WorldWideScience

Sample records for airline smoking restrictions

  1. Smoking restrictions in private workplaces in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y H; Voo, Y O; Yong, L S

    1994-06-01

    This survey aims to determine the number and profile of private workplaces in Singapore which have a smoking restriction policy. The response rate was 43%. Of the companies which responded, 59% had some form of smoking restriction. Private companies are more likely to have a smoking restriction policy: (a) where smoking poses inherent fire risks, such as those dealing with inflammable chemicals or gases; (b) where smoking poses inherent detrimental effects to the quality of the products, such as those dealing with precision electronic microcomponents, where a smoke-free and dust-free environment is essential; (c) are larger companies; and (d) have strong management support in initiating and enforcing smoking restriction. Future programmes should give more emphasis to the service industries such as construction, insurance, banking and finance, and smaller companies (with fewer than 100 employees). They should involve the management who play an important role in implementing smoking restriction at their workplace. PMID:7997897

  2. Smoking behaviour among female airline cabin crew from ten Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, C; Fielding, R.; Marcoolyn, G; Wong, C M; Hedley, A.

    1994-01-01

    Objective - To identify factors related to the high prevalence of smoking behaviour among a sample of female airline cabin crew of Asian origin. Design - A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 585 Asian women, aged 20-41 years working as experienced cabin crew for a major international airline. Main outcome measures - Subjects answered questions on their knowledge of the consequences of smoking, the per¬ceived effects of smoking, their per¬ceptions of the social images of smoking ...

  3. Smoke-free airlines and the role of organized labor: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jocelyn; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Levenstein, Charles; Balbach, Edith D

    2005-03-01

    Labor unions play an important role in debates about smoke-free worksites. We investigated the role of flight attendants and their unions in creating smoke-free air travel. We used case study methodology to search tobacco industry documents and labor union periodicals and to interview key informants (i.e., people identified as having first-hand information and experience in the campaign to make airlines smoke free). We then compared findings across these data sources. Tobacco industry strategies against the establishment of smoke-free worksites failed in the case of airlines, largely because of the efforts of flight attendants and their unions. Other factors contributed to the failure but likely would have been insufficient to derail industry efforts without strong stands by the flight attendants. This case illustrates the potential for successful partnerships between unions and tobacco control policy advocates when developing smoke-free worksite policies.

  4. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  5. The Effects of Local Workplace Smoking Laws on Smoking Restrictions and Exposure to Smoke at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    We provide new evidence on the effects of workplace smoking restrictions by studying more than 100 local smoking ordinances in Ontario, Canada from 1997-2004. We advance the literature by examining local (as opposed to state or provincial) laws in a quasi-experimental framework and by explicitly testing for effects on worksite compliance and…

  6. Smoking in hotels: prevalence, and opinions about restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmonds, A; Bailey, K; Bentley, S; Chase, V; Fernando, S; Guruge, A; King, M; Tan, O M; Walsh, R

    1995-02-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke can occur in hotels. Controversy exists about smoking regulation on licensed premises. This survey of 138 people attending one of three Newcastle hotels during 1993 found that 57 per cent of respondents were nonsmokers. Fifty-eight per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 50 to 66 per cent) of respondents in these hotels believed their health was being adversely affected by other people's smoke in the hotel. Seventy per cent (CI 62 to 78 per cent), including half the smokers, were in favour of restriction of smoking in the hotels. Most preferred the establishment of smoke-free areas to the introduction of total smoking bans in hotels. The failure of hotels to regulate smoking suggests that a legislative approach is required. The case for legislation would be strengthened by a larger study elsewhere in Australia.

  7. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  8. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines and Spanair recently signed a code-share agreement enabling Turkish Airlines to use its code "TK" on domestic flights operated by Spanair. Reciprocally, on Turkish Airlines’ flights to Barcelona, Madrid and

  9. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines has signed a new code share agreement with Asiana Airlines from South Korea as part of an expansion program. The new code share agreement,which went into effect on October 25,2009,

  10. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Austrian Airlines Austrian Airlines Group has announced the appointment of Heinz Goetz as new Country Manager China. Goetz, a veteran airline industry operative, joined Austrian Airlines in 1977. He held management positions in Austria and abroad prior to his most recent appointment as Country

  11. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam Airlines Makes Big Progress According to latest statistics of Vietnam Airlines, in the first six months of this year, a total of 31,140 flights operated by the company made safe takeoffs and land-

  12. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Qatar Airlines Teams Up With Langham Hotels International Qatar Airlines has recently inked an agree- ment with Langham Hotels International.Accordingly, Qatar Airlines will of- fer QMiles to members of the hotel’s advantage program who visit any hotels of Langham Hotels International.

  13. Smoking restrictions on campus: changes and challenges at three Canadian universities, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the restriction of smoking on university campuses in the Canadian context. Indoor smoking on campus is now completely prohibited by law, and universities are increasingly moving to restrict, or prohibit, outdoor smoking on their grounds. The research focuses on three case studies to identify changes in spatial restrictions on campus smoking over the last four decades (1970-2010), and to determine the challenges involved in establishing bans in outdoor areas of campus. The three universities were selected for their different approaches to the issue of outdoor smoking. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews with 36 key informants, conducted from September 2010 to January 2011, supplemented by documentary information. Interview data were analysed thematically. Protection against environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on campus proceeded incrementally, via policy-making at the provincial, municipal and institutional levels. Historically, institutional bans on indoor smoking were particularly significant, but their health benefits could be limited by the presence of private property on campus. Universities continue to initiate smoking restrictions today, with respect to outdoor bans. However, respondents reported myriad challenges in developing, implementing and maintaining such bans. Five principal concerns were articulated: the need for ongoing policy communication; management of community relations as smokers are displaced from campus; enforcement to ensure that the policy has practical effect; safety concerns; and difficulties relating to campus layout. Because challenges are diverse and contextual, effective protection against outdoor ETS on campus is likely to require an ongoing commitment on the part of administrators.

  14. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Qatar Airways Award-winning Qatar Airways boosted its tally of international honors by grabbing four key titles at the prestigious 13th World Travel Awards during a glittering ceremony in the Caribbean islands of the Turks and Caicos. The Doha-based airline picked up awards for the World’s Leading Business Class Airline, World’s Leading Airline Inflight Meal Service, Leading Airline in the Middle East as well as Leading Middle East Business Class Airline. The airline gained high praise at the travel industry’s equivalent to the Oscar’s and triumphed as the Leading Airline in the Middle East. It gained the inflight meal service award for the second year in a row.

  15. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around...

  16. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    United Airlines In celebration of the first anniversary of the Approved Destination Status (ADS) agreement between China and the United States, United Airlines, the world’s largest transpacific airline, offers travelers in China an unique trip to its home, Chicago, with a special month-long promotion. Beginning June 1, the special promotional offer will give visitors the chance to take in the Windy City

  17. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    United Airlines United Airlines and Shanghai Airlines signed a code-sharing agreement on March 21 that expands international destination options and frequent flyer opportunities for customers of both carriers. Pending U.S. Government approval, the 11 code-sharing flights covered by the agreement are scheduled to commence May 15. Once the agreement takes effect, customers from both carriers will be able to accrue and redeem frequent flyer miles and enjoy airport lounges supported by both carriers.

  18. Pursuing Therapeugenic Consequences of Restricting Client Smoking during Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence J.; Dearing, Nancy

    Theorists and therapists have become increasingly attentive to the role of interpersonal behaviors that facilitate or hinder the ability of the counselor to exert influence over the client during counseling. A study was conducted to examine the impact of a counselor's preference that clients not smoke, client stress levels, client sex, and…

  19. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sri Lankan Airlines offers 50% off on fares and packages for Golden Jubilee of China-Sri Lanka relations Sri Lankan Airlines is offering an amazing 50% off on airfares from Beijing to Colombo and holiday packages in Sri Lanka, to celebrate the 50th anniv

  20. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Air Berlin Air Berlin is the second largest German airline and the fourth largest airline in Europe. It was founded in 1978 and has been enjoying steady growth ever since. Its route network includes major international cities and holiday destinations, as well

  1. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopian Airlines to Launch Daily Non-stop Flights to Beijing From May 2011, Ethiopian Airlines will introduce daily non-stop services from Addis Ababa to Beijing with its brand-new Boeing 777-200LR ultra long-range aircraft. New non-stop routing will shave almost

  2. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines announced an all-inclusive 9,800-yuan tour package to Turkey available through mos major travel agencies. This package includes round-trip airfare from Beijing or Shanghai to Istanbul, plus a roundtrip flight from Istanbul to any other Turkish city. An eight-day,

  3. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines An Airbus 340 sporting the distinctive Turkish Airlines tail fin logo at landed at Shanghai’s Pudong airport at 3:30 p.m. on July 1, 2009, inaugurating the direct, commercial flight link between Istanbul and Shanghai. The passengers on the maiden voyage

  4. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Austrian Airlines QUALITY AND SERVICE KEY TO SUCCESS Austrian Airlines has been making continuous efforts to provide more comfort and convenience to travelers. In business class, a new sleeper seat with a back adjustable up to 90 degrees was recently introduced. In addition, wireless Internet connection is now available throuqhout the cabin, on the ground

  5. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines released its consolidated financial statements for the first nine months of 2009 on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. According to the reported financial statements, sales revenue was $3.26 billion, a decrease of 11 percent year on year

  6. The Demand For Cigarettes and Restrictions on Smoking in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Henry Saffer

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the effect that restrictive clean air laws have on the level of smoking. Restrictive clean air laws refers to the laws which prohibit smoking in private workplaces as well as in public places. The data employed in this study consist of a time series of cross sections of the fifty states of the U.S., and Washington D.C., over the time period from 1975 through 1985, Since states where sentiment is strongly against cigarettes are more likely to pa...

  7. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  8. Association of smoking onset with R-rated movie restrictions and adolescent sensation seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Sargent, J D; Stoolmiller, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Tanski, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10-14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were ...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.330 - What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What smoking... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.330 What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control? Effective June 19,...

  10. Reshuffling and Relocating: The Gendered and Income-Related Differential Effects of Restricting Smoking Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Hemsing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates secondhand smoke (SHS exposure and management in the context of smoking location restrictions, for nonsmokers, former, and current smokers. A purposive sample of 47 low income and non-low-income men and women of varied smoking statuses was recruited to participate in a telephone interview or a focus group. Amidst general approval of increased restrictions there were gendered patterns of SHS exposure and management, and effects of SHS policies that reflect power, control, and social roles that need to be considered as policies are developed, implemented and monitored. The experience of smoking restrictions and the management of SHS is influenced by the social context (relationship with a partner, family member, or stranger, the space of exposure (public or private, worksite, the social location of individuals involved (gender, income, and differential tolerance to SHS. This confluence of factors creates differing unintended and unexpected consequences to the social and physical situations of male and female smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers. These factors deserve further study, in the interests of informing the development of future interventions and policies restricting SHS.

  11. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Qatar Airways Award-winning Qatar Airways has become the first airline in the world to introduce live digital satellite TV beamed direct to every passenger on their individual seatback TV systems at 35,000 feet. Yet another first for one of the world's fastest growing airlines is the introduction of a system offering a multitude of European and Middle East TV channels on five of its fleet of Airbus A330 long-haul aircraft.

  12. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SriLankan Airlines Since September 1,SriLankan Airlines has promoted special offers on airfares in succession. Recent ones include:a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to Bangkok for only 2,215 yuan($300);a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to Colombo for 4,000 yuan($540);a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to the Maldives for 4,700 yuan($635);a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to any desti-

  13. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment.

  14. Airline Promotions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Austrian Airlines is extending its network in China. From June onwards,the number of direct flights from Beijing to Vienna will rise from the current four to six per week, operated by Airbus A33oAs of April 29th, Shanghai will be added to the flight program, seeing three nonstop flights from Vienna a week, operated by Boeing B-767

  15. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Routes Forum Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) is always retaining its leading position in China’s airport industry. By participating in the Routes Forum for the past five years, BCIA has been developing an airline business with more than 100

  16. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Qatar Airways Carrier’s Privilege Club wins unprecedented number of accolades at 19th annual Freddie Award Airline presented with Stateside honors weeks ahead of U.S.A. launch As Qatar Airways prepares for its historic launch of sched- uled flights to th

  17. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    British Airways British Airways today unveiled a radi-cal new environmental target of halvingnet CO2 emissions by 2050.The target,the most ambitious set by any airline,means that British Airways will reduce its net carbon output from 16

  18. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Qatar Airways Qatar Airways has reached milestone agreements with 50 airlines around the world for interline electronic ticket-ing enabling passengers to travel without a paper ticket to a wider choice of destinations. With the recent additions of Lufthansa and British

  19. Butt in, butt out: pupils' views on the extent to which staff could and should enforce smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K M; Gordon, J

    2004-02-01

    Schools which enforce a no-smoking policy may experience lower rates of pupil smoking. Little is known, however, about how young people view such restrictions and it has been argued that smoking bans might actually encourage adolescent smoking. This paper presents pupils' views on the extent to which staff could, and should, enforce smoking restrictions. Twenty-five single-sex discussion groups were held with 13-year-old pupils who had been purposively selected from two Scottish secondary schools. Both schools served relatively deprived communities and ostensibly had no-smoking policies, but varied in their pupil smoking rates. The pupils' accounts suggested that staff enforcement could interrupt pupil smoking and discourage smoking on school premises, but did not affect whether or not they actually smoked. Pupils viewed staff efforts as ineffective and felt staff did not always have the authority or status needed to enforce a ban. Differences were found between the schools, but these did not explain the variation in their smoking profiles. PMID:15020544

  20. The Impact of State Preemption of Local Smoking Restrictions on Public Health Protections and Changes in Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mowery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. Background. A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. Methods. Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. Results. State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. Discussion. State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.

  1. Airline Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  2. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  3. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  4. [Evaluation of the knowledge and manner of workers of workplaces in Tokat about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Celik, Deniz; Etikan, Ilker; Inönü, Handan; Yılmaz, Ayşe; Seyfikli, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and manner of cafe, pub and restaurant (with/without alcohol) workers in our city center about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking. To determine the preparation about the ban, smoking characteristics of workers, the knowledge on passive smoking. A questionnaire was performed to workers. The type of workplace, the number of workers, existence of a restriction of indoor smoking, any preparation about the ban were asked. The job of worker, whether the worker has a knowledge on the ban or not, the idea of the workers on the necessity and practicability of the ban were asked. Smoking history and the knowledge about passive smoking of workers were recorded. Fagerstrom nicotine dependent test (FNDT) was performed to smokers. Eighty four work places with 568 workers included in the study. The questionnaire was performed to 337 workers whose mean age was 29.1/years. 292 of workers were male. 190 of cases were current smokers. 166 of cases (49.3%) know the meaning of passive smoking. Alcohol offering was made at 8 of workplaces. Smoking was forbidden in 20 of workplaces. A preparation was performed about the ban in 30 of (46.9%) other workplaces. 88.4% of workers have knowledge on the ban, 64.7% of them know the punishment of the noncompliance of the ban. 81.3% of the workers believe the necessity and 45.7% of them believe the practicability of the ban. Smokers and especially who's FNBT > 5 have a stronger belief on the necessity and practicability of the ban. We determined that the preparation about the ban was inadequate although there was an little time for the put into practice the law. So we think that the controls of workplaces should be happened frequent. PMID:21038139

  5. Esindusteenuseid pakub Airline Management

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lennufirmadele ja teistele turismivaldkonna ettevõtetele esindusteenuseid pakkuvast firmast Airline Management OÜ. Firma poolt Eestis esindatud lennufirmade Air Namibia, SN Brussels Airlines ja Flynordic ning hotelligrupi Wyndham lühitutvustus

  6. Smoking restrictions in large-hub airports --- United States, 2002 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease in both nonsmoking adults and children, including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. SHS exposure causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths and 3,400 lung cancer deaths among U.S. nonsmoking adults annually. Adopting policies that completely eliminate smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. In 2009, an estimated 696 million aircraft passenger boardings occurred in the United States. A 2002 survey of airport smoking policies found that 42% of 31 large-hub U.S. airports had policies requiring all indoor areas to be smoke-free. To update that finding, CDC analyzed the smoking policies of airports categorized as large-hub in 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, although 22 (76%) of the 29 large-hub airports surveyed were smoke-free indoors, seven airports permitted smoking in certain indoor locations, including three of the five busiest airports. Although a majority of airports reported having specifically designated smoking areas outdoors in 2010 (79%) and/or prohibiting smoking within a minimum distance of entryways (69%), no airport completely prohibited smoking on all airport property. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority level are needed for all airports to protect air travelers and workers at airports from SHS.

  7. Airlines 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Hvass, Kristian A.; Munar, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    Over the years online marketing has grown in importance in the airline industry. This media space offers airlines numerous marketing tools, one of the most recent being social media. Social media allows airlines to interact directly with customers via various Internet platforms, and monitor customer opinions and evaluations of services. This exploratory paper studies airlines’ use of social media on Facebook and Twitter for a defined period of time. The paper analyses the content of social me...

  8. Airline Quality Rating 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R.

    1991-01-01

    In today's competitive airline industry, it's crucial that an airline do all it can to attract and retain customers. One of the best ways to do this is by offering a quality service to consumers. Perceptions of service quality vary from person to person, but an enduring element of service quality is the consistent achievement of customer satisfaction. The satisfying of customer service needs keeps them loyal and helps establish a base for new customers. An Airline Quality Rating scale is p...

  9. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  10. Airline Operation Center Workstation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airline Operation Center Workstation (AOC Workstation) represents equipment available to users of the National Airspace system, outside of the FAA, that enables...

  11. Private Airlines Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2005-01-01

    OKAY Airways, the first wholly private airline in China, took off from the Tianjin Binhai International Airport on March Ⅱ. Carrying a total of 80 passengers, the 189-seat Boeing 737-900 leased from Korea Airlines was bound for Kunming, capital of Yunnan Province, via Changsha,

  12. Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other ... you quit, the greater the benefit. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  13. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay ORHAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: flight scheduling, aircraft scheduling, crew scheduling and disruptions management. These aforementioned scheduling and planning problems faced by all airline companies in the airline sector were examined in detail. Studies reveal that companies using the advanced methods might gain significant cost reductions. However, even then, the time required for solving large scale problems may not satisfy the decision quality desired by decision makers. In such cases, using modern decision methods integrated with advanced technologies offer companies an opportunity for significant cost-advantages.

  14. Hada Present Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> In recent,an airbus A319 of Hainan Airlines landed atKonka Airport of Lhasa,where is located at Brahmaputrabasin.In fact,Hainan Airlines already opened the routeXi’an—Lhasa.Moreover,Hainan Airlines began its new routeTaiyuan—Xi’an—Lhasa,Changzhi—Xi’an—Lhasa,Haikou—Xi’an—Lhasa and Beijing—Xi’an—Lhasa.As we known,Xi’an=lhasa,the flight is implemented by theairbus A319 of Hainan Airlines.The airbus departs from Xi’anat 8:10 am every Monday,Wednesday,Friday and Sunday,andarriving in Lhasa at 11:10 am the same day.For the return trip,plane leave Lhasa at 12:00 every Monday,Wednesday,Fridayand Sunday,arriving in Xi’an at 2:35 pm in the afternoon.Andthe scheduled flight number is HU7857/8.

  15. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  16. Planning and Scheduling of Airline Operations

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay ORHAN; Muzaffer KAPANOĞLU; T. Hikmet KARAKOÇ

    2010-01-01

    The Turkish Civil Aviation sector has grown at a rate of 53 % between the years 2002-2008 owing to countrywide economical developments and some removed restrictions in the aviation field. Successful international companies in the sector use advanced computer-supported solution methods for their planning and scheduling problems. These methods have been providing significant competitive advantages to those companies. There are four major scheduling and planning problems in the airline sector: f...

