WorldWideScience

Sample records for airline smoking restrictions

  1. Smoke-free airlines and the role of organized labor: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jocelyn; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Levenstein, Charles; Balbach, Edith D

    2005-03-01

    Labor unions play an important role in debates about smoke-free worksites. We investigated the role of flight attendants and their unions in creating smoke-free air travel. We used case study methodology to search tobacco industry documents and labor union periodicals and to interview key informants (i.e., people identified as having first-hand information and experience in the campaign to make airlines smoke free). We then compared findings across these data sources. Tobacco industry strategies against the establishment of smoke-free worksites failed in the case of airlines, largely because of the efforts of flight attendants and their unions. Other factors contributed to the failure but likely would have been insufficient to derail industry efforts without strong stands by the flight attendants. This case illustrates the potential for successful partnerships between unions and tobacco control policy advocates when developing smoke-free worksite policies.

  2. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  3. The Effects of Local Workplace Smoking Laws on Smoking Restrictions and Exposure to Smoke at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    We provide new evidence on the effects of workplace smoking restrictions by studying more than 100 local smoking ordinances in Ontario, Canada from 1997-2004. We advance the literature by examining local (as opposed to state or provincial) laws in a quasi-experimental framework and by explicitly testing for effects on worksite compliance and…

  4. Smoking in hotels: prevalence, and opinions about restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmonds, A; Bailey, K; Bentley, S; Chase, V; Fernando, S; Guruge, A; King, M; Tan, O M; Walsh, R

    1995-02-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke can occur in hotels. Controversy exists about smoking regulation on licensed premises. This survey of 138 people attending one of three Newcastle hotels during 1993 found that 57 per cent of respondents were nonsmokers. Fifty-eight per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 50 to 66 per cent) of respondents in these hotels believed their health was being adversely affected by other people's smoke in the hotel. Seventy per cent (CI 62 to 78 per cent), including half the smokers, were in favour of restriction of smoking in the hotels. Most preferred the establishment of smoke-free areas to the introduction of total smoking bans in hotels. The failure of hotels to regulate smoking suggests that a legislative approach is required. The case for legislation would be strengthened by a larger study elsewhere in Australia.

  5. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines and Spanair recently signed a code-share agreement enabling Turkish Airlines to use its code "TK" on domestic flights operated by Spanair. Reciprocally, on Turkish Airlines’ flights to Barcelona, Madrid and

  6. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines has signed a new code share agreement with Asiana Airlines from South Korea as part of an expansion program. The new code share agreement,which went into effect on October 25,2009,

  7. Transferrin Sialylation in Smoking and Non-Smoking Pregnant Women with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniak, Marta; Kepinska, Marta; Bizoń, Anna; Milnerowicz-Nabzdyk, Ewa; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a glycosylated protein responsible for transporting iron. Various sialylation levels of Tf are observed during physiological and pathological processes. We studied if the changes in iron stores as well as tobacco smoke may have an impact on foetal development and in consequence lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester of pregnancy, lower levels of 4-sialoTf isoform and higher levels of 5-sialoTf were observed in the serum of non-smoking women with IUGR in comparison to the control group. On the day of labour, level of 2-sialoTf was significantly lower and level of 3-sialo was Tf higher in the serum of non-smoking women. Level of 4-sialo was found lower in the serum of smoking women with IUGR than in the control group. The observed changes may suggest a connection between iron stores, transport of iron to the foetus and foetal development.

  8. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Austrian Airlines Austrian Airlines Group has announced the appointment of Heinz Goetz as new Country Manager China. Goetz, a veteran airline industry operative, joined Austrian Airlines in 1977. He held management positions in Austria and abroad prior to his most recent appointment as Country

  9. Impact and barriers for the restriction of smoking during psychiatric hospitalization: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to identify the barriers for implementing the restriction on smoking in psychiatric hospitalization services, its impact on the hospitalized smokers, and the positioning of the professionals. Integrative review of 19 articles published (1989-2011 in MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Descriptive analysis was carried out. The studies revealed that the main barriers for the implementation of the restriction were: beliefs in the patients’ increased aggressiveness, damage to the professional-patient relationship, and lack of preparation to address the theme. After the implementation, the restrictions showed a positive impact: reduction of cigarettes smoked, increased motivation to quit smoking, and more attempts to stop smoking. The professionals who smoked and those who did not believe that quitting smoking benefits mental health patients were those that least supported the implementation of the restrictions. In conclusion, the restriction on smoking is effective in psychiatric hospitalization, as it provokes an attitude of change in mental health patients.

  10. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vietnam Airlines Makes Big Progress According to latest statistics of Vietnam Airlines, in the first six months of this year, a total of 31,140 flights operated by the company made safe takeoffs and land-

  11. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Qatar Airlines Teams Up With Langham Hotels International Qatar Airlines has recently inked an agree- ment with Langham Hotels International.Accordingly, Qatar Airlines will of- fer QMiles to members of the hotel’s advantage program who visit any hotels of Langham Hotels International.

  12. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Qatar Airways Award-winning Qatar Airways boosted its tally of international honors by grabbing four key titles at the prestigious 13th World Travel Awards during a glittering ceremony in the Caribbean islands of the Turks and Caicos. The Doha-based airline picked up awards for the World’s Leading Business Class Airline, World’s Leading Airline Inflight Meal Service, Leading Airline in the Middle East as well as Leading Middle East Business Class Airline. The airline gained high praise at the travel industry’s equivalent to the Oscar’s and triumphed as the Leading Airline in the Middle East. It gained the inflight meal service award for the second year in a row.

  13. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    United Airlines United Airlines and Shanghai Airlines signed a code-sharing agreement on March 21 that expands international destination options and frequent flyer opportunities for customers of both carriers. Pending U.S. Government approval, the 11 code-sharing flights covered by the agreement are scheduled to commence May 15. Once the agreement takes effect, customers from both carriers will be able to accrue and redeem frequent flyer miles and enjoy airport lounges supported by both carriers.

  14. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    United Airlines In celebration of the first anniversary of the Approved Destination Status (ADS) agreement between China and the United States, United Airlines, the world’s largest transpacific airline, offers travelers in China an unique trip to its home, Chicago, with a special month-long promotion. Beginning June 1, the special promotional offer will give visitors the chance to take in the Windy City

  15. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Air Berlin Air Berlin is the second largest German airline and the fourth largest airline in Europe. It was founded in 1978 and has been enjoying steady growth ever since. Its route network includes major international cities and holiday destinations, as well

  16. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines announced an all-inclusive 9,800-yuan tour package to Turkey available through mos major travel agencies. This package includes round-trip airfare from Beijing or Shanghai to Istanbul, plus a roundtrip flight from Istanbul to any other Turkish city. An eight-day,

  17. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines An Airbus 340 sporting the distinctive Turkish Airlines tail fin logo at landed at Shanghai’s Pudong airport at 3:30 p.m. on July 1, 2009, inaugurating the direct, commercial flight link between Istanbul and Shanghai. The passengers on the maiden voyage

  18. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sri Lankan Airlines offers 50% off on fares and packages for Golden Jubilee of China-Sri Lanka relations Sri Lankan Airlines is offering an amazing 50% off on airfares from Beijing to Colombo and holiday packages in Sri Lanka, to celebrate the 50th anniv

  19. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Austrian Airlines QUALITY AND SERVICE KEY TO SUCCESS Austrian Airlines has been making continuous efforts to provide more comfort and convenience to travelers. In business class, a new sleeper seat with a back adjustable up to 90 degrees was recently introduced. In addition, wireless Internet connection is now available throuqhout the cabin, on the ground

  20. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopian Airlines to Launch Daily Non-stop Flights to Beijing From May 2011, Ethiopian Airlines will introduce daily non-stop services from Addis Ababa to Beijing with its brand-new Boeing 777-200LR ultra long-range aircraft. New non-stop routing will shave almost

  1. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Turkish Airlines Turkish Airlines released its consolidated financial statements for the first nine months of 2009 on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. According to the reported financial statements, sales revenue was $3.26 billion, a decrease of 11 percent year on year

  2. Smoking restrictions on campus: changes and challenges at three Canadian universities, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter-Scherdtel, Amy; Collins, Damian

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the restriction of smoking on university campuses in the Canadian context. Indoor smoking on campus is now completely prohibited by law, and universities are increasingly moving to restrict, or prohibit, outdoor smoking on their grounds. The research focuses on three case studies to identify changes in spatial restrictions on campus smoking over the last four decades (1970-2010), and to determine the challenges involved in establishing bans in outdoor areas of campus. The three universities were selected for their different approaches to the issue of outdoor smoking. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews with 36 key informants, conducted from September 2010 to January 2011, supplemented by documentary information. Interview data were analysed thematically. Protection against environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on campus proceeded incrementally, via policy-making at the provincial, municipal and institutional levels. Historically, institutional bans on indoor smoking were particularly significant, but their health benefits could be limited by the presence of private property on campus. Universities continue to initiate smoking restrictions today, with respect to outdoor bans. However, respondents reported myriad challenges in developing, implementing and maintaining such bans. Five principal concerns were articulated: the need for ongoing policy communication; management of community relations as smokers are displaced from campus; enforcement to ensure that the policy has practical effect; safety concerns; and difficulties relating to campus layout. Because challenges are diverse and contextual, effective protection against outdoor ETS on campus is likely to require an ongoing commitment on the part of administrators.

  3. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Qatar Airways Award-winning Qatar Airways has become the first airline in the world to introduce live digital satellite TV beamed direct to every passenger on their individual seatback TV systems at 35,000 feet. Yet another first for one of the world's fastest growing airlines is the introduction of a system offering a multitude of European and Middle East TV channels on five of its fleet of Airbus A330 long-haul aircraft.

  4. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    SriLankan Airlines Since September 1,SriLankan Airlines has promoted special offers on airfares in succession. Recent ones include:a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to Bangkok for only 2,215 yuan($300);a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to Colombo for 4,000 yuan($540);a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to the Maldives for 4,700 yuan($635);a roundtrip ticket from Beijing to any desti-

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.335 - Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around building... PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.335 Who is responsible for furnishing and installing signs concerning smoking restrictions in the building, and in and around...

  6. Pursuing Therapeugenic Consequences of Restricting Client Smoking during Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence J.; Dearing, Nancy

    Theorists and therapists have become increasingly attentive to the role of interpersonal behaviors that facilitate or hinder the ability of the counselor to exert influence over the client during counseling. A study was conducted to examine the impact of a counselor's preference that clients not smoke, client stress levels, client sex, and…

  7. Airline Promotions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Austrian Airlines is extending its network in China. From June onwards,the number of direct flights from Beijing to Vienna will rise from the current four to six per week, operated by Airbus A33oAs of April 29th, Shanghai will be added to the flight program, seeing three nonstop flights from Vienna a week, operated by Boeing B-767

  8. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Routes Forum Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA) is always retaining its leading position in China’s airport industry. By participating in the Routes Forum for the past five years, BCIA has been developing an airline business with more than 100

  9. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Qatar Airways Qatar Airways has reached milestone agreements with 50 airlines around the world for interline electronic ticket-ing enabling passengers to travel without a paper ticket to a wider choice of destinations. With the recent additions of Lufthansa and British

  10. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    British Airways British Airways today unveiled a radi-cal new environmental target of halvingnet CO2 emissions by 2050.The target,the most ambitious set by any airline,means that British Airways will reduce its net carbon output from 16

  11. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Qatar Airways Carrier’s Privilege Club wins unprecedented number of accolades at 19th annual Freddie Award Airline presented with Stateside honors weeks ahead of U.S.A. launch As Qatar Airways prepares for its historic launch of sched- uled flights to th

  12. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  13. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment.

  14. 41 CFR 102-74.330 - What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What smoking... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Smoking § 102-74.330 What smoking restrictions apply to outside areas under Executive branch control? Effective June 19,...

  15. Reshuffling and Relocating: The Gendered and Income-Related Differential Effects of Restricting Smoking Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Hemsing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates secondhand smoke (SHS exposure and management in the context of smoking location restrictions, for nonsmokers, former, and current smokers. A purposive sample of 47 low income and non-low-income men and women of varied smoking statuses was recruited to participate in a telephone interview or a focus group. Amidst general approval of increased restrictions there were gendered patterns of SHS exposure and management, and effects of SHS policies that reflect power, control, and social roles that need to be considered as policies are developed, implemented and monitored. The experience of smoking restrictions and the management of SHS is influenced by the social context (relationship with a partner, family member, or stranger, the space of exposure (public or private, worksite, the social location of individuals involved (gender, income, and differential tolerance to SHS. This confluence of factors creates differing unintended and unexpected consequences to the social and physical situations of male and female smokers, nonsmokers, and former smokers. These factors deserve further study, in the interests of informing the development of future interventions and policies restricting SHS.

  16. Airline Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  17. The Impact of State Preemption of Local Smoking Restrictions on Public Health Protections and Changes in Social Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Mowery

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preemption is a legislative or judicial arrangement in which a higher level of government precludes lower levels of government from exercising authority over a topic. In the area of smoke-free policy, preemption typically takes the form of a state law that prevents communities from adopting local smoking restrictions. Background. A broad consensus exists among tobacco control practitioners that preemption adversely impacts tobacco control efforts. This paper examines the effect of state provisions preempting local smoking restrictions in enclosed public places and workplaces. Methods. Multiple data sources were used to assess the impact of state preemptive laws on the proportion of indoor workers covered by smoke-free workplace policies and public support for smoke-free policies. We controlled for potential confounding variables. Results. State preemptive laws were associated with fewer local ordinances restricting smoking, a reduced level of worker protection from secondhand smoke, and reduced support for smoke-free policies among current smokers. Discussion. State preemptive laws have several effects that could impede progress in secondhand smoke protections and broader tobacco control efforts. Conclusion. Practitioners and advocates working on other public health issues should familiarize themselves with the benefits of local policy making and the potential impact of preemption.

  18. Esindusteenuseid pakub Airline Management

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Lennufirmadele ja teistele turismivaldkonna ettevõtetele esindusteenuseid pakkuvast firmast Airline Management OÜ. Firma poolt Eestis esindatud lennufirmade Air Namibia, SN Brussels Airlines ja Flynordic ning hotelligrupi Wyndham lühitutvustus

  19. The role of thromboxane A(2) in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Caoimhe M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of maternal smoking in pregnancy on the production of two eicosanoids, thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2, and their role in the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Prospective case control study enrolled smoking and non-smoking women at <\\/=14 weeks gestation. Maternal urine samples were obtained at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks. High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to quantify 11-dehydrothromboxane B(2) (TX-M) and 2,3 dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1alpha (PG-M), stable urinary metabolites of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin I2. Confirmation of the smoking status was performed by quantitation of urinary nicotine metabolites. Data was analysed using SPSS and Stata((R)). RESULTS: Thirty five were enrolled in the smoking group and 32 in the non-smoking group. Smoking resulted higher levels of TX-M at <\\/=14, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. There was no difference in PG-M at any gestational time point between the two groups. The median customised birthweight centile in the smoking group was 17.0 (0-78) compared to 55.5 (4-100) in the non-smoking group (P<0.001). A causal relationship between elevated TX-M and IUGR could not be established. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with altered eicosanoid production in favour of the vasoconstrictor thromboxane A(2) which occurs early in the first trimester.

  20. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  1. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  2. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation.

  3. Airline Operation Center Workstation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airline Operation Center Workstation (AOC Workstation) represents equipment available to users of the National Airspace system, outside of the FAA, that enables...

  4. [Evaluation of the knowledge and manner of workers of workplaces in Tokat about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Celik, Deniz; Etikan, Ilker; Inönü, Handan; Yılmaz, Ayşe; Seyfikli, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and manner of cafe, pub and restaurant (with/without alcohol) workers in our city center about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking. To determine the preparation about the ban, smoking characteristics of workers, the knowledge on passive smoking. A questionnaire was performed to workers. The type of workplace, the number of workers, existence of a restriction of indoor smoking, any preparation about the ban were asked. The job of worker, whether the worker has a knowledge on the ban or not, the idea of the workers on the necessity and practicability of the ban were asked. Smoking history and the knowledge about passive smoking of workers were recorded. Fagerstrom nicotine dependent test (FNDT) was performed to smokers. Eighty four work places with 568 workers included in the study. The questionnaire was performed to 337 workers whose mean age was 29.1/years. 292 of workers were male. 190 of cases were current smokers. 166 of cases (49.3%) know the meaning of passive smoking. Alcohol offering was made at 8 of workplaces. Smoking was forbidden in 20 of workplaces. A preparation was performed about the ban in 30 of (46.9%) other workplaces. 88.4% of workers have knowledge on the ban, 64.7% of them know the punishment of the noncompliance of the ban. 81.3% of the workers believe the necessity and 45.7% of them believe the practicability of the ban. Smokers and especially who's FNBT > 5 have a stronger belief on the necessity and practicability of the ban. We determined that the preparation about the ban was inadequate although there was an little time for the put into practice the law. So we think that the controls of workplaces should be happened frequent.

  5. Private Airlines Take Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2005-01-01

    OKAY Airways, the first wholly private airline in China, took off from the Tianjin Binhai International Airport on March Ⅱ. Carrying a total of 80 passengers, the 189-seat Boeing 737-900 leased from Korea Airlines was bound for Kunming, capital of Yunnan Province, via Changsha,

  6. Smoking restrictions in large-hub airports --- United States, 2002 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes death and disease in both nonsmoking adults and children, including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. SHS exposure causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths and 3,400 lung cancer deaths among U.S. nonsmoking adults annually. Adopting policies that completely eliminate smoking in all indoor areas is the only effective way to eliminate involuntary SHS exposure. In 2009, an estimated 696 million aircraft passenger boardings occurred in the United States. A 2002 survey of airport smoking policies found that 42% of 31 large-hub U.S. airports had policies requiring all indoor areas to be smoke-free. To update that finding, CDC analyzed the smoking policies of airports categorized as large-hub in 2010. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that, although 22 (76%) of the 29 large-hub airports surveyed were smoke-free indoors, seven airports permitted smoking in certain indoor locations, including three of the five busiest airports. Although a majority of airports reported having specifically designated smoking areas outdoors in 2010 (79%) and/or prohibiting smoking within a minimum distance of entryways (69%), no airport completely prohibited smoking on all airport property. Smoke-free policies at the state, local, or airport authority level are needed for all airports to protect air travelers and workers at airports from SHS.

