WorldWideScience

Sample records for airline smoking restrictions

  1. Smoking behaviour among female airline cabin crew from ten Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C; Fielding, R.; Marcoolyn, G; Wong, C M; Hedley, A.

    1994-01-01

    Objective - To identify factors related to the high prevalence of smoking behaviour among a sample of female airline cabin crew of Asian origin. Design - A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 585 Asian women, aged 20-41 years working as experienced cabin crew for a major international airline. Main outcome measures - Subjects answered questions on their knowledge of the consequences of smoking, the per¬ceived effects of smoking, their per¬ceptions of the social images of smoking ...

  2. The Effects of Local Workplace Smoking Laws on Smoking Restrictions and Exposure to Smoke at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    We provide new evidence on the effects of workplace smoking restrictions by studying more than 100 local smoking ordinances in Ontario, Canada from 1997-2004. We advance the literature by examining local (as opposed to state or provincial) laws in a quasi-experimental framework and by explicitly testing for effects on worksite compliance and…

  3. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines and Spanair recently signed a code-share agreement enabling Turkish Airlines to use its code "TK" on domestic flights operated by Spanair. Reciprocally, on Turkish Airlines’ flights to Barcelona, Madrid and

  4. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Austrian Airlines Austrian Airlines Group has announced the appointment of Heinz Goetz as new Country Manager China. Goetz, a veteran airline industry operative, joined Austrian Airlines in 1977. He held management positions in Austria and abroad prior to his most recent appointment as Country

  5. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Qatar Airlines Teams Up With Langham Hotels International Qatar Airlines has recently inked an agree- ment with Langham Hotels International.Accordingly, Qatar Airlines will of- fer QMiles to members of the hotel’s advantage program who visit any hotels of Langham Hotels International.

  6. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Qatar Airways Award-winning Qatar Airways boosted its tally of international honors by grabbing four key titles at the prestigious 13th World Travel Awards during a glittering ceremony in the Caribbean islands of the Turks and Caicos. The Doha-based airline picked up awards for the World’s Leading Business Class Airline, World’s Leading Airline Inflight Meal Service, Leading Airline in the Middle East as well as Leading Middle East Business Class Airline. The airline gained high praise at the travel industry’s equivalent to the Oscar’s and triumphed as the Leading Airline in the Middle East. It gained the inflight meal service award for the second year in a row.

  7. The Demand For Cigarettes and Restrictions on Smoking in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Henry Saffer

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the effect that restrictive clean air laws have on the level of smoking. Restrictive clean air laws refers to the laws which prohibit smoking in private workplaces as well as in public places. The data employed in this study consist of a time series of cross sections of the fifty states of the U.S., and Washington D.C., over the time period from 1975 through 1985, Since states where sentiment is strongly against cigarettes are more likely to pa...

  8. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  9. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    United Airlines United Airlines and Shanghai Airlines signed a code-sharing agreement on March 21 that expands international destination options and frequent flyer opportunities for customers of both carriers. Pending U.S. Government approval, the 11 code-sharing flights covered by the agreement are scheduled to commence May 15. Once the agreement takes effect, customers from both carriers will be able to accrue and redeem frequent flyer miles and enjoy airport lounges supported by both carriers.

  10. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    United Airlines In celebration of the first anniversary of the Approved Destination Status (ADS) agreement between China and the United States, United Airlines, the world’s largest transpacific airline, offers travelers in China an unique trip to its home, Chicago, with a special month-long promotion. Beginning June 1, the special promotional offer will give visitors the chance to take in the Windy City

  11. Association of smoking onset with R-rated movie restrictions and adolescent sensation seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Sargent, J D; Stoolmiller, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Tanski, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10-14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were ...

  12. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines released its consolidated financial statements for the first nine months of 2009 on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. According to the reported financial statements, sales revenue was $3.26 billion, a decrease of 11 percent year on year

  13. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Austrian Airlines QUALITY AND SERVICE KEY TO SUCCESS Austrian Airlines has been making continuous efforts to provide more comfort and convenience to travelers. In business class, a new sleeper seat with a back adjustable up to 90 degrees was recently introduced. In addition, wireless Internet connection is now available throuqhout the cabin, on the ground

  14. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Air Berlin Air Berlin is the second largest German airline and the fourth largest airline in Europe. It was founded in 1978 and has been enjoying steady growth ever since. Its route network includes major international cities and holiday destinations, as well

  15. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Qatar Airways Award-winning Qatar Airways has become the first airline in the world to introduce live digital satellite TV beamed direct to every passenger on their individual seatback TV systems at 35,000 feet. Yet another first for one of the world's fastest growing airlines is the introduction of a system offering a multitude of European and Middle East TV channels on five of its fleet of Airbus A330 long-haul aircraft.

  16. Airline Promotions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Austrian Airlines is extending its network in China. From June onwards,the number of direct flights from Beijing to Vienna will rise from the current four to six per week, operated by Airbus A33oAs of April 29th, Shanghai will be added to the flight program, seeing three nonstop flights from Vienna a week, operated by Boeing B-767

  17. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  18. Airline Quality Rating 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2007-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2007, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2006. AQR scores for 2006 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2007 is a summary of mo...

  19. Airline Quality Rating 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2005-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2005, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2004. AQR scores for the calendar year 2004 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2005 is a summary o...

  20. Airline Quality Rating 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2013, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2012. AQR scores for 2013 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the calendar year of 2012. The Airline Quality...

  1. Airline Quality Rating 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2011-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2011, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2010. AQR scores for 2010 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2011 is a summary of mo...

  2. Airline Quality Rating 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2010-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2010, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2009. AQR scores for 2009 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2010 is a summary of mo...

  3. Airline Quality Rating 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month qualit...

  4. Airline Quality Rating 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  5. Airline Quality Rating 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2012-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2012, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2011. AQR scores for 2011 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2012 is a summary of mo...

  6. Airline Quality Rating 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ra...

  7. Airline Quality Rating 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of...

  8. Airline Quality Rating 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2008-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2008, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2007. AQR socres for 2007 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2008 is a summary of mo...

  9. Airline Quality Rating 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2006, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2005. AQR scores for 2005 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2006 is a summary of mo...

  10. Airline Quality Rating 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.

    2009-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2009, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2008. AQR scores for 2008 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2009 is a summary of mo...

  11. Airline Quality Rating 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2015-01-01

    Take the 2015 Airline Passenger Survey The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2015, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2014. AQR scores for 2015 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers over the c...

  12. Persistence on airline accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. GIL-ALANA; Barros, C.P. (Carlos P.); J.R. Faria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accidents data from 1927-2006. The fractional integration methodology is adopted. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. Thus, there exists an equilibrium relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accidents events.

  13. Persistence in Airline Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Pestana Barros; João Ricardo Faria; Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses airline accident data from 1927-2006, through fractional integration. It is shown that airline accidents are persistent and (fractionally) cointegrated with airline traffic. There exists a negative relation between air accidents and airline traffic, with the effect of the shocks to that relationship disappearing in the long run. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events.

  14. [Evaluation of the knowledge and manner of workers of workplaces in Tokat about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Celik, Deniz; Etikan, Ilker; Inönü, Handan; Yılmaz, Ayşe; Seyfikli, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and manner of cafe, pub and restaurant (with/without alcohol) workers in our city center about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking. To determine the preparation about the ban, smoking characteristics of workers, the knowledge on passive smoking. A questionnaire was performed to workers. The type of workplace, the number of workers, existence of a restriction of indoor smoking, any preparation about the ban were asked. The job of worker, whether the worker has a knowledge on the ban or not, the idea of the workers on the necessity and practicability of the ban were asked. Smoking history and the knowledge about passive smoking of workers were recorded. Fagerstrom nicotine dependent test (FNDT) was performed to smokers. Eighty four work places with 568 workers included in the study. The questionnaire was performed to 337 workers whose mean age was 29.1/years. 292 of workers were male. 190 of cases were current smokers. 166 of cases (49.3%) know the meaning of passive smoking. Alcohol offering was made at 8 of workplaces. Smoking was forbidden in 20 of workplaces. A preparation was performed about the ban in 30 of (46.9%) other workplaces. 88.4% of workers have knowledge on the ban, 64.7% of them know the punishment of the noncompliance of the ban. 81.3% of the workers believe the necessity and 45.7% of them believe the practicability of the ban. Smokers and especially who's FNBT > 5 have a stronger belief on the necessity and practicability of the ban. We determined that the preparation about the ban was inadequate although there was an little time for the put into practice the law. So we think that the controls of workplaces should be happened frequent. PMID:21038139

  15. Airline Quality Rating 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  16. Airline Quality Rating 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  17. Airline Quality Rating 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1996-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1996, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scor...

  18. Esindusteenuseid pakub Airline Management

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lennufirmadele ja teistele turismivaldkonna ettevõtetele esindusteenuseid pakkuvast firmast Airline Management OÜ. Firma poolt Eestis esindatud lennufirmade Air Namibia, SN Brussels Airlines ja Flynordic ning hotelligrupi Wyndham lühitutvustus

  19. Airline Quality Rating 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1993-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating (NIAR Report 91-11) issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. A full reporting of the 12 month period of 1991 Airline Quality Rating scores is ava...

  20. Airline Quality Rating 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1995-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating (NIAR Report 91-11) issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1995, (NIAR Report 95-11), con...

  1. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless... airlines as “tourist class,” “economy class,” or as “single class” when the airline offers only one class... as full-fare economy class, and only restricted economy fares are available in the back of...

  3. Clearing the air: challenges to introducing smoking restrictions in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, K R

    1997-05-01

    One of the most fundamental rights, the right to breathe air free of unhealthy carcinogens, is continuously threatened by powerful corporate tobacco interests, which spend enormous amounts of money not only to promote smoking, but also to stifle local, state, and national efforts to control smoking in the United States. From the perspective of a "committed participant" this paper discusses recent difficulties encountered in attempting to introduce West Virginia's first comprehensive smoking control legislation, and the strategies used to overcome them. The primary message reported here is that, given the overwhelming financial, emotional, and human-potential costs involved in ongoing tobacco abuse in the United States, it is essential that citizens unite to protect the health of all children and the vast majority of adults who do not smoke, and to discourage the consumption of cigarettes, the single biggest cause of disease and death in our society. The example reported here from West Virginia demonstrates that persistent citizen activism can make a critical difference in promoting laws that protect human health from unhealthy environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:9141171

  4. Airlines 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Hvass, Kristian A.; Munar, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Over the years online marketing has grown in importance in the airline industry. This media space offers airlines numerous marketing tools, one of the most recent being social media. Social media allows airlines to interact directly with customers via various Internet platforms, and monitor customer opinions and evaluations of services. This exploratory paper studies airlines’ use of social media on Facebook and Twitter for a defined period of time. The paper analyses the content of social me...

  5. Airline Quality Rating 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R.

    1991-01-01

    In today's competitive airline industry, it's crucial that an airline do all it can to attract and retain customers. One of the best ways to do this is by offering a quality service to consumers. Perceptions of service quality vary from person to person, but an enduring element of service quality is the consistent achievement of customer satisfaction. The satisfying of customer service needs keeps them loyal and helps establish a base for new customers. An Airline Quality Rating scale is p...

  6. Airline Quality Rating 1994

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1994-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airlien performance on combined multiple factors inportant to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating (NIAR Report 91-11) issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Reserach at Wichita State University. A full reporting of the monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1991 and 1992 ...

  7. Airline Operation Center Workstation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airline Operation Center Workstation (AOC Workstation) represents equipment available to users of the National Airspace system, outside of the FAA, that enables...

  8. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  9. Private Airlines Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2005-01-01

    OKAY Airways, the first wholly private airline in China, took off from the Tianjin Binhai International Airport on March Ⅱ. Carrying a total of 80 passengers, the 189-seat Boeing 737-900 leased from Korea Airlines was bound for Kunming, capital of Yunnan Province, via Changsha,

  10. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay ORHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: flight scheduling, aircraft scheduling, crew scheduling and disruptions management. These aforementioned scheduling and planning problems faced by all airline companies in the airline sector were examined in detail. Studies reveal that companies using the advanced methods might gain significant cost reductions. However, even then, the time required for solving large scale problems may not satisfy the decision quality desired by decision makers. In such cases, using modern decision methods integrated with advanced technologies offer companies an opportunity for significant cost-advantages.

  11. airline revenue management

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, K; Piersma, Nanda

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing interest in decision support systems and the continuous advance of computer science, revenue management is a discipline which has received a great deal of interest in recent years. Although revenue management has seen many new applications throughout the years, the main focus of research continues to be the airline industry. Ever since Littlewood (1972) first proposed a solution method for the airline revenue management problem, a variety of solution methods ha...

  12. airline revenue management

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing interest in decision support systems and the continuous advance of computer science, revenue management is a discipline which has received a great deal of interest in recent years. Although revenue management has seen many new applications throughout the years, the main focus of research continues to be the airline industry. Ever since Littlewood (1972) first proposed a solution method for the airline revenue management problem, a variety of solution methods have been intr...

  13. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  14. Policies to restrict secondhand smoke exposure: American College of Preventive Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michelle; Alonso, Alina M; Sherin, Kevin M; Koh, Yumi; Dhamija, Asha; Lowe, Andrea L

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure poses serious health risks for all nonsmokers, especially children and pregnant women. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and nearly 53,800 deaths in the U.S. annually. A literature review of English-language articles was performed using PubMed, organizational websites, and pertinent review articles. Over the past 25 years, smokefree policies have protected nearly half the U.S. population from the adverse health effects of SHS. Smokefree policies have been shown to improve health outcomes with no consequences to local businesses. As of April 2013, a total of 24 states and 561 municipalities and territories, including the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have established laws that require nonhospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars to be 100% smokefree. Four other states-Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, and Nevada-have smokefree laws that cover restaurants but provide an exemption for stand-alone bars. At least 14 states have no smokefree laws. This paper describes the benefits of policies that reduce SHS and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) recommends expanded clean indoor air policies for workplaces, stand-alone bars, restaurants, and multi-use family housing such as apartment buildings. ACPM recommends clean air policies for all university campuses, secondary school campuses, primary schools, child care centers, and city landmarks to further shift social norms and protect the health of children, adolescents, and adults. ACPM recommends closing existing gaps in clean indoor air policies. PMID:23953365

  15. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... International (ACI), Association of Asia Pacific Airlines (AAPA), Association of European Airlines (AEA), Latin American & Caribbean Air Transport Association (ALTA), National Airlines Council of Canada (NACC... extension of the comment period by the Air Transport Association (ATA), Regional Airline Association...

  16. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay ORHAN; Muzaffer KAPANOĞLU; T. Hikmet KARAKOÇ

    2010-01-01

    The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: f...

  17. PASSIVE SMOKING ON COMMERCIAL AIRLINE FLIGHTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflight exposure to nicotine, urinary cotinine and symptom self reports were assessed in a study of 9 subjects (5 passengers and 4 attendants) on four routine commercial flights each of approximately 4 hours duration. rine samples were collected for 72 hours following each fligh...

  18. Improving Airline Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA-Ames Space Act Agreement, Coryphaeus Software and Simauthor, Inc., developed an Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS). This software, developed for the aerospace and airline industry, enables the replay of Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) data in a flexible, user-configurable, real-time, high fidelity 3D (three dimensional) environment.

  19. Executive airlines management

    OpenAIRE

    Šášinka, Štěpán

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with a management of executive operators in the business aviation sector. Two main parts create the main body of the thesis. At first, there is a theoretical part, also called literature overview. In this chapter, aviation history, management history and basic information about management and aviation management is described. The second part – practical, comprises information about executive airlines and their management in the Czech Republic. Comparison of executive...

  20. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  1. Economic analysis of spider web airline networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-dong Yang; Jin-fu Zhu; Qiang Gao; Wen-fang Wang

    2009-01-01

    The distinct network organization, management, service and operating characteristics of US Southwest Airlines are key elements of its success compared with other airlines. As a network organization type, the spider web airline network has received more attention. In this paper, we analyzed the relation between the spider web airline network and spider web, and the structure of spider web airline network, built the assignment model of the spider web airline network,and investigated the economics concerned.

  2. Estimating a Mixed Strategy: United and American Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Golan, Amos; Karp , Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a generalized maximum entropy estimator that can estimate pure and mixed strategies subject to restrictions from game theory. This method avoids distributional assumptions and is consistent and efficient. We demonstrate this method by estimating the mixed strategies of duopolistic airlines.

  3. The Russian airline industry: contestable market or…?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kislyak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors, based on the complete survey of Russian airlines that was conducted in winter of 2006-2007, analyze essential entry-barriers in the industry, and econometrically estimate efficiency of methods for overcoming entry-barriers in the Russian PAI. They find that there are significant technological and behavioral entrybarriers in the industry. The paper doubts that this industry is contestable in contemporary Russia, although it is typically contestable in Europe and the USA. Econometric estimation of entry-barriers points that administrative barriers are the most significant restrictions of competition.

  4. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  5. Introduction Latent Variables for Estimating Airline Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of latent variables in assessing airline performance. There is a gap in literature of airline performance modelling. This paper, based on latent variable model attempts to introduce a new framework for airline assessment modelling. In this regard, organisational assessment was used as theoretical framework. Four constructs and thirteen measurements are illustrated for airline assessment model.

  6. Food irradiation and airline catering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed

  7. Airline Operations Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  8. Airline alliances, antitrust immunity and market foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Hüschelrath, Kai

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of market foreclosure by airline partnerships with antitrust immunity. Overlapping the data on frequency of service and passenger volumes on nonstop routes on the transatlantic airline market with the information on dynamics of airline partnerships, we find evidence consistent with the airlines operating under antitrust immunity refusing to accept connecting passengers from the carriers outside of the partnership at respective hub airports. When an airline partne...

  9. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  10. Evaluation of the US Airline Industry: The Airline Quality Rating 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2013-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2012, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for calendar year 2011. AQR scores for 2011 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2012 is a summary of mo...

  11. International airline groups in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Niewiadomski

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper contributes to the international research project ‘Capturing the Gains: Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks and Trade’. Its main aim is to analyse the operations of international airlines in Africa and assess the influence of the international aviation industry on the development of tourism in selected African states. Simultaneously, through an exploration of the different ways in which international airline groups can foster the development of the ...

  12. European vs. U.S. Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study measures and compares the efficiency and productivity of European and U.S. airlines, over the period from 2001 to 2008. We measure efficiency by estimating a Bayesian distance frontier model subject to regularity constraints. Productivity estimates are also derived parametrically, based...... on the constrained model indicate that European airlines have slightly higher efficiency and productivity growth than U.S. airlines. A comparison based on the type of airlines indicates that low-cost airlines are on average more productive and efficient than full-service airlines. The decomposition...

  13. International Airline Hubbing in a Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mark M.; Kanafani, Adib

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the U.S. domestic airline route system have increased competition between international gateways. To assist in understanding this phenomenon, a system of models that predicts airline passenger flows resulting from different airline gateway hubbing strategies has been developed. The calibrated models predict baseline passenger flows quite accurately. The system was then used to project future traffic at a specific airport under alternative hubbing strategies of an airline. The resul...

  14. Celestial Beauty Leads The Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Based on the corporate culture of"intemally cultivating the spirit with the essence of the traditional Chinese culture,and externally combining the advanced western management and technology",Hainan Airlines Company Limited (hereinafter called HNA) has turned from a new soaring airlines to the fourth biggest airlines in China.……

  15. Celestial Beauty Leads The Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the corporate culture of"intemally cultivating the spirit with the essence of the traditional Chinese culture,and externally combining the advanced western management and technology",Hainan Airlines Company Limited (hereinafter called HNA) has turned from a new soaring airlines to the fourth biggest airlines in China.

  16. A study of commuter airline economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  17. United Airlines Named Best Transpacific Airline at OAAG Airline of the Year Awards "Oscars of the Airline Industry" Highlight United's Extensive Service to Asia-Pacific Region"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) was named Best Transpacific Airline by the annual OAG Airline of the Year Awards during an awards ceremony in London. OAG is a content management company specializing in travel and transport, which selected winners of the awards based on the votes of a worldwide audience of business travelers.

  18. United Airlines Named Best Transpacific Airline at OAAG Airline of the Year Awards "Oscars of the Airline Industry" Highlight United's Extensive Service to Asia-Pacific Region"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) was named Best Transpacific Airline by the annual OAG Airline of the Year Awards during an awards ceremony in London. OAG is a content management company specializing in travel and transport, which selected winners of the awards based on the votes of a worldwide audience of business travelers.……

  19. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients. PMID:19330974

  20. Strategic analysis of Czech Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseeva, Polina

    2016-01-01

    The thesis called Strategic Analysis of Czech Airlines which completely analyses current situation within the company. It presents theoretical base for such an analysis and subsequently offers situational analysis, which includes the analysis of external environment, internal environment and suggestions for improvement. The thesis includes a complete companys SWOT analysis and offers the applying of Porters five forces framework. The thesis also includes recommendations and suggestions for th...

  1. The Changing Low-Cost Airline Model: An Analysis of Spirit Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstein, David E

    2013-01-01

    In recent years legacy airlines have struggled, while low-cost carriers have achieved success. The original low-cost operating model, created by Southwest Airlines, has been adapted by airlines worldwide. Previous studies argue that the more a company adheres to the original model, the more successful the airline will be. Little academic study of the current state of the low-cost model exists. The researcher seeks to address this gap through qualitative methods and a case study involving S...

  2. Price Discrimination in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years we have seen the emergence of low cost, "no frills" airlines competing directly with traditional carriers. This increase in competition coupled with the growing use of the internet has significantly increased price transparency within the airline industry. The primary aim of this study is to determine if and how price transparency has altered the way airlines price discriminate. The first part of this paper contains a general review of price discrimination with...

  3. Airline Financial Distress and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ribbink, Dina; Hofer, Christian; Dresner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An investigation is conducted on the effect of financial distress on customer service levels in the U.S. airline industry. Using data from the first quarter of 1998 to the third quarter of 2006, we employ a seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) model to analyze the impact of financial distress on three measures of customer service. We find that higher financial distress is associated with better on-time performance of airlines and fewer lost bags. The relationship of airline financial distres...

  4. Chinese Airline Official Microblog Influence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 10 Airlines official micro-blog on the sina microblog platform as sample, airline official microblog influence is analysed. Six indexes, fans number, microblog open time; average daily microblog number, proportion of original microblog, average comment number and reposted number are used to found the principal component analysis model. Three principal components microblog activity, fans initiative and microblog innovation degree, contribute 84% of the total resources. Suggestions to improve airline microblog influence are given based on characteristics of the model.

  5. Location-Price Competition in Airline Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses location-then-price competition in airline market as a two-stage game of n players on the graph. Passenger’s demand distribution is described by multinomial logit model. Equilibrium in price game is computed through best response dynamics. We solve location game using backward induction, knowing that airlines will choose prices from equilibrium for the second-stage game. Some numerical results for airline market under consideration are presented.

  6. Location-Price Competition in Airline Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, H.; J. Hu; Mazalov, V.; Shchiptsova, A.; L. Song; Tokareva, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses location-then-price competition in airline market as a two-stage game of n players on the graph. Passenger’s demand distribution is described by multinomial logit model. Equilibrium in price game is computed through best response dynamics. We solve location game using backward induction, knowing that airlines will choose prices from equilibrium for the second-stage game. Some numerical results for airline market under consideration are presented.

  7. Multiple Equilibria and Deterrence in Airline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliberto, Federico; Zhang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the US airline industry to estimate a model of entry deterrence. We model the interaction among airlines as a repeated static game, where we allow for a very general form of heterogeneity. We consider a menu of three alternative games that describe the strategic interaction among airlines: simultaneous and sequential move games, and a sequential move game with deterrence investments. Following Bernheim [1984], deterrence investments include all investment that rai...

  8. United Airlines Voted 'Best North American Airline' for Fifth Consecutive Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Discerning frequent travelers in Asia have voted United Airlines the" Best North American Airline" for the fifth consecutive year in Business Traveller AsiaPacific's 2005 annual travel awards. Each year, the magazine polls frequent travelers to learn their opinions on airlines and services. Results are verified and compiled by an independent market research company :TNS-Hong Kong.

  9. How have the strategies of Airlines been affected by the 2008 economic recession? A study focusing on British Airways, American Airlines, Southwest Airlines and EasyJet.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper looks at both Porters Generic strategies theory and the newer resource based view of strategy and applies these theories to the Airline industry using four focus cases. The companies looked at are British Airways, EasyJet, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. The study of these cases allows for an overview of the role of strategy in the airline industry and enables a comparison regarding the effects of the current economic recession on the chosen airlines and the m...

  10. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.

  11. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.……

  12. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  13. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  14. Tips for Airline Travelers with Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tips for Airline Travelers with Sjögren’s Syndrome For more information on Sjogren's syndrome, visit the SSF Web site at www.sjogrens. ... org for more information on Sjögren’s syndrome. New airline rules can have a profound effect on those ...

  15. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for...... disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it o ers an introduction to airline disruption management, provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second part we...... report on experiences from a large research and development project on airline disruption management. Within the project the first prototype of a multiple resource decision support system at the operations control center in a major airline, has been implemented....

  16. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology....... Findings – Results based on a sample of recent input/output data indicated that the efficiency of UK airlines has continuously declined since 2004 to reach a value of 73.39 per cent in 2007. Factors which were found to be significantly and positively related to technical efficiency variations include...... airline size and load factor. The paper also highlights that factors such as increase in oil price and fierce market competition were also potential inefficiency determinants. Practical implications – The findings of this paper provide a fresh link between airline performance and the current industry...

  17. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  18. The Impacts of Smoking Bans on Smoking in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim; Ahram Kim

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about potential harmful effect of second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke. As a result, smoking bans in workplace become more prevalent. In Korea, workplace smoking ban policy become more restrictive in 2003 when National health enhancing law was changed. Using Korea National Health and Nutrition survey in 2001 and 2005 we examine the impacts of law change on current smoker and cigarettes smoked per day. We compare indoor working occupations which are constrained...

  19. Stubbing Out Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing,home to 4 million smokers,is to introduce a gradual cigarette ban China’s capital will ban smoking in most public places starting from May 1,signaling a big step toward tobacco control in a nation of 350 million smokers and a move to meet China’s pledge of a smoke-free Olympics. Beijing has had some restrictions on smoking since 1996,when the municipal government prohibited smoking in large public venues such as schools,sports venues and movie theaters.

  20. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex...... part we report on experiences from a large research and development project on airline disruption management. Within the project the first prototype of a multiple resource decision support system at the operations control center in a major airline, has been implemented....

  1. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future

  2. A mixed method study of airline brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaprasit, Ayudh

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates airline brand equity in a sequential, mixed method study. The initial, exploratory study undertaken with the focus groups identified relevant issues that influence airline brand equity. The secondary associations of airline brands are often related to the airlines’ country of origin and culture or the intangible cues that are used in airline advertisements. These intangible cues and secondary associations play an important role in triggering airline ...

  3. An empirical analysis of airline business model convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Jost; Albers, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Based on a sample of 26 European passenger airlines, this study analyzes the development of airline business models over time. We used various distance measures to calculate concrete differentiation levels among these airlines between 2004 and 2012. The results indicate increasing similarity among these airlines, which lends support to the generally assumed convergence trend. The present paper complements the mostly qualitative and anecdotal literature on convergence in the airline industry, ...

  4. A conceptual framework for measuring airline business model convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Daft, Jost; Albers, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a measurement framework that synthesizes the airline and strategy literature to identify relevant dimensions and elements of airline business models. The applicability of this framework for describing airline strategies and structures and, based on this conceptualization, for assessing the potential convergence of airline business models over time is then illustrated using a small sample of five German passenger airlines. For this sample, the perception of a rapprochement ...

  5. How Airline Markets Work...Or Do They? Regulatory Reform in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein; Rose, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Following a brief review of the U.S. domestic airline industry under regulation (1938-1978), we study the changes that have occurred in pricing, service, and competition in the 28 years since deregulation. We then examine some of the major public policy issues facing the industry: (a) the sustainability of competition and volatility of airline profits, (b) possible market power of dominant airlines, and (c) congestion and investment shortfall in the airport and air traffic infrastructure.

  6. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... never smoked. If you quit smoking, you greatly reduce your risk, even if you have smoked for ... even a senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they ...

  7. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress & Smoking Causes of Stress Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With ... Stress & Smoking Causes of Stress Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With ...

  8. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... with It The Basics The Basics: Overview Quitting smoking is one of the most important things you ...

  9. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung ... life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed to ...

  10. Airline Disaster Highlights Need for Ethical Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kate

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Syracuse University professor/reporter's experiences covering the airline disaster that killed 35 Syracuse students. Discusses the problems of ethically covering a story where a lot of grief is involved. (MS)

  11. Financial Analysis Report: Malaysia Airlines 2007 - 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert O'Neil Mushure

    2014-01-01

    This work is an analysis of the annual reports of Malaysia Airlines Berhad from 2007 to 2011. Profitability analysis was done on the financial statements of the company from 2007 to 2011. Cash and working capital management analysis were done on the financial statements of 2010 and 2011. It was found that Malaysia Airlines Berhad was constantly suffering from high costs of operations which resulted in consecutive negative gross profit over the years.Net profit remained positive only as a resu...

  12. Airline Applications of Business Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai ANDRONIE

    2015-01-01

    Airline industry is characterized by large quantities of complex, unstructured and rapid changing data that can be categorized as big data, requiring specialized analysis tools to explore it with the purpose of obtaining useful knowledge as decision support for companies that need to fundament their activities and improve the processes they are carrying on. In this context, business intelligence tools are valuable instruments that can optimally process airline related data so that the acti...

  13. Combining robustness and recovery for airline schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we address different aspects of the airline scheduling problem. The main difficulty in this field lies in the combinatorial complexity of the problems. Furthermore, as airline schedules are often faced with perturbations called disruptions (bad weather conditions, technical failures, congestion, crew illness…), planning for better performance under uncertainty is an additional dimension to the complexity of the problem. Our main focus is to develop better schedules that are le...

  14. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS' EVALUATIONS THROUGH MINING AIRLINE REVIEWS

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Yakut; Tugba Turkoglu; Fikriye Yakut

    2015-01-01

    Data mining can be evaluated as a strategic tool to determine the customer profiles in order to learn customer expectations and requirements. Airline customers have different characteristics and if passenger reviews about their trip experiences are correctly analyzed, companies can increase customer satisfaction by improving provided services. In this study, we investigate customer review data for in-flight services of airline companies and draw customer models with respect to suc...

  15. Price Discrimination through Refund Contracts in Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Escobari, Diego; Jindapon, Paan

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how an airline monopoly uses refundable and non-refundable tickets to screen consumers who are uncertain about their travel. Our theoretical model predicts that the difference between these two fares diminishes as individual demand uncertainty is resolved. Using an original data set from U.S. airline markets, we find strong evidence supporting our model. Price discrimination opportunities through refund contracts decline as the departure date nears and individuals learn about...

  16. Airport privatization competition including domestic airline networks

    OpenAIRE

    Akio Kawasaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hub airport privatization, similar to the studies by Matsumura and Matsushima (2012) and Mantin (2012). However, differentiating from their papers, this paper introduces a domestic airline network. That is, each country has one major hub airport and some local airports. The main result obtained in this paper is as follows. When at least one country has a small domestic airline network, the same result as that by Matsumura and Matsushima (2012) and Mantin (2...

  17. United Airlines Makes Gonnections Easier for Passengers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ United is the only U.S. Carrier connecting Pearl River Delta Region to offer customers SkyPier ferry service and pier-side check-in. United Airlines is the first U.S. Airline to offer customers convenient travel between the Pearl River Delta cities and Hong Kong International Airport using the SkyPier ferry service and pier-side check-in, beginning today.

  18. Simulating airline operational responses to environmental constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes a model that predicts airline flight network, frequency and fleet changes in response to policy measures that aim to reduce the environmental impact of aviation. Such airline operational responses to policy measures are not considered by existing integrated aviation-environment modelling tools. By not modelling these effects the capability of the air transport system to adjust under changing conditions is neglected, resulting in the forecasting of potentially misle...

  19. Smoking and adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hee

    2011-10-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  20. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  1. Scandinavian Airlines Becomes the World's First Airline to Have All Intercontinental Flights Equipped with Wireless Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In March this year, Scandinavian Airlines became the world's first airline to provide wireless broadband Internet on all intercontinental flights. This means that passengers can surf the web, send and receive emails, chat online, use Intemet telephone services and log on to their company's virtual private network while flying 12,000 meters above the earth.

  2. Scandinavian Airlines Becomes the World's First Airline to Have All Intercontinental Flights Equipped with Wireless Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      In March this year, Scandinavian Airlines became the world's first airline to provide wireless broadband Internet on all intercontinental flights. This means that passengers can surf the web, send and receive emails, chat online, use Intemet telephone services and log on to their company's virtual private network while flying 12,000 meters above the earth.……

  3. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  4. Airline Applications of Business Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ANDRONIE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Airline industry is characterized by large quantities of complex, unstructured and rapid changing data that can be categorized as big data, requiring specialized analysis tools to explore it with the purpose of obtaining useful knowledge as decision support for companies that need to fundament their activities and improve the processes they are carrying on. In this context, business intelligence tools are valuable instruments that can optimally process airline related data so that the activities that are conducted can be optimized to maximize profits, while meeting customer requirements. An airline company that has access to large volumes of data (stored into conventional or big data repositories has two options to extract useful decision support information: processing data by using general-purpose business intelligence systems or processing data by using industry specific business intelligence systems. Each of these two options has both advantages and disadvantages for the airline companies that intend to use them. The present paper presents a comparative study of a number of general-purpose and airline industry specific business intelligence systems, together with their main advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  6. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  7. Continental Airlines Receives J.D. Power and Associates Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June 29, 2006, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) was ranked the highest in Customer Satisfaction Among Traditional Network Carriers in North America in the J.D.Power and Associates 2006 Airline Satisfaction Index StudySM.

  8. Strategic Responses of Airlines in Malaysia to the ASEAN Open Skies Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei Ghen

    2008-01-01

    Despite its dependence on global operations, airline industry is excluded from the general agreements on trade in services (GATS). Due to the restrictions imposed by individual countries, the industry was highly regulated. However, pressures for changes have emerged lately due to the economic trend. From bilateral to multilateral agreements, these air services agreements are gradually being substituted by “open skies” arrangement. Most of these arrangements are made through regional or supran...

  9. Revenue-sharing mechanisms in airline alliance revenue management problems

    OpenAIRE

    Alahuhta, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The research in revenue management in airline industry is usually limited to problems that only involve a single airline. Due to the emergence and growth of airline alliances, it is becoming increasingly important to understand revenue management in alliance contexts. In this thesis, I discuss different revenue-sharing models in airline alliances and analyze and compare these models both theoretically and through numerical simulations. I also describe how economics commonly approaches this ty...

  10. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Michael; Morrosch, Stephan; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation fo...

  11. Singapore Airlines Unveils the World's Best Flying Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, Singapore Airlines launched its latest suite of cabin products designed to deliver the most luxurious and stylish travel experiences. The suite of products and services include new Singapore Airlines First, Business and Economy Class seats,the next generation Kris World inflight entertainment system and an enhanced service delivery. These next generation products will set new standards of excellence for premium air travel, and reinforce the Airline's product leadership in the airline industry.

  12. Oil, Oil Volatility and Airline Stocks: A Global Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nandha, Mohan; Brooks, Robert; Robert FAFF

    2013-01-01

    By selecting a globally representative dataset of airline indices, this study demonstrates that oil price or oil price regimes (delineated by the first gulf war and the 9/11 terror attacks) alone do not have any significant implications for airline stock prices. Overall, these findings are contrary to the general perception that higher oil prices or oil volatility are bad news for the airlines industry. Perhaps airlines are in a better position to estimate their oil risk and take hedging posi...

  13. The Future of Airline Distribution: transparency of online shopping experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam

    2015-01-01

    Price-aware generation Y customers and low-cost airlines have prompted legacy carriers to unbundle their products and adopt merchandising. At the same time, low-cost airlines have entered meta-search engines, Global Distribution Systems, and started cooperating with travel agencies to attract business travelers. Additionally, airline industry in general has been changing its focus from being product-oriented towards being customer-oriented. Such trends put forward airline merchandising as a ...

  14. The Design of a Large Scale Airline Network

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Airlines invest a lot of money before opening new pax transportation services, for this reason, airlines have to analyze if their profits will overcome the amount of money they have to invest to open new services. The design and analysis of the feasibility of airlines networks can be done by using the models developed in this thesis. It is possible to identify routes that are opportunities to open services, based on airline operating costs, passenger demand, aircraft and airport capacities an...

  15. The Future of Regulation in the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherington, P. W.; Hill, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal regulation of airlines is analyzed to predict the amount of regulation to be expected in the future. It is stated that the regulatory powers will increase because of the advantages that such regulation provides to the airlines. Six propositions are submitted as guidelines for future airlines regulation. The loss of revenue experienced by the airlines is examined and methods for improving the economic situation are defined.

  16. Fear of Flying? Economic Analysis of Airline Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Nancy L.

    1991-01-01

    The safety of the commercial airline industry has attracted considerable attention in the wake of airline deregulation, amid growing concerns that the historical superiority of U.S. jet carriers' safety records may have been linked to economic regulation of the industry by the Civil Aeronautics Board. These worries have energized economic research on a broad range of questions relating to airline safety. I describe our progress in answering four questions: First, has airline safety declined s...

  17. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ... can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and ...

  18. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the ... smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If ...

  19. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke-free. Some businesses might be afraid to ban smoking, but there’s no strong evidence that going ... Some states and cities even have laws that ban smoking in the car if carrying passengers under ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over 50 to help them quit smoking. I mean, one of the key areas that we try ... not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to quit smoking. But ...

  1. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much higher ...

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much ...

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on ... smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. ...

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If you quit ... your risk, even if you have smoked for a long time. Dr. Scott Leischow: Quitting smoking is ...

  5. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  6. The Design of a Large Scale Airline Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Airlines invest a lot of money before opening new pax transportation services, for this reason, airlines have to analyze if their profits will overcome the amount of money they have to invest to open new services. The design and analysis of the feasibility of airlines networks can be done by using

  7. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  8. Subsequence Generation for the Airline Crew Pairing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David; Larsen, Jesper

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  9. The Statement Airline Service Quality Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周威

    2014-01-01

    As the recent emergence of the Low Cost Carriers (LLCs) in Air-line industry, service differentiation and customer satisfaction takes critical role in order to sharpen competitive edges to both Full Service Carriers (FSCs) and LLCs. The current research aims to explore the nature of service quality in airline and its relationship to customer satisfaction. Air service quality dimensions using factor analysis are classified as Ticketing and Boarding Processes, Customer Encounter Services, and Tangibles. Further, the regression analysis reveals the strength of relationships between each of service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction scales that the Ticketing and Boarding Process dimension has the strongest co-relations with customer satisfaction scales.

  10. Guidelines for Change Management for Airline X

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Organizational change is a vital part of the airline industry. Leading change is considered one of the most important parts of success. This thesis project focuses on creating instructions for Airline X in the development of their change processes. This project started from the researcher’s own idea. It was presented to the commissioning company who found it useful and approved the topic. The goal of this project was to create a useful tool for the organization that they are able to utili...

  11. The future of airline business models:

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This research is titled “The Future of Airline Business Models: Which Will Win?” and it is part of the requirements for the award of a Masters in Management from NOVA BSE and another from Luiss Guido Carlo University. The purpose is to elaborate a complete market analysis of the European Air Transportation Industry in order to predict which Airlines, strategies and business models may be successful in the next years. First, an extensive literature review of the business model concept has been...

  12. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective produc...

  13. Smoking in correctional facilities: a survey of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, M; Hughes, J.; Solomon, L; Powell, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess level of endorsement and expected consequences of worksite smoking restriction policies among correctional employees.
DESIGN—Mailed survey to Vermont state correctional employees.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Support for various policy alternatives for both staff and inmate smoking; expected consequences of restrictive smoking policies and smoking behaviour.
PARTICIPANTS—321 of 640 (50%) state correctional employees responded.
RESULTS—Employees were somewhat receptive to smoking ...

  14. Cooperative Game Study of Airlines Based on Flight Frequency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the game theory, the relationship between airline ticket price and optimal flight frequency is analyzed. The paper establishes the payoff matrix of the flight frequency in noncooperation scenario and flight frequency optimization model in cooperation scenario. The airline alliance profit distribution is converted into profit distribution game based on the cooperation game theory. The profit distribution game is proved to be convex, and there exists an optimal distribution strategy. The results show that joining the airline alliance can increase airline whole profit, the change of negotiated prices and cost is beneficial to profit distribution of large airlines, and the distribution result is in accordance with aviation development.

  15. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  16. Introducing explus, United Airlines' Regional Jet Redefined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) unveiled the new explusSM brand - a United Express service featuring state-of-the-art Embraer-170 (70-seat) and Canadair RJ-700(66-seat) regional jets, which provide the luxurious services to the passengers.

  17. Airline Revenue Management with Shifting Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAirline revenue management is the practice of controlling the booking requests such that the planes are filled with the most profitable passengers. In revenue management the capacities of the business and economy class sections of the plane are traditionally considered to be fixed and di

  18. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...) in a pilot project, Regulation Room, to discover the best ways of using Web 2.0 and social networking... conclusions on the most effective use of social networking technologies in this area. DOT and the Obama... through social networking mediums such as Facebook or Twitter. Do airlines currently communicate...

  19. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  20. Singapore Airlines A380 Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first A380 aircraft that will be delivered to launch customer Singapore Airlines embarked on its maiden test flight on May 7, 2006. This aircraft will be the world's first A380 to enter commercial service at the end of the year.

  1. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  2. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... smokes. Dr. Leischow: We encourage senior citizens, as well as others, to in particular not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to quit smoking. But if people do smoke, they shouldn't be in rooms where -- they shouldn't have children ...

  5. Examining General Hospitals' Smoke-Free Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V.; Harbison, Phillip Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the level of smoke-free policies in general hospitals and the barriers faced in implementing restrictive policies banning smoking inside buildings and on surrounding grounds. Design/methodology/approach; A survey was developed to gather data on hospitals' current smoke-free policies, including the challenges…

  6. 28 CFR 35.132 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 35.132 Section 35.132 Judicial... SERVICES General Requirements § 35.132 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in transportation covered by this part....

  7. 28 CFR 36.210 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 36.210 Section 36.210 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.210 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in places of public accommodation....

  8. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  9. Methods of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    gum or transdermal patches. These products are particularly useful for smokers who show evidence of strong physiologic addiction to nicotine. Attitudes toward smoking have shifted dramatically. In the 1950s, fewer than 50% of American adults believed that cigarette smoking caused lung cancer. In 1986, this proportion had increased to 92%. A majority of the public favors policies restricting smoking in public places and worksites. Half of all Americans who ever smoked had stopped smoking by 1988. Of those who continue to smoke, more than 70% report that they would like to quit. By increasing their knowledge about smoking-cessation methods, health professionals can support and encourage the large majority of smokers who want to quit. PMID:1548971

  10. No Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕川

    2005-01-01

    No Smoking Day comes once a year. It calls on people to quit smoking, but there're still so many smokers in the world. Worse still, the number of smokers is increasing day by day. As we know, smoking is a bad habit. Smoking is harmful not only to a smoker himself but also to the people around. It is said that if you smoke one cigarette, your life will be a second shorter. In other words, smoking means buying death with money. I've learned from a newspaper that tens of thousands of people in the world die fr...

  11. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  12. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  13. Airline Revenue Management with Shifting Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Airline revenue management is the practice of controlling the booking requests such that the planes are filled with the most profitable passengers. In revenue management the capacities of the business and economy class sections of the plane are traditionally considered to be fixed and distinct capacities. In this paper, we give up this notion and instead consider the use of convertible seats. A row of these seats can be converted from business class seats to economy class seats and vice versa...

  14. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to lower average real fares, although various barriers to entry still allow carriers to keep prices above competitive levels. Environmental effects have thus far not received much attention in the discus...

  15. FACTORS EFFECTING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN AIRLINE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Ali Soomro; Irfan Hameed; Rehan Shakoor; Sana Abbas Kaimkhani

    2012-01-01

    This research paper investigates different factors that affect Consumer Preference in Airline Industry. Nine Factors were considered for the research. Overall Consumer Satisfaction was dependent variable and rest nine was independent variables. Multiple Regression tool was selected for analysis of the data. Questionnaire was developed to collect data having Likert Scale. The findings of this study are based on the analysis of a sample of 100 respondents. The dimensionality of overall customer...

  16. Customer Complaint Behaviors in Turkish Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Güreş, Nuriye; Arslan, Seda; BAKAR, Zeynep KOCAGÖZ

    2013-01-01

    Of late years in Turkey, the number of passengers who prefers air transportation has been increasing expeditiously. In that case, understanding the wants, satisfaction levels and complaining behaviors of passengers has been obligatory for airline companies. Therefore in this study, Turkish passengers’ complaining behaviors and Turkish-oriented airlines’ service recovery efforts toward those complaints have been searched. The study results indicated that most of the passengers have experienced...

  17. Robust scheduling and disruption recovery for airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Airline planning include complex and structured operations that must be planned in advance in order to exploit the available resources, provide a reliable and competitive service and forecast system's performances. Decisions regarding operations are based on data which is frequently due to uncertainty. Moreover, unpredicted events may disrupt the current schedule and force managers to take reactive decisions to recover to an operational state. On the other hand, proactive decisions, i.e. deci...

  18. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS' EVALUATIONS THROUGH MINING AIRLINE REVIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yakut

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining can be evaluated as a strategic tool to determine the customer profiles in order to learn customer expectations and requirements. Airline customers have different characteristics and if passenger reviews about their trip experiences are correctly analyzed, companies can increase customer satisfaction by improving provided services. In this study, we investigate customer review data for in-flight services of airline companies and draw customer models with respect to such data. In this sense, we apply two approaches as feature-based and clustering-based modelling. In feature-based modelling, customers are grouped into categories based on features such as cabin flown types, experienced airline companies. In clustering-based modelling, customers are first clustered via k-means clustering and then modeled. We apply multivariate regression analysis to model customer groups in both cases. During this, we try to understand how customers evaluate the given services and what dominant characteristics of in-flight services can be from the customer viewpoint.

  19. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using in addition to the medications they may use for smoking cessation, so a senior citizen who's ... for hypertension, or the like, and want to use a medication for smoking cessation should see their ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If you quit smoking, you greatly ... health care provider. So I don't want to make it sound like an easy process. But ...

  1. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quitting smoking, and in fact, on that website, we have a manual just for people that are ... I mean, one of the key areas that we try to address with senior citizens quitting smoking ...

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... smokes. Dr. Leischow: We encourage senior citizens, as well as others, to in particular not smoke in ... it increases their chances for developing asthma as well as disease down the road. Teacher: Okay, kids, ...

  3. Development of Business Models of Low-Cost Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Vidović; Igor Štimac; Damir Vince

    2013-01-01

    The global economic crisis that affects all industries, including the aviation industry, has forced airlines to adjust their business models to existing market conditions. Low-cost airlines, which till the onset of economic crises in most cases followed the base low-cost business model, have adapted their business model in such a way that they have implemented segments of traditional airlines business models and thus created a hybrid between traditional and low-cost business models. This pape...

  4. An analytical model for the assessment of airline expansion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Emboaba Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983) industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s  (1996) sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place.  A system ...

  5. THE REQUIREMENTS OF DEVELOPING THE REGIONAL AIRLINE TRANPORTATION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Emre Sarilgan

    2011-01-01

    Regional airline transportation is the one of the fastest growing part of the air transportation system. The regional airlines which give the service with small size capacity and generally between large and the small cities, on short and medium range routes make a contribution to social and economic life of the regions they serve. Regional airlines also provide easily access to that regions. In Turkey, which has been in a large geography, mostly the passenger transportation is providing throu...

  6. Application of CSR Programs in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Timo; Kretzschmar, Annika

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was to analyze the global airline business environment and corporate social responsibility (CSR) program implementations of some well-known airlines. The research has been conducted with the assumption that corporate social responsibility theory is valid. Our purpose was to give the reader and overall impression of airline industry in general, CSR theory and its most important elements. The work is divided into two distinct parts; theory and practical analysis o...

  7. Balancing competition and cooperation: Evidence from transatlantic airline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bilotkach, Volodymyr; Hüschelrath, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, airline alliances were not only successful in extending the size of their networks, but also received approvals by public authorities to intensify their cooperation through to merger-like revenue-sharing joint ventures (JVs). We empirically investigate the impact of the implementation of such joint ventures on both the respective airlines' competitive strategies as well as productive efficiency. Using U.S. DOT T100 International Segment data and applying airline-marke...

  8. The Evolution of U.S. Airline Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    1992-01-01

    The next section reviews the evolution of the domestic airline industry since the late 1970s, when it was abruptly freed from most regulatory constraints on pricing, entry, and exit. (International air travel is considered here only as it relates to competition in the domestic industry.) The following sections will examine structure issues and strategic developments in airline competition and discuss public policy options in dealing with the airline industry.

  9. The Impact of Airline Flight Schedules on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Deshpande; Mazhar Arıkan

    2012-01-01

    Airline flight delays have come under increased scrutiny lately in the popular press, with the Federal Aviation Administration data revealing that airline on-time performance was at its worst level in 13 years in 2007. Flight delays have been attributed to several causes such as weather conditions, airport congestion, airspace congestion, use of smaller aircraft by airlines, etc. In this paper, we examine the impact of the scheduled block time allocated for a flight, a factor controlled by ai...

  10. Mergers and acquisitions : the case of United and Continental Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jorge Miguel Braga

    2014-01-01

    The US airline industry is characterized to be an industry with a high competition mainly in the domestic segment. In order to face this competition several airlines entered in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) deals as way to consolidate its position in the market. This trend was accentuated with the global recession that brought several challenges to this industry. For this reason, the merger between United and Continental Airlines, two major US carriers, are being planned and i...

  11. Airline strategic alliances in overlapping Markets: Should policymakers be concerned?

    OpenAIRE

    Gayle, Philip; Brown, Dave

    2015-01-01

    When there is significant overlap in potential partner airlines' route networks, policymakers have expressed concern that an alliance between such airlines may facilitate collusion on price and/or service levels in the partners' overlapping markets. The contribution of our paper is to put together a structural econometric model that is able to explicitly disentangle the demand and supply effects associated with an alliance between such airlines. The estimates from our structural econometric...

  12. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quality of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ... can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and ...

  13. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting smoking is hard for most smokers and it's hard whether they've been smoking five years, it's hard if they've been smoking for 40 ... provider. So I don't want to make it sound like an easy process. But having said ...

  14. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices. PMID:26897619

  15. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI reveal that airlines of Western countries exhibit a more remarkable CSR performance than Asia-Pacific airlines, suggesting that the CSR programs of Asia-Pacific airlines need improvement. By constructing an evaluation hierarchy and applying the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study found that the key strategic factors in the airline industry’s implementation of CSR include corporate governance, risk and crisis management, brand management, and product responsibility (safety.

  16. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  17. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Shang Chang; Sheng-Hung Chen; Chia-Wei Hsu; Allen H. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO 2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) reveal that airlines of West...

  18. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main objectives are to minimize operation costs and fares, and to maximize profits based on cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper presents a literature review about airline bu...

  19. Smoking and cancer: smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    Austoker, J; Sanders, D.; Fowler, G

    1994-01-01

    Smoking is the single most important cause of cancer. The risk of developing cancer is reduced by stopping smoking and decreases substantially after five years. Reduction in smoking must be central to any programme aimed seriously at the prevention of cancer. An individual approach, based in primary care, has the potential to bring about modest but important reductions in risk. Many randomised trials have shown the effectiveness of various smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Give...

  20. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  1. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  2. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  3. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  4. ANALYZING APPROACHES TO EVALUATING AIRLINES PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marusych

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, understanding of what constitutes a business process, what internal factors impact the company's performance make airlines review the methods for assessing their performance. To assess the profitability of the processes, several different methods were developed whose approbation proved both their popularity and the reliability of the results: the concept of the economic value added (EVA, a Balanced Scorecard (BSC and the process-oriented cost-benefit analysis (BPA. The concept of the economic value added is now claiming to play a leading role in determining the shapes and structural elements of the methodology of corporate governance in the world. The system of parameters that characterize the activities of an airline within the concept of cost management, has constantly been updated. With the introduction of modern information technologies, appearing of new ideas the parameters are becoming more objective and complex. Despite the fact that the system of parameters is an indicator of the general state of an enterprise, it would be wrong to only limit oneself to their analysis. In order to immediately prevent or solve any problems arising at a plant, a system of timely and reliable indicators performance is required to most fully evaluate the efficiency of an airline as a whole. Such a system is a balanced system of efficiency indexes. It can significantly improve the quality of business management, especially if a company has several activities. By means of this technique it is possible to assess the effectiveness of not only individual investments or projects, but also of entire companies or commercial entities. The problem of a balanced scorecard is that it does not solve the fundamental problems of performance measurement and gives guidelines how to combine diverse indicators into an overall assessment of effectiveness. This problem of a combination of different types of indicators is resolved through a process-oriented analysis of

  5. Brief Analysis of E-business in China Southern Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航; 崔涛; 焦斌

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet is causing another industrial revolution. Developing E-business is necessary for Chinese airlines to keep their competitive advantages. It is quite urgent for China Southern Airlines to enlarge and improve its E-business strategies so that it can consolidate its leading position in this market segment.

  6. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. See 76 FR 41726. You may review comments to... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger... (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline...

  7. Design of Publicity Activity for Special Purpose Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Gerasimenko

    2014-01-01

    The features of publicity activity for special purpose airline are considered in the article. The possible ways of planning of publicity activity for special purpose airline are offered at implementation of agro aviation works. Theoretical bases of advancement of agro aviation works in the agrarian market of Ukraine are presented. The model of planning of advertising is developed in relation to its periodicity.

  8. Impact of the Spanish smoking control law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J.; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel; ,

    2009-01-01

    Background A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. Method...

  9. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazier Richard H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand smoking exposure rates in 15 Ontario municipalities. Data analysis included descriptive summaries and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across groups Results Across all studied municipalities, secondhand smoke exposure in public places decreased by 4.7% and workplace exposure decreased by 2.3% between the 2003 and 2005 survey years. The only jurisdiction to implement a full ban from no previous ban was also the only setting that experienced significant decreases in both individual exposure to secondhand smoke in a public place (-17.3%, 95% CI -22.8, -11.8 and workplace exposure (-18.1%, 95% CI -24.9, -11.3. Exposures in vehicles and homes declined in almost all settings over time. Conclusions Implementation of a full smoking ban was associated with the largest decreases in secondhand smoke exposure while partial bans and changes in existing bans had inconsistent effects. In addition to decreasing exposure in public places as would be expected from legislation, bans may have additional benefits by decreasing rates of current smokers and decreasing exposures to secondhand smoke in private settings.

  10. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds of those chemicals are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children ...

  11. Identifying airline cost economies: An econometric analysis of the factors affecting aircraft opeerating costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zuidberg

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an econometric analysis of the influences of airline characteristics on the average operating costs per aircraft movement. The analysis combines a comprehensive selection of airline-output variables, airline-fleet variables, and airline-market variables. The result

  12. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  13. Measuring the Malindo Airline Passenger’s Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Wahab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality of service has become a tool to improve the passenger’s value that lead to their satisfaction level and retains loyalty. This study conducted in evaluating the Malindo Airline passenger’s satisfaction of Low Cost Carrier (LCC in Malaysia. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level of quality of service provided by Malindo Airline. In addition, the aim of this study is to identify the impact of quality of service and Malindo Airline passenger’s satisfaction. The sample for this research is the passenger’s of Malindo Airline in Kuala Lumpur. Convenience sampling was used in this study. Questionnaires have been distributed to 200 respondents in Subang Jaya Airport and KLIA 2. SPSS version 18.0 was used to analyse the data collected. Descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation, multiple regression, model are used to test on the impact of quality of service on Malindo Airline passenger’s satisfaction. The results showed that there is a positive correlation between quality of service and Malindo Airline passenger’s satisfaction among passenger’s of Malindo Airline

  14. A liberalised South African airline industry: Measuring airline total-factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of the South African airline industry through economic deregulation established competitive domestic and international markets. Sustainability of air transport, subject to these liberalisation effects, depends on efficient management information such as total-factor productivity, which necessitates comprehensive financial and operational information. Total-factor productivity in general, however, is not utilised by airlines as a key performance indicator since the measuring thereof is complex and regarded as tedious. Changes in air transport total-factor productivity can be measured in two ways. First, an index approach can be adopted that shows the proportional change in the inputs in relation to a proportional change in output. Secondly, a production function can be determined (econometric approach that shows a change of productivity as a shift in the production curve. The research on which the article is based, exploited the theory, selection and application of an appropriate approach to determine changes of total-factor productivity of an individual airline to assist/support efficient decisionmaking by management.

  15. Airline Maintenance Manpower Optimization from the De Novo Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, James J. H.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    Human resource management (HRM) is an important issue for today’s competitive airline marketing. In this paper, we discuss a multi-objective model designed from the De Novo perspective to help airlines optimize their maintenance manpower portfolio. The effectiveness of the model and solution algorithm is demonstrated in an empirical study of the optimization of the human resources needed for airline line maintenance. Both De Novo and traditional multiple objective programming (MOP) methods are analyzed. A comparison of the results with those of traditional MOP indicates that the proposed model and solution algorithm does provide better performance and an improved human resource portfolio.

  16. Measuring the Malindo Airline Passenger’s Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Wahab; Inda Sukati; Lee Hua Li

    2015-01-01

    Quality of service has become a tool to improve the passenger’s value that lead to their satisfaction level and retains loyalty. This study conducted in evaluating the Malindo Airline passenger’s satisfaction of Low Cost Carrier (LCC) in Malaysia. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level of quality of service provided by Malindo Airline. In addition, the aim of this study is to identify the impact of quality of service and Malindo Airline passenger’s satisfaction. The sample for ...

  17. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  18. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft. PMID:20478517

  19. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Hammond, S. Katharine; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J.; Yang, Yan; Nan, Yi; Feng, Guoze; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards. PMID:21655134

  20. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  1. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does not ...

  2. Health hazards of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, M P; LeMaistre, C A; Newell, G R

    1988-01-01

    are partially analogous to the biologic effects of direct smoke inhalation. As many as 5000 nonsmokers are estimated to die annually from lung cancer as a result of exposure to ETS. There is great potential for prevention of these premature deaths. The two major preventive actions are (a) eliminating the source by reducing the amount of direct smoking and (b) limiting the level of exposure by restricting where tobacco can be smoked. Specific preventive actions include smoking cessation, smoking prevention, restriction of advertising, increased taxation on tobacco, and adoption of stringent nonsmoking policies in the workplace, schools, and public places.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3288240

  3. Determinants of Intention to Purchase Online Airline Ticket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza Hadadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays development of information technology has caused online shopping continues to gain more acceptance by travelers that make airlines be care about factors affecting online ticket purchasing. Therefore, in this paper is an attempt to analyze intention to online airline ticket purchasing model according to trust, subjective norms, perceived risk, satisfaction and ease of use. The statistical population includes departure passengers of Mashhad international airport in domestic flights of September 2013 and sample size calculated for 215 passengers. Data collected by questionnaire that has appropriate validity and reliability. In addition, it is use structural equation model (SEM and Lisrel8.8 Software to analyze hypothesis. The results show higher satisfaction and trust leads to more intention to online airline ticket purchasing. Moreover, perceived risk and ease of use have indirect effect on intention to online purchasing by trust and satisfaction and it is not support significant relationship between subjective norms and intention to online airline ticket purchasing.

  4. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, John

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear which occured on 31 May 1984 on a United Airlines aircraft is discussed by a member of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The meteorological parameters important to this incident are detailed.

  5. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and when I ... it just keeps going and going and going. Boy: I sneeze and my eyes get watery. Boy: ...

  6. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a person can quit at any age -- they should quit at any age and there are plenty ... want to use a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find ...

  7. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  8. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide into your bloodstream it makes your heart work ...

  9. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about heart disease, it's about overall health and what we can do to make our life as ... seats -- let's get started. Who can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: ...

  10. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide ... take away that carbon monoxide it reduces the demand on the heart and immediately reduces the risk ...

  11. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to in particular not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to ... be in rooms where -- they shouldn't have children in those same rooms because it really particularly ...

  12. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there are plenty of places senior citizens can go for help to quit smoking. Announcer: To help ... for people over 50. Dr. Leischow: They can go to our website, which is smokefree.gov and ...

  13. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fingers no longer register on the screen as skin temperature continues to drop. Dr. Leischow: Quitting smoking is not just about cancer, not just about heart disease, it's about overall ...

  14. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out if there are going to be any interactions that might cause any problems. We talk a ... Dr. Leischow: Quitting smoking is not just about cancer, not just about heart disease, it's about overall ...

  15. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and in many cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don' ... plenty of places senior citizens can go for help to quit smoking. Announcer: To help older people ...

  16. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  17. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there ...

  18. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide into your bloodstream it makes your heart ...

  19. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  20. High Enough? Explaining and Predicting Traveler Satisfaction Using Airline Review

    OpenAIRE

    Lacic, Emanuel; Kowald, Dominik; Lex, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Air travel is one of the most frequently used means of transportation in our every-day life. Thus, it is not surprising that an increasing number of travelers share their experiences with airlines and airports in form of online reviews on the Web. In this work, we thrive to explain and uncover the features of airline reviews that contribute most to traveler satisfaction. To that end, we examine reviews crawled from the Skytrax air travel review portal. Skytrax provides four review categories ...

  1. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using metaheuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take-off.  Jobs (flights) must...... simulated annealing heuristic approach to solve the problem. Computational experiments show that the tabu search approach outperforms the simulated annealing approach, and is capable of finding good solutions....

  2. Collude, compete, or both? : deregulation in the Norwegian airline industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Steen, Frode; Sørgard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the nature of competition concerning price and capacity setting in the Norwegian airline industry after the deregulation in 1994. Did the two airlines, SAS and Braathens, compete on prices and capacities (competition), collude on prices and capacities (collusion) or collude on prices and compete on capacities (semicollusion)? We reject the hypothesis that they achieved collusion, and we find the observed behaviour consistent with semicollusive behaviour an...

  3. Building clusters for CRM strategies by mining airlines customer data

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Helena Sofia Guerreiro de

    2013-01-01

    As airlines strive to gain market share and sustain profitability in today’s economically challenging environment, they should develop new ways to optimize their frequent flyer programs while increase revenues. Aware of the challenges, airlines want to implement a customer relationship management (CRM) strategy based on customer analytics and data mining techniques to support marketing decisions. So, to achieve this goal, we have to apply clustering techniques to the company cu...

  4. MECHANISM OF RESTRUCTURING OF AIRLINES: IMPROVEMENT OF METHODOLOGICAL BASES

    OpenAIRE

    Arefiev, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the feasibility of using a set of performance indicators restructuring. On the basis of classification trees justified "national standards" successful restructuring airlines are recommended for monitoring the effectiveness of their current reorganization process. On the basis of a systematic approach sorted economic needs of airlines, defining priorities and restructuring. The approach to the definition of norms in the criteria for selecting the direction and type of restructu...

  5. An MDO concept for large civil airliner wings

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, K.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis investigates the application of Multi-Disciplinary Design, Anal- ysis and Optimisation to the design of a large civil airliner, similar in size as the future A3XX. For the first time structural optimisation, manufacturing cost and aerodynamic effects are simultaneously integrated within a realistic, complex aircraft design problem: the wing box of such a large airliner. A novel multi-level system was developed to incorporate structural effects and manufacturing c...

  6. Analysis of online marketing communication of the airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Kollárová, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the use of online marketing by airlines, while emphasis is placed on social media and viral marketing campaigns. The aim is to identify the requirements for successful online marketing communication. In the theoretical part the specific features of the airline industry are characterized and PEST analysis of the aviation industry is performed. This part of the thesis also defines and characterizes the main forms of online marketing used in aviation. The practical part com...

  7. AirTicket Sales as Bids from Airline Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Marc; Petrova, Milena; Urdanoz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the higher price sensitivity and service homogenisation in the airline industry in recent years, we propose a new methodology to deal with transaction prices and to estimate the effect of alliances in the US domestic market. The assumption that airlines compete on price allows us to take advantage of the observational equivalence between Bertrand competition and the reverse English auction. We then apply an MLE method, developed by Paarsch (1997) for esti- mating auctions, to rec...

  8. Air Ticket Sales as Bids from Airline Alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Marc; Petrova, Milena; Urdanoz, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the higher price sensitivity and service homogenisation in the airline industry in recent years, we propose a new methodology to deal with transaction prices and to estimate the effect of alliances in the US domestic market. The assumption that airlines compete on price allows us to take advantage of the observational equivalence between Bertrand competition and the reverse English auction. We then apply an MLE method, developed by Paarsch (1997) for estimating auctions, to recov...

  9. Airline Overbooking in the Multi-Class Case

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an airline overbooking model at a class level for one servcie compartment-cabin. Class level demand data i sused to determine the number of bookings that can be taken for each class. The model is optimised through the use of mulit-dimentsional search routines. The control level model developed is tested with data supplied by Ireland's national airline, Aer Lingus. The model shows a significant improvement over previous methods employed by Aer Lingus and was subsequently ad...

  10. Influence of Capacity Constraints on Airline Fleet Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mark M.; Gosling, Geoffrey D.; Margulici, Jean-David; Wei, Wen-Bin

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the findings of research sponsored by the Los Angeles World Airports to examine the influence of airport capacity constraints on airline fleet mix and to explore the potential effects of policy options to influence airlines to use larger aircraft types and thereby accommodate growth in passenger or cargo demand without a corresponding increase in the number of aircraft operations. This issue is of growing importance at many major airports in the United States and indeed ...

  11. A Strategic Analysis of the Oneworld Airline Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Russell M.

    2011-01-01

    Global airline alliances enable member airlines to increase profits. They achieve this by increasing customer willingness to pay and reducing costs. Deep levels of partnerships are required to drive these benefits. The ability for partners to closely integrate is largely dependent on antitrust immunities being granted by regulators, which enable joint venture partnerships. The Oneworld alliance is poised to capitalize on a recent decision by the United States Department of Transportation and ...

  12. Determinants of Intention to Purchase Online Airline Ticket

    OpenAIRE

    alireza Hadadian; Amirhossein Bagherieh

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays development of information technology has caused online shopping continues to gain more acceptance by travelers that make airlines be care about factors affecting online ticket purchasing. Therefore, in this paper is an attempt to analyze intention to online airline ticket purchasing model according to trust, subjective norms, perceived risk, satisfaction and ease of use. The statistical population includes departure passengers of Mashhad international airport in domestic flights of ...

  13. Design of Publicity Activity for Special Purpose Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gerasimenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of publicity activity for special purpose airline are considered in the article. The possible ways of planning of publicity activity for special purpose airline are offered at implementation of agro aviation works. Theoretical bases of advancement of agro aviation works in the agrarian market of Ukraine are presented. The model of planning of advertising is developed in relation to its periodicity.

  14. An analytical model for the assessment of airline expansion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Emboaba Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983 industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s  (1996 sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place.  A system of points and weights is developed to create a score among the 904,736 possible combinations considered. The model’s outputs are generic expansion strategies with quantitative assessments for each specific combination of elements inputted. Originality and value: The analytical model developed is original because it combines for the first time and explicitly elements of the general environment, industry environment, airline business models and the generic expansion strategy types. Besides it creates a system of scores that may be used to drive the decision process toward the choice of a specific strategic expansion path. Research implications: The analytical model may be adapted to other industries apart from the airline industry by substituting the element “airline business model” by other industries corresponding elements related to the different specific business models.

  15. Airline Brand Loyalty: A case study involving the three airlines, - SAS, Norwegian and Widerøe

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Basant Raj

    2014-01-01

    1.0 Abstract The general object of this study is to explore the airline brand loyalty. The primary objective of this study is to explore the nature of consumer loyalty and its major determinants with respect to the three airlines - SAS, Norwegian and Widerøe; analyze the data concerning relationships between consumers' attitude, habit, satisfaction and loyalty and identify the differences concerning attitude, habit, satisfaction, loyalty and factors (service, safety, comfort, luggage a...

  16. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Secondhand Smoke and Cancer On This Page What is secondhand smoke? How is secondhand smoke exposure measured? Does secondhand ...

  17. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  18. Perception Mapping of Travelers: Case of Six Indian Domestic Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A comparison of customer satisfaction based on service quality as perceived by air travelers was done among six domestic airlines. Literature review suggested that flying experience has three stages: Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight and a set of six variables can be used to measure satisfaction. These variables are: Ease of bookings through the website/call center; Hassle free check in/efficient ticketing staff/regular announcements during flight delays at airport; on time performance of flights; in flight experience; baggage handling and value for money. Approach: A questionnaire was designed with above set of variables and responses of 150 fliers of six domestic airlines viz., GoAir, Kingfisher, Jet Airways, Indigo, SpiceJet and Air India (Domestic was recorded on a five point Likert scale. About 150 respondents were interviewed from different places in NCR: Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida and Faridabad. A convenient sampling method was followed. Perceptions of only those travelers were captured who had actually undergone the experience of travelling by an airline. The range for the number of respondents was between 103 (for GoAir and 133 (for Jet Air. Results: Using one way ANOVA, it was checked whether travelers perceive any significant difference between six airlines for each of the above six identified variables. With Tukey-Kramer test the airlines which are significantly different from the rest were identified. Perceptual maps with combination of up to two variables (attributes were drawn to infer about the positioning of six different airlines. Conclusion: This study will help marketers of domestic airlines and designers of flight service offerings to enhance the satisfaction level of air travelers.

  19. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  20. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  1. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  2. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  3. Smoking and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  4. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  6. LOGISTIC APPROACH TO INTERACTION BETWEEN AN AIRLINE AND A FUEL SUPPLIER

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses optimization of jet fuel supply to airlines under conditions of the surge in jet fuel prices by forecasting of airline’s fuel demand and planning the interaction between an airline and fuel suppliers.

  7. Measuring service quality and a comparative analysis in airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Izadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of services in airline industry plays an important role in market penetration and customer retention. In this paper, we present a factor analysis to find important factors in Iranian Airline industry. The study designs a questionnaire consist of 35 questions and distribute it among 200 customers who regularly use services from 16 different airlines and they are investigated based on the implementation of factor analysis. The results of our survey determines seven important factors including physical features of the environment, Kettering, Pre-flight passenger services, Ability to respond, Reliability, Passenger service flight and Virtual Passenger Services. The paper discusses that improving these seven factors can significantly improve service quality in this sector.

  8. A Discourse Analysis for Ads in Turkey: Pegasus Airlines and Anadolujet

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Atalik; Iki Eylul; Bahri Baran Kocak

    2015-01-01

    One of airline marketing activities is to encourage new passengers to air travel. For this purpose, mass media plays an important role to inform customers about promotions, such as tariffs and price, comfort, and service convenience of airline companies. In this context, television ads cover a large part of airline marketing activities to have passengers’ attentions. In this paper, current state of airline ads are determined within the framework of ads presentation with messages and social pe...

  9. Successful Crisis Management in the Airline Industry : A Quest for Legitimacy Through Communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Anna; Vikström, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores how the legitimacy and reputation of firms that have experienced severe crises can be restored through the means of crisis management and crisis communication strategies. Our focus is on the airline industry, analyzing how three European airlines have communicated and acted towards important shareholders during and following a fatal airline accident. The airlines that have been compared are Air France, Spanair and SAS; an analysis of their press releases, press conference...

  10. The effect of rail travel time on airline fares: first evidence from the Italian passenger market.

    OpenAIRE

    Capozza, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The empirical evidence shows that travel time is crucial for rail transport to be a competitor to air transport. However, there are no papers testing whether travel time has a direct effect on airline pricing. This paper is a step towards filling this gap. We test and quantify the effect of rail travel time on airline fares, using unique data at flight-level. We find that airlines design pricing strategies taking into consideration the travel time of competing rail transport service. Airlines...

  11. A FUZZY APPROACH TO BUSINESS TRAVEL AIRLINE SELECTION USING AN INTEGRATED AHP-TOPSIS-MSGP METHODOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    CHIN-NUNG LIAO

    2013-01-01

    Airline selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem faced in business travel. The evaluation process primarily involves the evaluation of several complex factors for selecting an airline that will best meet business travel needs. Previous studies have proposed several different methods that a company or organization can use to evaluate or select an airline. In its proposed approach to solving airline selection, this study integrates the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) with...

  12. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  13. Income statements "by nature" and analysis of company performance : an application of US airlines companies

    OpenAIRE

    Stolowy, Hervé; Ding, Yuan; Baker, C. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001; and during the ensuing economic slowdown, U.S airline companies have experienced significant financial difficulties, including bankruptcies and near bankruptcies on the part of several major carriers. In an economic setting where U.S. airlines are struggling to achieve or maintain profitability, it is important for accountants, auditors and financial analysts to be able to analyze the relative performance of airline companies. In the airline industry, income statemen...

  14. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1 the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2 the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3 geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places.

  15. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  16. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... received a request from Allegiant Air and Spirit Airlines as well as Southwest Airlines to postpone or stay... Federal Register (76 FR 23110), titled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections,'' containing many new... July 28, 2011. The effective date of the final rule published at 76 FR 23110, April 25, 2011,...

  17. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC006 BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... survey is intended to collect information on U.S. airline operators' foreign revenues and expenses....

  18. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  19. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  20. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators... INFORMATION: I. Abstract Form BE-9, Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States, obtains quarterly data from U.S. offices, agents, or other representatives of foreign airline...

  1. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bernie Stankus, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E36-303, RITA, BTS, 1200 New... and returned. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  3. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  4. “A PERSISTENT EXCEPTION TO TEXTBOOK ECONOMICS”: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent centennial of the Wright Brothers' flight stimulated study of the history of aviation in general and this historical overview of international airlines in particular. International airlines are commercial enterprises, but their history suggests that the economics behind their development was often overridden lypolitical, diplomatic, strategic, imperial, cultural, and emotional pressures. International airlines have not always been economically rational enterprises.

  5. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. PMID:26061899

  6. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  7. "I only smoke when I have nothing to do" - A qualitative study on how smoking is part of everyday life in a Greenlandic village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Jensen, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking-related illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, are common in Greenland. Factors such as age, gender, cigarette use, restricted smoking at home and socio-economic determinants are well-known predictors for smoking and smoking...... smoke more during leisure time. Having time on one's hands can be a factor in smokers remaining as smokers. It appears that smokers seem to consider themselves to be stigmatised. This may be one reason for wanting to stop smoking. Smokers ask how to quit and also ask for help to give up smoking with...

  8. Opportunities for Policy Interventions to Reduce Youth Hookah Smoking in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Morris; Fiala, Steven C.; Pawlak, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Preventing youth smoking initiation is a priority for tobacco control programs, because most adult tobacco smokers become addicted during adolescence. Interventions that restrict the affordability, accessibility, and marketing of cigarettes have been effective in reducing youth cigarette smoking. However, increasing numbers of youth are smoking tobacco using hookahs. Predictors of smoking tobacco with hookahs are the same as those for smoking cigarettes. Established interventions that curb yo...

  9. Does cigarette smoking affect body weight? causal estimates from the clean indoor air law discontinuity

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the causal effects of smoking behavior on body weight in Italy. In 2005, the Italian government introduced a smoking ban in all indoor public places. We use a regression discontinuity design, which exploits this exogenous variation due to smoking restrictions across cohorts, to achieve identification in our model. Our estimates indicate that the smoking ban reduced cigarette consumption and the smoking participation rate. Most interestingly, we estimate a significant, alth...

  10. Passengers’ perceptions of low cost airlines and full service carriers: a case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, John F.; Williams, George

    2005-01-01

    Direct competition between full service airlines and no-frills carriers is intensifying across the world. US and European full service airlines have lost a significant proportion of their passengers to low cost carriers, the experience now being repeated in the domestic markets of Asia. This paper attempts to provide answers to a number of critical questions: What are the key drivers of each type of airline's business model? Is there a difference in passengers’ perceptions between low cost ca...

  11. Stock Investors’ Confidence on Low-Cost and Traditional Airlines in Asia During Financial Crisis 2007-2009 : Evidence from Air Asia and Singapore Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chin Fei; Tay, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The birth of low-cost carriers (LCC) in recent years, have added a new dimension to the aviation business, especially in Asia. There have been several success stories of these LCCs, compared with conventional full-serviced carriers. Two renowned airlines in Asia, Air Asia and Singapore Airlines have been chosen as our sample companies for the purpose of this research paper. Air Asia will represent the LCC segment, while Singapore Airlines is the proxy for traditional carriers. These two class...

  12. Exposure to anti-smoking media messages and pro-smoking media messages and its association with intention to smoke among adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xingcun; 李幸存

    2013-01-01

    Background: Even though a series of restrictions aimed at protecting dwellers from being addicted to tobacco are implemented in Hong Kong, the loopholes utilized by tobacco industry can still promote tobacco marketing by various strategies such as sponsorship in movies and charity activities. Therefore, it is still quite necessary to monitor the associations of intention to smoke with exposure to anti-smoking media messages and pro-smoking media messages among adolescents in Hong Kong. ...

  13. Molecular bacterial diversity and bioburden of commercial airliner cabin air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Duc, M.T.; Stuecker, T.; Venkateswaran, K. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Biotechnology and Planetary Protection Group

    2007-11-15

    Microorganisms that exist in aircraft air systems are considered to be the primary source of microbial contamination that can lead to illness shortly after flying. More than 600 million passengers board commercial airline flights annually in the United States alone. In this study, culture-independent, biomarker-targeted bacterial enumeration and identification strategies were used to estimate total bacterial burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Air-impingement was used to collect samples of microorganisms from 4 flights on 2 commercial carriers. The total viable microbial population ranged from below detection limits to 4.1 x 10{sup 6} cells/m{sup 3} of air. Microbes were found to gradually accumulate from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight. A sharp decline in bacterial abundance was then observed. Representatives of the {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} Proteobacteria, as well as Gram-positive bacteria, were isolated in varying abundance. Airline A had large abundances of Neisseria meningitidis rRNA gene sequences and Streptococcus oralis/mitis sequences. Airline B was dominated by pseudomonas synxantha sequences as well as N. meningitidis and S. oralis/mitis. The cabin air samples housed low bacterial diversity and were typically dominated by a particular subset of bacteria, notably opportunistic pathogenic inhabitants of the human respiratory tract and oral cavity. The microbes were found largely around the ventilation ducts and gasper conduits that supply cabin air. 45 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. 75 FR 41579 - Submitting Airline Data via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ..., traffic, operational, and consumer reports to BTS via the Internet on December 20, 2006, (71 FR 76226.... 12866: Regulatory and Planning Review Under Executive Order No. 12866, (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Transportation 14 CFR Parts 217, 234, 241, et al. Submitting Airline Data via the Internet; Final Rule...

  15. THE CONCEPT OF DETACHABLE ENGINE PYLONS IN JET AIRLINERS

    OpenAIRE

    Grudzien, Andzelika; State School of Higher Education in Chelm; Nowakowski, Przemyslaw; State School of Higher Education in Chelm; Lewandowski, Mateusz; State School of Higher Education in Chelm

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides the new conception for improvement of safety in commercial passenger flights, especially during ditching, fuel exhaustion and engine breakdown causing irreversible impossibility of re-ignition engines during the flight. This solution is designed for jet airlines with engines mounted in pylons under the wings.

  16. Mitigation of airspace congestion impact on airline networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In recent years European airspace has become increasingly congested and airlines can now observe that en-route capacity constraints are the fastest growing source of flight delays. In 2010 this source of delay accounted for 19% of all flight delays in Europe and has been increasing with an averag...... medium size European carrier and estimates a lower bound saving of several million USD....

  17. Strategic management of a family-owned airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    external factors and the strategic management of other selected low-cost airlines. The analysis shows to what extent Cimber Sterling Group A/S as a Danish family business copes with increasing competition and critical situations, such as the volcanic ash cloud and financial crisis. Identifying the...

  18. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  19. U.S. Domestic Airline Pricing, 1995-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2004, I find that airline prices fell more than 20% adjusted for inflation. I also show that premia at hub airports declined and that there is now substantially less disparity between the cheaper and more expensive airports than there was a decade ago. Still, I find that prices remain quite high at a few dominated airports.

  20. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  1. Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-geek” and opened to new technologies, which allows them to rate the airline companies through apps or connect more often with the airline through social-media. Technology has become an important part in developing and marketing the airline services for a better quality, more customer-focused and for better flight experience which ultimately makes the difference when choosing to fly an airline company.

  2. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: Within-subject variation in male airline pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Summary We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times ove...

  3. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals ... is: a) Smoke that is breathed out by the smoker b) Pollution from smoke stacks and car exhaust c) Smoke ...

  4. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ... do not have to be a smoker for smoking to cause harm. Exposure to someone else's smoking ( ...

  5. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  6. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000437.htm Smoking and surgery To use the sharing features on ... you succeed. There Are Many Reasons to Quit Smoking Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can ...

  7. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD. Smoking is also a trigger for COPD flare-ups. Smoking damages the air sacs, airways, and the ... have COPD. Smoking can cause an exacerbation, or flare-up, of your symptoms. You do not have to ...

  8. Understanding Consumer Preference Between Low Cost Airlines and Full Service Carriers : A Study on Consumer Choice and Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alex Hoong Onn

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of low cost or no frills airlines in last decade or so have posed considerable threat to the businesses of traditional full service airlines. The competition between the different type of airlines have changed the landscape of the airline industry tremendously and have provided air travelers with options which are unprecedented. The aim of this study is to understand consumer preference between low cost and full service airlines and to determine what are the motivations or facto...

  9. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; White, Victoria M; Emery, Sherry L

    2012-03-01

    Smoking initiation is a key behaviour that determines the future health consequences of smoking in a society. There is a marked difference in smoking patterns around the world, driven by initiation rates. While a number of high-income countries have seen smoking prevalence decline markedly from peak, many low-income and middle-income countries appear to still be on an upward trend. Unlike cessation where changes are limited by nicotine dependence, rates of smoking initiation can change rapidly over a short time span. Interventions that can be effective in achieving this include increases in the price of tobacco products, mass media anti-smoking advertising, smoke-free policies, smoking curricula in schools, restrictions on marketing opportunities for the tobacco industry as well as social norms that lead to restrictions on adolescents' ability to purchase cigarettes. Comprehensive tobacco control programmes that aim to denormalise smoking behaviour in the community contain all of these interventions. Rapid reductions in smoking initiation in adolescents have been documented in two case studies of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in California and Australia. Consistent and inescapable messages from multiple sources appear to be key to success. However, the California experience indicates that the rapid decline in adolescent smoking will not continue if tobacco control expenditures and the relative price of cigarettes are reduced. These case studies provide strong additional evidence of the importance of countries implementing the provisions of the Framework Treaty on Tobacco Control. PMID:22345263

  10. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  11. Associations between respiratory illnesses and secondhand smoke exposure in flight attendants: A cross-sectional analysis of the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Redberg Rita F; Haight Thaddeus J; Beatty Alexis L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) is associated with increased risk of respiratory illness, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Prior to smoking bans on airlines in the late 1980s, flight attendants were exposed to a significant amount of SHS. In the present study, we examine associations between flight attendant SHS exposure and development of respiratory illnesses and cardiovascular disease. Methods Between December 2006 and October 2010, three hundred sixty-two flight atte...

  12. Caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Mitchell, Sharon E

    2011-06-01

    Restricting the intake of calories has been practiced as a method for increasing both the length and quality of life for over 500 years. Experimental work confirming the success of this approach in animals has accumulated over the last 100 years. Lifelong caloric restriction (CR) may extend life by up to 50% in rodents, with progressively less impact the later in life it is started. This effect is matched by profound impacts on age related diseases including reduced risk of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. The disposable soma theory of ageing suggests that CR evolved as a somatic protection response to enable animals to survive periods of food shortage. The shutdown of reproductive function during CR is consistent with this suggestion, but other features of the phenomenon are less consistent with this theory, and some have suggested that in rodents it may be mostly an artifact of domestication. CR induces profound effects on animals at all levels from the transcriptome to whole animal physiology and behavior. Animals under CR lose weight which is disproportionately contributed to by white adipose tissue. Generally animals on CR change their activity patterns so that they are more active prior to food delivery each day but total activity may be unchanged or reduced. Considerable debate has occurred over the effects of CR on resting metabolic rate (RMR). Total RMR declines, but as body mass and body composition also change it is unclear whether metabolism at the tissue level also declines, is unchanged or even increases. Body temperature universally decreases. Hunger is increased and does not seem to abate even with very long term restriction. Circulating adipokines are reduced reflecting the reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass under restriction and there is a large reduction in circulating insulin and glucose levels. There are profound tissue level changes in metabolism with a

  13. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, P.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of selected particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere has been installed on a number of commercial airliners and is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) in support of the Global Air Sampling Program (GASP). Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This system includes specialized instrumentation for measuring carbon monoxide, ozone, water vapor, and particulates, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituents and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  14. In-depth survey report of American Airlines plating facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, V. D., Jr.

    1982-12-01

    An in depth survey was conducted at the American Airlines Maintenance and Engineering Center as part of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study evaluating measures to control occupational health hazards associated with the metal plating industry. This American Airlines plating facility, employing approximately 25 workers, is primarily engaged in plating hard chromium, nickel and cadmium on aircraft engine and landing gear parts. Six tanks were studied, including an electroless nickel tank. Area and personal samples for chromium, nickel, cadmium, and cyanide were collected. Ventilation airflow and tank dimensions were measured and data recorded on plating operations. The relationships between air contaminants emitted, local exhaust ventilation flow rate, tank size, and plating activity were evaluated.

  15. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  16. Measurements of cosmic-ray doses in commercial airline cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation doses which aircrew and air passengers receive in airplanes have been calling attention in many countries especially in the last decade. In this relation, various types of information had been reported on cosmic radiation intensity. In Japan, the cosmic radiation intensity had been measured in commercial airline cabins as well as chartered flights. While the intensity depends on altitude, geomagnetic latitude (or cutoff rigidity), and temporal variation of the solar activity, their doses are often speculated based on paper records on airflights combined with the intensity-altitude relationship. In this study, however, efforts were made to estimate more realistic integrated doses in airline cabins based on actual on-board measurements which had been conducted several dozens of times in each year (e.g., 45 times in 1994 and 27 times in 1995). (author)

  17. Spreadsheet Simulation of Airline Reservation Policy Using Multimedia Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lee Oberstone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A hypothetical business simulation case study using a stand-alone spreadsheet is used to illuminate the rationale of airline overbooking. Because almost everyone has personally encountered the implications of being “bumped,” the selection of this particular case subject is motivated by the belief that half of the problem (or more of teaching a so-phisticated analytical method is in getting the stu-dent's attention. Airline overbooking, it seems, pre-sents such a case. In order for a student to “drill down” the spreadsheet skills, several multimedia tools, Wimba and Jing, are used to produce web hosted, mp4 video files of a library of short films illustrating each step of the spreadsheet operation.

  18. Industry-specific effect of CSR initiatives: hotels and airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Díaz, Ana B.; Nicolau, Juan Luis; Ruiz Moreno, Manuel Felipe; Sellers Rubio, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to examine the relationships between a firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and its performance and risk. The authors hypothesize that industry-level effects are highly determinant of the sign and magnitude of these relationships to establish a ranking of industries to identify the position of the most prominent tourism-related industries: hotels and airlines. Based on the cybernetic model of decision making and the heuristics thereof, shareholders...

  19. Single-leg airline revenue management with overbooking

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Nursen; Aydin, Nursen; Birbil, Ş. İlker; Birbil, S. Ilker; Frenk, Hans; Noyan, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    Airline revenue management is about identifying the maximum revenue seat allocation policies. Since a major loss in revenue results from cancellations and no-show passengers, over the years overbooking has received a significant attention in the literature. In this study, we propose new models for static and dynamic single-leg overbooking problems. In the static case, we introduce computationally tractable models that give upper and lower bounds for the optimal expected revenue. In the dynami...

  20. Mergers and Product Quality: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Gayle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies of horizontal mergers have focused on their price effects, leaving the important question of how mergers affect product quality largely unanswered. This paper empirically investigates this issue for two recent airline mergers: Delta/Northwest and Continental/United. Consistent with the theoretical premise that mergers improve coordination but diminish competitive pressure for quality provision, we find: (i) each merger is associated with a quality increase in markets whe...

  1. Reducing influenza spreading over the airline network

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelino, Jose; Kaiser, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Disease spreading through human travel networks has been a topic of great interest in recent years, such as with swine influenza or SARS pandemics. Most studies have proposed removing highly connected nodes (hubs) to control spreading. Here, we test alternative strategies using edge removal (flight cancellation) for spreading over the airline network. Flight cancellation was more efficient than shutting down whole airports: spreading took 81% longer if solely selected flights were removed, compar...

  2. Perception Mapping of Travelers: Case of Six Indian Domestic Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Shobhit Agarwal; Dey, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A comparison of customer satisfaction based on service quality as perceived by air travelers was done among six domestic airlines. Literature review suggested that flying experience has three stages: Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight and a set of six variables can be used to measure satisfaction. These variables are: Ease of bookings through the website/call center; Hassle free check in/efficient ticketing staff/regular announcements during flight delays at airport; on ...

  3. Upset Dynamics of an Airliner Model: A Nonlinear Bifurcation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Stephen J; Lowenberg, Mark H.; Neild, Simon A.; Krauskopf, Bernd; Puyou, Guilhem; Coetzee, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significant improvement in safety linked to the fourth generation of airliners, the risk of encountering upset conditions remains an important consideration. Upset, which may arise from faults, external events, or inappropriate pilot inputs, can induce a loss-of-control incident if the pilot does not respond in the correct manner. Any initiative aimed at preventing such events requires an understanding of the fundamental aircraft behavior. This paper presents the use of bifurcatio...

  4. Strategic Management of a Family-Owned Airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    resources and capabilities leading to competitive advantages within the aviation industry. From a competence and ACAP perspective family and non-family airlines are analysed by interviewing the owners, managers and selected employees of the businesses. The analysis shows how Cimber Sterling Group A/S as a...... Danish family business copes with increasing competition and critical situations, such as the volcanic ash cloud and financial crisis....

  5. Malaysia Airlines - Will the phoenix rise once more?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zin, Syarizan Adzlinda

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to digest the corporate culture theories and gauge if Malaysia Airline System’s (MAS) survival strategy after the 2005 turbulent will emancipate the company from current and future crisis. This research emphasizes on the correlation of the organisational performance culture-based strategy theories and the pursuit of competitive edge, which in this research assumption, is admissible to MAS. Hence, the most suitable approach seems to be a single case study me...

  6. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  7. Carriers’ Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Junwook; Koo, Won W.; Lim, Siew Hoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores price dispersion in the U.S. airline industry by highlighting individual carriers’ price discrimination strategies. Using heteroskedasticity-adjusted instrumental variable technique, we found that individual carriers play crucial roles in determining price dispersion, implying that the carriers’ price discrimination strategies may influence variation in airfares. Based on the estimated price dispersion and the estimated average price, we distinguished sources of price disp...

  8. Model for the growth of the World Airline Network

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, T; Nagler, J; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic growth model for transport networks which employs a balance between popularity of nodes and the physical distance between nodes. By comparing the degree of each node in the model network and the WAN, we observe that the difference between the two is minimized for $\\alpha\\approx 2$. Interestingly, this is the value obtained for the node-node correlation function in the WAN. This suggests that our model explains quite well the growth of airline networks.

  9. Market structure and multiple equilibria in airline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliberto, Federico; Tamer, Elie

    2009-01-01

    We provide a practical method to estimate the payoff functions of players in complete information, static, discrete games. With respect to the empirical literature on entry games originated by Bresnahan and Reiss (1990) and Berry (1992), the main novelty of our framework is to allow for general forms of heterogeneity across players without making equilibrium selection assumptions. We allow the effects that the entry of each individual airline has on the profits of its competitors, its “com...

  10. Advocating System Safety Concept in Preventing Airline Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chien-tsung; Wetmore, Michael; Smith, John

    2005-01-01

    System safety was conceptualized by the aerospace industry in the late 1940s in the United States (U.S.). Traditionally, users of system safety applied analysis to identify operational hazards and subsequently provide countermeasures before or after an accident. Unfortunately, very few aviation safety researches from the airlines had utilized it to promote aviation safety. To enrich this knowledge and contribute interest from academia, this paper adopted the inductive techniques of system saf...

  11. United Airlines Launches New Daily Nonstop Shanghai-Chicago Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ United Airlines, the leading carrier between the U.S. And China, announced on November 1 the launch of its new Shanghai to Chicago nonstop flight. The flight took off from Shanghai's Pudong International Airport at 7:10pm, opening a new air service route between two of the world's greatest cities, which delivers greater convenience and travel options to and from China throughout the U.S. East Coast and Midwest.

  12. Depression and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight ... Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation ... » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking Why ...

  13. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  14. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  15. Strategy-Based Forecasting Model for Civil Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁剑; 左洪福

    2004-01-01

    Airlines usually pay more attention to maintenance cost for efficiency improvement and consumption reduction. However, airlines, especially the domestic airlines, can hardly predict the cost exactly due to the uncertainty and complexity until now. In practice, the cost is calculated by collecting and calculating the invoices afterwards. To settle the problem, a maintenance cost forecasting model is proposed in this paper. Maintenance activities are classified into scheduled maintenance and unscheduled maintenance. Scheduled maintenance is periodic, in which the required materials and man-power hours can be obtained properly in advance. Nevertheless, it is impossible to acquire the necessary information of unscheduled maintenance. According to the specific characteristics of each, Activity-Based Costing (ABC) and Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are introduced to attack the building of forecasting models, respectively. Then practical cases, the 3C check of MD-90 and the engine shop visit are adopted to verify the cost forecasting models proposed. The results show that the models not only can predict the actual maintenance cost successfully, but also are helpful to drawing up the maintenance program and managing the maintenance funds efficiently.

  16. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, R.; Sargent, J.D.; Karlsdottir, S.; Jonsson, S.H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Sweeting, H.; Hunt, K.; Morgenstern, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare w

  17. Evaluation of the Ukraine international airlines (UIA competitiveness on the air carriage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Oleshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Ukrainian air transport system adaptation to the business practices of European and world market has been urgent for the last twenty years. One of the main obstacles in this process is domestic airlines and airports low competitiveness. Key factors in achieving the competitive advantages by the air carriers are not only service cost but service quality, business processes and management system organization as well. Nowadays, most airlines management teams are conscious of the quality factor importance in the competition on both domestic and international markets. The airlines competitiveness on the air transport market has been evaluated in the article. The airlines competitive recovery strategies have been determined according to the specific development of the air carrier “MAU” on the air transport operations market. The ways of further development of domestic airlines and the airline competitiveness management strategy have been proposed.

  18. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  19. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  20. The Relationship Between Innovation and Company Performance in the Asian Airline Industry : An Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Nicholas Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The airline industry in Asia has been under tremendous competitive pressure especially with the entrance of low cost airline companies into the Asian market. This has caused premier airline companies to innovate and differentiate their services to sustain its competitive edge in the market. It is believed that innovation practices would improve the overall performance of a company. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between innovation and company performance in the Asia...

  1. Low Cost Airlines in a Developing Economy: The Case of India

    OpenAIRE

    Pasari, Nitika

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is a study on the low cost airlines in a developing country, particularly the case of India, since the writer of this dissertation is an Indian. It begins with introducing the emergence of low cost airlines all around the world, which began with the US and was followed by Europe, before coming to Asia. It talks about the factors that initiated the emergence of low cost airlines, particularly, the deregulation of the air transport industry and the technological changes along ...

  2. Oil Shocks and Stock Prices of Airlines - An East Asia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pau Boon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to study and analyse the impact of oil price shock on the share prices of airline companies in East Asia, in particular international air carriers from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia by looking at how the companies‘ share prices respond to the news of oil shocks. The companies involved in this study were Japan Airlines ("JAL"), All Nippon Airways ("ANA"), Cathay Pacific Airways ("Cathay"), Korean Air ("KAL"), Malaysian Airlines ("MAS") an...

  3. Performance evaluation based on financial ratios. Case: Finnair and Scandinavian Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze air travel performance of Finnair and Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) based on financial ratios since aviation industry is developing worldwide and attracting a lot of attention and competition. Fundamentally, the airline industry has a strong relationship with other kinds of business and economic factors; therefore, small changes in these businesses might lead to a dramatic effect on the airline companies. This research aims to understand each airline’s business beh...

  4. @doesyourairlinetweet? An empirical examination of the use of twitter by 50 international airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Budd

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide empirical evidence of the extent to which 50 of the world’s largest passenger airlines use the social media site twitter.Design/methodology/approach: Original empirical data on the presence and usage of 50 airlines’ official twitter accounts was accessed.Research limitations/implications: Research demonstrates the extent to which airlines are using twitter as a communications tool and suggests that some airline are not currently utilising twitter to its full extent.Practic...

  5. Airline price discrimination: a practice of yield management or customer profiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Diercks, Rasha H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Airline ticket prices frequently change, which is usually caused by yield management as price discrimination practice. Recently, buyers of online airline tickets tend to complain about price discrimination based on customer profiling, e.g. by means of cookie data. As cookie data and other directly or indirectly obtained customer information is easily available via the Internet, airlines may use this information to offer personalized ticket prices. In a month-long experiment, in which prices o...

  6. 'FLYING UNDER RADAR': SOUTHWEST AIRLINES AND INCUMBENTS¡¯ RESPONSE TO ENTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Byoung Oh

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the competitive effect of Southwest Airlines, considering the factors affecting its decision to offer service in particular city-pairs and the effect of Southwest¡¯s presence on overall fares and the fare distribution of major airlines. Southwest is a formidable, apparently low-cost competitor when it is present it often garners a large share and creates significant fare pressure on major airlines. Despite this competitive success Southwest¡¯s network does not include ...

  7. Explicit and implicit customer satisfaction factors in the leisure airline business

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Bott, Gian Andrea

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges for airlines is to retain loyal customers in a very competitive environment. Loyal customers offer a greater share of wallet, require less marketing effort, spread positive word of mouth and are often less price sensitive. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to understand what the key leisure airline loyalty factors are and how the leisure airline could design their product to retain as many loyal leisure passengers as possible. Hence, we develop a framewor...

  8. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African domestic passenger airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mostert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past decade, including the significant decline in demand for air travel together with rising costs and the worldwide economic downturn. This study investigates the effect which a strategy by airlines of building relationships with customers has on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and ultimately customer retention. The effect of service failures on customers' relationships with airlines are also considered as a negative experience could results in customers defecting to competitors. A questionnaire, comprising six sections, was specifically compiled to determine customer retention in the South African domestic passenger airline industry. Data were collected by trained fieldworkers from OR Tambo International Airport by means of a non-probability convenience sampling method from 324 passengers flying with the various domestic airlines. Findings indicate that most respondents were satisfied with the airlines' overall service; respondents who formed relationships with domestic airlines were more loyal toward the airlines; and the relationships of respondents who were satisfied with airlines' service recovery efforts were either strengthened or unchanged. The findings from this study support findings from international studies by providing a unique South African perspective on the effect of a strategy of building relationships with customers on their satisfaction, loyalty and ultimately retention. It can therefore be recommended that the organisations competing in the South

  9. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African Domestic Passenger Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Mostert; Christine De Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past...

  10. Analyzing Total Demand for Specified Destinations : A Total Demand Analysis for an Airline Company

    OpenAIRE

    Kecoglu, Onur; Sua, Melih

    2012-01-01

    The airline industry is a highly competitive market. Particularly after the major liberalization in the industry, the competition carried a step forward for all the concerned companies. Airline industry is a very dynamic market also; the expenses of a single operation may change substantially in a very short time period, which could be due to the fickle regulations or the fluctuation of oil prices. At any time, for a certain destination, a new airline company can start its operations and beco...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FOR THE SUCCESS OF USA LOW-COST AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconu, Laura; Andrei MAXIM

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the role played by the organizational culture to the success of the USA low-cost airlines, taking as example two major operators: Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. This exploratory research was conducted using two methods. An analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature was followed by primary data collection, through structured interviews with the representatives of Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. The results show that the ...

  12. Strategic Alliance versus Competition: Airlines' Choices and their Impact on Economic Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Hideki Murakami

    2005-01-01

    This paper theoretically analyses the duopolistic behavior of two hypothetical airlines operating in a four-point hub-and-spoke route network system, and examines the impact of this behavior on economic welfare. The important character of these two airlines is that they are of different (i.e., asymmetric) cost structures and products. The main findings are that (1) in rare cases, two asymmetric airlines might form a strategic alliance, and (2) Cournot competition is much more likely to genera...

  13. Importance of the Enterprise Risk Management Practice for Airline Management: ANP-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz

    2009-01-01

    Airlines are exposed to risk which may effect operations, customers, corporate value, security and safety. Risk can also be introduced to an enterprise through air transportation industry-based and organization-based changes each of which may also bring changes in the type of risk. These present and raising risks main reason of growing importance of enterprise risk management (ERM) implementation in the airlines. ERM becomes focus point in the successful airlines across the world. This intere...

  14. Management Employment-Relations Strategies: Perspectives from Studies of European (and American) Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Greg J. Bamber; Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Kochan, Thomas Anton; von Nordenflycht, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We discuss deregulation (liberalisation) and some of the international institutions that influence the management of people in airlines. As a point of departure, we summarise contrasting models from successful ‘new entrant’ airlines: Ryanair and Southwest. We consider examples of various categories of airlines in different ‘ideal types’ of institutional context: liberal-market economies and coordinated-market economies. These are two varieties of advanced capitalism. The former include the U...

  15. Comparison between Low-cost and Traditional Airlines. Case study: easyJet and British Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosova, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work is conducted with purpose to make an analysis of the financial results of traditional and low cost airlines and compare them. The comparison is done through analysis of the representatives of traditional and low cost airlines – British Airways and easyJet. In addition, the investigation provides an overview of the airline industry as a whole. Researcher applies fundamental analysis, which includes four components: business strategy analysis, accounting analysis, financia...

  16. Strategic positioning and creating competitive advantage in a challenging industry: The case study of Singapore airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Ta, Minh Thu

    2009-01-01

    The competitive landscape of global airline industry has changed dramatically as the result of airline deregulation and globalization impacts. Arguably, the most viable change for traditional airlines is the increased price pressures due to fierce competition from low cost carriers (LCCs). The ‘no frills’ formula, which involves reduction in service and comfort levels, challenges the retaining of full service model and more generally, the model focusing on service quality. Furthermore, re...

  17. Smoking: know the facts

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet outlines the health and financial benefits of stopping smoking. It provides key facts on the health dangers associated with smoking, information on second-hand smoke, information on the dangers of smoking to babies, and contact details for help and support available. It also lists the various forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and non-nicotine medications available.This poster highlights some of the main health and financial benefits of stopping smoking. An associated A5...

  18. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Poutvaara, Panu; Siemens, Lars-H. R.

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  19. Patterns and causes of gender differences in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I

    1991-01-01

    In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking

  20. The influence of services failure and service recovery on airline passengers' relationships with domestic airlines: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christine; Jansen Van Rensburg, L R; Mostert, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Service failures and the subsequent service recovery efforts of an organisation can have a profound effect on customers’ satisfaction with an organisation as well as on the quality of the relationship with the organisation, despite other efforts by the organisation to build long-term relationships with its customers. Airlines in particular are faced with several challenges affecting their survival, and one such challenge is the fact that they are particularly susceptible to service failures. ...

  1. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    exclusion and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument in...

  2. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  3. Price rules in airline marketing / Elina Krauja-Veide, Marina Jõgi, Toms Andersons...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Air Baltic, Estonian Air, British Airways ja Lithuanian Airlines turundusjuhid olukorrast Baltimaade lennundusturul ja lennufirmade turundustegevusest. Kommenteerivad Priit Kivik, Ilona Kbejan, Julia Brjuhanova. Tabel

  4. The Lessons Learned From An Airline In-Flight Entertainment Graphical User Interface Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Wake, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    There is a recent history of airline acquisitions and mergers as the industry has consolidated after several turbulent events outside of its control. During February 2007 Epsilon (a UK based airline) acquired and decided to integrate with Zeta (also a UK based airline). One of the projects related to this integration was the re-branding of the Zeta In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) product. Due to a franchise agreement with Eta (a third UK based airline), the Zeta IFE systems were Eta branded ...

  5. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  6. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  7. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  8. Rivalry in the U.S. Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barla, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we use Market Share Instability (MSI) as a measure of the intensity of competition among airlines on a specific route. This measure is used to capture not only price competition but also non-price competition notably capacity competition. We test the effect of different variables (used in pricing studies) on MSI on a sample of 400 routes over the period 1987 to 1993. Most of the results found in pricing studies are confirmed using this measure of rivalry. For example the presen...

  9. A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    Research in business model innovation has identified its significance in creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm, yet there are few empirical studies identifying which combination of business model activities lead to success and therefore deserve innovative attention. This study...... analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities lead to operational profitability. The research aim is threefold: complement airline literature in the realm of business model...... innovation, introduce Boolean minimization methods to the field, and propose alternative business model activities to North American carriers striving for positive operating results....

  10. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, P. J.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants. Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This unique system includes specialized instrumentation, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituent and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  11. Increasing the efficiency of multi-hub airline networks by means of flexible time-range tickets - An analysis of passenger acceptance, revenue potentials and implications on network design

    OpenAIRE

    Badura, Felix

    2011-01-01

    After the complete liberalization of the airline industry during the 1990s the industry has faced a rapid growth in passenger numbers. This has mainly been caused by the emergence of so-called Low Cost Carrier (LCC) that offer a simplified product (i.e. point-to-point flights without any frills) at a lower cost than traditional Network Carriers. Furthermore LCC also introduced a less differentiated pricing structure (Restriction Free Pricing) which forced competing network carriers to reduce ...

  12. Pricing strategy and technology choices: an empirical investigation of ‘Everyday Low Price’ in the domestic US Airline sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chellappa, RK; Sin, R

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a rich literature in economics on factors that govern airline prices. With approximately 50% of airline tickets sold online, there is now a renewed interest in investigating airline pricing particularly amongst Information Systems (IS) researchers. While market transparency created by online travel agents (OTAs) is a motivation enough to reexamine airline pricing, one missing piece calls for a thorough empirical investigation: In all extant studies (economics, marketing...

  13. A scenario aggregation based approach for determining a robust airline fleet composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Listes (Ovidiu); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractStrategic airline fleet planning is one of the major issues addressed through newly initiated decision support systems, designed to assist airlines and aircraft manufacturers in assessing the benefits of the emerging concept of dynamic capacity allocation. We present background rese

  14. The Airlines' View of the Value of a University Minor in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ralph W., Jr.; Edeburn, Carl E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an opinion questionnaire sent to the personnel directors of 28 domestic airlines indicate that the majority of the respondents feel that an aviation minor would be valuable to prospective airline employees. Includes comments on what subject areas the respondents feel would be important in an aviation minor. (MLH)

  15. Importance of the Enterprise Risk Management Practice for Airline Management: ANP-based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Airlines are exposed to risk which may effect operations, customers, corporate value, security and safety. Risk can also be introduced to an enterprise through air transportation industry-based and organization-based changes each of which may also bring changes in the type of risk. These present and raising risks main reason of growing importance of enterprise risk management (ERM implementation in the airlines. ERM becomes focus point in the successful airlines across the world. This interest should be airlines in the Turkey if they want to be in the hard airline market conditions.  This study aims at the introducing to four aspects of ERM implementation: benefits, opportunities, risks and costs that call attention to the ERM implementation in the airlines as managerial approach at the Turkey. Airline manager’s consideration will enhance and increase about importance of ERM by this study. Analytic Network Process (ANP is used as a qualitative technique for ERM implementation decision at airline management

  16. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... on the following collection of information was published on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 21716). DATES...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration..., Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E36-303, RITA, BTS, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  17. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... on the following collection of information was published on March 27, 2012 (77 FR 18306). There were...: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration... CONTACT: Cecelia Robinson, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E34-410, RITA, BTS, 1200 New...

  18. 77 FR 18306 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... (see 76 FR 41726). The proposed rule would require carriers to report, (1) the number of mishandled...; Airline Service Quality Performance AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau... Robinson, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E34, RITA, BTS, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  19. Why do airlines want and use thrust reversers? A compilation of airline industry responses to a survey regarding the use of thrust reversers on commercial transport airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Although thrust reversers are used for only a fraction of the airplane operating time, their impact on nacelle design, weight, airplane cruise performance, and overall airplane operating and maintenance expenses is significant. Why then do the airlines want and use thrust reversers? In an effort to understand the airlines need for thrust reversers, a survey of the airline industry was made to determine why and under what situations thrust reversers are currently used or thought to be needed. The survey was intended to help establish the cost/benefits trades for the use of thrust reversers and airline opinion regarding alternative deceleration devices. A compilation and summary of the responses given to the survey questionnaire is presented.

  20. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the smell of smoke out. Reduced athletic performance. People who smoke usually can't compete with ... heartbeat, decreased circulation, and shortness of breath) impair sports performance. Greater risk of injury and slower healing time. ...

  1. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  2. Smart smoke alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  3. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

  4. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F.; Car, Josip

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking.ObjectivesTo determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.Search strategyWe searched theCochraneTobaccoAddictionGroup SpecializedRegister, with additional searches ofMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on ...

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  6. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  7. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  8. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Airline Transport Pilot Certificate 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an aircraft type rating course other than an airline transport pilot certificate, for: (a) A...

  9. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight...

  10. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  11. Smoking and financial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Siahpush, M; Borland, R; Scollo, M

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Stress relief is commonly provided as a reason for smoking. However, it is plausible that the cost of smoking may create financial stress, particularly among the poor. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between smoking and financial stress.

  12. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care provider about whether counseling, acupuncture, or hypnosis would be helpful. J Take a quit-smoking class or join a support group. E-cigarettes should not replace smoking or be used to help quit smoking. American Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  13. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S; Godfrey, C

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  14. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  15. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  16. Application of Near Field Communication Technology for Mobile Airline Ticketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Suparta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Near Field Communication (NFC technology opens up exciting new usage scenarios for mobile devices based platform. Users of NFC-enabled devices can simply point or touch their devices to other NFC-enabled elements in the environment to communicate with them (‘contactless’, making application and data usage easy and convenient. Approach: The study describes the characteristics and advantages of NFC technology offers for the development of mobile airline ticketing. This scenario describes the potential to overcome the conventional systems that are not gated and use study tickets. In such a system, today a transport application can be loaded on a NFC-enabled phone. To study such a case, Yogyakarta International Airport was taken as an example for a discussion. Results: NFC technology which consisting of three modes of operation and with international standardization can be applied as contactless to simplicity transactions, content delivery and information sharing on a mobile based platform. Conclusion: The idea of NFC application for mobile airline ticketing has been discussed for Yogyakarta International Airport."

  17. Smoking in context – a multilevel approach to smoking among females in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahkonen Ossi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is associated with disadvantage. As people with lower social status reside in less privileged areas, the extent of contextual influences for smoking remains unclear. The aims were to examine the spatial patterning of daily smoking within the city of Helsinki, to analyse whether contextual variation can be observed and which spatial factors associate with current daily smoking in the employed female population. Methods Data from a cross-sectional questionnaire were collected for municipal employees of Helsinki (aged 40–60 years. The response rate was 69%. As almost 4/5 of the employees are females, the analyses were restricted to women (n = 5028. Measures included smoking status, individual level socio-demographic characteristics (age, occupational social class, education, family type and statistical data describing areas in terms of social structure (unemployment rate, proportion of manual workers and social cohesion (proportions of single parents and single households. Logistic multilevel analysis was used to analyse data. Results After adjusting for the individual-level composition, smoking was significantly more prevalent according to all social structural and social cohesion indicators apart from the proportion of manual workers. For example, high unemployment in the area of domicile increased the risk of smoking by almost a half. The largest observed area difference in smoking – 8 percentage points – was found according to the proportion of single households. Conclusion The large variation in smoking rates between areas appears mainly to result from variation in the characteristics of residents within areas. Yet, living in an area with a high level of unemployment appears to be an additional risk for smoking that cannot be fully accounted for by individual level characteristics even in a cohort of female municipal employees.

  18. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:19850551

  19. One Last Puff? Public Smoking Bans and Smoking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke; Kvasnicka, Michael; Siedler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking behavior. In 2007 and 2008, state-level smoking bans were gradually introduced in all of Germany's federal states. We exploit this variation to identify the effect that smoke-free policies had on individuals’ smoking propensity and smoking intensity. Using rich longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, our difference-in-differences estimates show that the introduction of smoke-free ...

  20. New-type air-line suits for in-situ glove box dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling of glove boxes has been performed in greenhouses by workers wearing air-line suits. But it was found that the use of air-line suits was generally accompanied by the generation of a large quantity of secondary wastes. Hence, a new type air-line suit was developed to reduce the amount of secondary wastes. The specification of the new-type air-line suit, and the method of wearing and undressing the new-type air-line suit are described in detail. The dismantling of glove boxes by wearing the new-type suit has been carried out seven times in the course of dismantling plutonium-contaminated glove boxes. The time required for wearing and undressing the new-type suit seems slightly longer than that in the case of conventional type. However, it was proved that the amount of secondary wastes was able to be reduced by using the new-type air-line suit to one fourth of the weight of secondary wastes of conventional type air-line suits. Moreover, the new-type suit requires less greenhouses and assistant workers as compared with conventional type suits. (Yoshitake, I.)

  1. A Total Factor Productivity Based Structure for Tactical Cluster Assessment: Empirical Investigation in the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Fleming, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and assess the efficiency of the United States (U.S.) airline industry through the total factor productivity (TFP) method. While airlines use various resources to produce a heterogeneous group of outputs, this article focuses on certain fundamental outputs as final products of selected airlines. The results from this analysis indicate that the national airlines (US. domestic carriers) have higher TFP as compared to the major airlines. While major airlines have drastically cut costs in the past few years, they also need to improve efficiency or risk going out of business. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency and productivity of a selection of U.S. airlines for the years 1996 through 2001. These years have been chosen as a good example of years in which the industry experienced normal growth and generally positively returns. Subsequent to 2001 the industry experienced two severe external shocks, namely, the September 11, 2001. terrorist attacks and the Iraq war. These anomalous shocks make the years after 2001 inconsistent with respect to the type of index developed in this article.

  2. Family roles and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:2787160

  3. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lochbuehler; M. Peters; R.H.J. Scholte; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  4. ISSMOKING IN THE MOVIES ASSOCIATED WITH INITIATION OF SMOKING IN ADOLESCENTS? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhyan Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today smoking among adolescentsis an economic, social and public health concern in the world.As of 2013,tobacco kills nearly 6 million people each year and approximately 900,000 people die every year in India due to smoking and WHO (2013 also estimate that 30% of smokers are adult males and 80% of the world's one billion smokers live in low and middle income countries.This study used the systematic review method to determine the association between smoking scene in movies and initiation of smoking habits among adolescents. A comprehensive review of past studies was carried out in this connection that included more than 25 studies. The result of the study concluded that exposure to smoking in movies influence the attitudes and beliefs of children about smoking and most of the children initiate smoking first time after watching their favourite stars smoking on screen. Most of the studies recommended that parental restrictions on R-rated films significantly diminishadolescents' exposure to films smoking and subsequent smoking acceptance. Most of the studies also argued that that watching antismoking announcements before watching movie smoking appears to blunt the encouraging effects of movie smoking on children smoking.It can be supposed that stringentimplementation of regulations pertaining to cigarette filming in form on any media and community interferencesconcentrating on parents are required for effective control of tobacco and smoking problem among youth in India and world

  5. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  6. Value of a Platform to a Seller: Case of American Airlines and Online Travel Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Bilotkach; Nicholas G. Rupp; Vivek Pai

    2013-01-01

    We approach the issue of the value of a platform to a seller in a two-sided market where both buyers and sellers multi-home. A seller that loses access to a major buyer platform can potentially incur substantial financial losses. We exploit a recent conflict between American Airlines and two leading online travel agencies (Expedia and Orbitz), which dropped American Airlines fare quotes during the first quarter of 2011. We present a simple model of airline ticket distribution. This model prov...

  7. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF MAJOR U.S. AIRLINES VIA CASH FLOW RATIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanyan Armen

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the assessment of major U.S. airlinesâ€(tm) liquidity and solvency based on information disclosed in the statements of cash flows as part of their 10-K Form annual reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Conducting financial statement analysis for major U.S. airlines has generated deep interest in and a significant importance towards using various frequently used cash flow ratios to gauge U.S. airlinesâ€(tm) viability both in the short term and long term...

  8. Structure and external factors of chinese city airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Tao

    2010-08-01

    Abstract We investigate the structural properties of Chinese city airline network (CCAN), where nodes and edges denote cities and direct flights. The degree distribution follows a double power law and a clear hierarchical layout is observed. The population exhibits a weakly positive correlation with the number of flights, yet it does not show obvious correlation with the transportation flow. The distance is an important parameter in CCAN, that is, the number of flights decays fast with the increasing of the distance. In comparison, the tertiary industry has the most important influence on the Chinese air passenger transportation. Statistically speaking, when the tertiary industry value increases by 1%, the next period's volume will increase by 0.73%.

  9. Informing or persuading travellers: the language of airlines advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa BLANCO GÓMEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the advertising world choosing the right kind of language can lead us to becoming a successful company or not, since the choice of different kinds of words and different structures is crucial when trying to persuade people. In this paper many variables will be taken into account, from the characteristics of advertising English to those specific from Tourism English bearing also in mind the globalized world around us and consumer perception, which is an essential element in the advertising process, analyzing discursive and linguistic features. In this study we will focus on the most frequent structures in the advertisements published in the Time Magazine about some international airline companies and will examine whether the language used can achieve a persuasive effect on the potential customer or not.

  10. Disruption Management in the Airline Industry - Concepts, Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The airline industry is notably one of the success stories with respect to the use of optimization based methods and tools in planning. Both in planning of the assignment of available aircraft to flights and in crew scheduling, these methods play a major role. Plans are usually made several months...... prior to the actual day of operation. As a consequence, changes often occur in the period from the construction of the plan to the day of operation. Optimization tools play an important role also in handling these changes. However, at the day of operation, no planning tool have been able to cope...... with the complexity of the re-planning given that the time span for proposing a solution is only a few minutes. Numerous suggestions for such subsystems have been put forward, but today no general tool is able to handle aircraft, crew, and passenger concurrently in a single system. Currently, there is a gap between...

  11. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  12. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Trivik; Herrmann, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their ...

  13. A new approach for disruption management in airline operations control

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, António J M; Oliveira, Eugénio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the research efforts dealing with airline scheduling have been done on off-line plan optimization.  However, nowadays, with the increasingly complex and huge traffic at airports, the real challenge is how to react to unexpected events that may cause plan-disruptions, leading to flight delays. Moreover these disruptive events usually affect at least three different dimensions of the situation: the aircraft assigned to the flight, the crew assignment and, often forgotten, the passengers’ journey and satisfaction. This book includes answers to this challenge and proposes the use of the Multi-agent System paradigm to rapidly compose a multi-faceted solution to the disruptive event taking into consideration possible preferences of those three key aspects of the problem. Negotiation protocols taking place between agents that are experts in solving the different problem dimensions, combination of different utility functions and, not less important, the inclusion of the human in the automatic decision-maki...

  14. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Stephen W; Rahman Hejar A; Omar Affandi; Semple Sean; Abidin Emilia; Ayres Jon G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS). The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years) attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren p...

  15. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. de Mello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 copilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00 in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46. For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  16. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  17. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  18. Healthy and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leigh Ann

    2014-12-01

    Smoking rates in the country of origin were used to empirically examine whether immigrants converge toward natives' level of smoking prevalence with assimilation. Results show that assimilation is associated with a lower likelihood of ever quitting smoking for immigrants from countries with lower smoking rates relative to the USA and a higher likelihood for immigrants from countries with higher smoking rates, but for current or ever smoking, the estimated effects of assimilation are statistically insignificant. Although these findings demonstrate that health assimilation depends on the country of origin, the extent to which this pattern of assimilation is due to peer influence, differences in responsiveness to anti-smoking interventions such as taxes or smoke-free air restrictions, and/or other factors remains unclear because of the limitations of this study. PMID:24019149

  19. Failure of hospital employees to comply with smoke-free policy is associated with nicotine dependence and motives for smoking: a descriptive cross-sectional study at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Kenrick; Wilson Clare VR; Parks Tom; Chin Joel WE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoke-free policy aims to protect the health of the population by reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidance notes that these policies are only successful if there is full and proper enforcement. We aimed to investigate the problem of resistance to smoking restrictions and specifically compliance with smoke-free policy. We hypothesised that an explanation for non-compliance would lie in a measurable difference betwe...

  20. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects. PMID:21740388

  1. Smoking problem in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y Aditama

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is an important public health probLem in Indonesia. Up to 60% of male adult population as well as about 4% of female adult population are smokers. In fact, some of Indonesian kretek cigarettes have quite high tar and nicotine content. Besides health effect, smoking habit also influence economic status of the individuals as well as the family. In health point of view, even though reliable nation wide morbidity and mortality data are scarce, report from various cities showed smoking rel...

  2. Umbilical Cord Serum Erythropoietin Levels and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Sazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin. Methods. Erythropoietin levels were measured in umbilical cord sera of 60 newborns who were delivered vaginally at term. There were 20 (33% smoking and 40 (67% nonsmoking mothers. Results. Mean cord serum erythropoietin levels were significantly lower in the nonsmokers (nonsmokers, 24 ± 9 IU/L; smokers, 61 ± 46 IU/L; P<.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and cord serum erythropoietin levels (r, 0.58; P≤.05. Conclusions. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin at birth. This may indicate a risk of fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. Education and encouragement of cessation of smoking during pregnancy are important to avoid associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  3. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  4. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  5. Early smoking experience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urbán, Róbert

    2010-01-01

    Initial smoking experience is a potential predictor of later smoking. Our study has a twofold aim: (1) to provide further support for construct validity of retrospective measurement of an early smoking experience questionnaire (ESE) in a representative sample of adolescents; (2) to examine the association of initial smoking experience with sensation-seeking, current smoking and nicotine dependence.

  6. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  7. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014 and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

  8. @doesyourairlinetweet? An empirical examination of the use of twitter by 50 international airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Budd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide empirical evidence of the extent to which 50 of the world’s largest passenger airlines use the social media site twitter.Design/methodology/approach: Original empirical data on the presence and usage of 50 airlines’ official twitter accounts was accessed.Research limitations/implications: Research demonstrates the extent to which airlines are using twitter as a communications tool and suggests that some airline are not currently utilising twitter to its full extent.Practical implications: The research provides information on current twitter use and penetration, thus enabling airlines to benchmark their performance in this social media channel.Originality/value: The paper provides an original empirical insight into a growing phenomenon which is currently underreported in academic literatures.

  9. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  10. Söder Airlines alustab Tampere-Tallinna lende / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Soome ärimeeste loodud lennufirma Söder Airlines lennuk hakkab lendama Tallinna ja Tampere vahel, edaspidi kavatsetakse avada ka lennuliin Tampere-Kuressaare. Vt. samas: Lennust Eestisse huvitub ka SkyEurope

  11. Fuzzy-VIKOR analysis for customer performance index of civil domestic airline industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saket

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the factor influencing on an airline carrier based on operations of an airport on the routes flown out of that airport. This study deals with evaluation of the Customer Performance index (CPI of distinct domestic civil airlines in India. CPI consists of various parameters; among them many disembodied parameters, which are difficult to measure. In this context, initially we identified the prime factors that are crucial for evaluation of performances provided by various airlines in India. Thereafter, in order to determine the hierarchy among these factors; modified digital logic (MDL approach is employed and cost is found to be the most important criteria. Furthermore, CPI is calculated using fuzzy-VIKOR approach. Such approaches can help the airlines in re-evaluating their current policies and then formulate comparatively more efficient market strategies to improve performance quality and to gain customers’ loyalty.

  12. THE EVALUATION OF WORKING CAPITAL IN AIRLINE COMPANIES WHICH PROCEED IN BIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Kendirli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The working capital like cash and liquid assets runs the facilities and supports daily activities of firms. This kind of capital is essential to continuity of activities, increase of volume, maintain credibility, reduce impacts of risks and to overcome with extraordinary situation. The working capital management is very important for making profits from activities, especially for dynamic sectors like aviation. The aviation industry which airline companies operate is a very dynamic sector. In this sector working capital has to be managed very professionally and carefully by airline companies. This study aims to assess the airline companies’ working capital in terms of effectiveness. Airline companies which shares traded on BIST will be sample of this study.

  13. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  14. Smoke-Free Homes and Home Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinpin Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined home exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS in China. This study aimed to document: (1 the prevalence and correlates of exposure to SHS in homes (in adult non-smokers in Shanghai, and (2 enforcement of rules, harm reduction behaviors, and self-efficacy for maintaining smoke-free homes in Shanghai. A total of 500 participants were recruited using a multistage proportional random sampling design in an urban and suburban district to complete a survey. Among the total 355 nonsmokers, 127 (35.8% participants reported being exposed to SHS in the past 7 days. Participants living with smokers in the home, with no smoking restriction at home, and having children younger than 18 were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home. Higher self-efficacy in maintaining a smoke-free home was negatively associated with home SHS exposure. Having visitors who smoke was the greatest policy enforcement challenge. Ineffective measures such as opening windows were more commonly used in homes with partial bans. Educational initiatives to protect against SHS exposure in the home should promote smoke-free homes, address challenges to implementing such policies, and address misconceptions regarding the effectiveness of supposed harm reduction behaviors.

  15. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: taking off on an exciting journey into air transport research

    OpenAIRE

    David Gonzalez-Prieto; Oriol Lordan; Jose M Sallan; Pep Simo; Mihaela Enache; Vicenc Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM). JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to) air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, pro...

  16. Airline revenue management: an overview of OR techniques 1982-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, K; Piersma, Nanda

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith the increasing interest in decision support systems and the continuous advance of computer science, revenue management is a discipline which has received a great deal of interest in recent years. Although revenue management has seen many new applications throughout the years, the main focus of research continues to be the airline industry. Ever since Littlewood (1972) first proposed a solution method for the airline revenue management problem, a variety of solution methods ha...

  17. Airline revenue management: an overview of OR techniques 1982-2001

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing interest in decision support systems and the continuous advance of computer science, revenue management is a discipline which has received a great deal of interest in recent years. Although revenue management has seen many new applications throughout the years, the main focus of research continues to be the airline industry. Ever since Littlewood (1972) first proposed a solution method for the airline revenue management problem, a variety of solution methods have been intr...

  18. A critical analysis of airline safety management with reference to pilots and aviation authority officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Li-Chi

    1996-01-01

    When we consider regional differences in air safety, a call for regional solutions is needed. This research probes the current situation in Taiwan and part of Asia from a regional perspective, aiming to better understand safety management in this region. Data was drawn from an extensive survey involving both airline pilots and aviation authority officers. The research investigated respondents' perceptions in airline safety management, and examined at their opinions about the ro...

  19. Radiotystnad resulterar i fullt kaos : En studie om Malaysia Airlines kriskommunikation

    OpenAIRE

    Molander, Agnes; Nässlin Eidenert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how Malaysia Airlines communicated during the two largest crises of 2014. Key questions to be answered are: Did organizational hypocrisy occur? If yes, in what way? Which communication strategies were used? Did the company mediate an unequivocal message and how was the information framed? Did any aggravating factors, which worsened the organization’s reputation, appear? How did Malaysia Airlines manage possible rumours? Was the word contact used as a key...

  20. Disruption management in the airline industry-Concepts, models and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art within airline disruption management of resources, including aircraft, crew, passenger and integrated recovery. An overview of model formulations of the aircraft and crew scheduling problems is presented in order to emphasize...... similarities between solution approaches applied to the planning and recovery problems. A brief overview of research within schedule robustness in airline scheduling is included in the review, since this proactive measure is a natural complement to disruption management....

  1. Service Quality towards Customer Loyalty in Malaysia‟s Domestic Low Cost Airline Services

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Sara Nadia Muhamad Yunus; Jamil Bojei; Wan Edura Wan Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Delivering high quality service to the passengers is imperative so that airline companies can survive and strengthen their competitiveness. Even though there have been extensive research on service quality and customer loyalty in the past, little study has been conducted in this specific area. Hence, this paper aims to propose a conceptual framework on service quality and its relationship towards customer loyalty among Malaysia’s domestic low cost airline services passengers. Reliability, tan...

  2. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wang; Hong Sun; Jinfu Zhu; Bo Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the con...

  3. Strategic reorientation and business turnaround: The case of global legacy airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, Thomas; Rajwani, Tazeeb; O’Kane, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose - We illustrate how legacy airlines can reorientate to achieve sharp recoveries in performance following prolonged periods of stagnation, decline and eroding competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The authors use a qualitative analysis of five longitudinal case studies of legacy airlines that embarked on strategic change between 1997 and 2006. Data collection spanned ten years and included archival data, public documents, news clippings, accounts ...

  4. U.S. airline deregulation : the recent experience and some lessons for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Aisling J. Reynolds-Feighan

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, recent trends in U.S. commercial aviation are examined, so that an assessment may be made of the impact of the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 on the industry and also on the national airways system. The key planning issues for airlines and airports are highlighted and placed in an Irish context to aid the planning strategies for a more competitive European environment.

  5. Low-cost and Traditional Airlines : Ratio Analysis and Equity Valuation by the Residual Earnings Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hanpobamorn, Saijai

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental analysts use basic fundamentals, which generally based on available public information, to determine a firm’s intrinsic value. Forecasting future performance is one of the key elements for doing fundamental analysis, and historical results are the foundation for future forecast. The analysis of this study is conducted into two sections with case studies in the airline business. Firstly, financial ratios are analyzed to examine whether low-cost or traditional airlines better perfor...

  6. Mobile commerce innovation in the airline sector: An investigation of mobile services acceptance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Algethmi, Mohammed Abdu

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The advancement of Information Technology (IT) has changed the business landscape in many industries and especially the airline sector. Modern Information Communication Technologies (ICT) provide powerful tools for organizations and can significantly influence their operation, structure, and strategy. The emergence of mobile technologies has created a new innovation for airline companies by in...

  7. Designing and Pricing Services Based on Customer-Perceived Value: An Airline Company Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Fragnière; Angela Lombardi; Francesco Moresino

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new integrated model for pricing airline tickets that takes into account the perceived value of multiple services associated with a given flight. For instance, clients perceive benefits on different attributes such as refund options, baggage allowances, time slots, days of operations, Web check-in services, as well as airline brand. These elements of perceived values are not, to our knowledge, modeled in existing yield management systems. Our integrated model includes a classical...

  8. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the...

  9. Impact Of Employee Motivation On Customer Satisfaction: Study Of Airline Industry In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal; Wasey, Ejaz; Jhanndir, Saif Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Employees are the most important factor in the success and failure of any organization. The airline industry is a service industry that sells seats to its passengers therefore employees motivation towards their job plays a very important role in serving the customer’s needs. This study focuses on the impact of employee motivation and its components e.g. work environment, pay and benefits, management systems and organizational vision on customer satisfaction in the airline industry of Pakistan...

  10. Relationships, Layoffs, and Organizational Resilience: Airline Industry Responses to September 11

    OpenAIRE

    Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Cameron, Kim; Lim, Sandy; Rivas, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 affected the U.S. airline industry more than almost any other industry. Certain of these companies emerged successful, however, and demonstrated remarkable resilience while others languished. This investigation identifies the reasons why some airline companies recovered successfully after the attacks while others struggled. Evidence is provided that layoffs after the crisis, while intended to foster recovery, instead inhibited recovery throughout ...

  11. An Empirical Analysis of the Competitiveness in the U.S. Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud M. Nourayi; Julie W. Suh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the competitiveness of the airline industry in the United States from 1982 to 2012. We examine the stochastic behavior of corporate profitability ratios using a balanced panel of publicly-traded U.S. Airline firms. In particular, we use a panel unit root approach to examine the persistence of profitability. Using a second generation panel unit root test developed by Pesaran (2007) that controls for cross-sectional dependence, we find some evidence t...

  12. Integrated Aircraft Fleeting, Routing, and Crew Pairing Models and Algorithms for the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Shengzhi

    2013-01-01

    The air transportation market has been growing steadily for the past three decades since the airline deregulation in 1978. With competition also becoming more intense, airline companies have been trying to enhance their market shares and profit margins by composing favorable flight schedules and by efficiently allocating their resources of aircraft and crews so as to reduce operational costs. In practice, this is achieved based on demand forecasts and resource availabilities through a structu...

  13. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92.

    OpenAIRE

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. DESIGN--Record linkage study. SETTING--Finland. SUBJECTS-1577 female and 187 male cabin attendants who had worked for the Finnish airline companies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Standardised incidence ratio; expected number of cases based on national cancer incidences. RESULTS--A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interva...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to secondhand smoke-related Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Deaths among nonsmoking adults due to secondhand smoke-related lung cancer and heart disease. Problem 58 million nonsmokers in the US are still exposed to secondhand smoke. Who is ...

  15. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's ... do continue smoking, don't smoke in the house or car. continue Exposure to Smoke Outside the ...

  16. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health More CDC Sites Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Secondhand ... in the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report 4 Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has ...

  17. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  18. Smoking and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often among female smokers. Can smoking affect my children? Men whose mothers smoked half a pack of cigarettes (or more) ... life (such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease). Children whose ... for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and for developing asthma. I don’ ...

  19. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: June 2016 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC What Kids Say About: Tobacco Helping a Parent Who Smokes Smoking and Asthma Your Lungs & Respiratory System Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  20. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  1. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  2. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  3. Heavy smoking and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2006-01-01

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  4. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  5. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  6. Operational Efficiency In The U.S. Airline Industry: An Empirical Investigation Of Post-Deregulation Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly S. GUZHVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1 to examine the operational efficiency of U.S. airlines after the deregulation of 1978; (2 to investigate whether operational efficiency is associated with changes in financial position of firms in the industry and (3 to study if there is an observable pattern in the efficiency measures for large and small airlines. The results indicate that small U.S. airlines record higher scores than large U.S. airlines in four out of five efficiency measures examined. The exception is in the category of allocative efficiency where large airlines exhibit more optimal input mix of resources that their smaller counterparts. This superior mix of resources is consistent with cost minimization. In addition, the analysis shows that higher overall efficiency measures are associated with higher net profit margins of the airlines in the sample, while higher allocative efficiency seems to correlate with higher return on equity."

  7. College Student Reactions to Smoking Bans in Public, on Campus and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Lessard, Laura; Parelkar, Pratibha P.; Thrasher, James; Kegler, Michelle C.; Escoffery, Cam; Goldade, Kathryn; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2011-01-01

    We examined college student reactions to a statewide public smoke-free policy, campus policies and private restrictions through an online survey among 2260 students at a 2-year college and a university and 12 focus groups among smokers. Among survey participants, 34.6% smoked in the past month (35.0% daily, 65.0% non-daily). Correlates of…

  8. Gender and the social context of smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors. PMID:14572917

  9. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  10. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...

  11. Necessity of restructuring Ukrainian airlines business and improving their value management in conditions of European integration and increased competition

    OpenAIRE

    Mnykh, O. B.; Brytskyi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the qualitative and quantitative changes reflecting dynamics of the airlines development in the domestic and foreign air passenger transport markets. The reasons that caused bankruptcy of “Dniproavia” joint stock company are characterized; the results of regression models are assesssed. The factors that dictate the need for restructuring Ukrainian airlines business on the basis of the international airlines experience are determined.

  12. Airline Safety Management: The development of a proactive safety mechanism model for the evolution of safety management system

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Yueh-Ling

    2004-01-01

    The systemic origins of many accidents have led to heightened interest in the way in which organisations identify and manage risks within the airline industry. The activities which are thought to represent the term "organisational accident", "safety culture" and "proactive approach" are documented and seek to explain the fact that airlines differ in their willingness and ability to conduct safety management. However, an important but yet relatively undefined task in the airline...

  13. "An Analysis of Airport Pricing and Regulation in the Presence of Competition Between Full Service Airlines and Low Cost Carriers"

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hoon Oum; Xiaowen Fu; Mark Lijesen

    2005-01-01

    Despite the airport privatization and deregulation trend in recent years, whether or not the privatized or commercialized airports should be left unregulated is still an open question. Related to this issue, one question that has received a very little attention to date is if and how pricing behavior of unregulated airports affect downstream airline competition, especially the competition between airlines offering differentiated services such as the case of full service airlines (FSA) vis-a-v...

  14. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin

  15. Management of strategic coopetition among partners within international airline alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Himpel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: International network-carriers span the globe by linking airports on all five continents. At the core of those networks are hub-airports that serve as the centers for (inter-national in- and outbound traffic flows. From a business model point of view, the major international carriers are so-called network-carriers, for their core concept is based on transfer-oriented hub-and-spoke-systems. In order to maximize revenue streams of network-carriers, changes in strategic slot allocation and strategic net planning are becoming increasingly relevant. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of various elements of the management of strategic coopetition among partners within international airline alliances on the revenues obtained by individual partners. Methods: the problems related to the optimization of strategic slot allocation and strategic net planning from the point of view of the individual profit shared and added net contribution margins were discussed. Results and conclusions: Two extreme scenarios may be projected. The first one is that partners within a given alliance system may start to increase merger and acquisition activities. Thereby scale effects may be utilized. The other one is, when rivalry becomes too dominant over time, some partners may (have to exit alliance systems. Thereby "atomic" subsystems may be on the rebound. Strategic coopetition management is aimed to keep leading international network carriers "on track" in the field of alliance management of that nature.

  16. Microbial assessment of cabin air quality on commercial airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Stuecker, Tara; Bearman, Gregory; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    The microbial burdens of 69 cabin air samples collected from commercial airliners were assessed via conventional culture-dependent, and molecular-based microbial enumeration assays. Cabin air samples from each of four separate flights aboard two different carriers were collected via air-impingement. Microbial enumeration techniques targeting DNA, ATP, and endotoxin were employed to estimate total microbial burden. The total viable microbial population ranged from 0 to 3.6 x10 4 cells per 100 liters of air, as assessed by the ATP-assay. When these same samples were plated on R2A minimal medium, anywhere from 2% to 80% of these viable populations were cultivable. Five of the 29 samples examined exhibited higher cultivable counts than ATP derived viable counts, perhaps a consequence of the dormant nature (and thus lower concentration of intracellular ATP) of cells inhabiting these air cabin samples. Ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed these samples to consist of a moderately diverse group of bacteria, including human pathogens. Enumeration of ribosomal genes via quantitative-PCR indicated that population densities ranged from 5 x 10 1 ' to IO 7 cells per 100 liters of air. Each of the aforementioned strategies for assessing overall microbial burden has its strengths and weaknesses; this publication serves as a testament to the power of their use in concert.

  17. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  18. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation.

  19. OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY IN THE U.S. AIRLINE INDUSTRY: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF POST-DEREGULATION ERA

    OpenAIRE

    Vitaly S. GUZHVA; Seyed MEHDIAN; Richard A. AJAYI

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to examine the operational efficiency of U.S. airlines after the deregulation of 1978; (2) to investigate whether operational efficiency is associated with changes in financial position of firms in the industry and (3) to study if there is an observable pattern in the efficiency measures for large and small airlines. The results indicate that small U.S. airlines record higher scores than large U.S. airlines in four out of five efficiency measures ex...

  20. Lessons learned on the road to a smoke-free Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, I; Muggli, M; Zagà, V; Lockhart, N; Ebbert, J; Mangiaracina, G; Hurt, R

    2011-01-01

    In the face of strong and protracted opposition by the Tobacco Industry (TI) and its allies, Italy's national smoke-free legislation came into force in 2005 prohibiting smoking in all indoor public places and workplaces including offices, bars, and restaurants. Using internal TI documents made public through US litigation, we reveal the industry's nearly 40-year effort to influence health policy related to secondhand smoke, including attempts to block Italy's national smoke-free legislation. Strategies included manipulating hospitality groups and establishing front organizations, manipulating journalists and media, and manipulating the science and direct lobbying against smoking restrictions. The TI's extensive plan to thwart smoke-free efforts in Italy can be used to inform other countries about the industry's tactics and Italy's experience in overcoming them by ultimately implementing a comprehensive workplace smoke-free law. PMID:21770229

  1. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive

  2. Airline Safety Improvement Through Experience with Near-Misses: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Peter; Dillon, Robin L; Tinsley, Catherine H

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the U.S. commercial airline industry has achieved unprecedented levels of safety, with the statistical risk associated with U.S. commercial aviation falling to 0.003 fatalities per 100 million passengers. But decades of research on organizational learning show that success often breeds complacency and failure inspires improvement. With accidents as rare events, can the airline industry continue safety advancements? This question is complicated by the complex system in which the industry operates where chance combinations of multiple factors contribute to what are largely probabilistic (rather than deterministic) outcomes. Thus, some apparent successes are realized because of good fortune rather than good processes, and this research intends to bring attention to these events, the near-misses. The processes that create these near-misses could pose a threat if multiple contributing factors combine in adverse ways without the intervention of good fortune. Yet, near-misses (if recognized as such) can, theoretically, offer a mechanism for continuing safety improvements, above and beyond learning gleaned from observable failure. We test whether or not this learning is apparent in the airline industry. Using data from 1990 to 2007, fixed effects Poisson regressions show that airlines learn from accidents (their own and others), and from one category of near-misses-those where the possible dangers are salient. Unfortunately, airlines do not improve following near-miss incidents when the focal event has no clear warnings of significant danger. Therefore, while airlines need to and can learn from certain near-misses, we conclude with recommendations for improving airline learning from all near-misses. PMID:26503596

  3. Costs and Benefits of Stopping the Clock. How Airlines Profit from Changes in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, D.; Faber, J.

    2012-12-15

    All flights arriving at or departing from EU airports have been included in the EU ETS from the beginning of 2012. Airlines have to surrender allowances for emissions on flights to and from EU airports. A share of the allowances has been issued to the airlines for free, the remainder needs to be acquired at an auction or from the market. In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to exempt intercontinental flights from the EU ETS for 2012, an initiative branded as 'Stopping the Clock'. As a result of this change, airlines on intercontinental routes are likely to experience additional windfall profit, since they have probably anticipated ETS-related expenditures on these routes, which they will now not incur. In addition, all airlines have a windfall profit since they are likely to pass on the value of the free allowances, as has been demonstrated to happen in all other sectors that have received free allowances. This note estimates the windfall profits. The report distinguishes two types of windfall profits: (1) Profits that occur because the opportunity costs of free allowances received for intercontinental flights have been passed on. These windfall profits would also have occurred without the 'stop the clock' exemption. We call them ETS Windfall. (2) Profits that occur because airlines have raised their revenues on intercontinental flights, but will not need to buy allowances either at the auction or from other actors because of the exemption. We call them Stopping the Clock Windfall. Depending on the cost pass through, the total windfall profits range from euro 679 million to euro 1,358 million. About a third of these windfall profits arise from the exemption of intercontinental flights. EU airlines are expected to reap the largest share of the windfall due to the change in regulation (55%), followed by US airlines (13%).

  4. Smoking and dental implants

    OpenAIRE

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in ...

  5. Smoking and Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin-Austen, R. B.; Lee, P. N.; Marmot, M.G.; Stern, G M

    1982-01-01

    In a case control study of the relationship between smoking habits and Parkinson's disease a negative association was demonstrated with a relative risk of 0 x 52. A history of smoking up to 20 years earlier was associated with a risk of developing Parkinson's disease equal to about half that in non-smokers. The type of disease, age of onset and rate of progression were associated with a similar reduction in risk implying that in respect of smoking history the disease is homogeneous. The posit...

  6. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    7/13 REVISION Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the most widely used illegal drug ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  7. Selectional Restrictions in HPSG

    OpenAIRE

    Androutsopoulos, Ion; Dale, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Selectional restrictions are semantic sortal constraints imposed on the participants of linguistic constructions to capture contextually-dependent constraints on interpretation. Despite their limitations, selectional restrictions have proven very useful in natural language applications, where they have been used frequently in word sense disambiguation, syntactic disambiguation, and anaphora resolution. Given their practical value, we explore two methods to incorporate selectional restrictions...

  8. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is associated with lung problems. Back to top Hookahs Hookahs—sometimes called water pipes—are used to smoke ... that is available in a variety of flavors. Hookahs originated in ancient Persia and India and have ...

  9. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  10. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  11. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  12. Role of Smokes in Warfare .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mishra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The role smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types os smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modern opto-electronics including infrared (IR/millimetre wave (MMW guidance and thermal imager are described. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned.

  13. American Consumer’s Attitudes towards Different Airline Companies Channels: A Comparison of transaction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Harcar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly challenging better performance from companies, and these demands are being met through improvements in technology and flexibility of services. As a result of recent progresses and developments in electronic marketing, the physical locations of brick and mortar businesses have become less significant since transactions can now be accomplished in cyberspace. In this paper, consumer attitudes towards online transactions for the airline industry are examined. Despite the growing acceptance of alternative delivery channels, the travel agencies remain an essential part of the customer-airline company. It can be argued that the travel agencies not only represent an opportunity for implementing costumer relationship, but they also remain an important point of contact for sales, service, and consultative interactions. Data has been analyzed using factor analysis technique. The study presents a broad picture of the level of preference of airline customers among the available distribution channels and sheds light on how airline companies should allocate resources among the different channels. The empirical study findings indicate that online transactions for the airline industry will gain in importance and its use will accelerate at a faster rate in the coming years.

  14. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FOR THE SUCCESS OF USA LOW-COST AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to investigate the role played by the organizational culture to the success of the USA low-cost airlines, taking as example two major operators: Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. This exploratory research was conducted using two methods. An analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature was followed by primary data collection, through structured interviews with the representatives of Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. The results show that the success of the two low-cost airlines was based not only on their cutting costs strategies, but also on the organizational culture they have promoted during time. This organizational culture is based on closed relationships between the employees, clients and suppliers, among which the communication is simplified and transparent. These particularities of the two operators have made huge differences between them and other low-cost airlines in terms of resilience to the economic downturns, increased number of transported passengers, of revenues and profits.

  16. [Smoking cessation: practice guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgne, A

    2002-09-01

    Smoking is a habit sustained and amplified by dependency on nicotine. Despite knowing the risks to their health, smokers have great difficulty in stopping. The syndrome of nicotine withdrawal and the related complications when stopping smoking: depression, weight gain, are adequate justifications of the many failures to stop smoking. However, we have now come out of the empiricism, effective treatment is available and scientifically validated international recommendations have been established. They involve: the practice of minimal advice which consists of questioning every patient about smoking habits and encouraging them to stop; the treatments of nicotine substitution, patch, chewing gum, tablets or inhaler, used at effective dosage and sometimes in association with each other; more recently, Bupropion (Zyban, LP), a psychotropic inhibitor of Dobutamine and Noradrenalin recapture; behavioural and cognitive therapies, alone or in association with pharmacological therapy. The measurement of the score of tobacco dependency with the Fagerström test enables definition of a therapeutic strategy. Of course, these treatments are only effective in smokers motivated to stop smoking. The decision to stop smoking should only be taken after a period of reflection during which the role of information and advice given by all health professionals is primordial. Also, the long-term follow-up and counsel are essential to prevent relapse, especially during the first year. PMID:12407795

  17. GENES BEHIND SMOKE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmos Soós

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Smoke can break dormancy and promote seed germination of many plant species. We investigated changes in the gene expression changes after imbibition of light-sensitive Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dilute smoke water compared to water control samples kept in dark or continuous light. Although no difference was detected in the smoke water vs. water control samples germinated in light, smoke water treatment resulted in the differential display of several expressed sequence tags (ESTs when compared to water control samples kept in dark. The most pronounced fragments isolated correspond to known genes with functions related to cell wall expansion, abscisic acid regulation, regulation of translation, the cell division cycle, carbohydrate metabolism and desiccation tolerance. These data clearly indicate that the smoke water, which stimulates germination of light-sensitive Grand Rapids lettuce seeds in the dark, rapidly affects genes that are essential for cell division, cell wall expansion and mobilization and utilization of nutrients for the resumption of embryo growth. Although the master genes remained unknown, our hope is that the using of maize microarray will reveal the whole molecular background of smoke action.

  18. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  19. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  20. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.