  17. Continental Airlines and China Southern Airlines Announce Strategic Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Frequent flyer reciprocity to start in September: codesharing to start in November. Continental Airlines and China Southern Airlines. the largest airline in the People's Republic of China. announced on June 18, 2007 that they have entered into a strategic partnership for frequent flyer and airport lounge access reciprocity and extensive codesharing, providing better service to customers who travel between the U.S.and China and transfer between the two carriers.

  18. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  19. Economic analysis of spider web airline networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The distinct network organization, management, service and operating characteristics of US Southwest Airlines are key elements of its success compared with other airlines. As a network organization type, the spider web airline network has received more attention. In this paper, we analyzed the relation between the spider web airline network and spider web, and the structure of spider web airline network, built the assignment model of the spider web airline network,and investigated the economics concerned.

  20. Estimating a Mixed Strategy: United and American Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Golan, Amos; Karp , Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    We develop a generalized maximum entropy estimator that can estimate pure and mixed strategies subject to restrictions from game theory. This method avoids distributional assumptions and is consistent and efficient. We demonstrate this method by estimating the mixed strategies of duopolistic airlines.

  1. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  2. The Russian airline industry: contestable market or…?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kislyak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors, based on the complete survey of Russian airlines that was conducted in winter of 2006-2007, analyze essential entry-barriers in the industry, and econometrically estimate efficiency of methods for overcoming entry-barriers in the Russian PAI. They find that there are significant technological and behavioral entrybarriers in the industry. The paper doubts that this industry is contestable in contemporary Russia, although it is typically contestable in Europe and the USA. Econometric estimation of entry-barriers points that administrative barriers are the most significant restrictions of competition.

  3. Airline Operations Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  4. Continental Airlines Again Ranked NO.1 Most Admired Global Airline by Fortune Magazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ HOUSTON, March 12, 2007 Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) announced that it was again rated the top airline on FORTUNE magazine's annual airline industry list of Most Admired Global Companies. This is the fourth year that Continental has topped that list.

  5. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  6. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  7. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  8. European vs. U.S. Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study measures and compares the efficiency and productivity of European and U.S. airlines, over the period from 2001 to 2008. We measure efficiency by estimating a Bayesian distance frontier model subject to regularity constraints. Productivity estimates are also derived parametrically, based...... on the constrained model indicate that European airlines have slightly higher efficiency and productivity growth than U.S. airlines. A comparison based on the type of airlines indicates that low-cost airlines are on average more productive and efficient than full-service airlines. The decomposition of productivity...

  9. A graph-theoretic method to quantify the airline route authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces a graph-theoretic method to quantify the legal statements in route certificate which specifies the airline routing restrictions. All the authorized nonstop and multistop routes, including the shortest time routes, can be obtained, and the method suggests profitable route structure alternatives to airline analysts. This method to quantify the C.A.B. route authority was programmed in a software package, Route Improvement Synthesis and Evaluation, and demonstrated in a case study with a commercial airline. The study showed the utility of this technique in suggesting route alternatives and the possibility of improvements in the U.S. route system.

  10. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  11. United Airlines Named Best Transpacific Airline at OAAG Airline of the Year Awards "Oscars of the Airline Industry" Highlight United's Extensive Service to Asia-Pacific Region"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) was named Best Transpacific Airline by the annual OAG Airline of the Year Awards during an awards ceremony in London. OAG is a content management company specializing in travel and transport, which selected winners of the awards based on the votes of a worldwide audience of business travelers.……

  12. United Airlines Named Best Transpacific Airline at OAAG Airline of the Year Awards "Oscars of the Airline Industry" Highlight United's Extensive Service to Asia-Pacific Region"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) was named Best Transpacific Airline by the annual OAG Airline of the Year Awards during an awards ceremony in London. OAG is a content management company specializing in travel and transport, which selected winners of the awards based on the votes of a worldwide audience of business travelers.

  13. Celestial Beauty Leads The Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the corporate culture of"intemally cultivating the spirit with the essence of the traditional Chinese culture,and externally combining the advanced western management and technology",Hainan Airlines Company Limited (hereinafter called HNA) has turned from a new soaring airlines to the fourth biggest airlines in China.

  14. Celestial Beauty Leads The Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Based on the corporate culture of"intemally cultivating the spirit with the essence of the traditional Chinese culture,and externally combining the advanced western management and technology",Hainan Airlines Company Limited (hereinafter called HNA) has turned from a new soaring airlines to the fourth biggest airlines in China.……

  15. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients. PMID:19330974

  16. Strategic analysis of Czech Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Moiseeva, Polina

    2016-01-01

    The thesis called Strategic Analysis of Czech Airlines which completely analyses current situation within the company. It presents theoretical base for such an analysis and subsequently offers situational analysis, which includes the analysis of external environment, internal environment and suggestions for improvement. The thesis includes a complete companys SWOT analysis and offers the applying of Porters five forces framework. The thesis also includes recommendations and suggestions for th...

  17. The Changing Low-Cost Airline Model: An Analysis of Spirit Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstein, David E

    2013-01-01

    In recent years legacy airlines have struggled, while low-cost carriers have achieved success. The original low-cost operating model, created by Southwest Airlines, has been adapted by airlines worldwide. Previous studies argue that the more a company adheres to the original model, the more successful the airline will be. Little academic study of the current state of the low-cost model exists. The researcher seeks to address this gap through qualitative methods and a case study involving S...

  18. Price Discrimination in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years we have seen the emergence of low cost, "no frills" airlines competing directly with traditional carriers. This increase in competition coupled with the growing use of the internet has significantly increased price transparency within the airline industry. The primary aim of this study is to determine if and how price transparency has altered the way airlines price discriminate. The first part of this paper contains a general review of price discrimination with...

  19. Multiple Equilibria and Deterrence in Airline Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliberto, Federico; Zhang, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    We use data from the US airline industry to estimate a model of entry deterrence. We model the interaction among airlines as a repeated static game, where we allow for a very general form of heterogeneity. We consider a menu of three alternative games that describe the strategic interaction among airlines: simultaneous and sequential move games, and a sequential move game with deterrence investments. Following Bernheim [1984], deterrence investments include all investment that rai...

  20. Location-Price Competition in Airline Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses location-then-price competition in airline market as a two-stage game of n players on the graph. Passenger’s demand distribution is described by multinomial logit model. Equilibrium in price game is computed through best response dynamics. We solve location game using backward induction, knowing that airlines will choose prices from equilibrium for the second-stage game. Some numerical results for airline market under consideration are presented.

  1. Chinese Airline Official Microblog Influence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 10 Airlines official micro-blog on the sina microblog platform as sample, airline official microblog influence is analysed. Six indexes, fans number, microblog open time; average daily microblog number, proportion of original microblog, average comment number and reposted number are used to found the principal component analysis model. Three principal components microblog activity, fans initiative and microblog innovation degree, contribute 84% of the total resources. Suggestions to improve airline microblog influence are given based on characteristics of the model.

  2. Airline Financial Distress and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ribbink, Dina; Hofer, Christian; Dresner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    An investigation is conducted on the effect of financial distress on customer service levels in the U.S. airline industry. Using data from the first quarter of 1998 to the third quarter of 2006, we employ a seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) model to analyze the impact of financial distress on three measures of customer service. We find that higher financial distress is associated with better on-time performance of airlines and fewer lost bags. The relationship of airline financial distres...

  3. United Airlines Voted 'Best North American Airline' for Fifth Consecutive Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Discerning frequent travelers in Asia have voted United Airlines the" Best North American Airline" for the fifth consecutive year in Business Traveller AsiaPacific's 2005 annual travel awards. Each year, the magazine polls frequent travelers to learn their opinions on airlines and services. Results are verified and compiled by an independent market research company :TNS-Hong Kong.

  4. Future direction in airline marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  5. How have the strategies of Airlines been affected by the 2008 economic recession? A study focusing on British Airways, American Airlines, Southwest Airlines and EasyJet.

    OpenAIRE

    Morley, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper looks at both Porters Generic strategies theory and the newer resource based view of strategy and applies these theories to the Airline industry using four focus cases. The companies looked at are British Airways, EasyJet, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. The study of these cases allows for an overview of the role of strategy in the airline industry and enables a comparison regarding the effects of the current economic recession on the chosen airlines and the m...

  6. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  7. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.……

  8. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  9. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.

  10. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology....... Findings – Results based on a sample of recent input/output data indicated that the efficiency of UK airlines has continuously declined since 2004 to reach a value of 73.39 per cent in 2007. Factors which were found to be significantly and positively related to technical efficiency variations include...... airline size and load factor. The paper also highlights that factors such as increase in oil price and fierce market competition were also potential inefficiency determinants. Practical implications – The findings of this paper provide a fresh link between airline performance and the current industry...

  11. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost e cient methods to handle airline...... disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it o ers an introduction to airline disruption management, provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second part we...

  12. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost efficient methods to handle...... airline disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it offers an introduction to airline disruption management provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second...

  13. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  14. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  15. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  16. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maluf Rabacow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking, was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  17. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  18. Price Discrimination through Refund Contracts in Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Escobari, Diego; Jindapon, Paan

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how an airline monopoly uses refundable and non-refundable tickets to screen consumers who are uncertain about their travel. Our theoretical model predicts that the difference between these two fares diminishes as individual demand uncertainty is resolved. Using an original data set from U.S. airline markets, we find strong evidence supporting our model. Price discrimination opportunities through refund contracts decline as the departure date nears and individuals learn about...

  19. Financial Analysis Report: Malaysia Airlines 2007 - 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert O'Neil Mushure

    2014-01-01

    This work is an analysis of the annual reports of Malaysia Airlines Berhad from 2007 to 2011. Profitability analysis was done on the financial statements of the company from 2007 to 2011. Cash and working capital management analysis were done on the financial statements of 2010 and 2011. It was found that Malaysia Airlines Berhad was constantly suffering from high costs of operations which resulted in consecutive negative gross profit over the years.Net profit remained positive only as a resu...

  20. Combining robustness and recovery for airline schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we address different aspects of the airline scheduling problem. The main difficulty in this field lies in the combinatorial complexity of the problems. Furthermore, as airline schedules are often faced with perturbations called disruptions (bad weather conditions, technical failures, congestion, crew illness…), planning for better performance under uncertainty is an additional dimension to the complexity of the problem. Our main focus is to develop better schedules that are le...

  1. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper; Ross, Alex; Tiourine, Sergey

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major air...

  2. United Airlines Makes Gonnections Easier for Passengers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ United is the only U.S. Carrier connecting Pearl River Delta Region to offer customers SkyPier ferry service and pier-side check-in. United Airlines is the first U.S. Airline to offer customers convenient travel between the Pearl River Delta cities and Hong Kong International Airport using the SkyPier ferry service and pier-side check-in, beginning today.

  3. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS' EVALUATIONS THROUGH MINING AIRLINE REVIEWS

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Yakut; Tugba Turkoglu; Fikriye Yakut

    2015-01-01

    Data mining can be evaluated as a strategic tool to determine the customer profiles in order to learn customer expectations and requirements. Airline customers have different characteristics and if passenger reviews about their trip experiences are correctly analyzed, companies can increase customer satisfaction by improving provided services. In this study, we investigate customer review data for in-flight services of airline companies and draw customer models with respect to suc...

  4. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  5. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  6. Scandinavian Airlines Becomes the World's First Airline to Have All Intercontinental Flights Equipped with Wireless Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      In March this year, Scandinavian Airlines became the world's first airline to provide wireless broadband Internet on all intercontinental flights. This means that passengers can surf the web, send and receive emails, chat online, use Intemet telephone services and log on to their company's virtual private network while flying 12,000 meters above the earth.……

  7. Scandinavian Airlines Becomes the World's First Airline to Have All Intercontinental Flights Equipped with Wireless Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In March this year, Scandinavian Airlines became the world's first airline to provide wireless broadband Internet on all intercontinental flights. This means that passengers can surf the web, send and receive emails, chat online, use Intemet telephone services and log on to their company's virtual private network while flying 12,000 meters above the earth.

  8. Stubbing Out Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing,home to 4 million smokers,is to introduce a gradual cigarette ban China’s capital will ban smoking in most public places starting from May 1,signaling a big step toward tobacco control in a nation of 350 million smokers and a move to meet China’s pledge of a smoke-free Olympics. Beijing has had some restrictions on smoking since 1996,when the municipal government prohibited smoking in large public venues such as schools,sports venues and movie theaters.

  9. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  10. Continental Airlines Receives J.D. Power and Associates Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June 29, 2006, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) was ranked the highest in Customer Satisfaction Among Traditional Network Carriers in North America in the J.D.Power and Associates 2006 Airline Satisfaction Index StudySM.

  11. The Design of a Large Scale Airline Network

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Airlines invest a lot of money before opening new pax transportation services, for this reason, airlines have to analyze if their profits will overcome the amount of money they have to invest to open new services. The design and analysis of the feasibility of airlines networks can be done by using the models developed in this thesis. It is possible to identify routes that are opportunities to open services, based on airline operating costs, passenger demand, aircraft and airport capacities an...

  12. Singapore Airlines Unveils the World's Best Flying Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, Singapore Airlines launched its latest suite of cabin products designed to deliver the most luxurious and stylish travel experiences. The suite of products and services include new Singapore Airlines First, Business and Economy Class seats,the next generation Kris World inflight entertainment system and an enhanced service delivery. These next generation products will set new standards of excellence for premium air travel, and reinforce the Airline's product leadership in the airline industry.

  13. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  14. The Design of a Large Scale Airline Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Airlines invest a lot of money before opening new pax transportation services, for this reason, airlines have to analyze if their profits will overcome the amount of money they have to invest to open new services. The design and analysis of the feasibility of airlines networks can be done by using

  15. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2009-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  16. Subsequence Generation for the Airline Crew Pairing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  17. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David M.; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2010-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  18. "Work Hard, Fly Bight"——Today's Continental Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June16, 2006, Continental Airlines celebrated the first anniversary of its daily nonstop flight from Beifing to New York. China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed Kwok Hing-Cheong, Chief Representative & Country Director-Continental Airlines, China. He talked about the developments, challenges and benefits of Continental Airlines in China.

  19. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  20. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... with It The Basics The Basics: Overview Quitting smoking is one of the most important things you ...

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stress & Smoking Causes of Stress Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With ... Stress & Smoking Causes of Stress Quiz: What's Your Stress Level? Smoking & Depression Understanding Depression Quiz: Are You Depressed? Coping With ...

  2. Guidelines for Change Management for Airline X

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Organizational change is a vital part of the airline industry. Leading change is considered one of the most important parts of success. This thesis project focuses on creating instructions for Airline X in the development of their change processes. This project started from the researcher’s own idea. It was presented to the commissioning company who found it useful and approved the topic. The goal of this project was to create a useful tool for the organization that they are able to utili...

  3. The Statement Airline Service Quality Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周威

    2014-01-01

    As the recent emergence of the Low Cost Carriers (LLCs) in Air-line industry, service differentiation and customer satisfaction takes critical role in order to sharpen competitive edges to both Full Service Carriers (FSCs) and LLCs. The current research aims to explore the nature of service quality in airline and its relationship to customer satisfaction. Air service quality dimensions using factor analysis are classified as Ticketing and Boarding Processes, Customer Encounter Services, and Tangibles. Further, the regression analysis reveals the strength of relationships between each of service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction scales that the Ticketing and Boarding Process dimension has the strongest co-relations with customer satisfaction scales.

  4. The future of airline business models:

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This research is titled “The Future of Airline Business Models: Which Will Win?” and it is part of the requirements for the award of a Masters in Management from NOVA BSE and another from Luiss Guido Carlo University. The purpose is to elaborate a complete market analysis of the European Air Transportation Industry in order to predict which Airlines, strategies and business models may be successful in the next years. First, an extensive literature review of the business model concept has been...

  5. Empirical evidence for the effect of airline travel on inter-regional influenza spread in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Brownstein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of air travel on influenza spread has been the subject of numerous investigations using simulation, but very little empirical evidence has been provided. Understanding the role of airline travel in large-scale influenza spread is especially important given the mounting threat of an influenza pandemic. Several recent simulation studies have concluded that air travel restrictions may not have a significant impact on the course of a pandemic. Here, we assess, with empirical data, the role of airline volume on the yearly inter-regional spread of influenza in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured rate of inter-regional spread and timing of influenza in the United States for nine seasons, from 1996 to 2005 using weekly influenza and pneumonia mortality from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Seasonality was characterized by band-pass filtering. We found that domestic airline travel volume in November (mostly surrounding the Thanksgiving holiday predicts the rate of influenza spread (r(2 = 0.60; p = 0.014. We also found that international airline travel influences the timing of influenza mortality (r(2 = 0.59; p = 0.016. The flight ban in the US after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, and the subsequent depression of the air travel market, provided a natural experiment for the evaluation of flight restrictions; the decrease in air travel was associated with a delayed and prolonged influenza season. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first empirical evidence for the role of airline travel in long-range dissemination of influenza. Our results suggest an important influence of international air travel on the timing of influenza introduction, as well as an influence of domestic air travel on the rate of inter-regional influenza spread in the US. Pandemic preparedness strategies should account for a possible benefit of airline travel restrictions on influenza spread.

  6. Cooperative Game Study of Airlines Based on Flight Frequency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the game theory, the relationship between airline ticket price and optimal flight frequency is analyzed. The paper establishes the payoff matrix of the flight frequency in noncooperation scenario and flight frequency optimization model in cooperation scenario. The airline alliance profit distribution is converted into profit distribution game based on the cooperation game theory. The profit distribution game is proved to be convex, and there exists an optimal distribution strategy. The results show that joining the airline alliance can increase airline whole profit, the change of negotiated prices and cost is beneficial to profit distribution of large airlines, and the distribution result is in accordance with aviation development.

  7. Singapore Airlines A380 Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first A380 aircraft that will be delivered to launch customer Singapore Airlines embarked on its maiden test flight on May 7, 2006. This aircraft will be the world's first A380 to enter commercial service at the end of the year.

  8. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to low

  9. Airline Revenue Management with Shifting Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAirline revenue management is the practice of controlling the booking requests such that the planes are filled with the most profitable passengers. In revenue management the capacities of the business and economy class sections of the plane are traditionally considered to be fixed and di

  10. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  11. Introducing explus, United Airlines' Regional Jet Redefined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) unveiled the new explusSM brand - a United Express service featuring state-of-the-art Embraer-170 (70-seat) and Canadair RJ-700(66-seat) regional jets, which provide the luxurious services to the passengers.

  12. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... airline passenger protections. See 73 FR 74586 (December 8, 2008). After reviewing and considering the... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... deceptive'' practice. That rule took effect on April 29, 2010. See 74 FR 68983 (December 30, 2009). In...

  13. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  14. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  15. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  16. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  17. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ... can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and ...

  18. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke-free. Some businesses might be afraid to ban smoking, but there’s no strong evidence that going ... Some states and cities even have laws that ban smoking in the car if carrying passengers under ...

  19. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the link between cancer and smoking. If you smoke, you are at much higher ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on the ... smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. If ...

  1. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer. Since the 1960s, scientists have reported on ... smoke, you are at much higher risk for lung cancer than a person who has never smoked. ...

  2. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  3. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  4. Smoking in the workplace 1986: Labour Force Survey estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W J; Bisch, L M

    1989-01-01

    A smoking supplement on the December 1986 Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) obtained data on smoking rates within occupational groups, the percentage of workers in occupations which permit smoking at the worksite, the proportion of workers with designated smoking areas at their place of employment, and worker attitudes towards restriction of smoking. Smoking prevalence ranges from 18% among professional workers to 42% among transportation workers. Smoking rates are also high in mining (40%), construction (39%), and other craft occupations (37%). About 53% of the working population state that smoking is permitted in their immediate work area. Proportions of workers who indicate that smoking is permitted range from 39% among professional workers to 67% among transportation workers. Managerial (66%) and construction employees (65%) are also likely to state that smoking is permitted in their work area. Only 40% of the working population report that there are designated smoking areas at their place of work. Professionals (55%) and mining workers (52%) are most likely to have designated smoking areas. Workers in outdoor (17%), construction (23%), and transportation occupations (26%) are least likely. A large percentage (81%) of the working population favour smoking restrictions. Support for restricting smoking is closely linked to smoking prevalence within an occupational group. About 65% of smokers favour restrictions. The degree of support among smokers for restrictions on smoking in the workplace suggests that many smokers desire environmental constraints on their smoking behaviour.

  5. CONTROLLING IN AIRLINE ENTERPRISES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoriia Prokhorova; Viktoriia Chobitok

    2016-01-01

    Every company in the operation faced with problems of inefficient use of resources, leading to possible losses. To avoid these losses is recommended to implement controlling in the system of airline enterprises. The article analyzes defining the essence of the concept of "controlling" and defined the concept of copyright. Purpose of controlling in management is overviewed. The main goal of management is formed on the basis of controlling.

  6. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to lower average real fares, although various barriers to entry still allow carriers to keep prices above competitive levels. Environmental effects have thus far not received much attention in the discus...

  7. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  8. Robust scheduling and disruption recovery for airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Airline planning include complex and structured operations that must be planned in advance in order to exploit the available resources, provide a reliable and competitive service and forecast system's performances. Decisions regarding operations are based on data which is frequently due to uncertainty. Moreover, unpredicted events may disrupt the current schedule and force managers to take reactive decisions to recover to an operational state. On the other hand, proactive decisions, i.e. deci...

  9. FACTORS EFFECTING CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN AIRLINE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Yasir Ali Soomro; Irfan Hameed; Rehan Shakoor; Sana Abbas Kaimkhani

    2012-01-01

    This research paper investigates different factors that affect Consumer Preference in Airline Industry. Nine Factors were considered for the research. Overall Consumer Satisfaction was dependent variable and rest nine was independent variables. Multiple Regression tool was selected for analysis of the data. Questionnaire was developed to collect data having Likert Scale. The findings of this study are based on the analysis of a sample of 100 respondents. The dimensionality of overall customer...

  10. Customer Complaint Behaviors in Turkish Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Güreş, Nuriye; Arslan, Seda; BAKAR, Zeynep KOCAGÖZ

    2013-01-01

    Of late years in Turkey, the number of passengers who prefers air transportation has been increasing expeditiously. In that case, understanding the wants, satisfaction levels and complaining behaviors of passengers has been obligatory for airline companies. Therefore in this study, Turkish passengers’ complaining behaviors and Turkish-oriented airlines’ service recovery efforts toward those complaints have been searched. The study results indicated that most of the passengers have experienced...

  11. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS' EVALUATIONS THROUGH MINING AIRLINE REVIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yakut

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining can be evaluated as a strategic tool to determine the customer profiles in order to learn customer expectations and requirements. Airline customers have different characteristics and if passenger reviews about their trip experiences are correctly analyzed, companies can increase customer satisfaction by improving provided services. In this study, we investigate customer review data for in-flight services of airline companies and draw customer models with respect to such data. In this sense, we apply two approaches as feature-based and clustering-based modelling. In feature-based modelling, customers are grouped into categories based on features such as cabin flown types, experienced airline companies. In clustering-based modelling, customers are first clustered via k-means clustering and then modeled. We apply multivariate regression analysis to model customer groups in both cases. During this, we try to understand how customers evaluate the given services and what dominant characteristics of in-flight services can be from the customer viewpoint.

  12. Smoking in correctional facilities: a survey of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, M; Hughes, J.; Solomon, L; Powell, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess level of endorsement and expected consequences of worksite smoking restriction policies among correctional employees.
DESIGN—Mailed survey to Vermont state correctional employees.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Support for various policy alternatives for both staff and inmate smoking; expected consequences of restrictive smoking policies and smoking behaviour.
PARTICIPANTS—321 of 640 (50%) state correctional employees responded.
RESULTS—Employees were somewhat receptive to smoking ...

  13. An analytical model for the assessment of airline expansion strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Emboaba Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983) industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s  (1996) sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place.  A system ...

  14. Application of CSR Programs in the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Timo; Kretzschmar, Annika

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this thesis was to analyze the global airline business environment and corporate social responsibility (CSR) program implementations of some well-known airlines. The research has been conducted with the assumption that corporate social responsibility theory is valid. Our purpose was to give the reader and overall impression of airline industry in general, CSR theory and its most important elements. The work is divided into two distinct parts; theory and practical analysis o...

  15. An investigation of potential brand inconsistencies within airline strategic alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    The globalisation and deregulation in the air transport industry has resulted in a rapid and massive increase in competition. As a consequence, major airlines around the world have responded by forming strategic global alliances in order to be able to compete effectively on a global basis. Airline brand managers of the airlines participating in these alliances now have the additional responsibility to undertake a task that would have seemed almost impossible a few years before;...

  16. Development of Business Models of Low-Cost Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Vidović; Igor Štimac; Damir Vince

    2013-01-01

    The global economic crisis that affects all industries, including the aviation industry, has forced airlines to adjust their business models to existing market conditions. Low-cost airlines, which till the onset of economic crises in most cases followed the base low-cost business model, have adapted their business model in such a way that they have implemented segments of traditional airlines business models and thus created a hybrid between traditional and low-cost business models. This pape...

  17. THE REQUIREMENTS OF DEVELOPING THE REGIONAL AIRLINE TRANPORTATION IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Emre Sarilgan

    2011-01-01

    Regional airline transportation is the one of the fastest growing part of the air transportation system. The regional airlines which give the service with small size capacity and generally between large and the small cities, on short and medium range routes make a contribution to social and economic life of the regions they serve. Regional airlines also provide easily access to that regions. In Turkey, which has been in a large geography, mostly the passenger transportation is providing throu...

  18. The Impact of Airline Flight Schedules on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Deshpande; Mazhar Arıkan

    2012-01-01

    Airline flight delays have come under increased scrutiny lately in the popular press, with the Federal Aviation Administration data revealing that airline on-time performance was at its worst level in 13 years in 2007. Flight delays have been attributed to several causes such as weather conditions, airport congestion, airspace congestion, use of smaller aircraft by airlines, etc. In this paper, we examine the impact of the scheduled block time allocated for a flight, a factor controlled by ai...

  19. Mergers and acquisitions : the case of United and Continental Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Jorge Miguel Braga

    2014-01-01

    The US airline industry is characterized to be an industry with a high competition mainly in the domestic segment. In order to face this competition several airlines entered in mergers and acquisitions (M&A) deals as way to consolidate its position in the market. This trend was accentuated with the global recession that brought several challenges to this industry. For this reason, the merger between United and Continental Airlines, two major US carriers, are being planned and i...

  20. Screening for influenza infection in international airline travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alasdair R; Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    We sought the collaboration of an international airline and border control agencies to study the feasibility of entry screening to identify airline travelers at increased risk of influenza infection. Although extensive and lengthy negotiations were required, we successfully developed a multisector collaboration and demonstrated the logistical feasibility of our screening protocol. We also determined the staffing levels required for a larger study to estimate the prevalence of influenza in international airline travelers.

  1. Impact of Home Smoking Rules on Smoking Patterns Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela I. Clark, PhD; Michael W. Schooley, MPH; Bennett Pierce, MS; Jane Schulman, PhD; Anne M. Hartman, MS; Carol L. Schmitt, PhD

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Smoking restrictions in public places have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption and may reduce smoking prevalence. Evidence is emerging that smoke-free policies in nonpublic places may have a similar effect. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between household smoking rules and smoking patterns among adolescents (aged 15 to 18 years) and young adults (aged 19 to 24 years) living in parental homes (i.e., the homes of their parents, gran...

  2. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices. PMID:26897619

  3. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  4. Development of Business Models of Low-Cost Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Vidović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis that affects all industries, including the aviation industry, has forced airlines to adjust their business models to existing market conditions. Low-cost airlines, which till the onset of economic crises in most cases followed the base low-cost business model, have adapted their business model in such a way that they have implemented segments of traditional airlines business models and thus created a hybrid between traditional and low-cost business models. This paper analyses to which extent low-cost airlines adjust their business model to the hybrid business model.

  5. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  6. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI reveal that airlines of Western countries exhibit a more remarkable CSR performance than Asia-Pacific airlines, suggesting that the CSR programs of Asia-Pacific airlines need improvement. By constructing an evaluation hierarchy and applying the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study found that the key strategic factors in the airline industry’s implementation of CSR include corporate governance, risk and crisis management, brand management, and product responsibility (safety.

  7. 28 CFR 36.210 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 36.210 Section 36.210 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.210 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in places of public accommodation....

  8. 28 CFR 35.132 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 35.132 Section 35.132 Judicial... SERVICES General Requirements § 35.132 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in transportation covered by this part....

  9. Examining General Hospitals' Smoke-Free Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V.; Harbison, Phillip Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the level of smoke-free policies in general hospitals and the barriers faced in implementing restrictive policies banning smoking inside buildings and on surrounding grounds. Design/methodology/approach; A survey was developed to gather data on hospitals' current smoke-free policies, including the challenges…

  10. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  11. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Shang Chang; Sheng-Hung Chen; Chia-Wei Hsu; Allen H. Hu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO 2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) reveal that airlines of West...

  12. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main objectives are to minimize operation costs and fares, and to maximize profits based on cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. This paper presents a literature review about airline bu...

  13. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  14. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... smokes. Dr. Leischow: We encourage senior citizens, as well as others, to in particular not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to quit smoking. But if people do smoke, they shouldn't be in rooms where -- they shouldn't have children ...

  15. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  16. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  17. Brief Analysis of E-business in China Southern Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航; 崔涛; 焦斌

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet is causing another industrial revolution. Developing E-business is necessary for Chinese airlines to keep their competitive advantages. It is quite urgent for China Southern Airlines to enlarge and improve its E-business strategies so that it can consolidate its leading position in this market segment.

  18. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger... detailed manner regarding airline imposed fees from those air carriers meeting the definition of a large... rooms, car rentals, and pick-up and delivery services, et cetera. The Department wants to make...

  19. Private Airlines to Appear in Civil Aviation Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Exposed by North China Aviation Bureau, Dazhong and Aokai, two airlines based on private capitals, have handed in their establishment applications to the North China Aviation Bureau, along with the reports on feasibility study.At present, they have passed the preliminary examination of the Bureau and are waiting for the reply from CAAC. Private airlines with low operation costs are expected

  20. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. See 76 FR 41726. You may review comments to... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger... (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline...

  1. Smoking Policies of U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, H. Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of a study on the preventive health activity concerning smoking at dental schools were to determine the smoking policies and what actions were taken to reduce health hazards of smoke to personnel in institutions. The majority of schools surveyed (N=46) restricted smoking to certain areas in their facility. (MLW)

  2. No Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕川

    2005-01-01

    No Smoking Day comes once a year. It calls on people to quit smoking, but there're still so many smokers in the world. Worse still, the number of smokers is increasing day by day. As we know, smoking is a bad habit. Smoking is harmful not only to a smoker himself but also to the people around. It is said that if you smoke one cigarette, your life will be a second shorter. In other words, smoking means buying death with money. I've learned from a newspaper that tens of thousands of people in the world die fr...

  3. College campus smoking policies and programs and students' smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Lee

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although tobacco use in the United States has declined over the past 20 years, cigarette use among college students remains high. Additional research is thus needed to determine how university tobacco control policies and preventive education programs affect college students' smoking behaviors. Methods Approximately 13,000 undergraduate students at 12 universities or colleges in the state of Texas completed a web-based survey. College smoking policies were obtained from a survey of college administrators and from college websites. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of individual smoking policies and programs on the odds of cigarette smoking. Results Of the individual programs, only having a preventive education program on campus was associated with lower odds of smoking. The existence of smoking cessation programs and designated smoking areas were associated with higher odds of smoking. Policies governing the sale and distribution of cigarettes were insignificantly associated with smoking. Conclusion Rather than focusing on policies restricting cigarette sales and use, college administrators should consider implementing or expanding tobacco prevention and education programs to further reduce student smoking rates.

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quitting smoking, and in fact, on that website, we have a manual just for people that are ... I mean, one of the key areas that we try to address with senior citizens quitting smoking ...

  5. Identifying airline cost economies: An econometric analysis of the factors affecting aircraft opeerating costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zuidberg

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an econometric analysis of the influences of airline characteristics on the average operating costs per aircraft movement. The analysis combines a comprehensive selection of airline-output variables, airline-fleet variables, and airline-market variables. The result

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of airline...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.121 What classes of airline accommodations are available? Airlines are constantly updating their offerings. However, for the purposes of...

  7. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quality of life can also be affected by second-hand smoke, the smoke that non-smokers are exposed ... can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: Well, it makes me cough and ...

  8. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quitting smoking is hard for most smokers and it's hard whether they've been smoking five years, it's hard if they've been smoking for 40 ... provider. So I don't want to make it sound like an easy process. But having said ...

  9. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  10. A liberalised South African airline industry: Measuring airline total-factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The liberalisation of the South African airline industry through economic deregulation established competitive domestic and international markets. Sustainability of air transport, subject to these liberalisation effects, depends on efficient management information such as total-factor productivity, which necessitates comprehensive financial and operational information. Total-factor productivity in general, however, is not utilised by airlines as a key performance indicator since the measuring thereof is complex and regarded as tedious. Changes in air transport total-factor productivity can be measured in two ways. First, an index approach can be adopted that shows the proportional change in the inputs in relation to a proportional change in output. Secondly, a production function can be determined (econometric approach that shows a change of productivity as a shift in the production curve. The research on which the article is based, exploited the theory, selection and application of an appropriate approach to determine changes of total-factor productivity of an individual airline to assist/support efficient decisionmaking by management.

  11. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft. PMID:20478517

  12. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  13. Second-hand smoke exposure and household smoking bans in Chinese families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hua, Fu; Xia, Xiao; Hurlburt, Sarah; Ng, Patrick; MacLeod, William; Siegel, Michael; Griffiths, Sian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-07-01

    As workplace smoking restrictions spread, smoking in the home is becoming the predominant source of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among children and other non-smokers in the household. This study explored issues around children's exposure to SHS. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted among 31 Chinese households in urban Shanghai, China. All FGDs/IDIs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that there are gaps in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and SHS among the participants. Although there was a lack of knowledge about the health risk of exposure to SHS, most were willing to protect their child from the SHS exposure. In 16/31 households, families had partial home-smoking restrictions; there were no complete restrictions in any of the smokers' homes. Many families do not openly discuss smoking or smoking restrictions at home. Barriers to adopting a smoke-free home included the social acceptability of smoking (22/31), hosting social gatherings at home, which would involve smoking (12/31), authoritative attitudes of the husband or father-in-law (10/31), and difficulties with visitors who smoke (7/31). Most (28/31) participants stated they would accept a counselling intervention to reduce SHS exposure to children and suggested various measures to implement it. The findings from this intervention have implications for designing intervention strategies to reduce SHS exposure at home among children in China.

  14. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  15. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, John

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear which occured on 31 May 1984 on a United Airlines aircraft is discussed by a member of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The meteorological parameters important to this incident are detailed.

  16. Strategic management of a family-owned airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP) observing a firm’s ability to value, assimilate and utilize new external knowledge is applied in this paper. This case study analysis focuses on strategic management processes and competitiveness of the Cimber Sterling airline. The aim is to discover...... resources and capabilities leading to competitive advantages within the aviation industry. From an ACAP perspective Cimber Sterling Group A/S was analyzed by interviewing selected owners, managers and employees of the airline. A comparison within the airline industry is part of the ACAP concept regarding...... external factors and the strategic management of other selected low-cost airlines. The analysis shows to what extent Cimber Sterling Group A/S as a Danish family business copes with increasing competition and critical situations, such as the volcanic ash cloud and financial crisis. Identifying...

  17. Determinants of Intention to Purchase Online Airline Ticket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza Hadadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays development of information technology has caused online shopping continues to gain more acceptance by travelers that make airlines be care about factors affecting online ticket purchasing. Therefore, in this paper is an attempt to analyze intention to online airline ticket purchasing model according to trust, subjective norms, perceived risk, satisfaction and ease of use. The statistical population includes departure passengers of Mashhad international airport in domestic flights of September 2013 and sample size calculated for 215 passengers. Data collected by questionnaire that has appropriate validity and reliability. In addition, it is use structural equation model (SEM and Lisrel8.8 Software to analyze hypothesis. The results show higher satisfaction and trust leads to more intention to online airline ticket purchasing. Moreover, perceived risk and ease of use have indirect effect on intention to online purchasing by trust and satisfaction and it is not support significant relationship between subjective norms and intention to online airline ticket purchasing.

  18. Building clusters for CRM strategies by mining airlines customer data

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Helena Sofia Guerreiro de

    2013-01-01

    As airlines strive to gain market share and sustain profitability in today’s economically challenging environment, they should develop new ways to optimize their frequent flyer programs while increase revenues. Aware of the challenges, airlines want to implement a customer relationship management (CRM) strategy based on customer analytics and data mining techniques to support marketing decisions. So, to achieve this goal, we have to apply clustering techniques to the company cu...

  19. Collude, compete, or both? : deregulation in the Norwegian airline industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Steen, Frode; Sørgard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the nature of competition concerning price and capacity setting in the Norwegian airline industry after the deregulation in 1994. Did the two airlines, SAS and Braathens, compete on prices and capacities (competition), collude on prices and capacities (collusion) or collude on prices and compete on capacities (semicollusion)? We reject the hypothesis that they achieved collusion, and we find the observed behaviour consistent with semicollusive behaviour an...

  20. An MDO concept for large civil airliner wings

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, K.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis investigates the application of Multi-Disciplinary Design, Anal- ysis and Optimisation to the design of a large civil airliner, similar in size as the future A3XX. For the first time structural optimisation, manufacturing cost and aerodynamic effects are simultaneously integrated within a realistic, complex aircraft design problem: the wing box of such a large airliner. A novel multi-level system was developed to incorporate structural effects and manufacturing c...

  1. Influence of Capacity Constraints on Airline Fleet Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Mark M.; Gosling, Geoffrey D.; Margulici, Jean-David; Wei, Wen-Bin

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the findings of research sponsored by the Los Angeles World Airports to examine the influence of airport capacity constraints on airline fleet mix and to explore the potential effects of policy options to influence airlines to use larger aircraft types and thereby accommodate growth in passenger or cargo demand without a corresponding increase in the number of aircraft operations. This issue is of growing importance at many major airports in the United States and indeed ...

  2. A Strategic Analysis of the Oneworld Airline Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Russell M.

    2011-01-01

    Global airline alliances enable member airlines to increase profits. They achieve this by increasing customer willingness to pay and reducing costs. Deep levels of partnerships are required to drive these benefits. The ability for partners to closely integrate is largely dependent on antitrust immunities being granted by regulators, which enable joint venture partnerships. The Oneworld alliance is poised to capitalize on a recent decision by the United States Department of Transportation and ...

  3. Analysis of online marketing communication of the airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Kollárová, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the use of online marketing by airlines, while emphasis is placed on social media and viral marketing campaigns. The aim is to identify the requirements for successful online marketing communication. In the theoretical part the specific features of the airline industry are characterized and PEST analysis of the aviation industry is performed. This part of the thesis also defines and characterizes the main forms of online marketing used in aviation. The practical part com...

  4. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy ... In a case of restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle is normal size or slightly enlarged. Most of the time, it also pumps normally. However, it does not ...

  5. An analytical model for the assessment of airline expansion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Emboaba Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to develop an analytical model to assess airline expansion strategies by combining generic business strategy models with airline business models. Methodology and approach: A number of airline business models are examined, as are Porter’s (1983 industry five forces that drive competition, complemented by Nalebuff/ Brandenburger’s  (1996 sixth force, and the basic elements of the general environment in which the expansion process takes place.  A system of points and weights is developed to create a score among the 904,736 possible combinations considered. The model’s outputs are generic expansion strategies with quantitative assessments for each specific combination of elements inputted. Originality and value: The analytical model developed is original because it combines for the first time and explicitly elements of the general environment, industry environment, airline business models and the generic expansion strategy types. Besides it creates a system of scores that may be used to drive the decision process toward the choice of a specific strategic expansion path. Research implications: The analytical model may be adapted to other industries apart from the airline industry by substituting the element “airline business model” by other industries corresponding elements related to the different specific business models.

  6. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  7. Airline Brand Loyalty: A case study involving the three airlines, - SAS, Norwegian and Widerøe

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Basant Raj

    2014-01-01

    1.0 Abstract The general object of this study is to explore the airline brand loyalty. The primary objective of this study is to explore the nature of consumer loyalty and its major determinants with respect to the three airlines - SAS, Norwegian and Widerøe; analyze the data concerning relationships between consumers' attitude, habit, satisfaction and loyalty and identify the differences concerning attitude, habit, satisfaction, loyalty and factors (service, safety, comfort, luggage a...

  8. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  9. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  10. Perception Mapping of Travelers: Case of Six Indian Domestic Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A comparison of customer satisfaction based on service quality as perceived by air travelers was done among six domestic airlines. Literature review suggested that flying experience has three stages: Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight and a set of six variables can be used to measure satisfaction. These variables are: Ease of bookings through the website/call center; Hassle free check in/efficient ticketing staff/regular announcements during flight delays at airport; on time performance of flights; in flight experience; baggage handling and value for money. Approach: A questionnaire was designed with above set of variables and responses of 150 fliers of six domestic airlines viz., GoAir, Kingfisher, Jet Airways, Indigo, SpiceJet and Air India (Domestic was recorded on a five point Likert scale. About 150 respondents were interviewed from different places in NCR: Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida and Faridabad. A convenient sampling method was followed. Perceptions of only those travelers were captured who had actually undergone the experience of travelling by an airline. The range for the number of respondents was between 103 (for GoAir and 133 (for Jet Air. Results: Using one way ANOVA, it was checked whether travelers perceive any significant difference between six airlines for each of the above six identified variables. With Tukey-Kramer test the airlines which are significantly different from the rest were identified. Perceptual maps with combination of up to two variables (attributes were drawn to infer about the positioning of six different airlines. Conclusion: This study will help marketers of domestic airlines and designers of flight service offerings to enhance the satisfaction level of air travelers.

  11. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  12. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Hammond, S. Katharine; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J.; Yang, Yan; Nan, Yi; Feng, Guoze; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards. PMID:21655134

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  14. Health hazards of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, M P; LeMaistre, C A; Newell, G R

    1988-01-01

    are partially analogous to the biologic effects of direct smoke inhalation. As many as 5000 nonsmokers are estimated to die annually from lung cancer as a result of exposure to ETS. There is great potential for prevention of these premature deaths. The two major preventive actions are (a) eliminating the source by reducing the amount of direct smoking and (b) limiting the level of exposure by restricting where tobacco can be smoked. Specific preventive actions include smoking cessation, smoking prevention, restriction of advertising, increased taxation on tobacco, and adoption of stringent nonsmoking policies in the workplace, schools, and public places.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3288240

  15. LOGISTIC APPROACH TO INTERACTION BETWEEN AN AIRLINE AND A FUEL SUPPLIER

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses optimization of jet fuel supply to airlines under conditions of the surge in jet fuel prices by forecasting of airline’s fuel demand and planning the interaction between an airline and fuel suppliers.

  16. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using metaheuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    2010-01-01

    be serviced within a given time-window by a team consisting of a driver and loader. Each driver/loader has the skills to service some, but not all, of the airline/aircraft/ configuration of the jobs. Given the jobs to be serviced and the roster of workers for each shift, the problem is to form teams...... annealing heuristic approach to solve the problem. Computational experiments show that the tabu search approach outperforms the simulated annealing approach, and is capable of finding good solutions.......We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take-off.  Jobs (flights) must...

  17. A Discourse Analysis for Ads in Turkey: Pegasus Airlines and Anadolujet

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Atalik; Iki Eylul; Bahri Baran Kocak

    2015-01-01

    One of airline marketing activities is to encourage new passengers to air travel. For this purpose, mass media plays an important role to inform customers about promotions, such as tariffs and price, comfort, and service convenience of airline companies. In this context, television ads cover a large part of airline marketing activities to have passengers’ attentions. In this paper, current state of airline ads are determined within the framework of ads presentation with messages and social pe...

  18. Successful Crisis Management in the Airline Industry : A Quest for Legitimacy Through Communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Anna; Vikström, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores how the legitimacy and reputation of firms that have experienced severe crises can be restored through the means of crisis management and crisis communication strategies. Our focus is on the airline industry, analyzing how three European airlines have communicated and acted towards important shareholders during and following a fatal airline accident. The airlines that have been compared are Air France, Spanair and SAS; an analysis of their press releases, press conference...

  19. The effect of rail travel time on airline fares: first evidence from the Italian passenger market.

    OpenAIRE

    Capozza, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The empirical evidence shows that travel time is crucial for rail transport to be a competitor to air transport. However, there are no papers testing whether travel time has a direct effect on airline pricing. This paper is a step towards filling this gap. We test and quantify the effect of rail travel time on airline fares, using unique data at flight-level. We find that airlines design pricing strategies taking into consideration the travel time of competing rail transport service. Airlines...

  20. When the Network Strategy Is Not Enough -The Case of European Full-Service Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Koivula, Lotta; Mirzayev, Elshad

    2005-01-01

    The 1990s were one of the most profitable periods for European airline companies, mainly because of development of world economy and increasing globalisation trends. However, towards the end of the decade, a global economic downturn, high oil prices and new forms of competition turned the industry towards troubled times. The European air-travel industry had to face and accept the new airline business concept, called low-cost or no-frill airlines. In these conditions, traditional airlines had ...

  1. Income statements "by nature" and analysis of company performance : an application of US airlines companies

    OpenAIRE

    Stolowy, Hervé; Ding, Yuan; Baker, C. Richard

    2003-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001; and during the ensuing economic slowdown, U.S airline companies have experienced significant financial difficulties, including bankruptcies and near bankruptcies on the part of several major carriers. In an economic setting where U.S. airlines are struggling to achieve or maintain profitability, it is important for accountants, auditors and financial analysts to be able to analyze the relative performance of airline companies. In the airline industry, income statemen...

  2. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about heart disease, it's about overall health and what we can do to make our life as ... seats -- let's get started. Who can tell me what's the worst thing about second-hand smoke? Boy: ...

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to in particular not smoke in rooms where children are. I mean, certainly we want everybody to ... be in rooms where -- they shouldn't have children in those same rooms because it really particularly ...

  4. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... senior citizen is that when they reduce the carbon monoxide that comes with smoking, they reduce the demand on their heart. When you breathe carbon monoxide into your bloodstream it makes your heart ...

  5. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  6. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  7. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there ...

  8. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there are plenty of places senior citizens can go for help to quit smoking. Announcer: To help ... for people over 50. Dr. Leischow: They can go to our website, which is smokefree.gov and ...

  9. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fingers no longer register on the screen as skin temperature continues to drop. Dr. Leischow: Quitting smoking is not just about cancer, not just about heart disease, it's about overall ...

  10. Quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  11. “A PERSISTENT EXCEPTION TO TEXTBOOK ECONOMICS”: A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent centennial of the Wright Brothers' flight stimulated study of the history of aviation in general and this historical overview of international airlines in particular. International airlines are commercial enterprises, but their history suggests that the economics behind their development was often overridden lypolitical, diplomatic, strategic, imperial, cultural, and emotional pressures. International airlines have not always been economically rational enterprises.

  12. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators... INFORMATION: I. Abstract Form BE-9, Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States, obtains quarterly data from U.S. offices, agents, or other representatives of foreign airline...

  13. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration... INFORMATION CONTACT: Bernie Stankus, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E36-303, RITA, BTS, 1200 New... and returned. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service...

  14. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC006 BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... survey is intended to collect information on U.S. airline operators' foreign revenues and expenses....

  15. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  16. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  17. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 141 - Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airline Transport Pilot Certification... Part 141—Airline Transport Pilot Certification Course 1. Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an airline transport pilot certification course under this part, for the...

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  20. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  1. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process.

  2. Strategic Management of a Family-Owned Airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP) observing a firm’s ability to value, assimilate and utilize new external knowledge is applied in this paper. This comparative study focuses on strategic management processes and competitiveness of different airlines. The aim is to discover differences...... in resources and capabilities leading to competitive advantages within the aviation industry. From a competence and ACAP perspective family and non-family airlines are analysed by interviewing the owners, managers and selected employees of the businesses. The analysis shows how Cimber Sterling Group A...

  3. Marginal revenue transformation in airline seat inventory control with two fare families and two markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    of fare classes that are fully undifferentiated except for their price levels and customers will therefore always buy the lowest fare available within a family. We assume that the families are separated in terms of restrictions on service and flexibility and that there exists buy-up from the lowest....... The reason for considering a two-market and two-family seat inventory control problem is the objective of airlines such as SAS and Air Canada to serve both the business and leisure market while at the same time controlling sell-up behavior in the undifferentiated fare. A fare family is defined by a set...... the continued use of the existing control mechanism in class-based RM systems. The result of enforcing the nesting property is that the adjusted fare for an individual fare class is found as the marginal revenue when the class is initially offered, i.e. nesting ensures that there is a unique marginal revenue...

  4. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  5. Impact of Home Smoking Rules on Smoking Patterns Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela I. Clark, PhD

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Smoking restrictions in public places have been shown to reduce cigarette consumption and may reduce smoking prevalence. Evidence is emerging that smoke-free policies in nonpublic places may have a similar effect. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an association exists between household smoking rules and smoking patterns among adolescents (aged 15 to 18 years and young adults (aged 19 to 24 years living in parental homes (i.e., the homes of their parents, grandparents, or foster parents. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 1998–1999 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed for the association between household smoking rules and smoking behaviors among adolescents and young adults. We used a probability sample of noninstitutionalized adolescents (aged 15 to 18 years and young adults (aged 19 to 24 years living in the United States and assessed smoking status, attempts to quit, and smoking intensity. Results After controlling for smoking status of others in the household, the odds of ever having smoked, being a current smoker, and smoking more than five cigarettes per day were significantly smaller in households with strict no-smoking policies than in households where smoking was permitted anywhere. These results were relevant for adolescents and young adults. Conclusion Household smoking rules are a type of antitobacco socialization that help deter adolescents from smoking. The influence of household smoking rules seems to extend beyond adolescence into the young adult years among people who continue to live at home with their parents, grandparents, or foster parents.

  6. Passengers’ perceptions of low cost airlines and full service carriers: a case study involving Ryanair, Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Malaysia Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, John F.; Williams, George

    2005-01-01

    Direct competition between full service airlines and no-frills carriers is intensifying across the world. US and European full service airlines have lost a significant proportion of their passengers to low cost carriers, the experience now being repeated in the domestic markets of Asia. This paper attempts to provide answers to a number of critical questions: What are the key drivers of each type of airline's business model? Is there a difference in passengers’ perceptions between low cost ca...

  7. Stock Investors’ Confidence on Low-Cost and Traditional Airlines in Asia During Financial Crisis 2007-2009 : Evidence from Air Asia and Singapore Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Chin Fei; Tay, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The birth of low-cost carriers (LCC) in recent years, have added a new dimension to the aviation business, especially in Asia. There have been several success stories of these LCCs, compared with conventional full-serviced carriers. Two renowned airlines in Asia, Air Asia and Singapore Airlines have been chosen as our sample companies for the purpose of this research paper. Air Asia will represent the LCC segment, while Singapore Airlines is the proxy for traditional carriers. These two class...

  8. 75 FR 41579 - Submitting Airline Data via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ..., traffic, operational, and consumer reports to BTS via the Internet on December 20, 2006, (71 FR 76226.... 12866: Regulatory and Planning Review Under Executive Order No. 12866, (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Transportation 14 CFR Parts 217, 234, 241, et al. Submitting Airline Data via the Internet; Final Rule...

  9. THE CONCEPT OF DETACHABLE ENGINE PYLONS IN JET AIRLINERS

    OpenAIRE

    Grudzien, Andzelika; State School of Higher Education in Chelm; Nowakowski, Przemyslaw; State School of Higher Education in Chelm; Lewandowski, Mateusz; State School of Higher Education in Chelm

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides the new conception for improvement of safety in commercial passenger flights, especially during ditching, fuel exhaustion and engine breakdown causing irreversible impossibility of re-ignition engines during the flight. This solution is designed for jet airlines with engines mounted in pylons under the wings.

  10. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  11. Mitigation of airspace congestion impact on airline networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In recent years European airspace has become increasingly congested and airlines can now observe that en-route capacity constraints are the fastest growing source of flight delays. In 2010 this source of delay accounted for 19% of all flight delays in Europe and has been increasing with an average...

  12. Disruption Management in the Airline Industry - Concepts, Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The airline industry is notably one of the success stories with respect to the use of optimization based methods and tools in planning. Both in planning of the assignment of available aircraft to flights and in crew scheduling, these methods play a major role. Plans are usually made several months...

  13. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  14. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  15. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  16. Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-geek” and opened to new technologies, which allows them to rate the airline companies through apps or connect more often with the airline through social-media. Technology has become an important part in developing and marketing the airline services for a better quality, more customer-focused and for better flight experience which ultimately makes the difference when choosing to fly an airline company.

  17. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  18. Smoking and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  19. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: Within-subject variation in male airline pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Summary We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times ove...

  20. Calculating load factors for the transatlantic airline market using supply and demand data: a note on the identification of gaps in the available airline statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Devriendt; G. Burghouwt; B. Derudder; J. de Wit; F. Witlox

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a critical view of the verification of load factors for the direct transatlantic airline market by combining supply and demand-data. The supply-related data originate from the Official Airline Guide, a well-known data source that contains information on scheduled flights. The demand

  1. Future of Colombo Airport (CMB) as an Airline Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalath, J. T. D.; Bandara, J. M. S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Aviation throughout the world has seen profound changes within the last two decades. Today more and more airports are looking for hub operations. However, as the success of hub operation would depend on a number of parameters such as geographic location, route network, facilities available, passengers' acceptance etc., not all airports would be able to operate as successful hubs. This paper investigates the possibility for (he Bandaranayake international airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka (CMB) to emerge as a hub airport in the South Asian region. It is found that CMB is situated in a geographically advantageous position in the region with respect to the airline route network. Comparison of travel distances between CMB and prominent O-D pairs and evaluation of airline schedules at relevant established hub airports indicates that CMB could operate as a directional hub serving the South Asian market if the number of destinations with daily flights could be increased.

  2. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  3. Spreadsheet Simulation of Airline Reservation Policy Using Multimedia Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lee Oberstone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A hypothetical business simulation case study using a stand-alone spreadsheet is used to illuminate the rationale of airline overbooking. Because almost everyone has personally encountered the implications of being “bumped,” the selection of this particular case subject is motivated by the belief that half of the problem (or more of teaching a so-phisticated analytical method is in getting the stu-dent's attention. Airline overbooking, it seems, pre-sents such a case. In order for a student to “drill down” the spreadsheet skills, several multimedia tools, Wimba and Jing, are used to produce web hosted, mp4 video files of a library of short films illustrating each step of the spreadsheet operation.

  4. In-depth survey report of American Airlines plating facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, V. D., Jr.

    1982-12-01

    An in depth survey was conducted at the American Airlines Maintenance and Engineering Center as part of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study evaluating measures to control occupational health hazards associated with the metal plating industry. This American Airlines plating facility, employing approximately 25 workers, is primarily engaged in plating hard chromium, nickel and cadmium on aircraft engine and landing gear parts. Six tanks were studied, including an electroless nickel tank. Area and personal samples for chromium, nickel, cadmium, and cyanide were collected. Ventilation airflow and tank dimensions were measured and data recorded on plating operations. The relationships between air contaminants emitted, local exhaust ventilation flow rate, tank size, and plating activity were evaluated.

  5. Opportunities for Policy Interventions to Reduce Youth Hookah Smoking in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Morris; Fiala, Steven C.; Pawlak, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Preventing youth smoking initiation is a priority for tobacco control programs, because most adult tobacco smokers become addicted during adolescence. Interventions that restrict the affordability, accessibility, and marketing of cigarettes have been effective in reducing youth cigarette smoking. However, increasing numbers of youth are smoking tobacco using hookahs. Predictors of smoking tobacco with hookahs are the same as those for smoking cigarettes. Established interventions that curb yo...

  6. Does cigarette smoking affect body weight? causal estimates from the clean indoor air law discontinuity

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the causal effects of smoking behavior on body weight in Italy. In 2005, the Italian government introduced a smoking ban in all indoor public places. We use a regression discontinuity design, which exploits this exogenous variation due to smoking restrictions across cohorts, to achieve identification in our model. Our estimates indicate that the smoking ban reduced cigarette consumption and the smoking participation rate. Most interestingly, we estimate a significant, alth...

  7. Reducing influenza spreading over the airline network

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelino, Jose; Kaiser, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Disease spreading through human travel networks has been a topic of great interest in recent years, such as with swine influenza or SARS pandemics. Most studies have proposed removing highly connected nodes (hubs) to control spreading. Here, we test alternative strategies using edge removal (flight cancellation) for spreading over the airline network. Flight cancellation was more efficient than shutting down whole airports: spreading took 81% longer if solely selected flights were removed, compar...

  8. Mergers and Product Quality: Evidence from the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yongmin; Gayle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies of horizontal mergers have focused on their price effects, leaving the important question of how mergers affect product quality largely unanswered. This paper empirically investigates this issue for two recent airline mergers: Delta/Northwest and Continental/United. Consistent with the theoretical premise that mergers improve coordination but diminish competitive pressure for quality provision, we find: (i) each merger is associated with a quality increase in markets whe...

  9. Carriers’ Price Dispersion in the U.S. Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Junwook; Koo, Won W.; Lim, Siew Hoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores price dispersion in the U.S. airline industry by highlighting individual carriers’ price discrimination strategies. Using heteroskedasticity-adjusted instrumental variable technique, we found that individual carriers play crucial roles in determining price dispersion, implying that the carriers’ price discrimination strategies may influence variation in airfares. Based on the estimated price dispersion and the estimated average price, we distinguished sources of price disp...

  10. Study of Combination Forecasting in Airline Traffic Turnover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; QIU Wan-hua; WEI Cun-ping

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory and method of the combination forecasting are introduced. Based on the actual data in an airline, the case study was presented. In the case study, two basic forecasting models are set up,which are the time-regression plus seasonal factor model and the logarithm additive Winters model. And two combination models are established with the basic models, which are the optimal combination model and the regressive combination model. The results of the study are guidable to the practice.

  11. Market structure and multiple equilibria in airline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliberto, Federico; Tamer, Elie

    2009-01-01

    We provide a practical method to estimate the payoff functions of players in complete information, static, discrete games. With respect to the empirical literature on entry games originated by Bresnahan and Reiss (1990) and Berry (1992), the main novelty of our framework is to allow for general forms of heterogeneity across players without making equilibrium selection assumptions. We allow the effects that the entry of each individual airline has on the profits of its competitors, its “com...

  12. Advocating System Safety Concept in Preventing Airline Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chien-tsung; Wetmore, Michael; Smith, John

    2005-01-01

    System safety was conceptualized by the aerospace industry in the late 1940s in the United States (U.S.). Traditionally, users of system safety applied analysis to identify operational hazards and subsequently provide countermeasures before or after an accident. Unfortunately, very few aviation safety researches from the airlines had utilized it to promote aviation safety. To enrich this knowledge and contribute interest from academia, this paper adopted the inductive techniques of system saf...

  13. United Airlines Launches New Daily Nonstop Shanghai-Chicago Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ United Airlines, the leading carrier between the U.S. And China, announced on November 1 the launch of its new Shanghai to Chicago nonstop flight. The flight took off from Shanghai's Pudong International Airport at 7:10pm, opening a new air service route between two of the world's greatest cities, which delivers greater convenience and travel options to and from China throughout the U.S. East Coast and Midwest.

  14. Model for the growth of the World Airline Network

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, T; Nagler, J; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic growth model for transport networks which employs a balance between popularity of nodes and the physical distance between nodes. By comparing the degree of each node in the model network and the WAN, we observe that the difference between the two is minimized for $\\alpha\\approx 2$. Interestingly, this is the value obtained for the node-node correlation function in the WAN. This suggests that our model explains quite well the growth of airline networks.

  15. Industry-specific effect of CSR initiatives: hotels and airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Díaz, Ana B.; Nicolau, Juan Luis; Ruiz Moreno, Manuel Felipe; Sellers Rubio, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This study aims to examine the relationships between a firm's corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities and its performance and risk. The authors hypothesize that industry-level effects are highly determinant of the sign and magnitude of these relationships to establish a ranking of industries to identify the position of the most prominent tourism-related industries: hotels and airlines. Based on the cybernetic model of decision making and the heuristics thereof, shareholders...

  16. Perception Mapping of Travelers: Case of Six Indian Domestic Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Shobhit Agarwal; Dey, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: A comparison of customer satisfaction based on service quality as perceived by air travelers was done among six domestic airlines. Literature review suggested that flying experience has three stages: Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight and a set of six variables can be used to measure satisfaction. These variables are: Ease of bookings through the website/call center; Hassle free check in/efficient ticketing staff/regular announcements during flight delays at airport; on ...

  17. Malaysia Airlines - Will the phoenix rise once more?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zin, Syarizan Adzlinda

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to digest the corporate culture theories and gauge if Malaysia Airline System’s (MAS) survival strategy after the 2005 turbulent will emancipate the company from current and future crisis. This research emphasizes on the correlation of the organisational performance culture-based strategy theories and the pursuit of competitive edge, which in this research assumption, is admissible to MAS. Hence, the most suitable approach seems to be a single case study me...

  18. Exposure to anti-smoking media messages and pro-smoking media messages and its association with intention to smoke among adolescents in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xingcun; 李幸存

    2013-01-01

    Background: Even though a series of restrictions aimed at protecting dwellers from being addicted to tobacco are implemented in Hong Kong, the loopholes utilized by tobacco industry can still promote tobacco marketing by various strategies such as sponsorship in movies and charity activities. Therefore, it is still quite necessary to monitor the associations of intention to smoke with exposure to anti-smoking media messages and pro-smoking media messages among adolescents in Hong Kong. ...

  19. Strategy-Based Forecasting Model for Civil Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁剑; 左洪福

    2004-01-01

    Airlines usually pay more attention to maintenance cost for efficiency improvement and consumption reduction. However, airlines, especially the domestic airlines, can hardly predict the cost exactly due to the uncertainty and complexity until now. In practice, the cost is calculated by collecting and calculating the invoices afterwards. To settle the problem, a maintenance cost forecasting model is proposed in this paper. Maintenance activities are classified into scheduled maintenance and unscheduled maintenance. Scheduled maintenance is periodic, in which the required materials and man-power hours can be obtained properly in advance. Nevertheless, it is impossible to acquire the necessary information of unscheduled maintenance. According to the specific characteristics of each, Activity-Based Costing (ABC) and Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are introduced to attack the building of forecasting models, respectively. Then practical cases, the 3C check of MD-90 and the engine shop visit are adopted to verify the cost forecasting models proposed. The results show that the models not only can predict the actual maintenance cost successfully, but also are helpful to drawing up the maintenance program and managing the maintenance funds efficiently.

  20. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  1. Strategic Classification and Examination of the Development of Current Airline Alliance Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi H.; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Previous research argues that despite the fact that strategic alliances have become an important feature of the world airline industry, little rigorous analysis has been done on the effects of these alliances. This is partially because there is a lack of precise definitions to specify different types of airline alliances in the literature. This research identifies several categories of airline alliances through a strategic classification of the current alliance activities involving the major airlines for the period 1989 to 1999. The classification enables this research to examine how strategic alliance activities are evolving, particularly to compare how airlines in North America, the European Union and the Asia Pacific region have committed to different alliances. Findings show that there is a significant difference between the number and scope of alliances adopted in the three aviation markets. These findings facilitate research to further analyse the impact of market liberalization on various formations of strategic airline alliances.

  2. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  3. Evaluation of the Ukraine international airlines (UIA competitiveness on the air carriage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Oleshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Ukrainian air transport system adaptation to the business practices of European and world market has been urgent for the last twenty years. One of the main obstacles in this process is domestic airlines and airports low competitiveness. Key factors in achieving the competitive advantages by the air carriers are not only service cost but service quality, business processes and management system organization as well. Nowadays, most airlines management teams are conscious of the quality factor importance in the competition on both domestic and international markets. The airlines competitiveness on the air transport market has been evaluated in the article. The airlines competitive recovery strategies have been determined according to the specific development of the air carrier “MAU” on the air transport operations market. The ways of further development of domestic airlines and the airline competitiveness management strategy have been proposed.

  4. What do consumers "like"? Communicating CSR to consumers in Facebook, views from the airline industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract AALTO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ABSTRACT International Business Communication Master's Thesis June 2012 Essi Tuulia Tani What do consumers like? Communicating CSR to consumers in Facebook, views from the airline industry Objective of the Study The main objective of the study was to investigate airlines' CSR related communication to consumers through Facebook. More specifically the study focused on (a) Finland's largest airline's, Finnair's, perspective to...

  5. Comparison between Low-cost and Traditional Airlines. Case study: easyJet and British Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosova, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work is conducted with purpose to make an analysis of the financial results of traditional and low cost airlines and compare them. The comparison is done through analysis of the representatives of traditional and low cost airlines – British Airways and easyJet. In addition, the investigation provides an overview of the airline industry as a whole. Researcher applies fundamental analysis, which includes four components: business strategy analysis, accounting analysis, financia...

  6. Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2013-01-01

    More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-...

  7. Airline price discrimination: a practice of yield management or customer profiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Diercks, Rasha H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Airline ticket prices frequently change, which is usually caused by yield management as price discrimination practice. Recently, buyers of online airline tickets tend to complain about price discrimination based on customer profiling, e.g. by means of cookie data. As cookie data and other directly or indirectly obtained customer information is easily available via the Internet, airlines may use this information to offer personalized ticket prices. In a month-long experiment, in which prices o...

  8. Strategic positioning and creating competitive advantage in a challenging industry: The case study of Singapore airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Ta, Minh Thu

    2009-01-01

    The competitive landscape of global airline industry has changed dramatically as the result of airline deregulation and globalization impacts. Arguably, the most viable change for traditional airlines is the increased price pressures due to fierce competition from low cost carriers (LCCs). The ‘no frills’ formula, which involves reduction in service and comfort levels, challenges the retaining of full service model and more generally, the model focusing on service quality. Furthermore, re...

  9. @doesyourairlinetweet? An empirical examination of the use of twitter by 50 international airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Budd

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To provide empirical evidence of the extent to which 50 of the world’s largest passenger airlines use the social media site twitter.Design/methodology/approach: Original empirical data on the presence and usage of 50 airlines’ official twitter accounts was accessed.Research limitations/implications: Research demonstrates the extent to which airlines are using twitter as a communications tool and suggests that some airline are not currently utilising twitter to its full extent.Practic...

  10. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African domestic passenger airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mostert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past decade, including the significant decline in demand for air travel together with rising costs and the worldwide economic downturn. This study investigates the effect which a strategy by airlines of building relationships with customers has on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and ultimately customer retention. The effect of service failures on customers' relationships with airlines are also considered as a negative experience could results in customers defecting to competitors. A questionnaire, comprising six sections, was specifically compiled to determine customer retention in the South African domestic passenger airline industry. Data were collected by trained fieldworkers from OR Tambo International Airport by means of a non-probability convenience sampling method from 324 passengers flying with the various domestic airlines. Findings indicate that most respondents were satisfied with the airlines' overall service; respondents who formed relationships with domestic airlines were more loyal toward the airlines; and the relationships of respondents who were satisfied with airlines' service recovery efforts were either strengthened or unchanged. The findings from this study support findings from international studies by providing a unique South African perspective on the effect of a strategy of building relationships with customers on their satisfaction, loyalty and ultimately retention. It can therefore be recommended that the organisations competing in the South

  11. The Relationship Between Innovation and Company Performance in the Asian Airline Industry : An Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Nicholas Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The airline industry in Asia has been under tremendous competitive pressure especially with the entrance of low cost airline companies into the Asian market. This has caused premier airline companies to innovate and differentiate their services to sustain its competitive edge in the market. It is believed that innovation practices would improve the overall performance of a company. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between innovation and company performance in the Asia...

  12. 'FLYING UNDER RADAR': SOUTHWEST AIRLINES AND INCUMBENTS¡¯ RESPONSE TO ENTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Byoung Oh

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the competitive effect of Southwest Airlines, considering the factors affecting its decision to offer service in particular city-pairs and the effect of Southwest¡¯s presence on overall fares and the fare distribution of major airlines. Southwest is a formidable, apparently low-cost competitor when it is present it often garners a large share and creates significant fare pressure on major airlines. Despite this competitive success Southwest¡¯s network does not include ...

  13. Low Cost Airlines in a Developing Economy: The Case of India

    OpenAIRE

    Pasari, Nitika

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is a study on the low cost airlines in a developing country, particularly the case of India, since the writer of this dissertation is an Indian. It begins with introducing the emergence of low cost airlines all around the world, which began with the US and was followed by Europe, before coming to Asia. It talks about the factors that initiated the emergence of low cost airlines, particularly, the deregulation of the air transport industry and the technological changes along ...

  14. Oil Shocks and Stock Prices of Airlines - An East Asia Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Pau Boon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to study and analyse the impact of oil price shock on the share prices of airline companies in East Asia, in particular international air carriers from Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and Malaysia by looking at how the companies‘ share prices respond to the news of oil shocks. The companies involved in this study were Japan Airlines ("JAL"), All Nippon Airways ("ANA"), Cathay Pacific Airways ("Cathay"), Korean Air ("KAL"), Malaysian Airlines ("MAS") an...

  15. Importance of the Enterprise Risk Management Practice for Airline Management: ANP-based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz

    2009-01-01

    Airlines are exposed to risk which may effect operations, customers, corporate value, security and safety. Risk can also be introduced to an enterprise through air transportation industry-based and organization-based changes each of which may also bring changes in the type of risk. These present and raising risks main reason of growing importance of enterprise risk management (ERM) implementation in the airlines. ERM becomes focus point in the successful airlines across the world. This intere...

  16. Management Employment-Relations Strategies: Perspectives from Studies of European (and American) Airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Greg J. Bamber; Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Kochan, Thomas Anton; von Nordenflycht, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We discuss deregulation (liberalisation) and some of the international institutions that influence the management of people in airlines. As a point of departure, we summarise contrasting models from successful ‘new entrant’ airlines: Ryanair and Southwest. We consider examples of various categories of airlines in different ‘ideal types’ of institutional context: liberal-market economies and coordinated-market economies. These are two varieties of advanced capitalism. The former include the U...

  17. Explicit and implicit customer satisfaction factors in the leisure airline business

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Bott, Gian Andrea

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges for airlines is to retain loyal customers in a very competitive environment. Loyal customers offer a greater share of wallet, require less marketing effort, spread positive word of mouth and are often less price sensitive. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to understand what the key leisure airline loyalty factors are and how the leisure airline could design their product to retain as many loyal leisure passengers as possible. Hence, we develop a framewor...

  18. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African Domestic Passenger Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Mostert; Christine De Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past...

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FOR THE SUCCESS OF USA LOW-COST AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Diaconu, Laura; Andrei MAXIM

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the role played by the organizational culture to the success of the USA low-cost airlines, taking as example two major operators: Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. This exploratory research was conducted using two methods. An analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature was followed by primary data collection, through structured interviews with the representatives of Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. The results show that the ...

  20. The influence of services failure and service recovery on airline passengers' relationships with domestic airlines: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christine; Jansen Van Rensburg, L R; Mostert, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    Service failures and the subsequent service recovery efforts of an organisation can have a profound effect on customers’ satisfaction with an organisation as well as on the quality of the relationship with the organisation, despite other efforts by the organisation to build long-term relationships with its customers. Airlines in particular are faced with several challenges affecting their survival, and one such challenge is the fact that they are particularly susceptible to service failures. ...

  1. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  2. The Lessons Learned From An Airline In-Flight Entertainment Graphical User Interface Project.

    OpenAIRE

    Wake, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    There is a recent history of airline acquisitions and mergers as the industry has consolidated after several turbulent events outside of its control. During February 2007 Epsilon (a UK based airline) acquired and decided to integrate with Zeta (also a UK based airline). One of the projects related to this integration was the re-branding of the Zeta In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) product. Due to a franchise agreement with Eta (a third UK based airline), the Zeta IFE systems were Eta branded ...

  3. Price rules in airline marketing / Elina Krauja-Veide, Marina Jõgi, Toms Andersons...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Air Baltic, Estonian Air, British Airways ja Lithuanian Airlines turundusjuhid olukorrast Baltimaade lennundusturul ja lennufirmade turundustegevusest. Kommenteerivad Priit Kivik, Ilona Kbejan, Julia Brjuhanova. Tabel

  4. What public health strategies are needed to reduce smoking initiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; White, Victoria M; Emery, Sherry L

    2012-03-01

    Smoking initiation is a key behaviour that determines the future health consequences of smoking in a society. There is a marked difference in smoking patterns around the world, driven by initiation rates. While a number of high-income countries have seen smoking prevalence decline markedly from peak, many low-income and middle-income countries appear to still be on an upward trend. Unlike cessation where changes are limited by nicotine dependence, rates of smoking initiation can change rapidly over a short time span. Interventions that can be effective in achieving this include increases in the price of tobacco products, mass media anti-smoking advertising, smoke-free policies, smoking curricula in schools, restrictions on marketing opportunities for the tobacco industry as well as social norms that lead to restrictions on adolescents' ability to purchase cigarettes. Comprehensive tobacco control programmes that aim to denormalise smoking behaviour in the community contain all of these interventions. Rapid reductions in smoking initiation in adolescents have been documented in two case studies of comprehensive tobacco control programmes in California and Australia. Consistent and inescapable messages from multiple sources appear to be key to success. However, the California experience indicates that the rapid decline in adolescent smoking will not continue if tobacco control expenditures and the relative price of cigarettes are reduced. These case studies provide strong additional evidence of the importance of countries implementing the provisions of the Framework Treaty on Tobacco Control.

  5. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... COPD. Smoking is also a trigger for COPD flare-ups. Smoking damages the air sacs, airways, and the ... have COPD. Smoking can cause an exacerbation, or flare-up, of your symptoms. You do not have to ...

  6. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  7. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000437.htm Smoking and surgery To use the sharing features on ... you succeed. There Are Many Reasons to Quit Smoking Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can ...

  8. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in Your Own Skin Your Weight Loss Expectations & Goals ... is: a) Smoke that is breathed out by the smoker b) Pollution from smoke stacks and car exhaust c) Smoke ...

  9. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  10. Rivalry in the U.S. Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barla, Philippe

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we use Market Share Instability (MSI) as a measure of the intensity of competition among airlines on a specific route. This measure is used to capture not only price competition but also non-price competition notably capacity competition. We test the effect of different variables (used in pricing studies) on MSI on a sample of 400 routes over the period 1987 to 1993. Most of the results found in pricing studies are confirmed using this measure of rivalry. For example the presen...

  11. A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    Research in business model innovation has identified its significance in creating a sustainable competitive advantage for a firm, yet there are few empirical studies identifying which combination of business model activities lead to success and therefore deserve innovative attention. This study...... analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities lead to operational profitability. The research aim is threefold: complement airline literature in the realm of business model...... innovation, introduce Boolean minimization methods to the field, and propose alternative business model activities to North American carriers striving for positive operating results....

  12. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, P. J.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants. Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This unique system includes specialized instrumentation, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituent and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  13. Pricing strategy and technology choices: an empirical investigation of ‘Everyday Low Price’ in the domestic US Airline sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chellappa, RK; Sin, R

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a rich literature in economics on factors that govern airline prices. With approximately 50% of airline tickets sold online, there is now a renewed interest in investigating airline pricing particularly amongst Information Systems (IS) researchers. While market transparency created by online travel agents (OTAs) is a motivation enough to reexamine airline pricing, one missing piece calls for a thorough empirical investigation: In all extant studies (economics, marketing...

  14. A scenario aggregation based approach for determining a robust airline fleet composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Listes (Ovidiu); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractStrategic airline fleet planning is one of the major issues addressed through newly initiated decision support systems, designed to assist airlines and aircraft manufacturers in assessing the benefits of the emerging concept of dynamic capacity allocation. We present background rese

  15. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    2008-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  16. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... on the following collection of information was published on April 16, 2010 (75 FR 21716). DATES...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration..., Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E36-303, RITA, BTS, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  17. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... on the following collection of information was published on March 27, 2012 (77 FR 18306). There were...: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration... CONTACT: Cecelia Robinson, Office of Airline Information, RTS-42, Room E34-410, RITA, BTS, 1200 New...

  18. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  19. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Rabacow (Fabiana Maluf); O. Do Carmo Luiz (Olinda); A.M. Malik (Ana Maria); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. Methods: In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave

  20. Increasing the efficiency of multi-hub airline networks by means of flexible time-range tickets - An analysis of passenger acceptance, revenue potentials and implications on network design

    OpenAIRE

    Badura, Felix

    2011-01-01

    After the complete liberalization of the airline industry during the 1990s the industry has faced a rapid growth in passenger numbers. This has mainly been caused by the emergence of so-called Low Cost Carrier (LCC) that offer a simplified product (i.e. point-to-point flights without any frills) at a lower cost than traditional Network Carriers. Furthermore LCC also introduced a less differentiated pricing structure (Restriction Free Pricing) which forced competing network carriers to reduce ...

  1. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, R.; Sargent, J.D.; Karlsdottir, S.; Jonsson, S.H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Sweeting, H.; Hunt, K.; Morgenstern, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare w

  2. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-

  3. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  4. A Mathematical model to predict the US Airlines operation costs and airports charges per route per passenger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijiks, G.

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model to estimate the average airlines operational costs and airports charges per route is important for airlines companies trying to open new routes and for data generation for other purpose such as transport modeling, simulation modeling, investment analyses for airlines and airport

  5. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  6. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  7. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  8. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight...

  9. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  10. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  11. Depression and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight ... Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation ... » Tools » Depression Basics » Depression and Smoking Depression and Smoking Why ...

  12. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  13. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  14. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  15. Application of Near Field Communication Technology for Mobile Airline Ticketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Suparta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Near Field Communication (NFC technology opens up exciting new usage scenarios for mobile devices based platform. Users of NFC-enabled devices can simply point or touch their devices to other NFC-enabled elements in the environment to communicate with them (‘contactless’, making application and data usage easy and convenient. Approach: The study describes the characteristics and advantages of NFC technology offers for the development of mobile airline ticketing. This scenario describes the potential to overcome the conventional systems that are not gated and use study tickets. In such a system, today a transport application can be loaded on a NFC-enabled phone. To study such a case, Yogyakarta International Airport was taken as an example for a discussion. Results: NFC technology which consisting of three modes of operation and with international standardization can be applied as contactless to simplicity transactions, content delivery and information sharing on a mobile based platform. Conclusion: The idea of NFC application for mobile airline ticketing has been discussed for Yogyakarta International Airport."

  16. Patterns and causes of gender differences in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I

    1991-01-01

    In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking

  17. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  18. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies. PMID:18419661

  19. A Total Factor Productivity Based Structure for Tactical Cluster Assessment: Empirical Investigation in the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasigh, Bijan; Fleming, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and assess the efficiency of the United States (U.S.) airline industry through the total factor productivity (TFP) method. While airlines use various resources to produce a heterogeneous group of outputs, this article focuses on certain fundamental outputs as final products of selected airlines. The results from this analysis indicate that the national airlines (US. domestic carriers) have higher TFP as compared to the major airlines. While major airlines have drastically cut costs in the past few years, they also need to improve efficiency or risk going out of business. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency and productivity of a selection of U.S. airlines for the years 1996 through 2001. These years have been chosen as a good example of years in which the industry experienced normal growth and generally positively returns. Subsequent to 2001 the industry experienced two severe external shocks, namely, the September 11, 2001. terrorist attacks and the Iraq war. These anomalous shocks make the years after 2001 inconsistent with respect to the type of index developed in this article.

  20. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  1. Value of a Platform to a Seller: Case of American Airlines and Online Travel Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Bilotkach; Nicholas G. Rupp; Vivek Pai

    2013-01-01

    We approach the issue of the value of a platform to a seller in a two-sided market where both buyers and sellers multi-home. A seller that loses access to a major buyer platform can potentially incur substantial financial losses. We exploit a recent conflict between American Airlines and two leading online travel agencies (Expedia and Orbitz), which dropped American Airlines fare quotes during the first quarter of 2011. We present a simple model of airline ticket distribution. This model prov...

  2. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF MAJOR U.S. AIRLINES VIA CASH FLOW RATIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanyan Armen

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the assessment of major U.S. airlinesâ€(tm) liquidity and solvency based on information disclosed in the statements of cash flows as part of their 10-K Form annual reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Conducting financial statement analysis for major U.S. airlines has generated deep interest in and a significant importance towards using various frequently used cash flow ratios to gauge U.S. airlinesâ€(tm) viability both in the short term and long term...

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background Science at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Feeney, Stephen M; Peiris, Hiranya V; Verde, Licia; Errard, Josquin

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining high-sensitivity measurements of degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is the most direct path to detecting primordial gravitational waves. Robustly recovering any primordial signal from the dominant foreground emission will require high-fidelity observations at multiple frequencies, with excellent control of systematics. We explore the potential for a new platform for CMB observations, the Airlander 10 hybrid air vehicle, to perform this task. We show that the Airlander 10 platform, operating at commercial airline altitudes, is well-suited to mapping frequencies above 220 GHz, which are critical for cleaning CMB maps of dust emission. Optimizing the distribution of detectors across frequencies, we forecast the ability of Airlander 10 to clean foregrounds of varying complexity as a function of altitude, demonstrating its complementarity with both existing (Planck) and ongoing (C-BASS) foreground observations. This novel platform could play a key role in defining our ultimate vi...

  4. Structure and external factors of chinese city airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Kun; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Tao

    2010-08-01

    Abstract We investigate the structural properties of Chinese city airline network (CCAN), where nodes and edges denote cities and direct flights. The degree distribution follows a double power law and a clear hierarchical layout is observed. The population exhibits a weakly positive correlation with the number of flights, yet it does not show obvious correlation with the transportation flow. The distance is an important parameter in CCAN, that is, the number of flights decays fast with the increasing of the distance. In comparison, the tertiary industry has the most important influence on the Chinese air passenger transportation. Statistically speaking, when the tertiary industry value increases by 1%, the next period's volume will increase by 0.73%.

  5. On the treatment of airline travelers in mathematical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Johansson

    Full Text Available The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization.

  6. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  7. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Trivik; Herrmann, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their ...

  8. A new approach for disruption management in airline operations control

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, António J M; Oliveira, Eugénio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the research efforts dealing with airline scheduling have been done on off-line plan optimization.  However, nowadays, with the increasingly complex and huge traffic at airports, the real challenge is how to react to unexpected events that may cause plan-disruptions, leading to flight delays. Moreover these disruptive events usually affect at least three different dimensions of the situation: the aircraft assigned to the flight, the crew assignment and, often forgotten, the passengers’ journey and satisfaction. This book includes answers to this challenge and proposes the use of the Multi-agent System paradigm to rapidly compose a multi-faceted solution to the disruptive event taking into consideration possible preferences of those three key aspects of the problem. Negotiation protocols taking place between agents that are experts in solving the different problem dimensions, combination of different utility functions and, not less important, the inclusion of the human in the automatic decision-maki...

  9. Informing or persuading travellers: the language of airlines advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa BLANCO GÓMEZ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the advertising world choosing the right kind of language can lead us to becoming a successful company or not, since the choice of different kinds of words and different structures is crucial when trying to persuade people. In this paper many variables will be taken into account, from the characteristics of advertising English to those specific from Tourism English bearing also in mind the globalized world around us and consumer perception, which is an essential element in the advertising process, analyzing discursive and linguistic features. In this study we will focus on the most frequent structures in the advertisements published in the Time Magazine about some international airline companies and will examine whether the language used can achieve a persuasive effect on the potential customer or not.

  10. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  11. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  12. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  13. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get the smell of smoke out. Reduced athletic performance. People who smoke usually can't compete with ... heartbeat, decreased circulation, and shortness of breath) impair sports performance. Greater risk of injury and slower healing time. ...

  14. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  15. Smart smoke alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  16. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

  17. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014 and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

  18. THE EVALUATION OF WORKING CAPITAL IN AIRLINE COMPANIES WHICH PROCEED IN BIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Kendirli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The working capital like cash and liquid assets runs the facilities and supports daily activities of firms. This kind of capital is essential to continuity of activities, increase of volume, maintain credibility, reduce impacts of risks and to overcome with extraordinary situation. The working capital management is very important for making profits from activities, especially for dynamic sectors like aviation. The aviation industry which airline companies operate is a very dynamic sector. In this sector working capital has to be managed very professionally and carefully by airline companies. This study aims to assess the airline companies’ working capital in terms of effectiveness. Airline companies which shares traded on BIST will be sample of this study.

  19. Söder Airlines alustab Tampere-Tallinna lende / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Soome ärimeeste loodud lennufirma Söder Airlines lennuk hakkab lendama Tallinna ja Tampere vahel, edaspidi kavatsetakse avada ka lennuliin Tampere-Kuressaare. Vt. samas: Lennust Eestisse huvitub ka SkyEurope

  20. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  1. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  2. @doesyourairlinetweet? An empirical examination of the use of twitter by 50 international airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Budd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide empirical evidence of the extent to which 50 of the world’s largest passenger airlines use the social media site twitter.Design/methodology/approach: Original empirical data on the presence and usage of 50 airlines’ official twitter accounts was accessed.Research limitations/implications: Research demonstrates the extent to which airlines are using twitter as a communications tool and suggests that some airline are not currently utilising twitter to its full extent.Practical implications: The research provides information on current twitter use and penetration, thus enabling airlines to benchmark their performance in this social media channel.Originality/value: The paper provides an original empirical insight into a growing phenomenon which is currently underreported in academic literatures.

  3. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S; Godfrey, C

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  4. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with your health care provider about whether counseling, acupuncture, or hypnosis would be helpful. J Take a quit-smoking class or join a support group. E-cigarettes should not replace smoking or be used to help quit smoking. American Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  5. Disincentives, Identities, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Nancy M.

    When smoking decisions are understood in terms of the beliefs and attitudes which determine them, prevention programs can focus on changing these beliefs and attitudes. A study was conducted to measure students' attitudes and beliefs on the short-term health effects of smoking, on the social consequences of smoking, and on specific identities…

  6. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... wounds. Most likely, alteration of inflammatory cell function and extracellular matrix turnover caused by smoking-induced oxidative stress are involved in the pathophysiologic mechanisms....

  7. Strategic reorientation and business turnaround: The case of global legacy airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, Thomas; Rajwani, Tazeeb; O’Kane, Conor

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose - We illustrate how legacy airlines can reorientate to achieve sharp recoveries in performance following prolonged periods of stagnation, decline and eroding competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach - The authors use a qualitative analysis of five longitudinal case studies of legacy airlines that embarked on strategic change between 1997 and 2006. Data collection spanned ten years and included archival data, public documents, news clippings, accounts ...

  8. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wang; Hong Sun; Jinfu Zhu; Bo Zhu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the con...

  9. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: taking off on an exciting journey into air transport research

    OpenAIRE

    David Gonzalez-Prieto; Oriol Lordan; Jose M Sallan; Pep Simo; Mihaela Enache; Vicenc Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM). JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to) air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, pro...

  10. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the...

  11. Low-cost and Traditional Airlines : Ratio Analysis and Equity Valuation by the Residual Earnings Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hanpobamorn, Saijai

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental analysts use basic fundamentals, which generally based on available public information, to determine a firm’s intrinsic value. Forecasting future performance is one of the key elements for doing fundamental analysis, and historical results are the foundation for future forecast. The analysis of this study is conducted into two sections with case studies in the airline business. Firstly, financial ratios are analyzed to examine whether low-cost or traditional airlines better perfor...

  12. Radiotystnad resulterar i fullt kaos : En studie om Malaysia Airlines kriskommunikation

    OpenAIRE

    Molander, Agnes; Nässlin Eidenert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how Malaysia Airlines communicated during the two largest crises of 2014. Key questions to be answered are: Did organizational hypocrisy occur? If yes, in what way? Which communication strategies were used? Did the company mediate an unequivocal message and how was the information framed? Did any aggravating factors, which worsened the organization’s reputation, appear? How did Malaysia Airlines manage possible rumours? Was the word contact used as a key...

  13. Mobile commerce innovation in the airline sector: An investigation of mobile services acceptance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Algethmi, Mohammed Abdu

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University The advancement of Information Technology (IT) has changed the business landscape in many industries and especially the airline sector. Modern Information Communication Technologies (ICT) provide powerful tools for organizations and can significantly influence their operation, structure, and strategy. The emergence of mobile technologies has created a new innovation for airline companies by in...

  14. A critical analysis of airline safety management with reference to pilots and aviation authority officers

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Li-Chi

    1996-01-01

    When we consider regional differences in air safety, a call for regional solutions is needed. This research probes the current situation in Taiwan and part of Asia from a regional perspective, aiming to better understand safety management in this region. Data was drawn from an extensive survey involving both airline pilots and aviation authority officers. The research investigated respondents' perceptions in airline safety management, and examined at their opinions about the ro...

  15. An Empirical Analysis of the Competitiveness in the U.S. Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud M. Nourayi; Julie W. Suh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the competitiveness of the airline industry in the United States from 1982 to 2012. We examine the stochastic behavior of corporate profitability ratios using a balanced panel of publicly-traded U.S. Airline firms. In particular, we use a panel unit root approach to examine the persistence of profitability. Using a second generation panel unit root test developed by Pesaran (2007) that controls for cross-sectional dependence, we find some evidence t...

  16. Integrated Aircraft Fleeting, Routing, and Crew Pairing Models and Algorithms for the Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Shengzhi

    2013-01-01

    The air transportation market has been growing steadily for the past three decades since the airline deregulation in 1978. With competition also becoming more intense, airline companies have been trying to enhance their market shares and profit margins by composing favorable flight schedules and by efficiently allocating their resources of aircraft and crews so as to reduce operational costs. In practice, this is achieved based on demand forecasts and resource availabilities through a structu...

  17. Incidence of cancer among Finnish airline cabin attendants, 1967-92.

    OpenAIRE

    Pukkala, E.; Auvinen, A; Wahlberg, G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether occupational exposure among commercial airline cabin attendants are associated with risk of cancer. DESIGN--Record linkage study. SETTING--Finland. SUBJECTS-1577 female and 187 male cabin attendants who had worked for the Finnish airline companies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Standardised incidence ratio; expected number of cases based on national cancer incidences. RESULTS--A significant excess of breast cancer (standardised incidence ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interva...

  18. Disruption management in the airline industry-Concepts, models and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art within airline disruption management of resources, including aircraft, crew, passenger and integrated recovery. An overview of model formulations of the aircraft and crew scheduling problems is presented in order to emphasize...... similarities between solution approaches applied to the planning and recovery problems. A brief overview of research within schedule robustness in airline scheduling is included in the review, since this proactive measure is a natural complement to disruption management....

  19. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.……

  20. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.

  1. Globalization and the Autonomy of Domestic Competition Policy: An Empirical Test on the World Airline Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Clougherty, Joseph A.

    2001-01-01

    The globalization literature questions national autonomy in a world where MNEs spur increased international flows of capital and trade. This paper empirically tests whether globalization undermines the autonomy of domestic airline competition policy. A comprehensive panel data set, covering twenty-one nations over the 1983-92 period, yields two major findings: (1) globalization undermines domestic airline competition policy autonomy; (2) government institutions mediate globalization's impact....

  2. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Maluf Rabacow; Olinda do Carmo Luiz; Ana Maria Malik; Alex Burdorf

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, phy...

  3. Impact Of Employee Motivation On Customer Satisfaction: Study Of Airline Industry In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal; Wasey, Ejaz; Jhanndir, Saif Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Employees are the most important factor in the success and failure of any organization. The airline industry is a service industry that sells seats to its passengers therefore employees motivation towards their job plays a very important role in serving the customer’s needs. This study focuses on the impact of employee motivation and its components e.g. work environment, pay and benefits, management systems and organizational vision on customer satisfaction in the airline industry of Pakistan...

  4. Relationships, Layoffs, and Organizational Resilience: Airline Industry Responses to September 11

    OpenAIRE

    Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Cameron, Kim; Lim, Sandy; Rivas, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001 affected the U.S. airline industry more than almost any other industry. Certain of these companies emerged successful, however, and demonstrated remarkable resilience while others languished. This investigation identifies the reasons why some airline companies recovered successfully after the attacks while others struggled. Evidence is provided that layoffs after the crisis, while intended to foster recovery, instead inhibited recovery throughout ...

  5. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  6. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  7. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton. PMID:26205852

  8. Smoking problem in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is an important public health probLem in Indonesia. Up to 60% of male adult population as well as about 4% of female adult population are smokers. In fact, some of Indonesian kretek cigarettes have quite high tar and nicotine content. Besides health effect, smoking habit also influence economic status of the individuals as well as the family. In health point of view, even though reliable nation wide morbidity and mortality data are scarce, report from various cities showed smoking related diseases, such as Lung cancer, COPD, effect of pregnancy, etc. Other problem is a fact that smoking habit start quite in early age in Indonesia. This article also describe factors complicate smoking control program as well as several things to be done to strengthen smoking control program in Indonesia. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 56-65Keywords : smoking, Indonesia, impact

  9. One Last Puff? Public Smoking Bans and Smoking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke; Kvasnicka, Michael; Siedler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking behavior. In 2007 and 2008, state-level smoking bans were gradually introduced in all of Germany's federal states. We exploit this variation to identify the effect that smoke-free policies had on individuals’ smoking propensity and smoking intensity. Using rich longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, our difference-in-differences estimates show that the introduction of smoke-free ...

  10. Cosmic radiation dosimetry in international flights argentine airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: In commercial aviation the most important determinants of radiation exposure in humans are the altitude, latitude, flight duration and the solar cycle's period. This study was conducted to address this type of exposure trough radiation dosimetry. Method: The study was performed in the business-class cabin of an Airbus 340-200 aircraft, provided by Argentine Airlines, during 2 flights routes: New York-Miami-Buenos Aires (trans equatorial) and Buenos Aires-Auckland (circumpolar). Measurements addressed the electromagnetic spectrum or low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and corpuscular radiation (High LET). The instruments used were an Ion Chamber (IC), to measure the ionizing component of radiation (i.e., gamma radiation), the SWENDI, to measure only the neutron component, and the Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) for measuring all radiation types. Results: The routes' dose rates are presented in the table. TEPC rates agreed with the LET findings. The total dose rates of high latitude flights were higher than those of low latitude flights. The SWENDI (High LET) results for the flights over the equator, at low latitude, represented only 1/3 of the total radiation. The New York-Miami and Buenos Aires-Auckland flights, at high latitude, represented just under 1/2 of the Total radiation (-45%). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the annual dose rates of radiation exposure of air crew personnel serving on international flights offered by Argentine Airlines is between 3 and 7 mSv. This rate is higher than the maximum recommended for the general population by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which is 1 milli Sv./y. Therefore, these personnel must be officially considered 'Occupationally Exposed to Radiation' in way to provide the appropriate measures that must be implemented for their protection in accordance to ICRP guidelines. Dose(uSv): Route N Y-Miami, IC 6.07, SWENDI 5.07, TEPC 11.04; Route

  11. Fitness to fly post craniotomy--a survey of medical advice from long-haul airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, R; Mir, S; Dhir, J S; Cheeseman, C; Singh, J

    2009-04-01

    Commercial airline passengers are subject to numerous medical risks while in transit. Seventeen long-haul airline companies were questioned concerning fitness to travel and the case of a patient wishing to travel post craniotomy. Three airline companies gave satisfactory medical information, while the remaining airlines felt it was the decision of the operating surgeon rather than the airline company. A literature review shows that post operative pneumocephalus and the risk of tension pneumocephalus is the major medical concern when transporting patients post craniotomy. Evidence is contradictory with respect to the importance of this potentially life threatening problem. Postoperative 100% oxygen may improve the rate of pneumocephalus absorption. Airline companies have an unstandardised approach to unique medical problems, resulting in increased responsibility for the attending surgeon who may be ill equipped to deal with poorly researched aviation medicine.

  12. Operational Efficiency In The U.S. Airline Industry: An Empirical Investigation Of Post-Deregulation Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly S. GUZHVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1 to examine the operational efficiency of U.S. airlines after the deregulation of 1978; (2 to investigate whether operational efficiency is associated with changes in financial position of firms in the industry and (3 to study if there is an observable pattern in the efficiency measures for large and small airlines. The results indicate that small U.S. airlines record higher scores than large U.S. airlines in four out of five efficiency measures examined. The exception is in the category of allocative efficiency where large airlines exhibit more optimal input mix of resources that their smaller counterparts. This superior mix of resources is consistent with cost minimization. In addition, the analysis shows that higher overall efficiency measures are associated with higher net profit margins of the airlines in the sample, while higher allocative efficiency seems to correlate with higher return on equity."

  13. An Investigation of Servqual Dimensions in The Delivery of Satisfied Services To Customers in The Domestic Airlines Industry in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Ofori Okyere; Seyram Pearl Kumah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates SERQUAL Dimensions in the delivery of satisfied services in the domestic airline industry in Ghana. Questionnaires were distributed to four hundred and fifty (450) customers from three domestic airlines namely Antrak Air, Fly 540 and Star Bow using the convenience sampling technique. The responses from the field indicate that domestic airlines operating in Ghana fall short in their adoption of SERVQUAL model to deliver quality services to their customers. According to ...

  14. Airline Safety Management: The development of a proactive safety mechanism model for the evolution of safety management system

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Yueh-Ling

    2004-01-01

    The systemic origins of many accidents have led to heightened interest in the way in which organisations identify and manage risks within the airline industry. The activities which are thought to represent the term "organisational accident", "safety culture" and "proactive approach" are documented and seek to explain the fact that airlines differ in their willingness and ability to conduct safety management. However, an important but yet relatively undefined task in the airline...

  15. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  16. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Stephen W; Rahman Hejar A; Omar Affandi; Semple Sean; Abidin Emilia; Ayres Jon G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS). The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years) attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren p...

  17. Management of strategic coopetition among partners within international airline alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Himpel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: International network-carriers span the globe by linking airports on all five continents. At the core of those networks are hub-airports that serve as the centers for (inter-national in- and outbound traffic flows. From a business model point of view, the major international carriers are so-called network-carriers, for their core concept is based on transfer-oriented hub-and-spoke-systems. In order to maximize revenue streams of network-carriers, changes in strategic slot allocation and strategic net planning are becoming increasingly relevant. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of various elements of the management of strategic coopetition among partners within international airline alliances on the revenues obtained by individual partners. Methods: the problems related to the optimization of strategic slot allocation and strategic net planning from the point of view of the individual profit shared and added net contribution margins were discussed. Results and conclusions: Two extreme scenarios may be projected. The first one is that partners within a given alliance system may start to increase merger and acquisition activities. Thereby scale effects may be utilized. The other one is, when rivalry becomes too dominant over time, some partners may (have to exit alliance systems. Thereby "atomic" subsystems may be on the rebound. Strategic coopetition management is aimed to keep leading international network carriers "on track" in the field of alliance management of that nature.

  18. ANALYSIS OF OPPORTUNITIES In CRM Marketing activities airlines

    OpenAIRE

    С.В. ПЕТРОВСЬКА

    2013-01-01

    Тhe analysis of possibilities of application of CRM or Customer Relationship Management is conducted in marketing activity of airlines. It is retained that traditional approaches which are used in CRM require a substantial improvement. Проведено аналіз можливостей застосування CRM чи Customer Relationship Management у маркетинговій діяльності авіакомпаній. Показано, що традиційні підходи, що застосовуються у CRM, вимагають істотного вдосконалювання....

  19. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  20. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  1. Revealing the structure of the world airline network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-07-09

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation.

  2. Microbial assessment of cabin air quality on commercial airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Stuecker, Tara; Bearman, Gregory; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    The microbial burdens of 69 cabin air samples collected from commercial airliners were assessed via conventional culture-dependent, and molecular-based microbial enumeration assays. Cabin air samples from each of four separate flights aboard two different carriers were collected via air-impingement. Microbial enumeration techniques targeting DNA, ATP, and endotoxin were employed to estimate total microbial burden. The total viable microbial population ranged from 0 to 3.6 x10 4 cells per 100 liters of air, as assessed by the ATP-assay. When these same samples were plated on R2A minimal medium, anywhere from 2% to 80% of these viable populations were cultivable. Five of the 29 samples examined exhibited higher cultivable counts than ATP derived viable counts, perhaps a consequence of the dormant nature (and thus lower concentration of intracellular ATP) of cells inhabiting these air cabin samples. Ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed these samples to consist of a moderately diverse group of bacteria, including human pathogens. Enumeration of ribosomal genes via quantitative-PCR indicated that population densities ranged from 5 x 10 1 ' to IO 7 cells per 100 liters of air. Each of the aforementioned strategies for assessing overall microbial burden has its strengths and weaknesses; this publication serves as a testament to the power of their use in concert.

  3. Family roles and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:2787160

  4. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  5. Healthy and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leigh Ann

    2014-12-01

    Smoking rates in the country of origin were used to empirically examine whether immigrants converge toward natives' level of smoking prevalence with assimilation. Results show that assimilation is associated with a lower likelihood of ever quitting smoking for immigrants from countries with lower smoking rates relative to the USA and a higher likelihood for immigrants from countries with higher smoking rates, but for current or ever smoking, the estimated effects of assimilation are statistically insignificant. Although these findings demonstrate that health assimilation depends on the country of origin, the extent to which this pattern of assimilation is due to peer influence, differences in responsiveness to anti-smoking interventions such as taxes or smoke-free air restrictions, and/or other factors remains unclear because of the limitations of this study.

  6. Healthy and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leigh Ann

    2014-12-01

    Smoking rates in the country of origin were used to empirically examine whether immigrants converge toward natives' level of smoking prevalence with assimilation. Results show that assimilation is associated with a lower likelihood of ever quitting smoking for immigrants from countries with lower smoking rates relative to the USA and a higher likelihood for immigrants from countries with higher smoking rates, but for current or ever smoking, the estimated effects of assimilation are statistically insignificant. Although these findings demonstrate that health assimilation depends on the country of origin, the extent to which this pattern of assimilation is due to peer influence, differences in responsiveness to anti-smoking interventions such as taxes or smoke-free air restrictions, and/or other factors remains unclear because of the limitations of this study. PMID:24019149

  7. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lochbuehler; M. Peters; R.H.J. Scholte; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  8. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  9. Costs and Benefits of Stopping the Clock. How Airlines Profit from Changes in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, D.; Faber, J.

    2012-12-15

    All flights arriving at or departing from EU airports have been included in the EU ETS from the beginning of 2012. Airlines have to surrender allowances for emissions on flights to and from EU airports. A share of the allowances has been issued to the airlines for free, the remainder needs to be acquired at an auction or from the market. In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to exempt intercontinental flights from the EU ETS for 2012, an initiative branded as 'Stopping the Clock'. As a result of this change, airlines on intercontinental routes are likely to experience additional windfall profit, since they have probably anticipated ETS-related expenditures on these routes, which they will now not incur. In addition, all airlines have a windfall profit since they are likely to pass on the value of the free allowances, as has been demonstrated to happen in all other sectors that have received free allowances. This note estimates the windfall profits. The report distinguishes two types of windfall profits: (1) Profits that occur because the opportunity costs of free allowances received for intercontinental flights have been passed on. These windfall profits would also have occurred without the 'stop the clock' exemption. We call them ETS Windfall. (2) Profits that occur because airlines have raised their revenues on intercontinental flights, but will not need to buy allowances either at the auction or from other actors because of the exemption. We call them Stopping the Clock Windfall. Depending on the cost pass through, the total windfall profits range from euro 679 million to euro 1,358 million. About a third of these windfall profits arise from the exemption of intercontinental flights. EU airlines are expected to reap the largest share of the windfall due to the change in regulation (55%), followed by US airlines (13%).

  10. Airline Safety Improvement Through Experience with Near-Misses: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Peter; Dillon, Robin L; Tinsley, Catherine H

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the U.S. commercial airline industry has achieved unprecedented levels of safety, with the statistical risk associated with U.S. commercial aviation falling to 0.003 fatalities per 100 million passengers. But decades of research on organizational learning show that success often breeds complacency and failure inspires improvement. With accidents as rare events, can the airline industry continue safety advancements? This question is complicated by the complex system in which the industry operates where chance combinations of multiple factors contribute to what are largely probabilistic (rather than deterministic) outcomes. Thus, some apparent successes are realized because of good fortune rather than good processes, and this research intends to bring attention to these events, the near-misses. The processes that create these near-misses could pose a threat if multiple contributing factors combine in adverse ways without the intervention of good fortune. Yet, near-misses (if recognized as such) can, theoretically, offer a mechanism for continuing safety improvements, above and beyond learning gleaned from observable failure. We test whether or not this learning is apparent in the airline industry. Using data from 1990 to 2007, fixed effects Poisson regressions show that airlines learn from accidents (their own and others), and from one category of near-misses-those where the possible dangers are salient. Unfortunately, airlines do not improve following near-miss incidents when the focal event has no clear warnings of significant danger. Therefore, while airlines need to and can learn from certain near-misses, we conclude with recommendations for improving airline learning from all near-misses. PMID:26503596

  11. Airline Safety Improvement Through Experience with Near-Misses: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Peter; Dillon, Robin L; Tinsley, Catherine H

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the U.S. commercial airline industry has achieved unprecedented levels of safety, with the statistical risk associated with U.S. commercial aviation falling to 0.003 fatalities per 100 million passengers. But decades of research on organizational learning show that success often breeds complacency and failure inspires improvement. With accidents as rare events, can the airline industry continue safety advancements? This question is complicated by the complex system in which the industry operates where chance combinations of multiple factors contribute to what are largely probabilistic (rather than deterministic) outcomes. Thus, some apparent successes are realized because of good fortune rather than good processes, and this research intends to bring attention to these events, the near-misses. The processes that create these near-misses could pose a threat if multiple contributing factors combine in adverse ways without the intervention of good fortune. Yet, near-misses (if recognized as such) can, theoretically, offer a mechanism for continuing safety improvements, above and beyond learning gleaned from observable failure. We test whether or not this learning is apparent in the airline industry. Using data from 1990 to 2007, fixed effects Poisson regressions show that airlines learn from accidents (their own and others), and from one category of near-misses-those where the possible dangers are salient. Unfortunately, airlines do not improve following near-miss incidents when the focal event has no clear warnings of significant danger. Therefore, while airlines need to and can learn from certain near-misses, we conclude with recommendations for improving airline learning from all near-misses.

  12. Failure of hospital employees to comply with smoke-free policy is associated with nicotine dependence and motives for smoking: a descriptive cross-sectional study at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Turner Kenrick; Wilson Clare VR; Parks Tom; Chin Joel WE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoke-free policy aims to protect the health of the population by reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and World Health Organisation (WHO) guidance notes that these policies are only successful if there is full and proper enforcement. We aimed to investigate the problem of resistance to smoking restrictions and specifically compliance with smoke-free policy. We hypothesised that an explanation for non-compliance would lie in a measurable difference betwe...

  13. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  14. Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

    2000-01-01

    The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research.

  15. Umbilical Cord Serum Erythropoietin Levels and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Sazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin. Methods. Erythropoietin levels were measured in umbilical cord sera of 60 newborns who were delivered vaginally at term. There were 20 (33% smoking and 40 (67% nonsmoking mothers. Results. Mean cord serum erythropoietin levels were significantly lower in the nonsmokers (nonsmokers, 24 ± 9 IU/L; smokers, 61 ± 46 IU/L; P<.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and cord serum erythropoietin levels (r, 0.58; P≤.05. Conclusions. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin at birth. This may indicate a risk of fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. Education and encouragement of cessation of smoking during pregnancy are important to avoid associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? If You Smoke If Other People Smoke en español Fumar y el asma You may have family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, ...

  17. Early smoking experience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Urbán, Róbert

    2010-01-01

    Initial smoking experience is a potential predictor of later smoking. Our study has a twofold aim: (1) to provide further support for construct validity of retrospective measurement of an early smoking experience questionnaire (ESE) in a representative sample of adolescents; (2) to examine the association of initial smoking experience with sensation-seeking, current smoking and nicotine dependence.

  18. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  19. Smoking problem in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Tjandra Y Aditama

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is an important public health probLem in Indonesia. Up to 60% of male adult population as well as about 4% of female adult population are smokers. In fact, some of Indonesian kretek cigarettes have quite high tar and nicotine content. Besides health effect, smoking habit also influence economic status of the individuals as well as the family. In health point of view, even though reliable nation wide morbidity and mortality data are scarce, report from various cities showed smoking rel...

  20. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects. PMID:21740388

  1. Modeling the impact of improved aircraft operations technologies on the environment and airline behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ryan Patrick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to determine if improved operations technologies are economically viable for US airlines, and to determine the level of environmental benefits available from such technologies. Though these operational changes are being implemented primarily with the reduction of delay and improvement of throughput in mind, economic factors will drive the rate of airline adoption. In addition, the increased awareness of environmental impacts makes these effects an important aspect of decision-making. Understanding this relationship may help policymakers make decisions regarding implementation of these advanced technologies at airports, and help airlines determine appropriate levels of support to provide for these new technologies. In order to do so, the author models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline in response to the introduction of advanced equipage allowing improved operations procedures. The airline response included changes in deployed fleet, assignment of aircraft to routes, and acquisition of new aircraft. From these responses, changes in total fleet-level CO2 emissions and airline profit were tallied. As awareness of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions has grown, several agencies (ICAO, NASA) have moved to place goals for emissions reduction. NASA, in particular, has set goals for emissions reduction through several areas of aircraft technology. Among these are "Operational Improvements," technologies available in the short-term through avionics and airport system upgrades. The studies in this thesis make use of the Fleet-Level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a simulation tool developed by Purdue University in support of a NASA-sponsored research effort. This tool models the behavior of a large, profit-seeking airline through an allocation problem. The problem is contained within a systems dynamics type approach that allows feedback between passenger demand, ticket price, and the airline fleet composition

  2. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  3. [Smoking cessation for COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, Reiko

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent the annual decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All primary healthcare providers should routinely ask all patients whether tobacco use is active or not, and advise tobacco users to stop smoking. In Japan a treatment of nicotine addiction with varenicline or nicotine patch has been started under health insurance coverage since 2006. About half of the patients taking varenicline could stop smoking. Education on the health risks of smoking in schools for younger ages is essential for prevention of COPD. PMID:27254947

  4. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  5. American Consumer’s Attitudes towards Different Airline Companies Channels: A Comparison of transaction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Harcar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly challenging better performance from companies, and these demands are being met through improvements in technology and flexibility of services. As a result of recent progresses and developments in electronic marketing, the physical locations of brick and mortar businesses have become less significant since transactions can now be accomplished in cyberspace. In this paper, consumer attitudes towards online transactions for the airline industry are examined. Despite the growing acceptance of alternative delivery channels, the travel agencies remain an essential part of the customer-airline company. It can be argued that the travel agencies not only represent an opportunity for implementing costumer relationship, but they also remain an important point of contact for sales, service, and consultative interactions. Data has been analyzed using factor analysis technique. The study presents a broad picture of the level of preference of airline customers among the available distribution channels and sheds light on how airline companies should allocate resources among the different channels. The empirical study findings indicate that online transactions for the airline industry will gain in importance and its use will accelerate at a faster rate in the coming years.

  6. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE FOR THE SUCCESS OF USA LOW-COST AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to investigate the role played by the organizational culture to the success of the USA low-cost airlines, taking as example two major operators: Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. This exploratory research was conducted using two methods. An analysis of the secondary data offered by the specialized literature was followed by primary data collection, through structured interviews with the representatives of Southwest Airlines and JetBlue. The results show that the success of the two low-cost airlines was based not only on their cutting costs strategies, but also on the organizational culture they have promoted during time. This organizational culture is based on closed relationships between the employees, clients and suppliers, among which the communication is simplified and transparent. These particularities of the two operators have made huge differences between them and other low-cost airlines in terms of resilience to the economic downturns, increased number of transported passengers, of revenues and profits.

  7. The Effects of Smoking Ban Regulations on Individual Smoking Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Wilkins; David Black; Hielke Buddelmeyer

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of smoking behaviour in Australia and investigates what impact smoking ban regulations have, if any, on individual smoking patterns. Such legislation receives a lot of press attention when announced and introduced, but its effect on individuals’ smoking behaviour has received little research attention. The main argument used to motivate the introduction of tougher smoking bans is reducing exposure of non-smokers to second hand smoke. From a public policy pers...

  8. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  9. The effects of smoking ban regulations on individual smoking rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buddelmeyer, Hielke; Wilkins, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of smoking behaviour in Australia and investigates what role smoking ban regulation has, if any, on individual level smoking patterns. The main argument to motivate the introduction of tougher smoking bans is the effect of second hand smoke on non-smokers. From a public policy perspective it is important to know if these policies also affect if a person smokes, or if they only influence when and where people smoke. We use data that tracks individual smoking b...

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to secondhand smoke-related Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Deaths among nonsmoking adults due to secondhand smoke-related lung cancer and heart disease. Problem 58 million nonsmokers in the US are still exposed to secondhand smoke. Who is ...

  11. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's ... do continue smoking, don't smoke in the house or car. continue Exposure to Smoke Outside the ...

  12. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    be serviced within a given time-window by a team consisting of a driver and a loader. Each driver/loader has the skills to service some, but not all, of the airline/aircraft/configuration of the jobs. Given the jobs to be serviced and the roster of workers for each shift, the problem is to form teams...... and assign teams and start-times for the jobs, so as to service as many flights as possible. Only teams with the appropriate skills can be assigned to a flight. Workload balance among the teams is also a consideration. We present a model formulation and investigate a tabu-search heuristic approach to solve......We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take off. Jobs (flights) must...

  13. Targeting Pearl River Delta, Untied Airlines Expect Direct Line to Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the fast economy growth,Guangzhou and Pearl River Delta has become a key market in China.To provide better service for this market, the United Airlines took the leading role to set up an office in Guangzhou in April, 2004. At the end of last year, the United Airlines opened the ferry service between five ports in Pearl River Delta and the Sky Pier of Hong Kong International Airport by using the fast ferryboat and successfully realized the seamless connection.At present, for there is not direct flight from Guangzhou to the U. S., the United Airlines uses the ferry boat to connect Pearl River Delta to Hong Kong International Airport.

  14. Vietnam Airlines Made Staggered Progress in the First Half of 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ HO CHI MINH CITY, VIETNAM-According to the latest statistics results of Vietnam Airlines show that from January to June,2007, under the high-quality supervision and operation of Vietnam Airlines, a total of 31,140 flights made safety takeoffs and landings; and the total number of passengers traveling by Vietnam Airlines is 3,831,376, which is 16.5% over the same period of the last year. Among them, the total number of passengers taking domestic flights is 2,225,457,which is 23.90% over the same period of the last year; and the total number of passengers taking International flights is 1,605,919, that grew 6.9% over the same period of the last year. In the first half of 2007, the freight volume has reached to 533,850 tons.

  15. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  16. Investigation of lateral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification method for fly-by-wire passenger airliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhao; Wang Lixin; Lin Jiaming; Ai Junqiang

    2014-01-01

    A new identification method is proposed to solve the problem of the influence on the loaded excitation signals brought by high feedback gain augmentation in lateral-directional aerody-namic parameters identification of fly-by-wire (FBW) passenger airliners. Taking for example an FBW passenger airliner model with directional relaxed-static-stability, through analysis of its signal energy distribution and airframe frequency response, a new method is proposed for signal type selec-tion, signal parameters design, and the appropriate frequency relationship between the aileron and rudder excitation signals. A simulation validation is presented of the FBW passenger airliner’s lat-eral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification. The validation result demonstrates that the designed signal can excite the lateral-directional motion mode of the FBW passenger airliner ade-quately and persistently. Meanwhile, the relative errors of aerodynamic parameters are less than 5%.

  17. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  18. Evaluating service marketing in airline industry and its influence on student passengers' purchasing behaviour-using Taipei-London route as an example.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huiling; Peng, Norman; Hackley, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study into airline consumer purchase behaviour on a major global route, that between the United Kingdom and Taipei. It focuses on the factors influencing airline choice for a sample of 60 Taiwanese students based at UK Universities and travelling on five airlines: British Airways, Cathay Pacific Airways, China Airlines, EVA Airways and Royal Dutch Airways. Several stages of data-gathering were undertaken and a well-established analytical framework for services ...

  19. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  20. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  1. The Smoking Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Examines the complex public debate over the risks of passive smoking that includes the issues of individual choice, personal space, community, social norms, and morality. Discusses the composition of ETS (gases and particulates that disperse into the air when a smoker smokes) and the efforts of tobacco lobbies. (LZ)

  2. Smoking and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often among female smokers. Can smoking affect my children? Men whose mothers smoked half a pack of cigarettes (or more) ... life (such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease). Children whose ... for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and for developing asthma. I don’ ...

  3. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: June 2016 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC What Kids Say About: Tobacco Helping a Parent Who Smokes Smoking and Asthma Your Lungs & Respiratory System Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  4. College Student Reactions to Smoking Bans in Public, on Campus and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; Lessard, Laura; Parelkar, Pratibha P.; Thrasher, James; Kegler, Michelle C.; Escoffery, Cam; Goldade, Kathryn; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2011-01-01

    We examined college student reactions to a statewide public smoke-free policy, campus policies and private restrictions through an online survey among 2260 students at a 2-year college and a university and 12 focus groups among smokers. Among survey participants, 34.6% smoked in the past month (35.0% daily, 65.0% non-daily). Correlates of…

  5. Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the accounting and stock price performance of two Canadian airlines, WestJet and Air Canada, over a five year period, taking into account the aftermath of the systemic shock to the airline industry produced by the September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorist attacks and subsequent events such as the 2002 SARS outbreak, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the accompanying rise in jet fuel prices. Our study focuses on the viability of low-cost versus conventional-cost business models in Canada under the current business environment and the ability of airlines to withstand and effectively respond to catastrophic industry events. Furthermore, we link the effectiveness of the airlines responses to these events to specific elements of their respective business models. We test our hypothesis through a case study. We focus on WestJet as a typical low-cost airline and compare its accounting and stock performance to Air Canada, a legacy carrier and rival in several business sectors. We find WestJet to be much less affected by catastrophic industry events. By decomposing each airline s return volatility, we observe that WestJet s systematic and unsystematic risk increased only slightly during the industry's post-9-11 turmoil when compared to Air Canada. In addition, we find that both WestJet s accounting and stock performance have been highly superior to those of Air Canada. We argue that WestJet s business model provides the firm with significantly more financial and operational flexibility than its legacy rival, Air Canada. WestJet's lower operating costs, high consumer trust, product offering, corporate structure, workforce and work practices, as well as operational procedures are all factors that appear to contribute to its relative success.

  6. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  7. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  8. Gender and the social context of smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors. PMID:14572917

  9. Gender and the social context of smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors.

  10. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  11. Competition in the Malaysian Airline Industry: An Exploratory Study using Game-Theoretical and Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Kevin Swee Aun

    2005-01-01

    The competitive landscape of the Malaysian airline industry is facing changes due to the presence of a low-cost carrier, AirAsia. AirAsia has gain much market share by introducing low-fares much to the expense of the national carrier, MAS. Due to the increased competition, the national carrier must react in order to stop the decline of its domestic operations. This aim of this study is to understand the strategies of the two dominant carriers in the Malaysian airline industry, MAS and AirAsia...

  12. Assessing Aircraft Timeliness Variations By Major Airlines: Passenger Travel Practice In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Wesonga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flight delays do not only affect passenger satisfaction but also carry along costly consequences to airlines. The overall objective of the study was to assess aircraft timeliness variations by major airlines so as to determine passenger travel practice in Uganda. The study hypotheses were tested using a two-way ANOVA F-test and further measures of associations. The study found out that the number of schedules of each airline per day had a positive effect on the delay duration, whereby an additional schedule increased the average delay by a proportion of 11%. Whereas the day of the week F(16, 1129 = 1.36, p >0.01 had no significant difference in the delays amongst the airlines, the month of the year F(33, 1107 = 1.88, p < 0.001 showed a significant difference. However, the total variance of the delays was attributed to the airline (29%. It was also demonstrated from the analysis that Eagle Air (EA, Kenya Airways (KA and South African Airways (SAA experienced more delays than the British Airways (BAW by 33%, 62% and 55% respectively. Other than Wednesday, flights were delayed more on all the days of the week and less delayed in the months of October and November than in June by 26% and 3% respectively. On Saturdays and Sundays, flights were found to have longer periods of delay (p<0.05 that averaged 14 and 13 minutes respectively. The flights in January and March had longer delays (15 and 14 minutes than that recorded in the other months. Therefore, it can be concluded that the passengers who use BAW are less likely to delay than the other (EA, KA and SAA airlines and travelling in the months of October and November is highly recommended. Given that airline delay is positively correlated with the number of scheduled flights, a policy framework could be developed to optimise schedules and airline delays during departure at the airport. The template is used to format your paper and style the text. All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text

  13. UNFAIR COMPETITION? AMERICAN AND JAPANESE AIRLINES TRANSPACIFIC ROUTE RIVALRIES, 1946—1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Karsner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changing nature of competition between American and Japanese airlines for transpacific passenger and cargo routes during the formative early postwar era. It focuses on the period from 1946, when the US government first certified Northwest and Pan American airlines to fly to Japan, to 1971, as the age of mass air travel took off amidst major economic changes such as the Nixon Shocks. Utilizing both American and Japanese sources, the author argues that a complex mixture of economic and diplomatic factors shaped American and Japanese airlines’ transpacific route rivalries.

  14. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  15. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  16. Heavy smoking and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zayadi, Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-14

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necro-inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF- alpha) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes. Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis. Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with suppression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache, fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling

  17. Heavy smoking and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2006-01-01

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  18. Formulation and demonstration of a robust mean variance optimization approach for concurrent airline network and aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davendralingam, Navindran

    Conceptual design of aircraft and the airline network (routes) on which aircraft fly on are inextricably linked to passenger driven demand. Many factors influence passenger demand for various Origin-Destination (O-D) city pairs including demographics, geographic location, seasonality, socio-economic factors and naturally, the operations of directly competing airlines. The expansion of airline operations involves the identificaion of appropriate aircraft to meet projected future demand. The decisions made in incorporating and subsequently allocating these new aircraft to serve air travel demand affects the inherent risk and profit potential as predicted through the airline revenue management systems. Competition between airlines then translates to latent passenger observations of the routes served between OD pairs and ticket pricing---this in effect reflexively drives future states of demand. This thesis addresses the integrated nature of aircraft design, airline operations and passenger demand, in order to maximize future expected profits as new aircraft are brought into service. The goal of this research is to develop an approach that utilizes aircraft design, airline network design and passenger demand as a unified framework to provide better integrated design solutions in order to maximize expexted profits of an airline. This is investigated through two approaches. The first is a static model that poses the concurrent engineering paradigm above as an investment portfolio problem. Modern financial portfolio optimization techniques are used to leverage risk of serving future projected demand using a 'yet to be introduced' aircraft against potentially generated future profits. Robust optimization methodologies are incorporated to mitigate model sensitivity and address estimation risks associated with such optimization techniques. The second extends the portfolio approach to include dynamic effects of an airline's operations. A dynamic programming approach is

  19. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive

  20. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin

  1. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined ...

  2. A study of the financial history of the U.S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs.

  3. 'Waiting until they got home': gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Greaves, Lorraine; Martin, Claudia

    2010-09-01

    The introduction in March 2006 of legislation banning smoking in public places in Scotland raised concerns that smokers would smoke more at home and so increase the exposure of those living with them to tobacco smoke. Drawing on interviews from two qualitative studies conducted after the implementation of the legislation, this article uses a gendered analysis to explore where and why smokers, who lived with non-smokers including children, continued to smoke in their homes. Although very few people attributed any increased home smoking to being a direct consequence of the legislation, many who already smoked there continued, and most women reported little or no disruption to their home smoking post-legislation. Also, because of the changing social environment of smoking, and other life circumstances, a minority of women had increased their levels of home smoking. Compared to the men in these studies, women, particularly those who didn't work outside the home, had restricted social lives and thus were less likely to have smoked in public places before the legislation and spent more time socialising in the homes of other people. In addition, women with children, including women who worked outside their homes, were more likely to spend sustained periods of time caring for children compared to fathers, who were more likely to leave the home to work or socialise. Although home smoking was linked to gendered caring responsibilities, other issues associated with being a smoker also meant that many women smokers chose to keep smoking in their homes.

  4. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥1 cigarettes per day participation among youth. Methods: one to two waves (primarily one wave of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents’ smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. Results and Conclusions: We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1, daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1, and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05 participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  5. Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the impact of trade restrictiveness on growth, poverty, or unemployment are frequent in the academic literature. Few authors, however, provide a precise definition of what they mean by trade restrictiveness. When they do, the definition is unlikely to have tight links with trade theory. The objective of this article is to fill this gap by providing for 78 developing and developed countries clearly defined indicators of trade restrictiveness that are well grounded in trade theory. R...

  6. Association between Family Structure, Parental Smoking, Friends Who Smoke, and Smoking Behavior in Adolescents with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations show that the smoking prevalence among asthmatic adolescents is higher than among healthy adolescents, and the causes that lead these asthmatic adolescents to smoke are unclear. We investigated the association between family structure, parental smoking, smoking friends, and smoking in asthmatic adolescents (n = 6,487. After adjusting for sex and age, logistic regression analyses showed that nonintact family structure, parental smoking, and smoking friends are associated with smoking in adolescents with and without asthma. Asthmatic adolescents who reside in the household of a nonintact family have a 1.90 times greater risk of smoking compared with those who live with both biological parents. It is important that parents who have children with asthma be made aware that the presence of smokers in the home and adolescent fraternization with smoking friends not only favor the worsening of asthma, but also induce the habit of smoking.

  7. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  8. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a

  9. SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Harpreet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

  10. Can Public Policy Deter Smoking Escalation among Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of significant budget shortfalls, 37 states and the District of Columbia have recently increased cigarette excise taxes to boost revenues. This study examines the impact of increasing the price of cigarettes, which will occur as a consequence of cigarette excise tax increases, and implementing restrictions on smoking in private…

  11. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    7/13 REVISION Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as cannabis (can-a-bis) is the most widely used illegal drug ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  12. Investigating brand personality of state-owned and private airlines: Maham Versus Iran Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karoubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies need to create exclusion not in the market but in their own capabilities and features in order to gain distinction. The creation and maintenance of distinction through functional features is nearly impossible anymore. Thus, apart from the functional features, companies need to consider their intangible properties, among which brand is one of the most important ones. One of components researchers have detected for brand is personality, which can enhance the preference and loyalty of the customers and influence their decision process. In the service section, due to its specific features, the impacts of brand personality are more important and more complicated and airline companies, as service industries, which provide one of the most intangible products, are no exception. In the current study, using Aaker's Five-Dimension Model for brand personality, brand personality of a state-owned airline company (Iran Air and a private one (Mahan are compared from the perspective of technical directors of travel agencies. The population includes 233 technical directors whose views regarding brand personality of airline companies are studied following the distribution of questionnaires. The results of the data analysis indicate Mahan Airline is superior to Iran Air in all the five dimensions.

  13. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    2008-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...

  14. United Airlines Launches New Daily Beijing-San Francisco Non-Stop Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ United Airlines, the leading carrier between the U.S. and China, announced today that its new Beijing to San Francisco non-stop flight took off from Beijing at 12:00 p.m. helping to open a new air service route between two of the world's greatest cities.

  15. "Checklist Complete". Or Is It? Closing a Task in the Airline Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    For airline pilots, the call of "checklist complete" is officially prescribed talk to claim that the crew's joint conduct of a checklist is over, and the task can be understood as closed. However, very often this call is not the final talk for the task. This paper uses naturally occurring data, transcriptions of pilots interacting on actual…

  16. Deterministic Price Setting Rules to Guarantee Profitability of Unbundling in the Airline Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diepen, G.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Unbundling the traditional airfare is one of the airline industry’s practices to generate ancillary revenue in its struggle for profitability. However, unbundling might just as well negatively affect profit. In this paper deterministic price setting rules are established to guarantee profitability o

  17. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  18. Detention of Star I Airline's only plane causes havoc / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2010-01-01

    Leedu lennukompanii Star1 Airlines teatas 24. septembril, et peatab kõik oma lennud kuni 2. oktoobrini. Leedu lennuaamet uurib Star1 Airlinesi finantsseisu. Paljud reisijad on jäänud lennujaamadesse. Transpordiminister Eligijus Masiulise sõnul võidakse firmalt Euroopa Liidu reeglite rikkumise tõttu lennulitsents ära võtta

  19. 78 FR 28625 - American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... the Federal Register on March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18370). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c) reconsideration may... International Airport, Fleet Services Clerks, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding... workers of American Airlines, a subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet...

  20. Sur une ligne aerienne. Carrieres bilinques (On an Airline. Bilingual Careers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Valerie; Ullmann, Rebecca

    This multimedia kit for French instruction at the secondary level aims to acquaint students with some basic airline terminology in French. One goal of the modular course is to show students the practical link that exists between the study of French and the work world. The kit is represented by a teacher's guide, a student handbook, and a…

  1. Looking for Action: Talk and Gaze Home Position in the Airline Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the embodied nature of discourse for a professional work setting. It examines language in interaction in the airline cockpit, and specifically how shifts in pilots' eye gaze direction can indicate the action of talk, that is, what talk is doing and its relative contribution to work-in-progress. Looking towards the other…

  2. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  3. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 23110), titled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections,'' containing many new... July 28, 2011. The effective date of the final rule published at 76 FR 23110, April 25, 2011, continues... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 244, 250, 253, 259 and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing...

  4. -New Destinations, Greater Convenience-ANA and Singapore Airlines Expand Strategic Code-Sharing Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ ANA and Singapore Airlines have filed for permission to increase their present code-sharing relationship to cover destinations in Asia,North America and Japan beyond the hub mrports of Singapore Changi Airport and Tokyo Narita Airport,from September 1 this year.

  5. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  6. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is associated with lung problems. Back to top Hookahs Hookahs—sometimes called water pipes—are used to smoke ... that is available in a variety of flavors. Hookahs originated in ancient Persia and India and have ...

  7. Role of Smokes in Warfare .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Mishra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The role smokes in warfare is reviewed with particular reference to the world wars, and various types os smokes are discussed. The smokes that can defeat modern opto-electronics including infrared (IR/millimetre wave (MMW guidance and thermal imager are described. Environment-friendly non-toxic smokes are dealt with briefly. The future of smokes in these circumstances is mentioned.

  8. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  9. Improved fish smoking: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fish is an important source of food and income to many people in the developing world. In Africa, some 5 percent of the population, about 35 million people, depend wholly or partly on the fisheries sector, mostly artisanal fisheries, for their livelihood. Various traditional methods are employed to preserve and process fish for consumption and storage. These include smoking, drying, salting, frying and fermenting and various combinations of these. In Ghana, smoking is the mo...

  10. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  11. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  12. GENES BEHIND SMOKE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmos Soós

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Smoke can break dormancy and promote seed germination of many plant species. We investigated changes in the gene expression changes after imbibition of light-sensitive Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dilute smoke water compared to water control samples kept in dark or continuous light. Although no difference was detected in the smoke water vs. water control samples germinated in light, smoke water treatment resulted in the differential display of several expressed sequence tags (ESTs when compared to water control samples kept in dark. The most pronounced fragments isolated correspond to known genes with functions related to cell wall expansion, abscisic acid regulation, regulation of translation, the cell division cycle, carbohydrate metabolism and desiccation tolerance. These data clearly indicate that the smoke water, which stimulates germination of light-sensitive Grand Rapids lettuce seeds in the dark, rapidly affects genes that are essential for cell division, cell wall expansion and mobilization and utilization of nutrients for the resumption of embryo growth. Although the master genes remained unknown, our hope is that the using of maize microarray will reveal the whole molecular background of smoke action.

  13. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  14. Smoke-free medical facility campus legislation: support, resistance, difficulties and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Christine; Stitzer, Maxine; Wheeler, J Gary

    2009-01-01

    Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113) were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change. PMID:19440281

  15. 航线飞行特质人格和航线飞行工作情境人格对飞行员心理健康的影响%Study on the Influences of Airline Fight Trait Personality and Airline Flight Working Situation Personality on the Mental Health of Airline Pilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴琨

    2012-01-01

    目的 考察航线飞行特质人格和航线飞行工作情境人格对航线飞行员心理健康的影响. 方法 采用自编量表“航线飞行员人格量表”和临床症状自评量表(SCL-90)对南方航空公司及其分公司的286名男性飞行员进行心理测量研究. 结果 心理健康的各个因子均值在1.36~1.64之间,心理健康总评分也在2分以下.另外,阳性项目数平均值为25.57,远远小于40的异常标准,并且无明显峰值出现.总体健康水平和航线飞行特质人格的相关系数(-0.75)显著高于和航线飞行工作情境人格的相关系数(-0.17);航线飞行特质人格和航线飞行工作情境人格均单独对心理健康有直接影响作用;另外,航线飞行特质人格还可通过影响航线飞行工作情境人格进而影响心理健康. 结论 航线飞行员整体心理健康状况良好;两种人格对心理健康均有预测作用,其中航线飞行特质人格显示了较强的预测作用,航线飞行工作情境人格在航线飞行特质人格对心理健康的影响中发挥着部分中介作用.%Objective To investigate the influences of Airline Flight Trait Personality and Airline Flight Working Situation Personality on the mental health of airline pilots. Methods The self - developed Personality Scale for Airline Pilots and SCL - 90 were used to conduct psychometric researches on 286 male airline pilots from the China Southern Airlines and its branch offices. Results The mean values of all the factors for mental health ranged from 1.36 to 1.64. The total score of mental health was below 2. The mean of positive items was 25.57, which was far below the abnormal standard 40. Moreover, the obvious peak value did not appear. The correlation coefficient between general health level and Airline Flight Trait Personality (-0.75) was significantly higher than that between general health level and Airline Flight Working Situation Personality ( - 0.17). Both Airline Flight Trait

  16. A YEN FOR THE DOLLAR: Airlines and the Transformation of US-Japanese Tourism, 1947-1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Karsner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of transpacific tourism between the United States and Japan from 1947 to 1977, focusing on the key role that Pan American World Airways, Northwest Orient Airlines, and Japan Airlines played in this development. In the late 1940s, travel was mostly by a small upper class leisure market cruising on ships. Linkages between the air carriers and other factors, including governmental policy, travel organizations, and changes in business and culture influenced the industry. By the 1970s, these elements had reshaped the nature and geography of tourism, into a mass airline tourist market characterized by package tours, special interest trips, and consumer values.

  17. A Critical Evaluation of U.S. Airlines¡¯ Service Quality Performance: Lower Costs vs. Satisfied Customers

    OpenAIRE

    H. Muge Yayla-Kullu; Praowpan Tansitpong

    2013-01-01

    Providing good quality services enables airlines to retain customer satisfaction, loyalty, market-share, and ultimately profitability. However, U.S. airlines compete primarily on price and are not known for good quality service. There have been a growing number of low-cost airlines. In such a business landscape, we study whether a full-service carrier indeed outperforms a low-cost carrier in terms of service quality when we control for the operational costs. We are also interested to find out...

  18. Does a Smoking Ban Reduce Smoking? Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Brüderl; Volker Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008 the 16 German federal states introduced public smoking bans. The prime objective of the smoking bans was to reduce passive smoking. However, a welcomed side-effect of the smoking bans might have been to reduce active smoking. In this paper we investigate whether such a side-effect occurred. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), we investigate with fixed-effects models whether the introduction of smoking bans in the German states reduced the prevalence ...

  19. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting.

  20. Restrictions of stable bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji, V

    2011-01-01

    The Mehta-Ramanathan theorem ensures that the restriction of a stable vector bundle to a sufficiently high degree complete intersection curve is again stable. We improve the bounds for the "sufficiently high degree" and propose a possibly optimal conjecture.