  7. Hada Present Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> In recent,an airbus A319 of Hainan Airlines landed atKonka Airport of Lhasa,where is located at Brahmaputrabasin.In fact,Hainan Airlines already opened the routeXi’an—Lhasa.Moreover,Hainan Airlines began its new routeTaiyuan—Xi’an—Lhasa,Changzhi—Xi’an—Lhasa,Haikou—Xi’an—Lhasa and Beijing—Xi’an—Lhasa.As we known,Xi’an=lhasa,the flight is implemented by theairbus A319 of Hainan Airlines.The airbus departs from Xi’anat 8:10 am every Monday,Wednesday,Friday and Sunday,andarriving in Lhasa at 11:10 am the same day.For the return trip,plane leave Lhasa at 12:00 every Monday,Wednesday,Fridayand Sunday,arriving in Xi’an at 2:35 pm in the afternoon.Andthe scheduled flight number is HU7857/8.

  8. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  9. Airline Price Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Price discrimination enjoys a long history in the airline industry. Borenstein (1989) discusses price discrimination through frequent flyer programs from 1985 as related to the Piedmont-US Air merger, price discrimination strategies have grown in size and scope since then. From Saturday stay over requirements to varying costs based on time of purchase, the airline industry is uniquely situated to enjoy the fruits of price discrimination.

  10. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  11. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  12. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  13. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  14. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  15. Improving Airline Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA-Ames Space Act Agreement, Coryphaeus Software and Simauthor, Inc., developed an Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS). This software, developed for the aerospace and airline industry, enables the replay of Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) data in a flexible, user-configurable, real-time, high fidelity 3D (three dimensional) environment.

  16. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  17. Continental Airlines and China Southern Airlines Announce Strategic Partnership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Frequent flyer reciprocity to start in September: codesharing to start in November. Continental Airlines and China Southern Airlines. the largest airline in the People's Republic of China. announced on June 18, 2007 that they have entered into a strategic partnership for frequent flyer and airport lounge access reciprocity and extensive codesharing, providing better service to customers who travel between the U.S.and China and transfer between the two carriers.

  18. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  19. Economic analysis of spider web airline networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The distinct network organization, management, service and operating characteristics of US Southwest Airlines are key elements of its success compared with other airlines. As a network organization type, the spider web airline network has received more attention. In this paper, we analyzed the relation between the spider web airline network and spider web, and the structure of spider web airline network, built the assignment model of the spider web airline network,and investigated the economics concerned.

  20. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  1. THE AIRLINE'S RELIABILITY PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Тамаргазін, О. А.; Національний авіаційний університет; Власенко, П. О.; Національний авіаційний університет

    2013-01-01

    Airline's operational structure for Reliability program implementation — engineering division, reliability  division, reliability control division, aircraft maintenance division, quality assurance division — was considered. Airline's Reliability program structure is shown. Using of Reliability program for reducing costs on aircraft maintenance is proposed. Рассмотрена организационная структура авиакомпании по выполнению Программы надежности - инженерный отдел, отделы по надежности авиацио...

  2. The Russian airline industry: contestable market or…?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kislyak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors, based on the complete survey of Russian airlines that was conducted in winter of 2006-2007, analyze essential entry-barriers in the industry, and econometrically estimate efficiency of methods for overcoming entry-barriers in the Russian PAI. They find that there are significant technological and behavioral entrybarriers in the industry. The paper doubts that this industry is contestable in contemporary Russia, although it is typically contestable in Europe and the USA. Econometric estimation of entry-barriers points that administrative barriers are the most significant restrictions of competition.

  3. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234, 244, 250, 253, 259, and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The... of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period...

  4. Airline Operations Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  5. Continental Airlines Again Ranked NO.1 Most Admired Global Airline by Fortune Magazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ HOUSTON, March 12, 2007 Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) announced that it was again rated the top airline on FORTUNE magazine's annual airline industry list of Most Admired Global Companies. This is the fourth year that Continental has topped that list.

  6. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  7. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  8. Effect of restricted food supply to pregnant rats inhaling carbon monoxide on fetal weight, compared with cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachi, N.; Aoyama, M.

    1986-12-01

    Although many studies have shown that cigarette smoking during gestation retarded the intrauterine fetal growth, resulting in the decreased birth weight in babies born to smoking mothers, neither causal substance nor mechanism of action to disturb fetal growth has been firmly established yet. Based on the human and animal studies, researchers have implied that fetal hypoxia induced by carbon monoxide (CO) in the cigarette smoke to be responsible for the event. A shortage in energy intake in smoking mothers also has been suspected to cause the retardation in fetal development. In the previous results (Tachi and Aoyama 1983), the weight increment in CO exposed animals was greater than that in the smoke exposed group. The phenomenon seemed to indicate that the reduction in the food intake occurs in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, and induces the disturbance of fetal development in association with CO. In the present study, so as to evaluate the role of energy intake upon the fetal development in utero, the experiment of paired feeding with pregnant rats exposed to cigarette smoke is designed in animals which inhale the cigarette smoke, CO, or room air, following after the observation of the quantity of food taken by mothers exposed to cigarette smoke, CO, or room air.

  9. A graph-theoretic method to quantify the airline route authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces a graph-theoretic method to quantify the legal statements in route certificate which specifies the airline routing restrictions. All the authorized nonstop and multistop routes, including the shortest time routes, can be obtained, and the method suggests profitable route structure alternatives to airline analysts. This method to quantify the C.A.B. route authority was programmed in a software package, Route Improvement Synthesis and Evaluation, and demonstrated in a case study with a commercial airline. The study showed the utility of this technique in suggesting route alternatives and the possibility of improvements in the U.S. route system.

  10. Airline Jet Fuel Hedging: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Peter; Swan, William

    2006-01-01

    Most international airlines hedge fuel costs, but the theoretical justification behind this action is weak. The paper explores the nature and extent of airline fuel hedging and asks why airlines hedge. The availability of hedging instruments is first discussed, with the most liquid markets in crude and exchange traded contracts. Aviation fuel contracts are possible, but with counter-party risk. Most major passenger airlines with sufficient cash and credit now hedge at least part of their futu...

  11. United Airlines Named Best Transpacific Airline at OAAG Airline of the Year Awards "Oscars of the Airline Industry" Highlight United's Extensive Service to Asia-Pacific Region"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) was named Best Transpacific Airline by the annual OAG Airline of the Year Awards during an awards ceremony in London. OAG is a content management company specializing in travel and transport, which selected winners of the awards based on the votes of a worldwide audience of business travelers.

  12. United Airlines Named Best Transpacific Airline at OAAG Airline of the Year Awards "Oscars of the Airline Industry" Highlight United's Extensive Service to Asia-Pacific Region"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      United Airlines (OTCBB:UALAQ.OB) was named Best Transpacific Airline by the annual OAG Airline of the Year Awards during an awards ceremony in London. OAG is a content management company specializing in travel and transport, which selected winners of the awards based on the votes of a worldwide audience of business travelers.……

  13. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  14. Celestial Beauty Leads The Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Based on the corporate culture of"intemally cultivating the spirit with the essence of the traditional Chinese culture,and externally combining the advanced western management and technology",Hainan Airlines Company Limited (hereinafter called HNA) has turned from a new soaring airlines to the fourth biggest airlines in China.……

  15. Celestial Beauty Leads The Hainan Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the corporate culture of"intemally cultivating the spirit with the essence of the traditional Chinese culture,and externally combining the advanced western management and technology",Hainan Airlines Company Limited (hereinafter called HNA) has turned from a new soaring airlines to the fourth biggest airlines in China.

  16. NASA Airline Operations Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  17. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  18. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajek Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD, individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2, daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm; with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks,15 mg(2 weeks,10 mg(2 weeks. The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of

  19. Chinese Airline Official Microblog Influence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 10 Airlines official micro-blog on the sina microblog platform as sample, airline official microblog influence is analysed. Six indexes, fans number, microblog open time; average daily microblog number, proportion of original microblog, average comment number and reposted number are used to found the principal component analysis model. Three principal components microblog activity, fans initiative and microblog innovation degree, contribute 84% of the total resources. Suggestions to improve airline microblog influence are given based on characteristics of the model.

  20. Location-Price Competition in Airline Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses location-then-price competition in airline market as a two-stage game of n players on the graph. Passenger’s demand distribution is described by multinomial logit model. Equilibrium in price game is computed through best response dynamics. We solve location game using backward induction, knowing that airlines will choose prices from equilibrium for the second-stage game. Some numerical results for airline market under consideration are presented.

  1. United Airlines Voted 'Best North American Airline' for Fifth Consecutive Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Discerning frequent travelers in Asia have voted United Airlines the" Best North American Airline" for the fifth consecutive year in Business Traveller AsiaPacific's 2005 annual travel awards. Each year, the magazine polls frequent travelers to learn their opinions on airlines and services. Results are verified and compiled by an independent market research company :TNS-Hong Kong.

  2. Future direction in airline marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  3. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  4. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.

  5. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234, 244, 250,253, 259, and 399 RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment,...

  6. Business Travellers Vote DRAGONAIR "Best China Airline"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      (BEIJING) Dragonair was announced as winner of the Best China Airline category in the Business Traveller Asia-Pacific 2005 Annual Travel Awards today. The magazine asked subscribers who were frequent travellers to vote for an airline based on 17 criteria,including cabin staff, comfort, route network and scheduling.……

  7. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  8. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost e cient methods to handle airline...... disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it o ers an introduction to airline disruption management, provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second part we...

  9. Airline Disruption Management - Perspectives, Experiences and Outlook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused by for ex......Over the past decade, airlines have become more concerned with developing an optimal flight schedule, with very little slack left to accommodate for any form of variation from the optimal solution. During operation the planned schedules often have to be revised due to disruptions caused...... by for example severe weather, technical problems and crew sickness. Thus, the field of Airline Disruption Management has emerged within the past few years. The increased focus on cutting cost at the major airlines has intensified the interest in the development of new and cost efficient methods to handle...... airline disruptions. The purpose of this paper is twofold. In the first part it offers an introduction to airline disruption management provides the readers with a description of the planning processes and delivers a detailed overview of the numerous aspects of airline disruption management. In the second...

  10. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  11. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population.

  12. Lifestyle factors, direct and indirect costs for a Brazilian airline company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malik, Ana Maria; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze lifestyle risk factors related to direct healthcare costs and the indirect costs due to sick leave among workers of an airline company in Brazil. METHODS In this longitudinal 12-month study of 2,201 employees of a Brazilian airline company, the costs of sick leave and healthcare were the primary outcomes of interest. Information on the independent variables, such as gender, age, educational level, type of work, stress, and lifestyle-related factors (body mass index, physical activity, and smoking), was collected using a questionnaire on enrolment in the study. Data on sick leave days were available from the company register, and data on healthcare costs were obtained from insurance records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between direct and indirect healthcare costs with sociodemographic, work, and lifestyle-related factors. RESULTS Over the 12-month study period, the average direct healthcare expenditure per worker was US$505.00 and the average indirect cost because of sick leave was US$249.00 per worker. Direct costs were more than twice the indirect costs and both were higher in women. Body mass index was a determinant of direct costs and smoking was a determinant of indirect costs. CONCLUSIONS Obesity and smoking among workers in a Brazilian airline company were associated with increased health costs. Therefore, promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and anti-tobacco campaigns are important targets for health promotion in this study population. PMID:26039398

  13. Airline Disaster Highlights Need for Ethical Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kate

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Syracuse University professor/reporter's experiences covering the airline disaster that killed 35 Syracuse students. Discusses the problems of ethically covering a story where a lot of grief is involved. (MS)

  14. 75 FR 32318 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... concerning air transportation price advertising practices; requiring carriers to notify consumers of optional...) contract of carriage venue designation provisions; (9) baggage fees disclosure; (10) full fare advertising... through social networking mediums such as Facebook or Twitter. Do airlines currently communicate...

  15. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology....... Findings – Results based on a sample of recent input/output data indicated that the efficiency of UK airlines has continuously declined since 2004 to reach a value of 73.39 per cent in 2007. Factors which were found to be significantly and positively related to technical efficiency variations include...... characteristics. UK airlines also have a major role in the European and international aviation sector, and thus a reflection on their efficiency could be of interest to private and public policy makers. Originality/value – The paper focuses on a recent period and thus provide a fresh efficiency assessment...

  16. United Airlines Makes Gonnections Easier for Passengers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ United is the only U.S. Carrier connecting Pearl River Delta Region to offer customers SkyPier ferry service and pier-side check-in. United Airlines is the first U.S. Airline to offer customers convenient travel between the Pearl River Delta cities and Hong Kong International Airport using the SkyPier ferry service and pier-side check-in, beginning today.

  17. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  18. Scandinavian Airlines Becomes the World's First Airline to Have All Intercontinental Flights Equipped with Wireless Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      In March this year, Scandinavian Airlines became the world's first airline to provide wireless broadband Internet on all intercontinental flights. This means that passengers can surf the web, send and receive emails, chat online, use Intemet telephone services and log on to their company's virtual private network while flying 12,000 meters above the earth.……

  19. Scandinavian Airlines Becomes the World's First Airline to Have All Intercontinental Flights Equipped with Wireless Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In March this year, Scandinavian Airlines became the world's first airline to provide wireless broadband Internet on all intercontinental flights. This means that passengers can surf the web, send and receive emails, chat online, use Intemet telephone services and log on to their company's virtual private network while flying 12,000 meters above the earth.

  20. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  1. Attribute Perception Mapping Services Domestic Airlines Using Correspondence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Heviandri Riandarini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Positioning analysis provides a better understanding of the position based on the perception of passenger flights to service these attributes attached to each airline. This study aims to perform positioning of the domestic airline services based attributes, which characterize the air-line based on the perception of consumers. Correspondence Analysis (CA is used to determine the positioning of the six commercial airlines in Indonesia. The results of correspondence analysis showed that the airline Garuda, Lion Air, Citilink and Air Asia already has its own characteristics inherent in the minds of consumers, while the two other airlines, namely Batik Air and Sriwijaya Air has not had a special identifier.

  2. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  3. Continental Airlines Receives J.D. Power and Associates Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June 29, 2006, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) was ranked the highest in Customer Satisfaction Among Traditional Network Carriers in North America in the J.D.Power and Associates 2006 Airline Satisfaction Index StudySM.

  4. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  5. The Future of Airline Distribution: transparency of online shopping experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam

    2015-01-01

    Price-aware generation Y customers and low-cost airlines have prompted legacy carriers to unbundle their products and adopt merchandising. At the same time, low-cost airlines have entered meta-search engines, Global Distribution Systems, and started cooperating with travel agencies to attract business travelers. Additionally, airline industry in general has been changing its focus from being product-oriented towards being customer-oriented. Such trends put forward airline merchandising as a ...

  6. Singapore Airlines Unveils the World's Best Flying Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Recently, Singapore Airlines launched its latest suite of cabin products designed to deliver the most luxurious and stylish travel experiences. The suite of products and services include new Singapore Airlines First, Business and Economy Class seats,the next generation Kris World inflight entertainment system and an enhanced service delivery. These next generation products will set new standards of excellence for premium air travel, and reinforce the Airline's product leadership in the airline industry.

  7. Literature review of the passenger airline business models: Full service carrier, low-cost carrier and charter airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijks, G.

    2008-01-01

    The deregulation and liberalization of the air transportation industry have developed three main passenger business models: full service carriers, low-cost carriers, and charter airlines. Deregulation removed regulated fares and routes increasing competition and yields. Airlines business models main

  8. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  9. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David M.; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2010-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  10. Subsequence Generation for the Airline Crew Pairing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  11. "Work Hard, Fly Bight"——Today's Continental Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ On June16, 2006, Continental Airlines celebrated the first anniversary of its daily nonstop flight from Beifing to New York. China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed Kwok Hing-Cheong, Chief Representative & Country Director-Continental Airlines, China. He talked about the developments, challenges and benefits of Continental Airlines in China.

  12. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2009-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  13. The Design of a Large Scale Airline Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    Airlines invest a lot of money before opening new pax transportation services, for this reason, airlines have to analyze if their profits will overcome the amount of money they have to invest to open new services. The design and analysis of the feasibility of airlines networks can be done by using

  14. The Statement Airline Service Quality Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周威

    2014-01-01

    As the recent emergence of the Low Cost Carriers (LLCs) in Air-line industry, service differentiation and customer satisfaction takes critical role in order to sharpen competitive edges to both Full Service Carriers (FSCs) and LLCs. The current research aims to explore the nature of service quality in airline and its relationship to customer satisfaction. Air service quality dimensions using factor analysis are classified as Ticketing and Boarding Processes, Customer Encounter Services, and Tangibles. Further, the regression analysis reveals the strength of relationships between each of service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction scales that the Ticketing and Boarding Process dimension has the strongest co-relations with customer satisfaction scales.

  15. Strategic Responses of Airlines in Malaysia to the ASEAN Open Skies Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei Ghen

    2008-01-01

    Despite its dependence on global operations, airline industry is excluded from the general agreements on trade in services (GATS). Due to the restrictions imposed by individual countries, the industry was highly regulated. However, pressures for changes have emerged lately due to the economic trend. From bilateral to multilateral agreements, these air services agreements are gradually being substituted by “open skies” arrangement. Most of these arrangements are made through regional or supran...

  16. The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the First Amendment: why a substantial interest in protecting public health won't save some new restrictions on tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Congress passed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009 with the aim of reducing tobacco-related illnesses and deaths by curbing tobacco's appeal to and use by children and adolescents. Legislators considered provisions of the FSPTCA restricting tobacco advertising and labeling key to realizing the law's intended health benefits. But a lawsuit now before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit challenges the tobacco marketing restrictions as impermissible restraints on tobacco companies' commercial speech rights under the First Amendment. This article analyzes the constitutionality of each FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restriction in light of U.S. Supreme Court decisions defining the extent of First Amendment protection for commercial speech, prior efforts to restrict tobacco marketing, and the outcomes of legal challenges to some of the prior marketing restrictions. Several of the FSPTCA tobacco advertising and labeling restrictions were drafted with insufficient accommodations for tobacco companies' First Amendment right to convey and consumers' First Amendment right to receive truthful information about lawful tobacco products and are therefore unconstitutional as currently written.

  17. Cooperative Game Study of Airlines Based on Flight Frequency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the game theory, the relationship between airline ticket price and optimal flight frequency is analyzed. The paper establishes the payoff matrix of the flight frequency in noncooperation scenario and flight frequency optimization model in cooperation scenario. The airline alliance profit distribution is converted into profit distribution game based on the cooperation game theory. The profit distribution game is proved to be convex, and there exists an optimal distribution strategy. The results show that joining the airline alliance can increase airline whole profit, the change of negotiated prices and cost is beneficial to profit distribution of large airlines, and the distribution result is in accordance with aviation development.

  18. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  19. Singapore Airlines A380 Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The first A380 aircraft that will be delivered to launch customer Singapore Airlines embarked on its maiden test flight on May 7, 2006. This aircraft will be the world's first A380 to enter commercial service at the end of the year.

  20. The Dutch Taxation on Airline Tickets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, B.; Van Daalen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In July 2008 the Dutch government introduced a tax on airline tickets in order to internalize the negative externalities associated with air travel. As a result of the increased ticket price in The Netherlands a substantial number of passengers decided to depart from airports outside of The Netherla

  1. Economic and Environmental Effects of Airline Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Youdi; Rietveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of regulatory reform in the airline industry, in connection with environmental externalities. Deregulation has led to shorter routes, higher frequencies, probably larger aircraft sizes and more intense peak traffic at airports. In addition, deregulation has led to low

  2. Airline Revenue Management with Shifting Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pak; R. Dekker (Rommert); G.A.P. Kindervater (Gerard)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAirline revenue management is the practice of controlling the booking requests such that the planes are filled with the most profitable passengers. In revenue management the capacities of the business and economy class sections of the plane are traditionally considered to be fixed and di

  3. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  4. European vs. U.S. Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study measures and compares the efficiency and productivity of European and U.S. airlines, over the period from 2001 to 2008. We measure efficiency by estimating a Bayesian distance frontier model subject to regularity constraints. Productivity estimates are also derived parametrically, based...... growth and related market discussions are also provided....

  5. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  6. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  7. Stubbing Out Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing,home to 4 million smokers,is to introduce a gradual cigarette ban China’s capital will ban smoking in most public places starting from May 1,signaling a big step toward tobacco control in a nation of 350 million smokers and a move to meet China’s pledge of a smoke-free Olympics. Beijing has had some restrictions on smoking since 1996,when the municipal government prohibited smoking in large public venues such as schools,sports venues and movie theaters.

  8. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  9. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  10. Enhancing Safety at Airline Operations Control Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Řasa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a new term of Safety Management System (SMS has been introduced into aviation legislation. This system is being adopted by airline operators. One of the groundbased actors of everyday operations is Operations Control Centre (OCC. The goal of this article has been to identify and assess risks and dangers which occur at OCC and create a template for OCC implementation into SMS.

  11. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS' EVALUATIONS THROUGH MINING AIRLINE REVIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yakut

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Data mining can be evaluated as a strategic tool to determine the customer profiles in order to learn customer expectations and requirements. Airline customers have different characteristics and if passenger reviews about their trip experiences are correctly analyzed, companies can increase customer satisfaction by improving provided services. In this study, we investigate customer review data for in-flight services of airline companies and draw customer models with respect to such data. In this sense, we apply two approaches as feature-based and clustering-based modelling. In feature-based modelling, customers are grouped into categories based on features such as cabin flown types, experienced airline companies. In clustering-based modelling, customers are first clustered via k-means clustering and then modeled. We apply multivariate regression analysis to model customer groups in both cases. During this, we try to understand how customers evaluate the given services and what dominant characteristics of in-flight services can be from the customer viewpoint.

  12. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  13. Screening for influenza infection in international airline travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alasdair R; Priest, Patricia C; Jennings, Lance C; Brunton, Cheryl R; Baker, Michael G

    2009-10-01

    We sought the collaboration of an international airline and border control agencies to study the feasibility of entry screening to identify airline travelers at increased risk of influenza infection. Although extensive and lengthy negotiations were required, we successfully developed a multisector collaboration and demonstrated the logistical feasibility of our screening protocol. We also determined the staffing levels required for a larger study to estimate the prevalence of influenza in international airline travelers.

  14. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices.

  15. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  16. Identifying Strategic Factors of the Implantation CSR in the Airline Industry: The Case of Asia-Pacific Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has always been the objective of many fields, including the tourism and transportation sector. However, a major part of this sector, the airline industry, deals with many negative impacts, such as air pollution, noise, CO2 emission, and labor practice. Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a strategic business activity that can enhance the sustainability of the airline industry. The results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI reveal that airlines of Western countries exhibit a more remarkable CSR performance than Asia-Pacific airlines, suggesting that the CSR programs of Asia-Pacific airlines need improvement. By constructing an evaluation hierarchy and applying the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method, this study found that the key strategic factors in the airline industry’s implementation of CSR include corporate governance, risk and crisis management, brand management, and product responsibility (safety.

  17. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  18. 77 FR 33808 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review: Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ...: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration... Desk Officer. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041 Title: Airline Service...

  19. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  20. Airline Sued for Sex Discrimination Over Viagra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚近宝

    2002-01-01

    世界最大的航空公司(American Airlines)将不得不“对簿公堂”,因为,该公司的男性雇员可以免费享用“伟哥”,而女性雇员却不能相应的birth control pills,pap smears(注:关于pap smears的释义请见本期的“难句相与析”栏目)or infertility treatment!一位女性雇员奋起控告该公司。

  1. Private Airlines to Appear in Civil Aviation Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Exposed by North China Aviation Bureau, Dazhong and Aokai, two airlines based on private capitals, have handed in their establishment applications to the North China Aviation Bureau, along with the reports on feasibility study.At present, they have passed the preliminary examination of the Bureau and are waiting for the reply from CAAC. Private airlines with low operation costs are expected

  2. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... detailed manner regarding airline imposed fees from those air carriers meeting the definition of a large certificated air carrier. Many air carriers have adopted a la carte pricing with separate fees for such things... pricing more transparent to consumers and airline analysts. This action is in response to a...

  3. Brief Analysis of E-business in China Southern Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航; 崔涛; 焦斌

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet is causing another industrial revolution. Developing E-business is necessary for Chinese airlines to keep their competitive advantages. It is quite urgent for China Southern Airlines to enlarge and improve its E-business strategies so that it can consolidate its leading position in this market segment.

  4. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9 Section 806.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and...

  5. Procedures in complex systems: the airline cockpit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, A; Wiener, E L

    1997-05-01

    In complex human-machine systems, successful operations depend on an elaborate set of procedures which are specified by the operational management of the organization. These procedures indicate to the human operator (in this case the pilot) the manner in which operational management intends to have various tasks done. The intent is to provide guidance to the pilots and to ensure a safe, logical, efficient, and predictable (standardized) means of carrying out the objectives of the job. However, procedures can become a hodge-podge. Inconsistent or illogical procedures may lead to noncompliance by operators. Based on a field study with three major airlines, the authors propose a model for procedure development called the "Four P's": philosophy, policies, procedures, and practices. Using this model as a framework, the authors discuss the intricate issue of designing flight-deck procedures, and propose a conceptual approach for designing any set of procedures. The various factors, both external and internal to the cockpit, that must be considered for procedure design are presented. In particular, the paper addresses the development of procedures for automated cockpits--a decade-long, and highly controversial issue in commercial aviation. Although this paper is based on airline operations, we assume that the principles discussed here are also applicable to other high-risk supervisory control systems, such as space flight, manufacturing process control, nuclear power production, and military operations.

  6. Smoking in the workplace 1986: Labour Force Survey estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W J; Bisch, L M

    1989-01-01

    A smoking supplement on the December 1986 Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) obtained data on smoking rates within occupational groups, the percentage of workers in occupations which permit smoking at the worksite, the proportion of workers with designated smoking areas at their place of employment, and worker attitudes towards restriction of smoking. Smoking prevalence ranges from 18% among professional workers to 42% among transportation workers. Smoking rates are also high in mining (40%), construction (39%), and other craft occupations (37%). About 53% of the working population state that smoking is permitted in their immediate work area. Proportions of workers who indicate that smoking is permitted range from 39% among professional workers to 67% among transportation workers. Managerial (66%) and construction employees (65%) are also likely to state that smoking is permitted in their work area. Only 40% of the working population report that there are designated smoking areas at their place of work. Professionals (55%) and mining workers (52%) are most likely to have designated smoking areas. Workers in outdoor (17%), construction (23%), and transportation occupations (26%) are least likely. A large percentage (81%) of the working population favour smoking restrictions. Support for restricting smoking is closely linked to smoking prevalence within an occupational group. About 65% of smokers favour restrictions. The degree of support among smokers for restrictions on smoking in the workplace suggests that many smokers desire environmental constraints on their smoking behaviour.

  7. Identifying airline cost economies: An econometric analysis of the factors affecting aircraft opeerating costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zuidberg

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an econometric analysis of the influences of airline characteristics on the average operating costs per aircraft movement. The analysis combines a comprehensive selection of airline-output variables, airline-fleet variables, and airline-market variables. The result

  8. European airlines enter the biofuels market. Business Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Heuvel, E.

    2011-06-15

    Biofuels might offer opportunities for achieving improved balance of power to the European airlines in their market environment. The aviation sector in Europe is a high competitive market. It faces high rivalry and increasing fuel costs due to rising oil prices. Moreover, from 2012 the sector will be subject to stringent rules with respect to maximum allowed carbon emissions. Investigating the competitive forces in the aviation sector and executing a strategic group analysis maps the competitors and the major players in the supply chain and the options they have for using alternative fuels for low carbon performance. Both the market and non-market strategies of several European airlines have been studied. It appears that airlines are aiming at first mover advantage by moving upstream in the biofuel value chain. They search for collaboration with other stakeholders to change government regulation to their benefit and influence public opinion and research agendas. Airlines are late entrants in the biofuels market. This research has shown that biofuels can improve the market power balance for European airlines. Biofuels are key to improve the carbon performance of airlines. However, this implies that airlines take position at the resource side of the value chain for biojetfuels. This has the advantage of controlling the security of supply and managing biofuels production complying to ruling sustainability criteria.

  9. 28 CFR 35.132 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 35.132 Section 35.132 Judicial... SERVICES General Requirements § 35.132 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in transportation covered by this part....

  10. 28 CFR 36.210 - Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking. 36.210 Section 36.210 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.210 Smoking. This part does not preclude the prohibition of, or the imposition of restrictions on, smoking in places of public accommodation....

  11. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  12. Strategic management of a family-owned airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    The concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP) observing a firm’s ability to value, assimilate and utilize new external knowledge is applied in this paper. This case study analysis focuses on strategic management processes and competitiveness of the Cimber Sterling airline. The aim is to discover...... the potential and realized capacity in the strategic management of airlines was revealed as a source of strategic competitiveness. The ACAP was improved especially through the stakeholders’ experience, strategic flexibility, networking capabilities and customer orientation, leading to competitive advantage...... realization in the low-cost airline market....

  13. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft.

  14. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  15. Determinants of Intention to Purchase Online Airline Ticket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza Hadadian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays development of information technology has caused online shopping continues to gain more acceptance by travelers that make airlines be care about factors affecting online ticket purchasing. Therefore, in this paper is an attempt to analyze intention to online airline ticket purchasing model according to trust, subjective norms, perceived risk, satisfaction and ease of use. The statistical population includes departure passengers of Mashhad international airport in domestic flights of September 2013 and sample size calculated for 215 passengers. Data collected by questionnaire that has appropriate validity and reliability. In addition, it is use structural equation model (SEM and Lisrel8.8 Software to analyze hypothesis. The results show higher satisfaction and trust leads to more intention to online airline ticket purchasing. Moreover, perceived risk and ease of use have indirect effect on intention to online purchasing by trust and satisfaction and it is not support significant relationship between subjective norms and intention to online airline ticket purchasing.

  16. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  17. No Smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕川

    2005-01-01

    No Smoking Day comes once a year. It calls on people to quit smoking, but there're still so many smokers in the world. Worse still, the number of smokers is increasing day by day. As we know, smoking is a bad habit. Smoking is harmful not only to a smoker himself but also to the people around. It is said that if you smoke one cigarette, your life will be a second shorter. In other words, smoking means buying death with money. I've learned from a newspaper that tens of thousands of people in the world die fr...

  18. Smoking Policies of U.S. Dental Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, H. Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of a study on the preventive health activity concerning smoking at dental schools were to determine the smoking policies and what actions were taken to reduce health hazards of smoke to personnel in institutions. The majority of schools surveyed (N=46) restricted smoking to certain areas in their facility. (MLW)

  19. I only smoke when I have nothing to do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A.B.; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Smoking-related illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, are common in Greenland. Factors such as age, gender, cigarette use, restricted smoking at home and socio-economic determinants are well-known predictors for smoking and smoking cessa...

  20. College campus smoking policies and programs and students' smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Lee

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although tobacco use in the United States has declined over the past 20 years, cigarette use among college students remains high. Additional research is thus needed to determine how university tobacco control policies and preventive education programs affect college students' smoking behaviors. Methods Approximately 13,000 undergraduate students at 12 universities or colleges in the state of Texas completed a web-based survey. College smoking policies were obtained from a survey of college administrators and from college websites. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of individual smoking policies and programs on the odds of cigarette smoking. Results Of the individual programs, only having a preventive education program on campus was associated with lower odds of smoking. The existence of smoking cessation programs and designated smoking areas were associated with higher odds of smoking. Policies governing the sale and distribution of cigarettes were insignificantly associated with smoking. Conclusion Rather than focusing on policies restricting cigarette sales and use, college administrators should consider implementing or expanding tobacco prevention and education programs to further reduce student smoking rates.

  1. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only way to fully protect nonsmokers is to eliminate smoking in all homes, worksites, and public places. ... growing number of households with voluntary smokefree home rules Significant declines in cigarette smoking rates The fact ...

  2. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  3. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  4. Perception Mapping of Travelers: Case of Six Indian Domestic Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A comparison of customer satisfaction based on service quality as perceived by air travelers was done among six domestic airlines. Literature review suggested that flying experience has three stages: Pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight and a set of six variables can be used to measure satisfaction. These variables are: Ease of bookings through the website/call center; Hassle free check in/efficient ticketing staff/regular announcements during flight delays at airport; on time performance of flights; in flight experience; baggage handling and value for money. Approach: A questionnaire was designed with above set of variables and responses of 150 fliers of six domestic airlines viz., GoAir, Kingfisher, Jet Airways, Indigo, SpiceJet and Air India (Domestic was recorded on a five point Likert scale. About 150 respondents were interviewed from different places in NCR: Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Greater Noida and Faridabad. A convenient sampling method was followed. Perceptions of only those travelers were captured who had actually undergone the experience of travelling by an airline. The range for the number of respondents was between 103 (for GoAir and 133 (for Jet Air. Results: Using one way ANOVA, it was checked whether travelers perceive any significant difference between six airlines for each of the above six identified variables. With Tukey-Kramer test the airlines which are significantly different from the rest were identified. Perceptual maps with combination of up to two variables (attributes were drawn to infer about the positioning of six different airlines. Conclusion: This study will help marketers of domestic airlines and designers of flight service offerings to enhance the satisfaction level of air travelers.

  5. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  7. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  8. Second-hand smoke exposure and household smoking bans in Chinese families: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hua, Fu; Xia, Xiao; Hurlburt, Sarah; Ng, Patrick; MacLeod, William; Siegel, Michael; Griffiths, Sian; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2012-07-01

    As workplace smoking restrictions spread, smoking in the home is becoming the predominant source of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among children and other non-smokers in the household. This study explored issues around children's exposure to SHS. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted among 31 Chinese households in urban Shanghai, China. All FGDs/IDIs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. The findings suggest that there are gaps in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and SHS among the participants. Although there was a lack of knowledge about the health risk of exposure to SHS, most were willing to protect their child from the SHS exposure. In 16/31 households, families had partial home-smoking restrictions; there were no complete restrictions in any of the smokers' homes. Many families do not openly discuss smoking or smoking restrictions at home. Barriers to adopting a smoke-free home included the social acceptability of smoking (22/31), hosting social gatherings at home, which would involve smoking (12/31), authoritative attitudes of the husband or father-in-law (10/31), and difficulties with visitors who smoke (7/31). Most (28/31) participants stated they would accept a counselling intervention to reduce SHS exposure to children and suggested various measures to implement it. The findings from this intervention have implications for designing intervention strategies to reduce SHS exposure at home among children in China.

  9. Assessing the Structure of Non-Routine Decision Processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge airline operations control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of airline operations control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive acti

  10. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, F.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Heerkens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals’ decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive acti

  11. 75 FR 41920 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration... INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041 Title: Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234. Form No.:...

  12. Attribute Perception Mapping Services Domestic Airlines Using Correspondence Analysis (59-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Heviandri Riandarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Positioning analysis provides a better understanding of the position based on the perception of passenger flights to service these attributes attached to each airline. This study aims to perform positioning of the domestic airline services based attributes, which characterize the airline based on the perception of consumers. Correspondence Analysis (CA is used to determine the positioning of the six commercial airlines in Indonesia. The results of correspondence analysis showed that the airline Garuda, Lion Air, Citilink and Air Asia already has its own characteristics inherent in the minds of consumers, while the two other airlines, namely Batik Air and Sriwijaya Air has not had a special identifier.Keywords: Positioning, Correspondence Analysis, Full Service Airline (FSA, Low Fare Airline (LFA

  13. 75 FR 11075 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Response to Requests To Extend Compliance Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections,'' published December 30, 2009, and effective April 29, 2010, that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites....

  14. 78 FR 6067 - BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC006 BE-37: Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues and... public that it is conducting a mandatory survey titled Survey of U.S. Airline Operators' Foreign Revenues... survey is intended to collect information on U.S. airline operators' foreign revenues and expenses....

  15. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  16. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  17. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 244, 250, 253, 259 and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... certain requirements adopted in an April 25, 2011 final rule on enhancing airline passenger protections... boarding compensation airlines must pay to passengers bumped from flights, and the requirement to...

  18. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  19. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  20. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... date of the provision in its final rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections'' that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response...

  1. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  2. Model for the growth of the world airline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Nagler, J.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a probabilistic growth model for transport networks which employs a balance between popularity of nodes and the physical distance between nodes. By comparing the degree of each node in the model network and the World Airline Network (WAN), we observe that the difference between the two is minimized for α≈2. Interestingly, this is the value obtained for the node-node correlation function in the WAN. This suggests that our model explains quite well the growth of airline networks.

  3. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process.

  4. Strategic Management of a Family-Owned Airline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    in resources and capabilities leading to competitive advantages within the aviation industry. From a competence and ACAP perspective family and non-family airlines are analysed by interviewing the owners, managers and selected employees of the businesses. The analysis shows how Cimber Sterling Group A....../S as a Danish family business copes with increasing competition and critical situations, such as the volcanic ash cloud and financial crisis.......The concept of absorptive capacity (ACAP) observing a firm’s ability to value, assimilate and utilize new external knowledge is applied in this paper. This comparative study focuses on strategic management processes and competitiveness of different airlines. The aim is to discover differences...

  5. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  6. Disruption Management in the Airline Industry - Concepts, Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    The airline industry is notably one of the success stories with respect to the use of optimization based methods and tools in planning. Both in planning of the assignment of available aircraft to flights and in crew scheduling, these methods play a major role. Plans are usually made several month...

  7. Mitigation of airspace congestion impact on airline networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In recent years European airspace has become increasingly congested and airlines can now observe that en-route capacity constraints are the fastest growing source of flight delays. In 2010 this source of delay accounted for 19% of all flight delays in Europe and has been increasing with an average...

  8. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  9. Examining Informal Learning in Commercial Airline Pilots' Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…

  10. Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-geek” and opened to new technologies, which allows them to rate the airline companies through apps or connect more often with the airline through social-media. Technology has become an important part in developing and marketing the airline services for a better quality, more customer-focused and for better flight experience which ultimately makes the difference when choosing to fly an airline company.

  11. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  12. Restaurant and bar owners' exposure to secondhand smoke and attitudes regarding smoking bans in five Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Hammond, S Katharine; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Yang, Yan; Nan, Yi; Feng, Guoze; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2011-05-01

    Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  13. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where smoking is allowed, such as some restaurants, shopping centers, public transportation, parks, and schools. The Surgeon ... Accessed at www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/prev/handbook13/handbook13-2.pdf on November 10, ...

  15. Quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  16. Calculating load factors for the transatlantic airline market using supply and demand data: a note on the identification of gaps in the available airline statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriendt, L.; Burghouwt, G.; Derudder, B.; de Wit, J.; Witlox, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a critical view of the verification of load factors for the direct transatlantic airline market by combining supply and demand-data. The supply-related data originate from the Official Airline Guide, a well-known data source that contains information on scheduled flights. The demand

  17. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  18. Spreadsheet Simulation of Airline Reservation Policy Using Multimedia Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lee Oberstone

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A hypothetical business simulation case study using a stand-alone spreadsheet is used to illuminate the rationale of airline overbooking. Because almost everyone has personally encountered the implications of being “bumped,” the selection of this particular case subject is motivated by the belief that half of the problem (or more of teaching a so-phisticated analytical method is in getting the stu-dent's attention. Airline overbooking, it seems, pre-sents such a case. In order for a student to “drill down” the spreadsheet skills, several multimedia tools, Wimba and Jing, are used to produce web hosted, mp4 video files of a library of short films illustrating each step of the spreadsheet operation.

  19. Twelve Years in the Life of Airline Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Michael Powell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps no innovation in history has affected marketing management as pervasively as has the advent of e-commerce. This revolutionary new channel has required businesses to acquire an entirely new set of skills and approaches to promotion, pricing, and distribution. The necessity for e-commerce website operators to more deeply understand consumer behavior when engaged in e-commerce has become a central and crucial factor in website success or failure. As predicted nearly 20 years ago, travel bookings have moved almost entirely to the World Wide Web (WWW. For the past 12 years, data have been collected concerning traveler’s preferences, concerns, and perceptions of airline websites in particular. This research reviews and comments on the evolution of those sites and consumer perceptions of efficiency, ease of use, and usefulness. The results of this study are intended to guide airlines in their pursuit of customer satisfaction and increased profits.

  20. Model for the growth of the World Airline Network

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, T; Nagler, J; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    We propose a probabilistic growth model for transport networks which employs a balance between popularity of nodes and the physical distance between nodes. By comparing the degree of each node in the model network and the WAN, we observe that the difference between the two is minimized for $\\alpha\\approx 2$. Interestingly, this is the value obtained for the node-node correlation function in the WAN. This suggests that our model explains quite well the growth of airline networks.

  1. A Boolean Approach to Airline Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    analyzes the business models of North America low-cost carriers from 2001 to 2010 using a Boolean minimization algorithm to identify which combinations of business model activities lead to operational profitability. The research aim is threefold: complement airline literature in the realm of business model...... innovation, introduce Boolean minimization methods to the field, and propose alternative business model activities to North American carriers striving for positive operating results....

  2. Determinants of Market Structure and the Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduchel, W.

    1972-01-01

    The general economic determinants of market structure are outlined with special reference to the airline industry. Included are the following facets: absolute size of firms; distributions of firms by size; concentration; entry barriers; product and service differentiation; diversification; degrees of competition; vertical integration; market boundaries; and economies of scale. Also examined are the static and dynamic properties of market structure in terms of mergers, government policies, and economic growth conditions.

  3. Study of Combination Forecasting in Airline Traffic Turnover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun; QIU Wan-hua; WEI Cun-ping

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory and method of the combination forecasting are introduced. Based on the actual data in an airline, the case study was presented. In the case study, two basic forecasting models are set up,which are the time-regression plus seasonal factor model and the logarithm additive Winters model. And two combination models are established with the basic models, which are the optimal combination model and the regressive combination model. The results of the study are guidable to the practice.

  4. Strategy-Based Forecasting Model for Civil Airlines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁剑; 左洪福

    2004-01-01

    Airlines usually pay more attention to maintenance cost for efficiency improvement and consumption reduction. However, airlines, especially the domestic airlines, can hardly predict the cost exactly due to the uncertainty and complexity until now. In practice, the cost is calculated by collecting and calculating the invoices afterwards. To settle the problem, a maintenance cost forecasting model is proposed in this paper. Maintenance activities are classified into scheduled maintenance and unscheduled maintenance. Scheduled maintenance is periodic, in which the required materials and man-power hours can be obtained properly in advance. Nevertheless, it is impossible to acquire the necessary information of unscheduled maintenance. According to the specific characteristics of each, Activity-Based Costing (ABC) and Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are introduced to attack the building of forecasting models, respectively. Then practical cases, the 3C check of MD-90 and the engine shop visit are adopted to verify the cost forecasting models proposed. The results show that the models not only can predict the actual maintenance cost successfully, but also are helpful to drawing up the maintenance program and managing the maintenance funds efficiently.

  5. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using metaheuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    2010-01-01

    We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take-off.  Jobs (flights) must...... be serviced within a given time-window by a team consisting of a driver and loader. Each driver/loader has the skills to service some, but not all, of the airline/aircraft/ configuration of the jobs. Given the jobs to be serviced and the roster of workers for each shift, the problem is to form teams...... and assign teams and start-times for the jobs, so as to service as many flights as possible. Only teams with the appropriate skills can be assigned to a flight. Workload balance among the teams is also a consideration. We present model formulations and investigate a tabu-search heuristic and a simulated...

  6. Application of Total Productivity Model within Croatia Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Radačić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available By defining and selecting adequate factors of the total productivitymodel and by assigning specific relevance of each factor,the initial preconditions for the analysis and monitoring ofthe model application efficiency within the Croatia Airlinesbusiness policy have been established. Since the majority of theanalyzed factors have realized a more intensive growth thanplanned, the business year 2004 can be assessed as the mostsuccessful one in the Croatia Airlines history. Consequently,the difference related to the productivity indicators of the Associationof European Airlines has been reduced, particularly theaircraft productivity with remnant of 5 to 10 percent, and theproductivity of the employees with a remnant of 15 to 20 percent,and the productivity of fuel expressed as quantity at AEAlevel, and expressed as value below that level. Finally, althoughthere is no expressed correlation between the quantitative productivityindicators and business profitability, the highest realizednet profit since the foundation of Croatia Airlines fullysupplements the solid level of the comparison indicators, confirmingits complete readiness and maturity to join the Star Alliance.

  7. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  8. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  9. How Do Airlines Perceive That Strategic Alliances Affect Their Individual Branding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalligiannis, Konstantinos; Iatrou, Kostas; Mason, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of strategic alliance membership on the performance of airlines. However it would be of interest to identify how airlines perceive this impact in terms of branding by each of the three global alliance groupings. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of airlines, belonging to the three strategic alliance groups, on the impact that the strategic alliance brands have had on their individual brands and how do they perceive that this impact will change in the future. To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management and marketing departments of airlines participating in the three global strategic alliances was required. The results from this survey give an indication whether the strategic airline alliances, which are often referred to as marketing agreements, enhance, damage or have no impact on the individual airline brands.

  10. Evaluation of the Ukraine international airlines (UIA competitiveness on the air carriage market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Oleshko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of Ukrainian air transport system adaptation to the business practices of European and world market has been urgent for the last twenty years. One of the main obstacles in this process is domestic airlines and airports low competitiveness. Key factors in achieving the competitive advantages by the air carriers are not only service cost but service quality, business processes and management system organization as well. Nowadays, most airlines management teams are conscious of the quality factor importance in the competition on both domestic and international markets. The airlines competitiveness on the air transport market has been evaluated in the article. The airlines competitive recovery strategies have been determined according to the specific development of the air carrier “MAU” on the air transport operations market. The ways of further development of domestic airlines and the airline competitiveness management strategy have been proposed.

  11. Using the Electronics Development Advantage in Creating a Buzz for the Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2013-01-01

    More and more airlines are trying to show their customers their ability to understand their needs, the market trends and the importance of technology in their lives. In response to the rapid development of the consumer electronics, the airline companies focus their attention on offering their customers the possibility to book a flight or check-in using a smartphone, spend time watching movies or be connected to the internet during the flight. Customers search for airlines who are more ”tech-...

  12. Building customer relationships as retention strategy in the South African domestic passenger airline industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mostert

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisations are increasingly focusing on building long-term relationships with customers, thereby increasing their probability for success by offering customers higher levels of satisfaction, increasing customer loyalty, and ultimately retaining customers. Airlines in particular can benefit from retaining customers as the airline industry is characterised by fierce competition and many airlines are finding it difficult to survive against the backdrop of enormous challenges in the past decade, including the significant decline in demand for air travel together with rising costs and the worldwide economic downturn. This study investigates the effect which a strategy by airlines of building relationships with customers has on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and ultimately customer retention. The effect of service failures on customers' relationships with airlines are also considered as a negative experience could results in customers defecting to competitors. A questionnaire, comprising six sections, was specifically compiled to determine customer retention in the South African domestic passenger airline industry. Data were collected by trained fieldworkers from OR Tambo International Airport by means of a non-probability convenience sampling method from 324 passengers flying with the various domestic airlines. Findings indicate that most respondents were satisfied with the airlines' overall service; respondents who formed relationships with domestic airlines were more loyal toward the airlines; and the relationships of respondents who were satisfied with airlines' service recovery efforts were either strengthened or unchanged. The findings from this study support findings from international studies by providing a unique South African perspective on the effect of a strategy of building relationships with customers on their satisfaction, loyalty and ultimately retention. It can therefore be recommended that the organisations competing in the South

  13. What do consumers "like"? Communicating CSR to consumers in Facebook, views from the airline industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tani, Essi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract AALTO UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ABSTRACT International Business Communication Master's Thesis June 2012 Essi Tuulia Tani What do consumers like? Communicating CSR to consumers in Facebook, views from the airline industry Objective of the Study The main objective of the study was to investigate airlines' CSR related communication to consumers through Facebook. More specifically the study focused on (a) Finland's largest airline's, Finnair's, perspective to...

  14. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  15. Challenges of Airline Reservation System and Possible Solutions (A Case Study of Overland Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abisoye Blessing O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An Airline Reservation system is very important because it has the strong ability to reduce errors that might have occurred when using a manual system of reservation and helps speed up the boarding process. Overland Airways has an existing Airline Reservation System, but this paper analyzed the problems of the existing system. The problems are: inability of passengers to select their preferred seat(s from the reservation system, No option of passengers printing their boarding pass from the existing system, non-notification of passengers of flight cancellation or delays and passengers don‘t have access to aircraft maintenance report to ease the fears associated with air travel and its disasters. In this paper, an Improved Airline Reservation System that is convenient for passengers to solve the aforementioned problems was designed. The Improved Airline Reservation system is designed and implemented using data obtained from interviewing airline personnel, passengers, and materials on Airline Reservation Systems. In this regard, the Improved Airline Reservation System will assist Overland Airways in variety of airline administration tasks and service needs from time of initial reservation through completion of the task. The following programming languages were used: PHP, JavaScript, HTML and CSS for designing the interface of the system, and SQL for the database. The designed airline system was tested with 50 passengers.

  16. Commodity Risk Management in The Airline Industry : A study from Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Havik, Jonathan; Stendahl, Emil; Soteriou, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The airline industry is a major user of jet fuel and this constitutes a large component of the operating costs and is a risk coefficient for airlines. Several studies have been conducted on how oil price volatility affect stock prices and cash flows as well as how, in general, firms that uses derivatives experience lower stock returns volatility and stock s .The impact of oil price volatility on airline stock s and the impact of hedging on airline stock s have not been adequately examined, th...

  17. Price rules in airline marketing / Elina Krauja-Veide, Marina Jõgi, Toms Andersons...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Air Baltic, Estonian Air, British Airways ja Lithuanian Airlines turundusjuhid olukorrast Baltimaade lennundusturul ja lennufirmade turundustegevusest. Kommenteerivad Priit Kivik, Ilona Kbejan, Julia Brjuhanova. Tabel

  18. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  20. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  1. Another Approach to Enhance Airline Safety: Using Management Safety Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-tsug; Wetmore, Michael; Przetak, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of conducting an accident investigation is to prevent similar accidents from happening again and to make operations safer system-wide. Based on the findings extracted from the investigation, the "lesson learned" becomes a genuine part of the safety database making risk management available to safety analysts. The airline industry is no exception. In the US, the FAA has advocated the usage of the System Safety concept in enhancing safety since 2000. Yet, in today s usage of System Safety, the airline industry mainly focuses on risk management, which is a reactive process of the System Safety discipline. In order to extend the merit of System Safety and to prevent accidents beforehand, a specific System Safety tool needs to be applied; so a model of hazard prediction can be formed. To do so, the authors initiated this study by reviewing 189 final accident reports from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) covering FAR Part 121 scheduled operations. The discovered accident causes (direct hazards) were categorized into 10 groups Flight Operations, Ground Crew, Turbulence, Maintenance, Foreign Object Damage (FOD), Flight Attendant, Air Traffic Control, Manufacturer, Passenger, and Federal Aviation Administration. These direct hazards were associated with 36 root factors prepared for an error-elimination model using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), a leading tool for System Safety experts. An FTA block-diagram model was created, followed by a probability simulation of accidents. Five case studies and reports were provided in order to fully demonstrate the usefulness of System Safety tools in promoting airline safety.

  2. Cultural changes (1986-96) in a Norwegian airline company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjøs, Kjell

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate cultural changes in a Norwegian airline company over a time span of 10 years. A questionnaire including parameters characterizing culture was administered to air crews in 1986 (n = 137) and in 1996 (n = 50). The performance part of a simulator study in 1996 indicated a significant reduction in operational failures compared with the 1986 study. The data further demonstrated significant changes in cultural variables, such as reduced Dominance and Masculinity, and improved Social climate and Communication. The direction of change in scores on the cultural variables corresponded with the principles on which the remedial actions were based.

  3. Airline price discrimination: a practice of yield management or customer profiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Diercks, Rasha H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Airline ticket prices frequently change, which is usually caused by yield management as price discrimination practice. Recently, buyers of online airline tickets tend to complain about price discrimination based on customer profiling, e.g. by means of cookie data. As cookie data and other directly o

  4. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  5. Dynamic Airline Scheduling: An Analysis of the Potentials of Refleeting and Retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warburg, Valdemar; Hansen, Troels G.; Larsen, Allan;

    2008-01-01

    We present a Dynamic Airline Scheduling (DAS) technique which is able to change departure times and reassign aircraft types during the booking process to meet fluctuating passenger demands. The procedure is tested on several different days before departure, resulting in a significant profit...... increase for a major European airline. The results also indicate that applying DAS close to departure yields the largest potential....

  6. 77 FR 18306 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ...; Airline Service Quality Performance AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), Bureau.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service Quality Performance Reports--Part...-Baggage Reports'' pursuant to 14 CFR 234.4 and 234.6. These reports are used to monitor the quality of...

  7. 75 FR 21716 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Airline Service Quality Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...; Airline Service Quality Performance--Part 234 AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration... monitor the quality of air service that major air carriers are providing the flying public. The Federal... and returned. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OMB Approval No. 2138-0041. Title: Airline Service...

  8. A scenario aggregation based approach for determining a robust airline fleet composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Listes (Ovidiu); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractStrategic airline fleet planning is one of the major issues addressed through newly initiated decision support systems, designed to assist airlines and aircraft manufacturers in assessing the benefits of the emerging concept of dynamic capacity allocation. We present background rese

  9. Developing a strategic framework for an airline dealing with the EU emission trading scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, M.; Van der Zwan, F.; Ghijs, S.; Santema, S.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has decided that the aviation sector will be included in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in 2012. This has significant impacts on the business and the strategy of airlines. All of a sudden, airlines must possess emission rights in order to be able to operate their aircra

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.121 - What classes of airline accommodations are available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What classes of airline accommodations are available? 301-10.121 Section 301-10.121 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to...

  11. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  12. Manpower Projections, Recruitment Needs and Training Requirements for Commercial Airline Pilots in the United States 1968-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Robert Marchand

    This study evaluated the reported airline pilot shortage in relation to certified air carriers; recruitment needs for qualified applicants; training requirements as recommended by air carriers, airline captains, and flight officers; and airline pilot supply and demand during 1968-79. A literature review on foreign and domestic pilot shortages was…

  13. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  14. 78 FR 5167 - BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC003 BE-9: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues... Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and Expenses in the United States (BE-9). This mandatory survey is..., agents, or other representatives of foreign airline operators that transport passengers or freight...

  15. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to...

  17. A Mathematical model to predict the US Airlines operation costs and airports charges per route per passenger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona Benitez, R.B.; Lodewijiks, G.

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model to estimate the average airlines operational costs and airports charges per route is important for airlines companies trying to open new routes and for data generation for other purpose such as transport modeling, simulation modeling, investment analyses for airlines and airport

  18. Annualized TASAR Benefit Estimate for Alaska Airlines Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Alaska Airlines. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that between 8,000 and 12,000 gallons of fuel and 900 to 1,300 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Alaska Airlines in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Alaska TASAR requests peaked at four to eight requests per hour in high-altitude Seattle center sectors south of Seattle-Tacoma airport.

  19. Application of Near Field Communication Technology for Mobile Airline Ticketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Suparta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Near Field Communication (NFC technology opens up exciting new usage scenarios for mobile devices based platform. Users of NFC-enabled devices can simply point or touch their devices to other NFC-enabled elements in the environment to communicate with them (‘contactless’, making application and data usage easy and convenient. Approach: The study describes the characteristics and advantages of NFC technology offers for the development of mobile airline ticketing. This scenario describes the potential to overcome the conventional systems that are not gated and use study tickets. In such a system, today a transport application can be loaded on a NFC-enabled phone. To study such a case, Yogyakarta International Airport was taken as an example for a discussion. Results: NFC technology which consisting of three modes of operation and with international standardization can be applied as contactless to simplicity transactions, content delivery and information sharing on a mobile based platform. Conclusion: The idea of NFC application for mobile airline ticketing has been discussed for Yogyakarta International Airport."

  20. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  1. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD. Smoking is also a trigger for COPD flare- ...

  2. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth > For Kids > Smoking Stinks! A A ... more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  3. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  4. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  5. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Smoking KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking A A A What's ... thing as a "safe" nicotine product. continue How Smoking Affects Your Health There are no physical reasons ...

  6. Significant factors of aviation insurance and risk management strategy: an empirical study of Taiwanese airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi Hsin; Chang, Yu Hern

    2008-04-01

    Aviation insurance premiums have become a heavy burden for the airline industry since September 11, 2001. Although the industry must constantly balance its operations between profitability and safety, the reality is that airlines are in the business of making money. Therefore, their ability to reduce cost and manage risk is a key factor for success. Unlike past research, which used subjective judgment methods, this study applied quantitative historical data (1999-2000) and gray relation analysis to identify the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance premiums. An empirical study of six airlines in Taiwan was conducted to determine these factors and to analyze the management strategies used to deal with them. Results showed that the loss experience and performance of individual airlines were the key elements associated with aviation insurance premiums paid by each airline. By identifying and understanding the primary factors influencing ratemaking for aviation insurance, airlines will better understand their relative operational strengths and weaknesses, and further help top management identify areas for further improvement. Knowledge of these factors combined with effective risk management strategies, may result in lower premiums and operating costs for airline companies.

  7. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  8. On the treatment of airline travelers in mathematical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Johansson

    Full Text Available The global spread of infectious diseases is facilitated by the ability of infected humans to travel thousands of miles in short time spans, rapidly transporting pathogens to distant locations. Mathematical models of the actual and potential spread of specific pathogens can assist public health planning in the case of such an event. Models should generally be parsimonious, but must consider all potentially important components of the system to the greatest extent possible. We demonstrate and discuss important assumptions relative to the parameterization and structural treatment of airline travel in mathematical models. Among other findings, we show that the most common structural treatment of travelers leads to underestimation of the speed of spread and that connecting travel is critical to a realistic spread pattern. Models involving travelers can be improved significantly by relatively simple structural changes but also may require further attention to details of parameterization.

  9. Cosmic Microwave Background Science at Commercial Airline Altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Feeney, Stephen M; Peiris, Hiranya V; Verde, Licia; Errard, Josquin

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining high-sensitivity measurements of degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is the most direct path to detecting primordial gravitational waves. Robustly recovering any primordial signal from the dominant foreground emission will require high-fidelity observations at multiple frequencies, with excellent control of systematics. We explore the potential for a new platform for CMB observations, the Airlander 10 hybrid air vehicle, to perform this task. We show that the Airlander 10 platform, operating at commercial airline altitudes, is well-suited to mapping frequencies above 220 GHz, which are critical for cleaning CMB maps of dust emission. Optimizing the distribution of detectors across frequencies, we forecast the ability of Airlander 10 to clean foregrounds of varying complexity as a function of altitude, demonstrating its complementarity with both existing (Planck) and ongoing (C-BASS) foreground observations. This novel platform could play a key role in defining our ultimate vi...

  10. Addressing the Influence of Space Weather on Airline Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite-based augmentation systems has made it possible to navigate aircraft safely using radio signals emitted by global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System. As a signal propagates through the earth's ionosphere, it suffers delay that is proportional to the total electron content encountered along the raypath. Since the magnitude of this total electron content is strongly influenced by space weather, the safety and reliability of GNSS for airline navigation requires continual monitoring of the state of the ionosphere and calibration of ionospheric delay. This paper examines the impact of space weather on GNSS-based navigation and provides an overview of how the Wide Area Augmentation System protects its users from positioning error due to ionospheric disturbances

  11. A new approach for disruption management in airline operations control

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, António J M; Oliveira, Eugénio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the research efforts dealing with airline scheduling have been done on off-line plan optimization.  However, nowadays, with the increasingly complex and huge traffic at airports, the real challenge is how to react to unexpected events that may cause plan-disruptions, leading to flight delays. Moreover these disruptive events usually affect at least three different dimensions of the situation: the aircraft assigned to the flight, the crew assignment and, often forgotten, the passengers’ journey and satisfaction. This book includes answers to this challenge and proposes the use of the Multi-agent System paradigm to rapidly compose a multi-faceted solution to the disruptive event taking into consideration possible preferences of those three key aspects of the problem. Negotiation protocols taking place between agents that are experts in solving the different problem dimensions, combination of different utility functions and, not less important, the inclusion of the human in the automatic decision-maki...

  12. Does hedging make economic sense for American Airlines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lucio Santos Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa el impacto de la cobertura en el valor de la compañía al analizar cómo el valor de mercado del grupo consolidado American Airlines es impactado por cambios en el nivel de las necesidades cubiertas de combustible del próx imo año y el valor total de sus acuerdos pendientes de 1989 a 2010. Fue utilizada una metodología de investigación descriptiva y cualitativa. Fueron recopilados datos secundarios para un estudio de caso. Los resultados indican que cubrir los costos del com bustible tiene un sentido económico. Sin embargo, los inversores han evaluado negativamente los aumentos en las posiciones de cobertura.

  13. Revealing the structure of the world airline network

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Trivik; Herrmann, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their ...

  14. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  15. Relationship between Brazilian airline pilot errors and time of day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. de Mello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Flight safety is one of the most important and frequently discussed issues in aviation. Recent accident inquiries have raised questions as to how the work of flight crews is organized and the extent to which these conditions may have been contributing factors to accidents. Fatigue is based on physiologic limitations, which are reflected in performance deficits. The purpose of the present study was to provide an analysis of the periods of the day in which pilots working for a commercial airline presented major errors. Errors made by 515 captains and 472 copilots were analyzed using data from flight operation quality assurance systems. To analyze the times of day (shifts during which incidents occurred, we divided the light-dark cycle (24:00 in four periods: morning, afternoon, night, and early morning. The differences of risk during the day were reported as the ratio of morning to afternoon, morning to night and morning to early morning error rates. For the purposes of this research, level 3 events alone were taken into account, since these were the most serious in which company operational limits were exceeded or when established procedures were not followed. According to airline flight schedules, 35% of flights take place in the morning period, 32% in the afternoon, 26% at night, and 7% in the early morning. Data showed that the risk of errors increased by almost 50% in the early morning relative to the morning period (ratio of 1:1.46. For the period of the afternoon, the ratio was 1:1.04 and for the night a ratio of 1:1.05 was found. These results showed that the period of the early morning represented a greater risk of attention problems and fatigue.

  16. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  17. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-

  18. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, R.; Sargent, J.D.; Karlsdottir, S.; Jonsson, S.H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Sweeting, H.; Hunt, K.; Morgenstern, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare w

  19. THE EVALUATION OF WORKING CAPITAL IN AIRLINE COMPANIES WHICH PROCEED IN BIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Kendirli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The working capital like cash and liquid assets runs the facilities and supports daily activities of firms. This kind of capital is essential to continuity of activities, increase of volume, maintain credibility, reduce impacts of risks and to overcome with extraordinary situation. The working capital management is very important for making profits from activities, especially for dynamic sectors like aviation. The aviation industry which airline companies operate is a very dynamic sector. In this sector working capital has to be managed very professionally and carefully by airline companies. This study aims to assess the airline companies’ working capital in terms of effectiveness. Airline companies which shares traded on BIST will be sample of this study.

  20. @doesyourairlinetweet? An empirical examination of the use of twitter by 50 international airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Budd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide empirical evidence of the extent to which 50 of the world’s largest passenger airlines use the social media site twitter.Design/methodology/approach: Original empirical data on the presence and usage of 50 airlines’ official twitter accounts was accessed.Research limitations/implications: Research demonstrates the extent to which airlines are using twitter as a communications tool and suggests that some airline are not currently utilising twitter to its full extent.Practical implications: The research provides information on current twitter use and penetration, thus enabling airlines to benchmark their performance in this social media channel.Originality/value: The paper provides an original empirical insight into a growing phenomenon which is currently underreported in academic literatures.

  1. Identification and analysis of explanatory variables for a multi-factor productivity model of passenger airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henriques de Araújo Jr

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to identify and analyze the explanatory variables for airlines productivity during 2000 2005, by testing the Pearson correlation between the single factor productivity capital, energy and labor of a sample of 45 selected international airlines (4 Brazilian carriers among them and their productivity explanatory variables like medium stage length, aircraft load factor, hours flown and cruise speed for selected routes besides aircraft seat configuration and airlines number of employees. The research demonstrated, that a set of variables can explain differences in productivity for passenger airlines, such as: investment in personnel training processes, automation, airplane seat density, occupation of aircraft, average flight stage length, density and extension of routes, among others.

  2. Estimation of Airline Benefits from Avionics Upgrade under Preferential Merge Re-sequence Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotegawa, Tatsuya; Cayabyab, Charlene Anne; Almog, Noam

    2013-01-01

    Modernization of the airline fleet avionics is essential to fully enable future technologies and procedures for increasing national airspace system capacity. However in the current national airspace system, system-wide benefits gained by avionics upgrade are not fully directed to aircraft/airlines that upgrade, resulting in slow fleet modernization rate. Preferential merge re-sequence scheduling is a best-equipped-best-served concept designed to incentivize avionics upgrade among airlines by allowing aircraft with new avionics (high-equipped) to be re-sequenced ahead of aircraft without the upgrades (low-equipped) at enroute merge waypoints. The goal of this study is to investigate the potential benefits gained or lost by airlines under a high or low-equipped fleet scenario if preferential merge resequence scheduling is implemented.

  3. Söder Airlines alustab Tampere-Tallinna lende / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2003-01-01

    2002. aastal Soome ärimeeste loodud lennufirma Söder Airlines lennuk hakkab lendama Tallinna ja Tampere vahel, edaspidi kavatsetakse avada ka lennuliin Tampere-Kuressaare. Vt. samas: Lennust Eestisse huvitub ka SkyEurope

  4. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the content (number of fans, posts, number of likes, the dynamics of comments, response rate on the Facebook pages of Tarom, Blue Air, Wizz Air, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines, KLM International and Air Europa on a one week period (10th February – 18th February 2014 and successful practices on social media. The paper also aims to provide solutions for airlines to better connect with their passengers and effectively use the social media environment to increase sales and customer satisfaction.

  5. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke also contains other chemicals that can harm unborn babies. 1,2 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Babies Mothers who smoke are more likely to deliver their babies early. Preterm delivery is a leading cause of death, disability, and disease among newborns. 1,2 One ...

  6. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  7. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  8. A Comparative Facebook Content Analysis between Romanian and Western European Airline Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the different social media strategies adopted by the airline companies from two European regions. In the attempt to land more customers on their social media runway, drive more sales from social media content, increase customer satisfaction through a high response rate or increase their brand awareness, the airlines combine creativity and high-quality ideas to better promote their products and services to customers all around the globe. The paper analyses the...

  9. Baseline Assessment of the Use of Weather Information in Airline Systems Operations Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    general.aviation.(Part.91.operations) gFF .--------------graphical.Flight.Following iFr.---------------instrument.Flight.rules ils...location. of. turbulence. and.storms.. (2) gff ..in.addition,.dispatchers.utilize.a.program.called. graphical.Flight.Following.( gFF ),.which.provides.the...Figure 9. Turbulence Chart and Text, Airline 2 13 A B C D Figure 10. Sample GFF Screenshots from Airline 2. (A) GFF , Global View

  10. Disruption management in the airline industry-Concepts, models and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Larsen, Allan; Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough review of the current state-of-the-art within airline disruption management of resources, including aircraft, crew, passenger and integrated recovery. An overview of model formulations of the aircraft and crew scheduling problems is presented in order to emphasize...... similarities between solution approaches applied to the planning and recovery problems. A brief overview of research within schedule robustness in airline scheduling is included in the review, since this proactive measure is a natural complement to disruption management....

  11. DYPES: Vertical differentiation, schedule delay and entry deterrence: Low cost vs. full service airlines

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Valido; M. Pilar Socorro; Francesca Medda

    2013-01-01

    We consider a market with a full-service (FS) carrier (the incumbent) and a low-cost (LC) carrier (the potential entrant). If the LC carrier enters the market, airlines compete in ticket prices and frequency with vertically differentiated products. The higher the frequency, the lower passenger’s generalized price. Thus, more frequency allows airlines to increase ticket prices without losing demand. In this context, we show that the incumbent may increase the frequency offered in order to dete...

  12. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.……

  13. New Promotion of Austrian Airlines to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 marks the 10th Anniversary of Austrian Airlines' flight operations to China. Austrian Airlines kicks off the celebration year with super attractive roundtrip fares from Beijing and Shanghai to Europe starting at RMB4,500 (excluding taxes and surcharges). The earlier the tickets are booked and purchased,the lower the airfares are for travel during the period from February 13 to April 15,2005.

  14. The impact of Southwest Airline's contribution to atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide totals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Cody L.

    Over the last century, aviation has grown to become an economical juggernaut. The industry creates innovation, connects people, and maintains a safety goal unlike any other field. However, as the world becomes more populated with technology and individuals, a general curiosity as to how human activity effects the planet is becoming of greater interest. This study presents what one domestic airline in the United States, Southwest Airlines, contributes to the atmospheric make-up of the planet. Utilizing various sources of quantifiable data, an outcome was reached that shows the amount of Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide produced by Southwest Airlines from 2002 to 2013. This topic was chosen due to the fact that there are no real quantifiable values of emission statistics from airlines available to the public. Further investigation allowed for Southwest Airlines to be compared to the overall Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide contributions of the United States for the year 2011. The results showed that with the absence of any set standard on emissions, it is vital that one should be established. The data showed that the current ICAO standard emission values showed a higher level of emissions than when Southwest Airline's fleet was analyzed using their actual fleet mix.

  15. Operational Efficiency In The U.S. Airline Industry: An Empirical Investigation Of Post-Deregulation Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly S. GUZHVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1 to examine the operational efficiency of U.S. airlines after the deregulation of 1978; (2 to investigate whether operational efficiency is associated with changes in financial position of firms in the industry and (3 to study if there is an observable pattern in the efficiency measures for large and small airlines. The results indicate that small U.S. airlines record higher scores than large U.S. airlines in four out of five efficiency measures examined. The exception is in the category of allocative efficiency where large airlines exhibit more optimal input mix of resources that their smaller counterparts. This superior mix of resources is consistent with cost minimization. In addition, the analysis shows that higher overall efficiency measures are associated with higher net profit margins of the airlines in the sample, while higher allocative efficiency seems to correlate with higher return on equity."

  16. Fitness to fly post craniotomy--a survey of medical advice from long-haul airline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, R; Mir, S; Dhir, J S; Cheeseman, C; Singh, J

    2009-04-01

    Commercial airline passengers are subject to numerous medical risks while in transit. Seventeen long-haul airline companies were questioned concerning fitness to travel and the case of a patient wishing to travel post craniotomy. Three airline companies gave satisfactory medical information, while the remaining airlines felt it was the decision of the operating surgeon rather than the airline company. A literature review shows that post operative pneumocephalus and the risk of tension pneumocephalus is the major medical concern when transporting patients post craniotomy. Evidence is contradictory with respect to the importance of this potentially life threatening problem. Postoperative 100% oxygen may improve the rate of pneumocephalus absorption. Airline companies have an unstandardised approach to unique medical problems, resulting in increased responsibility for the attending surgeon who may be ill equipped to deal with poorly researched aviation medicine.

  17. Implementation of smoke-free homes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS constitutes a threat to the health of many people. In order to diminish ETS exposure, countries (including Poland implemented legal restrictions of smoking in public places and worksites. Currently more attention is also paid to reduce overall and residential ETS exposure by voluntary smoke-free home policy adoption. The aim of current analysis was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of implementing smoking bans at place of residence among economically active males and females in Poland. Material and Methods: Data from cross-sectional, household study – Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS 2009–2010 were analyzed. The logistic regression model was applied for appropriate calculations. Results: Out of 3696 studied subjects only 37.1% adopted total smoking ban within the home. Decreased likelihood of adopting total smoking bans was associated with current smoker status, low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of ETS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, and cohabitation with a smoker in both genders. Having smoke-free homes was also linked with age in women, place of residence and work smoking policy in indoor areas in men. Conclusions: Targeted activities to encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules among groups least likely to implement 100% smoking bans in the home and activities to decrease social acceptance of smoking in the presence of nonsmokers, children, pregnant woman are urgently needed.

  18. Smoking and reproduction. Short and long term effects and benefits of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricsson, B; Gilljam, H

    1992-12-01

    There have been many attempts during the last years to restrict smoking because of the significant health hazards. In particular the high prevalence of smoking among women in their reproductive years has been a matter of concern. This review was prompted in order to make the medical profession, and gynecologists in particular, confident with the underlying data. This will hopefully result in enabling them to provide balanced information to their patients, not overemphasizing the dangers of smoking, but rather presenting ways to properly recognize and treat tobacco dependence. It is a widely held view that the various risks imposed by smoking are very modest. A doubling of the risk for a rare problem may not prevent many women from continuing to smoke. However, a doubling of the risk for early miscarriage or a significant reduction of success rate in the treatment of infertility may be much more discouraging. The purpose of this review is to list the various effects smoking may have on the different phases of reproduction and to present an overview of the explanation models which have been suggested. Late effects on the child and its development will also be discussed. Hopefully, this will lead to proper concern about the problems and thus increase the motivation to quit smoking even before attempting a pregnancy. In addition, we give some hints on smoking cessation programs.

  19. Impact of environmental constraints and aircraft technology on airline fleet composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Kushal A.

    This thesis models an airline's decisions about fleet evolution in order to maintain economic and regulatory viability. The aim is to analyze the fleet evolution under different scenarios of environmental policy and technology availability in order to suggest an optimal fleet under each case. An understanding of the effect of aircraft technologies, fleet size and age distribution, and operational procedures on airline performance may improve the quality of policies to achieve environmental goals. Additionally, the effect of decisions about fleet evolution on air travel is assessed as the change in market demand and profits of an abstracted, benevolent monopolist airline. Attention to the environmental impact of aviation has grown, and this has prompted several organizations such as ICAO (and, in response, NASA) to establish emissions reduction targets to reduce aviation's global climate impact. The introduction of new technology, change in operational procedures, etc. are some of the proposed means to achieve these targets. Of these, this thesis studies the efficacy of implementation of environmental policies in form of emissions constraints as a means to achieve these goals and assesses their impact on an airline's fleet evolution and technology use (along with resulting effects on air travel demand). All studies in this thesis are conducted using the Fleet-level Environmental Evaluation Tool (FLEET), a NASA sponsored simulation tool developed at Purdue University. This tool models airline operational decisions via a resource allocation problem and uses a system dynamics type approach to mimic airline economics, their decisions regarding retirement and acquisition of aircraft and evolution of market demand in response to the economic conditions. The development of an aircraft acquisition model for FLEET is a significant contribution of the author. Further, the author conducted a study of various environmental policies using FLEET. Studies introduce constraints on

  20. Operational Evaluatioin of Dynamic Weather Routes at American Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Sheth, Kapil; Gong, Chester; Borchers, Paul; Osborne, Jeff; Keany, Desmond; Scott, Brennan; Smith, Steve; Sahlman, Scott; Lee, Chuhan; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) is a search engine that continuously and automatically analyzes inflight aircraft in en route airspace and proposes simple route amendments for more efficient routes around convective weather while considering sector congestion, traffic conflicts, and active Special Use Airspace. NASA and American Airlines (AA) are conducting an operational trial of DWR at the AA System Operations Center in Fort Worth, TX. The trial includes only AA flights in Fort Worth Center airspace. Over the period from July 31, 2012 through August 31, 2012, 45% of routes proposed by DWR and evaluated by AA users - air traffic control coordinators and flight dispatchers - were rated as acceptable as proposed or with some modifications. The wind-corrected potential flying time savings for these acceptable routes totals 470 flying min, and results suggest another 1,500 min of potential savings for flights not evaluated due to staffing limitations. A sector congestion analysis shows that in only two out of 83 DWR routes rated acceptable by AA staff were the flights predicted to fly through a congested sector inside of 30 min downstream of present position. This shows that users considered sector congestion data provided by DWR automation and in nearly all cases did not accept routes through over-capacity sectors. It is estimated that 12 AA flights were given reroute clearances as a direct result of DWR for a total savings of 67 flying min.

  1. Revealing the structure of the world airline network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, T; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J

    2014-07-09

    Resilience of most critical infrastructures against failure of elements that appear insignificant is usually taken for granted. The World Airline Network (WAN) is an infrastructure that reduces the geographical gap between societies, both small and large, and brings forth economic gains. With the extensive use of a publicly maintained data set that contains information about airports and alternative connections between these airports, we empirically reveal that the WAN is a redundant and resilient network for long distance air travel, but otherwise breaks down completely due to removal of short and apparently insignificant connections. These short range connections with moderate number of passengers and alternate flights are the connections that keep remote parts of the world accessible. It is surprising, insofar as there exists a highly resilient and strongly connected core consisting of a small fraction of airports (around 2.3%) together with an extremely fragile star-like periphery. Yet, in spite of their relevance, more than 90% of the world airports are still interconnected upon removal of this core. With standard and unconventional removal measures we compare both empirical and topological perceptions for the fragmentation of the world. We identify how the WAN is organized into different classes of clusters based on the physical proximity of airports and analyze the consequence of this fragmentation.

  2. Management of strategic coopetition among partners within international airline alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Himpel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: International network-carriers span the globe by linking airports on all five continents. At the core of those networks are hub-airports that serve as the centers for (inter-national in- and outbound traffic flows. From a business model point of view, the major international carriers are so-called network-carriers, for their core concept is based on transfer-oriented hub-and-spoke-systems. In order to maximize revenue streams of network-carriers, changes in strategic slot allocation and strategic net planning are becoming increasingly relevant. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of various elements of the management of strategic coopetition among partners within international airline alliances on the revenues obtained by individual partners. Methods: the problems related to the optimization of strategic slot allocation and strategic net planning from the point of view of the individual profit shared and added net contribution margins were discussed. Results and conclusions: Two extreme scenarios may be projected. The first one is that partners within a given alliance system may start to increase merger and acquisition activities. Thereby scale effects may be utilized. The other one is, when rivalry becomes too dominant over time, some partners may (have to exit alliance systems. Thereby "atomic" subsystems may be on the rebound. Strategic coopetition management is aimed to keep leading international network carriers "on track" in the field of alliance management of that nature.

  3. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an airline pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ahmet; Al-Deleamy, Louai S; Kendirli, Tansel M

    2007-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common types of peripheral vertigo, characterized by violent whirling vertigo after a positional change. Although the condition is termed "benign," the clinical presentation can be incapacitating for pilots in certain maneuvers. We present a case of an airline transport pilot with the complaint of vertigo for 5 d. The vertigo was aggravated by head movements when looking up or rolling over, lasting for a few seconds. The patient was diagnosed with BPPV, and he was treated with physical therapy with the use of Epley maneuver. The airman applied for his First-Class medical examination after the treatment was successfully completed. The aviation medical examiner (AME) issued the airman medical certificate after contacting and receiving verbal approval from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Aerospace Medical Certification Division (AMCD). While evaluating aviators who have had BPPV, AMEs should not issue medical certificates for any class until the condition is fully resolved. Although the AME Guide states that certification of pilots with other types of vertigo requires an FAA decision, once the patient is successfully treated and free of symptoms, approval for issuing the medical certificate can be obtained through contacting AMCD and by submitting all information and documentation pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment.

  4. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  5. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  6. Smoking and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  7. Airline Safety Improvement Through Experience with Near-Misses: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Peter; Dillon, Robin L; Tinsley, Catherine H

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the U.S. commercial airline industry has achieved unprecedented levels of safety, with the statistical risk associated with U.S. commercial aviation falling to 0.003 fatalities per 100 million passengers. But decades of research on organizational learning show that success often breeds complacency and failure inspires improvement. With accidents as rare events, can the airline industry continue safety advancements? This question is complicated by the complex system in which the industry operates where chance combinations of multiple factors contribute to what are largely probabilistic (rather than deterministic) outcomes. Thus, some apparent successes are realized because of good fortune rather than good processes, and this research intends to bring attention to these events, the near-misses. The processes that create these near-misses could pose a threat if multiple contributing factors combine in adverse ways without the intervention of good fortune. Yet, near-misses (if recognized as such) can, theoretically, offer a mechanism for continuing safety improvements, above and beyond learning gleaned from observable failure. We test whether or not this learning is apparent in the airline industry. Using data from 1990 to 2007, fixed effects Poisson regressions show that airlines learn from accidents (their own and others), and from one category of near-misses-those where the possible dangers are salient. Unfortunately, airlines do not improve following near-miss incidents when the focal event has no clear warnings of significant danger. Therefore, while airlines need to and can learn from certain near-misses, we conclude with recommendations for improving airline learning from all near-misses.

  8. Costs and Benefits of Stopping the Clock. How Airlines Profit from Changes in the EU ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelissen, D.; Faber, J.

    2012-12-15

    All flights arriving at or departing from EU airports have been included in the EU ETS from the beginning of 2012. Airlines have to surrender allowances for emissions on flights to and from EU airports. A share of the allowances has been issued to the airlines for free, the remainder needs to be acquired at an auction or from the market. In November 2012, the European Commission proposed to exempt intercontinental flights from the EU ETS for 2012, an initiative branded as 'Stopping the Clock'. As a result of this change, airlines on intercontinental routes are likely to experience additional windfall profit, since they have probably anticipated ETS-related expenditures on these routes, which they will now not incur. In addition, all airlines have a windfall profit since they are likely to pass on the value of the free allowances, as has been demonstrated to happen in all other sectors that have received free allowances. This note estimates the windfall profits. The report distinguishes two types of windfall profits: (1) Profits that occur because the opportunity costs of free allowances received for intercontinental flights have been passed on. These windfall profits would also have occurred without the 'stop the clock' exemption. We call them ETS Windfall. (2) Profits that occur because airlines have raised their revenues on intercontinental flights, but will not need to buy allowances either at the auction or from other actors because of the exemption. We call them Stopping the Clock Windfall. Depending on the cost pass through, the total windfall profits range from euro 679 million to euro 1,358 million. About a third of these windfall profits arise from the exemption of intercontinental flights. EU airlines are expected to reap the largest share of the windfall due to the change in regulation (55%), followed by US airlines (13%).

  9. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  10. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Smokers who have surgery have a higher chance than nonsmokers of blood clots forming in their legs. These clots may travel to and ...

  11. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  12. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzaban; Khalili; Ziaei

    2013-01-01

    Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspe...

  13. An economic model of the manufacturers' aircraft production and airline earnings potential, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Hill, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A behavioral explanation of the process of technological change in the U. S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries is presented. The model indicates the principal factors which influence the aircraft (airframe) manufacturers in researching, developing, constructing and promoting new aircraft technology; and the financial requirements which determine the delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk airlines. Following specification and calibration of the model, the types and numbers of new aircraft were estimated historically for each airline's fleet. Examples of possible applications of the model to forecasting an individual airline's future fleet also are provided. The functional form of the model is a composite which was derived from several preceding econometric models developed on the foundations of the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change and represents an important contribution to the improved understanding of the economic and financial requirements for aircraft selection and production. The model's primary application will be to forecast the future types and numbers of new aircraft required for each domestic airline's fleet.

  14. American Consumer’s Attitudes towards Different Airline Companies Channels: A Comparison of transaction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Harcar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly challenging better performance from companies, and these demands are being met through improvements in technology and flexibility of services. As a result of recent progresses and developments in electronic marketing, the physical locations of brick and mortar businesses have become less significant since transactions can now be accomplished in cyberspace. In this paper, consumer attitudes towards online transactions for the airline industry are examined. Despite the growing acceptance of alternative delivery channels, the travel agencies remain an essential part of the customer-airline company. It can be argued that the travel agencies not only represent an opportunity for implementing costumer relationship, but they also remain an important point of contact for sales, service, and consultative interactions. Data has been analyzed using factor analysis technique. The study presents a broad picture of the level of preference of airline customers among the available distribution channels and sheds light on how airline companies should allocate resources among the different channels. The empirical study findings indicate that online transactions for the airline industry will gain in importance and its use will accelerate at a faster rate in the coming years.

  15. Disincentives, Identities, and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Nancy M.

    When smoking decisions are understood in terms of the beliefs and attitudes which determine them, prevention programs can focus on changing these beliefs and attitudes. A study was conducted to measure students' attitudes and beliefs on the short-term health effects of smoking, on the social consequences of smoking, and on specific identities…

  16. Vietnam Airlines Made Staggered Progress in the First Half of 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ HO CHI MINH CITY, VIETNAM-According to the latest statistics results of Vietnam Airlines show that from January to June,2007, under the high-quality supervision and operation of Vietnam Airlines, a total of 31,140 flights made safety takeoffs and landings; and the total number of passengers traveling by Vietnam Airlines is 3,831,376, which is 16.5% over the same period of the last year. Among them, the total number of passengers taking domestic flights is 2,225,457,which is 23.90% over the same period of the last year; and the total number of passengers taking International flights is 1,605,919, that grew 6.9% over the same period of the last year. In the first half of 2007, the freight volume has reached to 533,850 tons.

  17. ASPECTS OF MARKETING APPLICATION WITHIN AIRLINE TRAVELLING COMPANIES. THE CASE OF ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti STRINGA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were defined through the following tasks: 1. To synthesise the features of daily marketing activities of the airlines operating on the Albanian market and establish their strengths and weaknesses. 2. To analyse and establish if there are marked differences in marketing activities of the airlines operating on the Albanian market. Different sources of primary and secondary data were used in analysis of services marketing of airlines operating on the Albanian market. The nature of the research was exploratory. Primary data were mostly gathered from expert opinion by means of personal interviews. The depth interviews took place in offices of the respondents.

  18. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  19. Targeting Pearl River Delta, Untied Airlines Expect Direct Line to Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the fast economy growth,Guangzhou and Pearl River Delta has become a key market in China.To provide better service for this market, the United Airlines took the leading role to set up an office in Guangzhou in April, 2004. At the end of last year, the United Airlines opened the ferry service between five ports in Pearl River Delta and the Sky Pier of Hong Kong International Airport by using the fast ferryboat and successfully realized the seamless connection.At present, for there is not direct flight from Guangzhou to the U. S., the United Airlines uses the ferry boat to connect Pearl River Delta to Hong Kong International Airport.

  20. Solving a manpower scheduling problem for airline catering using tabu search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Sin C.; Leung, Janny M. Y.

    We study a manpower scheduling problem with job time-windows and job-skills compatibility constraints. This problem is motivated by airline catering operations, whereby airline meals and other supplies are delivered to aircrafts on the tarmac just before the flights take off. Jobs (flights) must...... be serviced within a given time-window by a team consisting of a driver and a loader. Each driver/loader has the skills to service some, but not all, of the airline/aircraft/configuration of the jobs. Given the jobs to be serviced and the roster of workers for each shift, the problem is to form teams...... and assign teams and start-times for the jobs, so as to service as many flights as possible. Only teams with the appropriate skills can be assigned to a flight. Workload balance among the teams is also a consideration. We present a model formulation and investigate a tabu-search heuristic approach to solve...

  1. Investigation of lateral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification method for fly-by-wire passenger airliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhao; Wang Lixin; Lin Jiaming; Ai Junqiang

    2014-01-01

    A new identification method is proposed to solve the problem of the influence on the loaded excitation signals brought by high feedback gain augmentation in lateral-directional aerody-namic parameters identification of fly-by-wire (FBW) passenger airliners. Taking for example an FBW passenger airliner model with directional relaxed-static-stability, through analysis of its signal energy distribution and airframe frequency response, a new method is proposed for signal type selec-tion, signal parameters design, and the appropriate frequency relationship between the aileron and rudder excitation signals. A simulation validation is presented of the FBW passenger airliner’s lat-eral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification. The validation result demonstrates that the designed signal can excite the lateral-directional motion mode of the FBW passenger airliner ade-quately and persistently. Meanwhile, the relative errors of aerodynamic parameters are less than 5%.

  2. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  3. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  4. 75 FR 44305 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ...\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 48322 and 48323. \\1\\ On July 14, 2010, MAL... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  5. 76 FR 9402 - Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Oakland County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Wixom, in Oakland County, Mich. The Line traverses U.S. Postal Service Zip Codes 48390 and 48393. The... Surface Transportation Board Michigan Air-Line Railway Co.--Abandonment Exemption--in Oakland County, MI On January 28, 2011, Michigan Air-Line Railway Co. (MAL Railway) filed with the...

  6. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  7. Financial Comparisons across Different Business Models in the Canadian Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Triant; Walker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the accounting and stock price performance of two Canadian airlines, WestJet and Air Canada, over a five year period, taking into account the aftermath of the systemic shock to the airline industry produced by the September 11, 2001 (9-11), terrorist attacks and subsequent events such as the 2002 SARS outbreak, the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the accompanying rise in jet fuel prices. Our study focuses on the viability of low-cost versus conventional-cost business models in Canada under the current business environment and the ability of airlines to withstand and effectively respond to catastrophic industry events. Furthermore, we link the effectiveness of the airlines responses to these events to specific elements of their respective business models. We test our hypothesis through a case study. We focus on WestJet as a typical low-cost airline and compare its accounting and stock performance to Air Canada, a legacy carrier and rival in several business sectors. We find WestJet to be much less affected by catastrophic industry events. By decomposing each airline s return volatility, we observe that WestJet s systematic and unsystematic risk increased only slightly during the industry's post-9-11 turmoil when compared to Air Canada. In addition, we find that both WestJet s accounting and stock performance have been highly superior to those of Air Canada. We argue that WestJet s business model provides the firm with significantly more financial and operational flexibility than its legacy rival, Air Canada. WestJet's lower operating costs, high consumer trust, product offering, corporate structure, workforce and work practices, as well as operational procedures are all factors that appear to contribute to its relative success.

  8. Effect of airline travel on performance: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherwood, Whitney E; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-06-01

    The need for athletes to travel long distances has spurred investigation into the effect of air travel across multiple time zones on athletic performance. Rapid eastward or westward travel may negatively affect the body in many ways; therefore, strategies should be employed to minimise these effects which may hamper athletic performance. In this review, the fundamentals of circadian rhythm disruption are examined along with additional effects of airline travel including jet lag, sleep deprivation, travel at altitude and nutritional considerations that negatively affect performance. Evidence-based recommendations are provided at the end of the manuscript to minimise the effects of airline travel on performance.

  9. Assessing Aircraft Timeliness Variations By Major Airlines: Passenger Travel Practice In Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Wesonga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Flight delays do not only affect passenger satisfaction but also carry along costly consequences to airlines. The overall objective of the study was to assess aircraft timeliness variations by major airlines so as to determine passenger travel practice in Uganda. The study hypotheses were tested using a two-way ANOVA F-test and further measures of associations. The study found out that the number of schedules of each airline per day had a positive effect on the delay duration, whereby an additional schedule increased the average delay by a proportion of 11%. Whereas the day of the week F(16, 1129 = 1.36, p >0.01 had no significant difference in the delays amongst the airlines, the month of the year F(33, 1107 = 1.88, p < 0.001 showed a significant difference. However, the total variance of the delays was attributed to the airline (29%. It was also demonstrated from the analysis that Eagle Air (EA, Kenya Airways (KA and South African Airways (SAA experienced more delays than the British Airways (BAW by 33%, 62% and 55% respectively. Other than Wednesday, flights were delayed more on all the days of the week and less delayed in the months of October and November than in June by 26% and 3% respectively. On Saturdays and Sundays, flights were found to have longer periods of delay (p<0.05 that averaged 14 and 13 minutes respectively. The flights in January and March had longer delays (15 and 14 minutes than that recorded in the other months. Therefore, it can be concluded that the passengers who use BAW are less likely to delay than the other (EA, KA and SAA airlines and travelling in the months of October and November is highly recommended. Given that airline delay is positively correlated with the number of scheduled flights, a policy framework could be developed to optimise schedules and airline delays during departure at the airport. The template is used to format your paper and style the text. All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text

  10. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  11. Peculiarities of development of the low-cost airlines in Russian and Norwegian context

    OpenAIRE

    Toramanyan, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Low-cost flights per se become more and more popular in the world airline industry, while in Russia the first low-cost carrier has recently appeared. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the phenomenon of low-cost carriers, peculiarities of the development of the low-cost airlines in the context of Russian Federation and Norway. In order to cover the topic, deep literature review and qualitative research were carried out. In the paper, I attempted to follow history, analyze reasons ...

  12. A study of the financial history of the U.S. scheduled airlines and the improvement of airline profitability through technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The financial history of the U.S. scheduled airline industry was investigated to determine the causes of the erratic profit performance of the industry and to evaluate potential economic gains from technology advances of recent years. Operational and economic factors affecting past and future profitability of the industry are discussed, although no attempt was made to examine the profitability of individual carriers. The results of the study indicate that the profit erosion of the late 1960's and early 1970's was due more to excess capacity than to inadequate fare levels, but airline problems were severely compounded by the rapid fuel price escalation in 1974 and 1975. Near-term solutions to the airline financial problems depend upon the course of action by the industry and the CAB and the general economic health of the nation. For the longer term, the only acceptable alternative to continued fare increases is a reduction in unit operating costs through technological advance. The next generation of transports is expected to incorporate technologies developed under Government sponsorship in the 1960's and 1970's with significant improvements in fuel consumption and operating costs.

  13. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  14. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this e

  15. History of lifetime smoking, smoking cessation and cognitive function in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mons, Ute; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Kliegel, Matthias; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-10-01

    To examine potential associations of the history of lifetime smoking and smoking cessation with cognitive function in the elderly. In a population-based cohort study of older adults in Saarland, Germany, a detailed lifetime history of smoking was obtained using standardised questionnaires. Cognitive function was assessed with a validated telephone-based instrument (COGTEL) at the five-year follow-up in a subsample of n = 1,697 participants with a baseline age >65 years. Multiple linear regression models were employed to predict cognitive performance, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Ever-smokers with a higher cumulative dose of smoking in pack-years scored lower in the cognitive assessment than never-smokers, with the association being more pronounced in current smokers than in former smokers. In fully adjusted models, current smokers with 21-40 pack-years scored 4.06 points lower (95 % CI -7.18 to -0.94) than never-smokers. In former smokers, a longer time since smoking cessation was associated with higher scores in the cognitive test with reference to current smokers, even after adjustment for pack-years. Former smokers who had quit for more than 30 years scored 4.23 points higher (95 % CI 1.75 to 6.71) than current smokers. Dose-response-relationships of cognitive function with cumulative dose of smoking as well as with time since smoking cessation were substantiated by restricted cubic splines regression. Our results support suggestions that smokers are at an increased risk for cognitive impairment in older age; that the risk increases with duration and intensity of smoking, and subsides with time after smoking cessation.

  16. Healthy and unhealthy assimilation: country of origin and smoking behavior among immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Leigh Ann

    2014-12-01

    Smoking rates in the country of origin were used to empirically examine whether immigrants converge toward natives' level of smoking prevalence with assimilation. Results show that assimilation is associated with a lower likelihood of ever quitting smoking for immigrants from countries with lower smoking rates relative to the USA and a higher likelihood for immigrants from countries with higher smoking rates, but for current or ever smoking, the estimated effects of assimilation are statistically insignificant. Although these findings demonstrate that health assimilation depends on the country of origin, the extent to which this pattern of assimilation is due to peer influence, differences in responsiveness to anti-smoking interventions such as taxes or smoke-free air restrictions, and/or other factors remains unclear because of the limitations of this study.

  17. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  18. Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

    2000-01-01

    The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research.

  19. Umbilical Cord Serum Erythropoietin Levels and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Sazak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin. Methods. Erythropoietin levels were measured in umbilical cord sera of 60 newborns who were delivered vaginally at term. There were 20 (33% smoking and 40 (67% nonsmoking mothers. Results. Mean cord serum erythropoietin levels were significantly lower in the nonsmokers (nonsmokers, 24 ± 9 IU/L; smokers, 61 ± 46 IU/L; P<.001. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and cord serum erythropoietin levels (r, 0.58; P≤.05. Conclusions. Smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased levels of umbilical cord erythropoietin at birth. This may indicate a risk of fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. Education and encouragement of cessation of smoking during pregnancy are important to avoid associated fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

  20. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  1. Smoking Culture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛

    2016-01-01

    Abtract:Smoking culture is deeply rooted in daily routine of Chinese people.The most significant one is that Chinese people have the tendency to send the cigarette as a gift.Only if scientists coordinate with the Chinese government to raise taxes on cigarette, limit the use of smoking scenes, advocate the use of electronic cigarette and educate the public will the deeply imbedded smoking culture in China change!

  2. Smoking and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM). In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birt...

  3. Airline network development in Europe and its implications for airport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.

    2007-01-01

    Order by Fax Printer Friendly PDF Brochure Send to Friend Enquire before Buying Hard Copy Airline Network Development in Europe and its Implications for Airport Planning Ashgate Publishing, March 2007, Pages: 300 Description Table of Contents Enquire before Buying Send to a Friend The ongoing deregu

  4. -New Destinations, Greater Convenience-ANA and Singapore Airlines Expand Strategic Code-Sharing Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ ANA and Singapore Airlines have filed for permission to increase their present code-sharing relationship to cover destinations in Asia,North America and Japan beyond the hub mrports of Singapore Changi Airport and Tokyo Narita Airport,from September 1 this year.

  5. United Airlines Launches New Daily Beijing-San Francisco Non-Stop Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ United Airlines, the leading carrier between the U.S. and China, announced today that its new Beijing to San Francisco non-stop flight took off from Beijing at 12:00 p.m. helping to open a new air service route between two of the world's greatest cities.

  6. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  7. Newspaper Front Page Coverage of "the Korean Airliner Boeing 747 Massacre" in Six Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong Geun

    A study investigated three United States and three foreign newspapers to determine the direction or bias of coverage of the 1983 Korean Airline (KAL) incident and any differences in coverage. It was hypothesized (1) that the amount of space allotted to the story in U. S. newspapers would be greater than that in foreign newspapers; (2) that there…

  8. Meteorology and Wake Vortex Influence on American Airlines FL-587 Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Rutishauser, David K.; Switzer, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric environment surrounding the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 is investigated. Examined are evidence for any unusual atmospheric conditions and the potential for encounters with aircraft wake vortices. Computer simulations are carried out with two different vortex prediction models and a Large Eddy Simulation model. Wind models are proposed for studying aircraft and pilot response to the wake vortex encounter.

  9. 77 FR 41371 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Airline Operators' Revenues and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... salaries paid to employees in the United States, agents' and brokers' fees and commissions for arrangement.... economic accounts, to support U.S. commercial policy on trade in transportation services, to conduct trade... policy questions related to foreign airline operators' revenues and expenses in the United States....

  10. United States Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 2: Word Meaning and Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air...Navigation Commission was directed to strengthen relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to take steps to ensure air...proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English Language Proficiency (ELP

  11. Detention of Star I Airline's only plane causes havoc / Linas Jegelevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jegelevicius, Linas

    2010-01-01

    Leedu lennukompanii Star1 Airlines teatas 24. septembril, et peatab kõik oma lennud kuni 2. oktoobrini. Leedu lennuaamet uurib Star1 Airlinesi finantsseisu. Paljud reisijad on jäänud lennujaamadesse. Transpordiminister Eligijus Masiulise sõnul võidakse firmalt Euroopa Liidu reeglite rikkumise tõttu lennulitsents ära võtta

  12. Looking for Action: Talk and Gaze Home Position in the Airline Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the embodied nature of discourse for a professional work setting. It examines language in interaction in the airline cockpit, and specifically how shifts in pilots' eye gaze direction can indicate the action of talk, that is, what talk is doing and its relative contribution to work-in-progress. Looking towards the other…

  13. "Checklist Complete". Or Is It? Closing a Task in the Airline Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevile, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    For airline pilots, the call of "checklist complete" is officially prescribed talk to claim that the crew's joint conduct of a checklist is over, and the task can be understood as closed. However, very often this call is not the final talk for the task. This paper uses naturally occurring data, transcriptions of pilots interacting on actual…

  14. 78 FR 28625 - American Airlines, a Subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... the Federal Register on March 26, 2013 (78 FR 18370). Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c) reconsideration may... International Airport, Fleet Services Clerks, Tulsa, Oklahoma; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding... workers of American Airlines, a subsidiary of AMR Corporation, Tulsa International Airport, Fleet...

  15. Investigating brand personality of state-owned and private airlines: Maham Versus Iran Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Karoubi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies need to create exclusion not in the market but in their own capabilities and features in order to gain distinction. The creation and maintenance of distinction through functional features is nearly impossible anymore. Thus, apart from the functional features, companies need to consider their intangible properties, among which brand is one of the most important ones. One of components researchers have detected for brand is personality, which can enhance the preference and loyalty of the customers and influence their decision process. In the service section, due to its specific features, the impacts of brand personality are more important and more complicated and airline companies, as service industries, which provide one of the most intangible products, are no exception. In the current study, using Aaker's Five-Dimension Model for brand personality, brand personality of a state-owned airline company (Iran Air and a private one (Mahan are compared from the perspective of technical directors of travel agencies. The population includes 233 technical directors whose views regarding brand personality of airline companies are studied following the distribution of questionnaires. The results of the data analysis indicate Mahan Airline is superior to Iran Air in all the five dimensions.

  16. Deterministic Price Setting Rules to Guarantee Profitability of Unbundling in the Airline Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diepen, G.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Unbundling the traditional airfare is one of the airline industry’s practices to generate ancillary revenue in its struggle for profitability. However, unbundling might just as well negatively affect profit. In this paper deterministic price setting rules are established to guarantee profitability o

  17. Customers' attributional judgments towards complaint handling in airline service: a confirmatory study based on attribution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-06-01

    Besides flight safety, complaint handling plays a crucial role in airline service. Based upon Kelley's attribution theory, in the present study customers' attributions were examined under different conditions of complaint handling by the airlines. There were 531 passengers (216 women; ages 21 to 63 years, M = 41.5, SD = 11.1) with experiences of customer complaints who were recruited while awaiting boarding. Participants received one hypothetical scenario of three attributional conditions about complaint handling and then reported their attributional judgments. The findings indicated that the passengers were most likely to attribute the company's complaint handling to unconditional compliance when the airline company reacted to customer complaints under low distinctiveness, high consistency, and when consensus among the airlines was low. On the other hand, most passengers attributed the company's complaint handling to conditional compliance under the conditions in which distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus were all high. The results provide further insights into how different policies of complaint management affect customers' attributions. Future directions and managerial implications are also discussed.

  18. 76 FR 22865 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ..., Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower business center, 28042 Madrid... Airlines In the Matter of: Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower business center, 28042 Madrid, Spain; and Ad. de las Cortes Valencianas no 37, Esc.A Puerta 45 46015...

  19. Sur une ligne aerienne. Carrieres bilinques (On an Airline. Bilingual Careers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Valerie; Ullmann, Rebecca

    This multimedia kit for French instruction at the secondary level aims to acquaint students with some basic airline terminology in French. One goal of the modular course is to show students the practical link that exists between the study of French and the work world. The kit is represented by a teacher's guide, a student handbook, and a…

  20. Vulnerable children, stigmatised smokers: The social construction of target audiences in media debates on policies regulating smoking in vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Josh; Weishaar, Heide; Semple, Sean; Duffy, Sheila; Hilton, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Following restrictions on smoking in vehicles carrying children in several countries, legislation to safeguard minors from second-hand smoke exposure in vehicles is under-consideration or has been implemented across the United Kingdom. This article presents the first investigation into social constructions of children, smokers and smoking parents in newsprint media and coverage of debates about protecting children from exposure to second-hand smoke in vehicles. Using Scotland as an example, a...

  1. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  2. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  3. Perceptions of Service Quality: An Empirical Assessment of Modified SERVQUAL Model among Domestic Airline Carriers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Rahim A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature is replete with a large number of theories related to service quality measurement and dimensions in an airline context. To date, there is no consensus of opinion on the generic model and of the number of dimensions most appropriate to evaluate service quality in airline industry. This study investigates service quality dimensions in the Nigerian airline industry. The cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to select 800 respondents among departing air travellers in Lagos State. A structured questionnaire containing 28 items was developed to evaluate the perceived service quality of domestic airlines. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and one-sample t-test. The dimensionality of perceived service quality in Nigeria’s airline industry was explored using exploratory factor analysis. From the analysis carried out, it was established that the modified SERVQUAL model provided a satisfactory level of overall reliability in Nigeria’s airline context, which implies that all the items were cohesive in forming the SERVQUAL dimensions. According to the findings of this study, all service quality dimensions are positively and significantly interrelated. The perceived service quality of domestic airlines across these dimensions was found to be poor. The most dissatisfied dimensions in order of ranking were: flight pattern, reliability, facilities, assurance, responsiveness, employee, and customization. On the basis of the aforementioned findings, this study concludes that airline operators should redefine their service standards to one that is customer-focused by identifying the dimension of service quality most preferred by the passengers and continuously strive to improve service delivery. The study recommends that airline operators should recognize the changing needs and expectations of air travellers and customize their range of services

  4. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  5. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  6. A YEN FOR THE DOLLAR: Airlines and the Transformation of US-Japanese Tourism, 1947-1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Karsner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of transpacific tourism between the United States and Japan from 1947 to 1977, focusing on the key role that Pan American World Airways, Northwest Orient Airlines, and Japan Airlines played in this development. In the late 1940s, travel was mostly by a small upper class leisure market cruising on ships. Linkages between the air carriers and other factors, including governmental policy, travel organizations, and changes in business and culture influenced the industry. By the 1970s, these elements had reshaped the nature and geography of tourism, into a mass airline tourist market characterized by package tours, special interest trips, and consumer values.

  7. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  8. The Smoking Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Examines the complex public debate over the risks of passive smoking that includes the issues of individual choice, personal space, community, social norms, and morality. Discusses the composition of ETS (gases and particulates that disperse into the air when a smoker smokes) and the efforts of tobacco lobbies. (LZ)

  9. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  10. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and lung. It may also cause cancer ... directly expose their lips, mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx to smoke and its toxic and cancer-causing chemicals. In addition, when saliva containing the ...

  11. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  12. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  13. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  14. Heavy smoking and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-Rahman El-Zayadi

    2006-01-01

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necroinflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes.Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis.Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with supression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache,fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling sensation

  15. Gender and the social context of smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors.

  16. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  17. Analysis of Southwest Airline Spider-web Airline Network Structure Characteristics%美西南蛛网式航线网络结构特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林琳; 杨文东

    2015-01-01

    美国西南航空公司运营蛛网式航线网络的成功引起民航界的普遍关注,值得借鉴用于规划我国的航线网络。从美西南航线网络发展历程出发,分析美西南航线网络及航班的情况,划分焦点城市的等级,比较不同等级焦点城市之间的航线开通比例,进而给出美西南蛛网式航线网络的平面及空间结构。综合美西南的运营模式和其航线网络的结构特点,归纳蛛网式航线网络和枢纽式航线网络的关系。%The success of Southwest Airline operating spider‐web airline network (SWAN ) attracted widespread attention of domestic and international civil aviation ,is worthy of reference for the plan‐ning of our country’s route network .First ,the development of Southwest’s airline network is de‐scribed ,the Southwest route network and flight frequency is analyzed ,the focus city’s level is divided and a comparison is made between the different grade focus city routes open ratio ,then the Southwest SWAN’s planar and spatial structure is built .Integrating the Southwest operation mode and the structure characteristics of its route network ,the relationship is summarized between SWAN and the hub‐and‐spoke netw ork .

  18. Customers' expectations of complaint handling by airline service: privilege status and reasonability of demands from a social learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin; Chang, Ming-Hsu; Yang, Chao-Chin

    2009-04-01

    In the airline industry, membership and cabin class are noticeable servicescape features of customers' privilege status. Customers may learn that higher privilege customers are more desired and endured by the airline. From the customers' point of view, those with higher privilege may expect their demands to be complied with when they complain. The present study employed hypothetical scenarios to investigate how the privilege status of passengers and reasonability of their demands influenced their expectations toward the compliance of airline personnel. Analysis showed that higher privilege customers were more likely to expect airline personnel to comply with their demands. Moreover, participants with medium or high levels of privilege status had greater expectations of compliance even when demands were unreasonable. In sum, customer expectations toward complaint handling reflected predictions based on social learning.

  19. Adolescent Light Cigarette Smoking Patterns and Adult Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Light cigarette smoking has had limited research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between light smoking in adolescence with smoking in adulthood. Methods. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, Waves I and IV, were analyzed. Previous month adolescent smoking of 1–5 cigarettes/day (cpd (light smoking; 6–16 cpd (average smoking; 17 or more cpd (heavy smoking; and nonsmoking were compared with the outcome of adult smoking. Results. At baseline, 15.9% of adolescents were light smokers, 6.8% were average smokers, and 3.6% were heavy smokers. The smoking patterns were significantly related to adult smoking. In logistic regression analyses, adolescent light smokers had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.00 of adult smoking; adolescent average or heavy smokers had AOR of 5.57 (95% CI: 4.17, 7.43 and 5.23 (95% CI: 3.29, 8.31, respectively. Conclusion. Individuals who initiate light cigarette smoking during adolescence are more likely to smoke as young adults. Practical Implications. When screening for tobacco use by adolescents, there is a need to verify that the adolescents understand that light smoking constitutes smoking. There is a need for healthcare providers to initiate interventions for adolescent light smoking.

  20. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined ...

  1. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects smokin

  2. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  3. Perceived Service Quality and Customer Loyalty: The Mediating Effect of Passenger Satisfaction in the Nigerian Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim A. Ganiyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term survival and competiveness of the airline business is strongly connected to the quality of service offered by airline operators and their ability to satisfy and build long-term relationships with customers. This study investigates the relationship among service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty in the Nigerian airline industry. The cross-sectional survey research design was chosen in order to collect the primary data, using a structured questionnaire. Convenience sampling was adopted to draw a sample of 800 respondents. The data collected were analysed using correlation and multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study largely support the hypothesized relationships proposed in the conceptual framework. The results specifically reveal that perceived service quality is positively related to both passengers’ satisfaction and loyalty. The relationship between passenger satisfaction and loyalty towards the airlines was also found to be positive. The mediating effect of customer satisfaction between perceived service quality and customer loyalty is also found to be positive and partially supported. On the basis of the findings of this study, we conclude that perceived service quality does influence passenger satisfaction, and by extension, loyalty to the airlines. Thus, improvement of service quality is an adjuvant factor to sustainable differentiation and competitiveness in the airline industry. We therefore, recommend that airline operators develop and implement market-oriented service strategies to identify customers’ needs and expectations in order to serve them better. Additionally, airline operators should measure service quality regularly to assure that they are keep meeting passengers’ expectations, and consider customizing their products and services (as needed to enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  4. Smoking and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, R

    1986-01-01

    2 of the 5 health warnings that must now appear on American cigarette packs and cigarette advertising refer to some of the increased hazards smoking entails for the woman and her unborn child. Yet, the myriad reproductive risks associated with smoking are little known or considered by the general public--or even by physicians--when compared with the dangers of lung cancer, heart attacks and emphysema. In an attempt to remedy that deficit, 8 government agencies sponsored the 1st International Conference on Smoking and Reproductive Health, held October 15-17, 1985 in San Francisco. Speaker after expert speaker connected smoking during pregnancy with increased risks of low birth weight, miscarriage, infant mortality and morbidity--including poorer health of surviving children up to at least age 3--ectopic pregnancy, infertility, menstrual disorders, early menopause, osteoporosis, cervical cancer and dysplasia, cardiovascular disease and placental abnormalities. Similarly, the conference participants documented the association of smoking among men with lower sperm count and increased prevalence of abnormal sperm. The following measures were urged at the closing statements of the conference: 1) an increased effort to inform doctors and health professionals of these findings; 2) increasing the tax on cigarettes, so that smokers would pay for their own health costs; 3) decreasing or eliminating government subsidies for growing tobacco, while helping growers make the transition to nontobacco crops; 4) making smoking cessation programs more widely available; 5) prohibiting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines; and 6) banning all smoking in the workplace.

  5. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torkzaban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspects of the periodontal disease process and to find an explanation for the possible association between smoking and the progression of periodontitis. We evaluated the articles published in English language between 1990 and 2013 with the search terms ‘‘periodontal health and smoking’’, ‘‘periodontal treatment and smoking’’, and ‘‘tobacco smokers and oral hygiene’’. Results Of the total yield of 145 identified publications, 72 were selected for this literature review. The results of the selected papers reflect the effect of smoking on oral hygiene, gingival inflammation and vasculature, gingival crevicular fluid, subgingival microflora in periodontitis, fibroblast function, genetic polymorphism, initiation and progression of periodontal disease and its effect on passive smokers, and host response to periodontal treatment. Conclusions Smoking is a significant risk factor for impaired periodontal health and treatment.

  6. Correlates of smoking initiation among young adults in Ukraine: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovsky Konstantin S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim: To estimate the impact of smoking restrictions in homes and schools, and tobacco advertising and information on smoking initiation by young people in Ukraine. Methods Data of 609 young people aged 15–29 was taken from the national representative survey conducted in June 2005. Outcome measures: The reported age of cigarette initiation was used to characterize the start of smoking experimentation, and the reported age of daily smoking initiation was considered to be a characteristic of established smoking. Analysis: survival analysis Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Results Age of smoking initiation was reported by 87% of young men and 61% of young women, the beginning of daily smoking by 71% and 33% respectively. Being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke and having no household smoking restrictions was associated with a higher risk of earlier smoking initiation both for men and women. For women, this risk was associated with age, HR = 0.95, (95% CI 0.91–0.98, that is, younger girls were more likely to smoke their first cigarette earlier in their lifetime. Those women had a higher risk of early smoking initiation who reported to receive tobacco-related information from magazines, HR = 1.40 (1.01–1.92, and outdoor tobacco advertising, HR = 1.99 (1.45–2.75. With both men and women, the risk of establishing daily smoking was higher in those with lower levels of tobacco-related knowledge and less household smoking restrictions. For women, the risk was higher in those who live in larger cities HR = 1.77 (1.10–2.86, and who received information about tobacco smoking from colleagues or friends HR = 1.83 (1.13–2.95. Conclusion Encouraging people to eliminate their homes of tobacco smoke and tobacco advertising bans can be effective measures in preventing the initiation of smoking among young people. Young female smoking initiation is of special concern in Ukraine, since they are more responsive

  7. Association between Family Structure, Parental Smoking, Friends Who Smoke, and Smoking Behavior in Adolescents with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Nava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations show that the smoking prevalence among asthmatic adolescents is higher than among healthy adolescents, and the causes that lead these asthmatic adolescents to smoke are unclear. We investigated the association between family structure, parental smoking, smoking friends, and smoking in asthmatic adolescents (n = 6,487. After adjusting for sex and age, logistic regression analyses showed that nonintact family structure, parental smoking, and smoking friends are associated with smoking in adolescents with and without asthma. Asthmatic adolescents who reside in the household of a nonintact family have a 1.90 times greater risk of smoking compared with those who live with both biological parents. It is important that parents who have children with asthma be made aware that the presence of smokers in the home and adolescent fraternization with smoking friends not only favor the worsening of asthma, but also induce the habit of smoking.

  8. 'Waiting until they got home': gender, smoking and tobacco exposure in households in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Greaves, Lorraine; Martin, Claudia

    2010-09-01

    The introduction in March 2006 of legislation banning smoking in public places in Scotland raised concerns that smokers would smoke more at home and so increase the exposure of those living with them to tobacco smoke. Drawing on interviews from two qualitative studies conducted after the implementation of the legislation, this article uses a gendered analysis to explore where and why smokers, who lived with non-smokers including children, continued to smoke in their homes. Although very few people attributed any increased home smoking to being a direct consequence of the legislation, many who already smoked there continued, and most women reported little or no disruption to their home smoking post-legislation. Also, because of the changing social environment of smoking, and other life circumstances, a minority of women had increased their levels of home smoking. Compared to the men in these studies, women, particularly those who didn't work outside the home, had restricted social lives and thus were less likely to have smoked in public places before the legislation and spent more time socialising in the homes of other people. In addition, women with children, including women who worked outside their homes, were more likely to spend sustained periods of time caring for children compared to fathers, who were more likely to leave the home to work or socialise. Although home smoking was linked to gendered caring responsibilities, other issues associated with being a smoker also meant that many women smokers chose to keep smoking in their homes.

  9. SMOKING AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Harpreet Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the result of complex interrelationships between infectious agents and host factors. Environmental, acquired, and genetic risk factors modify the expression of disease and may, therefore, affect the onset or progression of periodontitis. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of present review is to consider the association between smoking and periodontal diseases.

  10. Assessing the status of airline safety culture and its relationship to key employee attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Edward L.

    The need to identify the factors that influence the overall safety environment and compliance with safety procedures within airline operations is substantial. This study examines the relationships between job satisfaction, the overall perception of the safety culture, and compliance with safety rules and regulations of airline employees working in flight operations. A survey questionnaire administered via the internet gathered responses which were converted to numerical values for quantitative analysis. The results were grouped to provide indications of overall average levels in each of the three categories, satisfaction, perceptions, and compliance. Correlations between data in the three sets were tested for statistical significance using two-sample t-tests assuming equal variances. Strong statistical significance was found between job satisfaction and compliance with safety rules and between perceptions of the safety environment and safety compliance. The relationship between job satisfaction and safety perceptions did not show strong statistical significance.

  11. IOPS advisor: Research in progress on knowledge-intensive methods for irregular operations airline scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, John E.; Owens, Christopher C.

    1992-01-01

    Our research focuses on the problem of recovering from perturbations in large-scale schedules, specifically on the ability of a human-machine partnership to dynamically modify an airline schedule in response to unanticipated disruptions. This task is characterized by massive interdependencies and a large space of possible actions. Our approach is to apply the following: qualitative, knowledge-intensive techniques relying on a memory of stereotypical failures and appropriate recoveries; and quantitative techniques drawn from the Operations Research community's work on scheduling. Our main scientific challenge is to represent schedules, failures, and repairs so as to make both sets of techniques applicable to the same data. This paper outlines ongoing research in which we are cooperating with United Airlines to develop our understanding of the scientific issues underlying the practicalities of dynamic, real-time schedule repair.

  12. Receipt and use of half-fare airline coupons at selected Department of Energy field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    The receipt and use of half-fare coupons obtained by employees of DOE field offices and DOE contractors while traveling at DOE expense were reviewed. These coupons, issued by United Airlines and American Airlines, provided for air travel at half-fare if used before December 15, 1979. Potential savings to DOE through coupon use ranging from $50,000 to $100,000 were lost, because of ineffective management action by both federal and contractor officials. Recommendations were that DOE ascertain the extent of the failure of contractors to recover coupons from their employees and recover from the contractors the amounts lost. IG submitted a draft of this final report for comment and received the comments of the Controller, the Director of Administration, and the Director of Procurement and Contracts Management. The comments included useful information; and where appropriate, the final report was changed to reflect the comments. In addition, the comments in their entirety are contained in the appendices.

  13. Collective efficacy in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinkerson, Shanna

    This study investigated the relationships between collective efficacy, teamwork, and team performance. Participants were placed into teams, where they worked together in a high-fidelity simulation of an airline operations center. Each individual was assigned a different role to represent different jobs within an airline (Flight Operations Coordinator, Crew Scheduling, Maintenance, Weather, Flight Scheduling, or Flight Planning.) Participants completed a total of three simulations with an After Action Review between each. Within this setting, both team performance and teamwork behaviors were shown to be positively related to expectations for subsequent performance (collective efficacy). Additionally, teamwork and collective efficacy were not shown to be concomitantly related to subsequent team performance. A chi-square test was used to evaluate existence of performance spirals, and they were not supported. The results of this study were likely impacted by lack of power, as well as a lack of consistency across the three simulations.

  14. Business Model as an Inducer of Disruptive Innovations: The Case of Gol Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei de Almeida Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the premises that the success of disruptive innovation is related to the business model adopted by organizations. An analysis of five business models from the literature review - Bovet and Martha (2000, Applegate (2001, Chesbrough and Rosenbloom (2002, Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010, and Rodrigues, Maccari and Lenzi (2012 – was conducted based on the case of the Brazilian Gol Airlines who is recognized as a success business that promoted a disruptive innovation. The results suggest that the assertive choice of the business model can leverage innovation processes, and two of the models listed are adherence to the case studied. Keywords: Disruptive Innovation; Business Model; Innovation Elements; Strategy; Gol Airlines.

  15. Grounded for an ethical dilemma: disequilibrium in a commercial airline pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Friedlander, Joel A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the case of a 41-year-old airline pilot with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo who requests that his diagnosis not be disclosed to his commercial airline employer or his aviation medical examiner because it may result in the suspension of medical certification. The legal and ethical requirements for physicians reporting impaired pilots are discussed as well as practical recommendations for handling such situations. The argument is made that a physician's obligation to honor patient confidentiality should not take precedence over his or her duty to protect the safety and well-being of the airplane passengers and the general public. If the patient chooses not to self-report, a physician has an ethical obligation to report the patient's medical condition to the Federal Aviation Administration.

  16. Use of automated external defibrillators in a Brazilian airline. A 1-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paulo Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available After the incorporation of automated external defibrilators by other airlines and the support of the Brazilian Society of cardiology, Varig Airlines Began the onboard defibrilation program with the initial purpose of equiping wide-body aircrafts frequently used in international flights and that airplanes use in the Rio - São Paulo route. With all fight attendants trained, the automated. External defibrilation devides were incorporated to 34 airplanes of a total pleet of 80 aircrats. The devices were intalled in the bagage compartments secured with velero straps and 2 pairs of electrods, one or which pre-conected to the device to minimize application time. Later, a portable monitor was addres to the ressocitation kit in the long flights. The expansion of the knowledge of the basic life support fundamentors and the correted implantation of the survival chain and of the automated external defibrilators will increase the extense of recovery of cardiorespiratory arrest victins in aircrafts.

  17. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed.

  18. Optimization Model and Algorithm Design for Airline Fleet Planning in a Multiairline Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiobjective mathematical programming model to optimize airline fleet size and structure with consideration of several critical factors severely affecting the fleet planning process. The main purpose of this paper is to reveal how multiairline competitive behaviors impact airline fleet size and structure by enhancing the existing route-based fleet planning model with consideration of the interaction between market share and flight frequency and also by applying the concept of equilibrium optimum to design heuristic algorithm for solving the model. Through case study and comparison, the heuristic algorithm is proved to be effective. By using the algorithm presented in this paper, the fleet operational profit is significantly increased compared with the use of the existing route-based model. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the fleet size and structure are more sensitive to the increase of fare price than to the increase of passenger demand.

  19. STUDY REGARDING COMPANIES PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT THROUGH NON-FINANCIAL INDICATORS – THE CASE OF AIRLINE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Dan TURCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fact that financial information alone is insufficient in assessing a company’s performance is more and more debated. . The present paper aims to analyze the relation between the changes in companies’ market value and selected financial and non-financial indicators for the airline industry. The main aim of this study is to analyze the value relevance of non-financial information in assessing a company’s performance by reference to the airline industry. The results reveal that non-financial indicators “load factor”, “available seat kilometers” and the financial measures “pretax return on assets”,“curent ratio”, ”debt-to-equity ratio” and ”sales growth” are valuable in explaining the stock price evolution.

  20. A Comprehensive Assessment of Biologicals Contained Within Commercial Airliner Cabin Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff; Dekas, Anne; Stuecker, Tara; Newcombe, Dave; Piceno, Yvette; Fuhrman, J.; Andersen, Gary; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Bearman, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Both culture-based and culture-independent, biomarker-targeted microbial enumeration and identification technologies were employed to estimate total microbial and viral burden and diversity within the cabin air of commercial airliners. Samples from each of twenty flights spanning three commercial carriers were collected via air-impingement. When the total viable microbial population was estimated by assaying relative concentrations of the universal energy carrier ATP, values ranged from below detection limits (BDL) to 4.1 x 106 cells/cubic m of air. The total viable microbial population was extremely low in both of Airline A (approximately 10% samples) and C (approximately 18% samples) compared to the samples collected aboard flights on Airline A and B (approximately 70% samples). When samples were collected as a function of time over the course of flights, a gradual accumulation of microbes was observed from the time of passenger boarding through mid-flight, followed by a sharp decline in microbial abundance and viability from the initiation of descent through landing. It is concluded in this study that only 10% of the viable microbes of the cabin air were cultivable and suggested a need to employ state-of-the art molecular assay that measures both cultivable and viable-but-non-cultivable microbes. Among the cultivable bacteria, colonies of Acinetobacter sp. were by far the most profuse in Phase I, and Gram-positive bacteria of the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus were the most abundant during Phase II. The isolation of the human pathogens Acinetobacter johnsonii, A. calcoaceticus, Janibacter melonis, Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum, Massilia timonae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Corynebacterium lipophiloflavum is concerning, as these bacteria can cause meningitis, septicemia, and a handful of sometimes fatal diseases and infections. Molecular microbial community analyses exhibited presence of the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta- proteobacteria, as well as

  1. THE MEASUREMENT OF SERVICE QUALITY WITH SERVQUAL FOR DIFFERENT DOMESTIC AIRLINE FIRMS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Aydin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this research is to determine whether there is a significant differencebetween the passengers’ service quality expectations and service quality perceptions in differentairline firms. The collateral purpose is to find out whether there is a significant difference betweenservice quality expectation and service quality perception of the passengers who have differentsocio-demographic characteristics. To achieve these purposes, the 5 - dimensional scale, suggestedby Parasuraman et.al (1988 was applied to the airline travel sector. The questionnaire was used ininterviewing the passengers at Sabiha Gökçen Airport in Istanbul in Turkey with a “face to face”method. The data was analysed in SPSS 16 program after questionnnaires were collected. Firstly, thedemographic characteristics of passengers were presented for different airline firms. Then the highestand the lowest gaps for the each statement was determined. Lastly it was compared if there was asignificant difference between the service quality expectation and perception for different domesticairline firms.

  2. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. CONCLUSIONS: Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a

  3. [Smoking cessation therapies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, C; Gradl, S

    2010-02-01

    Reducing the consumption of tobacco products in Germany is a health objective that is achievable with smoking cessation treatments for smokers. This objective turns out to be more successful when using different interventions for smoking cessation than with self-initiated smoking cessation methods. This survey describes the range of smoking cessation treatments in Germany and evaluates them on the basis of international guidelines.

  4. Smoking and symbolism: children, communication and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugkåsa, J; Kennedy, O; Barton, M; Abaunza, P S; Treacy, M P; Knox, B

    2001-04-01

    Health promotion, with its concern with empowerment and autonomy, must recognize the agency of its target population. Based on 85 in-depth interviews with 10- to 11-year-old children throughout Northern Ireland, this paper argues that it is necessary to focus on the social relations of children if we are to understand and prevent childhood smoking. Addressing the complex issue of childhood agency, it is argued that regardless of various restrictions to their choices, children can act intentionally in constructing their identities. Instead of viewing the smoking children as communicating with the adult world, we focus on smoking as negotiation of status within the children's culture. Such negotiations utilize symbolism derived from and shared with the 'adult world'. It is important that those analyzing children's lives understand children's ideas and behaviour on their own terms. We must make sure that the very concepts in which the children's experiences are put are appropriate ones. It is suggested that the metaphor 'rite of passage' and terminology such as peer 'pressure' versus adult 'influence', commonly used to analyse the children's smoking behaviour, may actually conceal important aspects of childhood agency.

  5. Can Public Policy Deter Smoking Escalation among Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In the wake of significant budget shortfalls, 37 states and the District of Columbia have recently increased cigarette excise taxes to boost revenues. This study examines the impact of increasing the price of cigarettes, which will occur as a consequence of cigarette excise tax increases, and implementing restrictions on smoking in private…

  6. “NOW HAWAII IS ONLY HOURS AWAY!:” THE AIRLINES ALTER TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Karsner

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how commercial aviation influenced the nature of tourism between 1945 and 1970. Long-term trends such as rising real income, education levels, and leisure time, combined with postwar, airline-initiated developments, such as coach class service and credit plans, to transform pleasure travel for millions of Americans. The most significant changes include the emergence of a large middle class tourist market, and a growing preference for planes over ships and trains for long distance trips.

  7. High level of work stressors increase the risk of mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah S. Widyahening

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Civilian airline pilots have one of the most stressful occupations. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of work stressors and other factors on mental-emotional disturbances among airline pilots. A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing selected pilots of an airline using appropriate questionnaires, during their routine medical examination from May to July 1999 in Jakarta. Five aspects of work stressor were assessed: working conditions, physical conditions of working environment, career development, organization and interpersonal relationship. