuel conservation and the functioning of the airline industry as well as the associated social, environmental, and economic costs. (GRA)

  10. A study of the financial history of the U. S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, D.E.

    1975-07-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs. (GRA)

  11. Improving the United States airline industry's capacity to provide safe and dignified services to travelers with disabilities: focus group findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    As a component of a training development project for intercity air travel providers, we investigated the capacity of the airline industry to meet the needs of travelers with disabilities by exploring: (1) the level of sensitivity among personnel to travelers' needs, (2) training currently provided, (3) areas in which additional training might be beneficial, and (4) organisational/systems-level commitment to dignified assistance to all travelers. Forty-four airline/vendor employees participated in nine focus groups in four US cities. Groups were audio recorded and transcribed. A grounded-theory approach was used to develop a coding system which was then applied to transcripts to identify themes. Factors influencing capacity grouped broadly into four areas: characteristics of the job/system, characteristics of current training, characteristics of providers themselves, and characteristics of travelers. At an interpersonal level, providers were empathetic and desired to provide dignified services. They lacked training and adequate equipment in some cases, however, and organisational commitment varied between companies. Traveler characteristics were also shown to impact service delivery. Results are promising but additional regulatory and organisational policies are needed to ensure quality services. Providers and consumers of intercity air travel services may benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study.

  12. Sumatera Air Asia Training Center (Arsitektur Metafora)

    OpenAIRE

    Susanto, William

    2015-01-01

    Sumatera Air Asia Training Center as Air Asia training facility’s construction have a propose to train the Air Asia air craft crew who will be the employee of the Air Asia Airlines.Beside the main function;training facility for the Air Asia Crew; the other airline’s crew can be train by a cooperation with Air Asia.The aircraft crew that can be train in this facility is pilot initial, pilot type-rating, pilot recurrent, ATPL, Flight attendant initial and recurrent..This facility ha...

  13. Exposición a estireno en cabinas prefabricadas: Estudio comparativo 2003 - 2005 Styrene exposure in pre-built cabins: Comparative study 2003 - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cousillas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetos fabricados con las resinas reforzadas pueden liberar al medio ambiente, vapor de estireno, lo que conlleva a tener una exposición al disolvente. En Uruguay, para el desarrollo de diferentes tareas administrativas, de vigilancia, de comercio, etc. se utilizan unas cabinas que son fabricadas con resinas de poliester no saturadas. En un trabajo anterior se comprobó que existía exposición a estireno en este tipo de cabinas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los riesgos higiénicos a los que está expuesto el personal de empresa que desarrolla sus tareas administrativas en cabinas de fibra de vidrio reforzadas de resina. Se realizaron muestreos ambientales en cabinas ubicadas en diferentes zonas del Montevideo durante el año 2004 y 2005. Los valores de referencia que se utilizaron fueron los de la American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH de 2006. El trabajo realizado demuestra que no existe exposición del personal a vapores de estireno en sus lugares de trabajo con el consiguiente riesgo descrito para estos productos. Considerando los resultados del año 2003, se concluye que los valores obtenidos ese año fueron puntuales del tipo de cabinas.The objects made with reinforced resins can release styrene steam to the indoor environment, which involves worker´s exposure to this toxic solvent. In Uruguay, some administrative, commerce, and more tasks are carried out in those fiber glass cabins which are manufactured with those resins. In a previous study we had high values of styrene in air and his metabolites in urine for people working in this buildings. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the hygienic risks to exposed workers from different companies who perform their administrative tasks in reinforced fiber glass cabins. Environmental samplings were made. The reference values used were those of the American Conference of Industrial Governmental Hygienists of 2005 (ACGIH. The results obtained

  14. On the wave induced responses for a high-speed hydrofoil catamaran. Part 2. Cabin connected to hull by spring and response to vibration; Suichuyokutsuki kosoku sodotei no harochu oto ni tsuite. 2. Dokuritsu kozogata cabin to yodo oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, H; Kitamura, M; Kawamura, T [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A high-speed hydrofoil catamaran under development has such a structure that an independent cabin is mounted on catamaran hulls, the cabin is connected with the hulls by using four soft springs, and hydrofoils are attached to the front and rear of the cabin. The structural design conception was as follows: the self-weight of the cabin is supported by lifting power of the hydrofoils while the boat is cruising; longitudinal motions of the catamaran hulls are absorbed by soft spring struts to make the motions more difficult to be transmitted into the cabin; and vibration excited by engines rotating at high speeds, attached to rear of the catamaran hulls, is not transmitted directly to the cabin structurally. A towing experiment was carried out by using divided models of about 1/10 scale in counter waves and regular waves to investigate their vibration response characteristics in waves. Furthermore, an experimental boat made of aluminum alloy with about 1/3 scale of the design boat was attached with composite structural struts made of springs and rubber parts to perform cruising experiments on an actual sea area. As a result, it was found that vibration excited by main engines in the catamaran hulls is transmitted very little to the cabin. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  16. Differences in physical workload between military helicopter pilots and cabin crew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current

  17. An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.

  18. Apollo Soyuz mission, toxic gas entered cabin during earth landing sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A postflight analysis is presented of the sequence which caused toxic gas to enter the cabin during repressurization for 30 seconds from manual deployment of the drogue parachutes at 18,550 feet to disabling of the reaction control system at 9600 feet. Results and conclusions are discussed.

  19. Early and late Holocene glacial fluctuations and tephrostratigraphy, Cabin Lake, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Paul D.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Kuehn, Stephen C.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Anderson, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Marked changes in sediment types deposited in Cabin Lake, near Cordova, Alaska, represent environmental shifts during the early and late Holocene, including fluctuations in the terminal position of Sheridan Glacier. Cabin Lake is situated to receive meltwater during periods when the outwash plain of the advancing Sheridan Glacier had aggraded. A brief early Holocene advance from 11.2 to 11.0 cal ka is represented by glacial rock flour near the base of the sediment core. Non-glacial lake conditions were restored for about 1000 years before the water level in Cabin Lake lowered and the core site became a fen. The fen indicates drier-than-present conditions leading up to the Holocene thermal maximum. An unconformity spanning 5400 years during the mid-Holocene is overlain by peat until 1110 CE when meltwater from Sheridan Glacier returned to the basin. Three intervals of an advanced Sheridan Glacier are recorded in the Cabin Lake sediments during the late Holocene: 1110–1180, 1260–1540 and 1610–1780 CE. The sedimentary sequence also contains the first five reported tephra deposits from the Copper River delta region, and their geochemical signatures suggest that the sources are the Cook Inlet volcanoes Redoubt, Augustine and Crater Peak, and possibly Mt Churchill in the Wrangell Volcanic field.

  20. DETERMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY OPERATORS’ OPINIONS ABOUT THE CABIN COMFORT IN ESKİŞEHİR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge ACARBAŞ BALTACI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Comfort has a great importance in the interior design of tractor and agricultural machinery cabins. Operators are exposed to muscoskeletal system disorders since they spend long time periods during the day in these vehicles. There is a few work in the literature reporting operators’ opinions about cabin comfort of these machineries. In this study, a questionnaire was conducted in order to get information about agricultural machinery operators’ opinions about the comfort of their vehicles. Tractor cabins and combine harvester machine cabins were selected as machineries. The study was conducted in Eskişehir in Turkey. Questionnaire was composed of four groups of questions and five ordered response levels were used in the Likert's scale. Demographic questions, general questions about the machine, personal evaluation questions and open ended questions were asked to the operators. After the questionnaire completed, collected data were classified according to the machine type. Frequency tables were used to present the results. Visibility and the accessibility were the most satisfied issues for the tractor operators with 55.9% and 55.4% percentages, respectively. Seat comfort has the highest satisfaction degree with 43.7% for the combine harvester operators. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient was used for the satisfaction questions in the applied questionnaire. The reliability of the study was high with coefficients of 0.878 and 0.940 for the tractor and combine harvester questionnaires, respectively. This study will support design and development process of new products by considering operator opinions.

  1. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effect of the descent technique and truck cabin layout on the landing impact forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenaude, S; Marchand, D; Samperi, S; Bélanger, M

    2001-12-01

    The majority of injuries to truckers are caused by falls during the descent from the cab of the truck. Several studies have shown that the techniques used to descend from the truck and the layout of the truck's cabin are the principal cause of injury. The goal of the present study was to measure the effects of the descent techniques used by the trucker and the layout of the truck's cabin on the impact forces absorbed by the lower limbs and the back. Kinematic data, obtained with the aid of a video camera, were combined with the force platform data to allow for calculation of the lower limb and L5-S1 torques as well as L5-S1 compressive forces. The trucker descended from two different conventional tractor cabin layouts. Each trucker descended from cabin using either "facing the truck" (FT) or "back to the truck" (BT) techniques. The results demonstrate that the BT technique produces greater ground impact forces than the FT technique, particularly when the truck does not have a handrail. The BT technique also causes an increase in the compressive forces exerted on the back. In conclusion, the use of the FT technique along with the aids (i.e., handrails and all the steps) help lower the landing impact forces as well as the lumbosacral compressive forces.

  3. The Perforated Curtain: Configuring the Public and the Private in Calcutta’s Cabin Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twisha Deb

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When I was very young, eating out was not a regular activity for our family. On one of such rare occasion we ended up in a restaurant where the waiter made us sit in a cubicle with a curtain on one side. You pull the curtain and it creates a weird sense of privacy. That idea of intimate space in the middle of a busy city intrigued me. Later I found many restaurants in Kolkata where they have this sort of cabin, a private eating area. Starting from pre-independence when they were there to provide some privacy to the ladies of the family who were not allowed to eat in public, the cabin witnessed many private affairs with time, from political discussions to lovers’ silence. With changing time and the emergence of posh cafes with quirky interiors, the shabby little cabins have lost their charm, but the almost empty cabins, some even without the curtains stand there to tell a story of a time gone by.

  4. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2012-0953] Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This policy statement will enhance...

  5. The influence of ozone on self-evaluation of symptoms in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Weschler, Charles J.; Wargocki, Pawel

    2008-01-01

    Simulated 4-h flights were carried out in a realistic model of a three-row, 21-seat section of an aircraft cabin that was reconstructed inside a climate chamber. Twenty-nine female subjects, age 19-27 years, were split into two groups; each group was exposed to four conditions: two levels of ozone (...

  6. An innovative HVAC control system: Implementation and testing in a vehicular cabin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan; Povalač, Aleš; Urbanec, Tomáš; Jícha, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    Personal vehicles undergo rapid development in every imaginable way. However, a concept of managing a cabin thermal environment remains unchanged for decades. The only major improvement has been an automatic HVAC controller with one user's input - temperature. In this case, the temperature is often deceiving because of thermally asymmetric and dynamic nature of the cabins. As a result, the effects of convection and radiation on passengers are not captured in detail what also reduces the potential to meet thermal comfort expectations. Advanced methodologies are available to assess the cabin environment in a fine resolution (e.g. ISO 14505:2006), but these are used mostly in laboratory conditions. The novel idea of this work is to integrate equivalent temperature sensors into a vehicular cabin in proximity of an occupant. Spatial distribution of the sensors is expected to provide detailed information about the local environment that can be used for personalised, comfort driven HVAC control. The focus of the work is to compare results given by the implemented system and a Newton type thermal manikin. Three different ambient settings were examined in a climate chamber. Finally, the results were compared and a good match of equivalent temperatures was found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Science driven restoration: A candle in a demon haunted world—response to cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Creighton M. Litton; Jarrod M. Thaxton; Susan Cordell; Lisa J. Hadway; Darren R. Sandquist

    2007-01-01

    Cabin (2007) asks whether formal science is an effective framework and methodology for designing and implementing ecological restoration programs. He argues that beyond certain ancillary benefits, restoration science has little of practical value to offer the practice of restoration. He goes on to suggest that restoration science most often represents an impediment to...

  8. Identifying Characteristics of Airline Frequent-Fliers in Australia: Implications for Market Segmentation, Target Marketing, and Product Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Airlines can cultivate new business, enjoy repeat patronage through progressively attractive awards given directly to frequent fliers, deter emerging airlines from entering established markets, and compile the demographic profiles and travel characte...

  9. Integration of 4D Airline Operation Control Systems into NextGen and the NAS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WxOps patent pending OpsTablet(TM) software and 4D geospatial data are used by Hawaiian Airlines to achieve unprecedented Airline Operation Control (AOC) in a...

  10. The Conference Proceedings of the 2001 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Heok (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Tarry, Scott E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference include: 1) The Global Airline Company: Agent of Market Power or Competition? 2) Airport Pavement Management; 3) Reservation System Providers and the Impact of Codeshare Arrangements on Screen Display; 4) Strategic Classification of Current Airline Alliances and Examination of Critical Factors Involving the Formations - an Explorative Perspective; 5) Airport Privatization Policy and Performance Measurement in Korea; 6) Pilot and Air Traffic Controller Relationships: The Role of Interdependence and Relative Influence; 7) Liberalization of Air Cargo Services: Background and an Economic Analysis; 8) The Implication of Hub and Spoke Network on the Airline Alliance Strategy.

  11. Interior noise analysis of a construction equipment cabin based on airborne and structure-borne noise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon; Song, Jee Hun; Joo, Won Ho

    2012-01-01

    Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage

  12. Interior noise analysis of a construction equipment cabin based on airborne and structure-borne noise predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jee Hun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Won Ho [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage.

  13. Impacts of an Ammonia Leak on the Cabin Atmosphere of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Son, Chang H.; Perry Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemical release into the cabin atmosphere is one of the three major emergency scenarios identified on the International Space Station (ISS). The release of anhydrous ammonia, the coolant used in the U.S. On-orbit Segment (USOS) External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS), into the ISS cabin atmosphere is one of the most serious toxic chemical release cases identified on board ISS. The USOS Thermal Control System (TCS) includes an Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (ITCS) water loop and an EATCS ammonia loop that transfer heat at the interface heat exchanger (IFHX). Failure modes exist that could cause a breach within the IFHX. This breach would result in high pressure ammonia from the EATCS flowing into the lower pressure ITCS water loop. As the pressure builds in the ITCS loop, it is likely that the gas trap, which has the lowest maximum design pressure within the ITCS, would burst and cause ammonia to enter the ISS atmosphere. It is crucial to first characterize the release of ammonia into the ISS atmosphere in order to develop methods to properly mitigate the environmental risk. This paper will document the methods used to characterize an ammonia leak into the ISS cabin atmosphere. A mathematical model of the leak was first developed in order to define the flow of ammonia into the ISS cabin atmosphere based on a series of IFHX rupture cases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were then used to model the dispersion of the ammonia throughout the ISS cabin and determine localized effects and ventilation effects on the dispersion of ammonia. Lastly, the capabilities of the current on-orbit systems to remove ammonia were reviewed and scrubbing rates of the ISS systems were defined based on the ammonia release models. With this full characterization of the release of ammonia from the USOS TCS, an appropriate mitigation strategy that includes crew and system emergency response procedures, personal protection equipment use, and atmosphere monitoring

  14. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take off. Jobs (flights) must...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... higher than coach and lower than first-class, in both cost and amenities. This class of accommodation is...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to by...

  16. 76 FR 4733 - Atlantic Southeast Airlines, a Subsidiary of Skywest, Inc., Airport Customer Service Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Airlines, a Subsidiary of Skywest, Inc., Airport Customer Service Division, Fort Smith, AR; Notice of... Customer Service Division v. United States Secretary of Labor (Court No. 09- 00522). On September 28, 2009... 35. Workers at the subject firm (subject worker group) provided airline customer services. AR 4,8,14...

  17. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research & Innovative Technology Administration [Docket ID Number RITA 2008-0002] Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality...: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234. Form No.: BTS Form 234. Type Of Review: Re-instatement of...

  18. Tinjauan Terhadap Penanganan Bagasi Penumpang Pada Maskapai Malaysia Airlines Di Bandara Internasional Kualanamu

    OpenAIRE

    Atmaja, Wahyu Darma

    2016-01-01

    132204042 Transportasi memiliki posisi yang penting dan strategis dalam pembangunan bangsa untuk mencapai pembangunan nasional. Malaysia Airlines adalah salah satu perusahaan penerbangan yang bergerak dibidang usaha transportasi udara, berupaya untuk meningkatkan jumlah penumpang dengan meningkatkan mutu penanganan bagasi kepada penumpang baik penerbangan domestik maupun penerbangan internasional. Malaysia Airlines memiliki fasilitas bagasi yang disediakan kepada penumpang agar penumpang l...

  19. Spatio-temporal growth pattern and patronage level of airline travel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the growth pattern of airline travel agencies over a period of forty years across locations in Nigeria as well as the patronage level of agency business. The need for the study arises because of the technological marketing of airline tickets through direct online ticket sales that aims at reducing cost by ...

  20. A non-Gaussian generalisation of the Airline model for robust Seasonal Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aston, J.; Koopman, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In their seminal book Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control, Box and Jenkins (1976) introduce the Airline model, which is still routinely used for the modelling of economic seasonal time series. The Airline model is for a differenced time series (in levels and seasons) and constitutes a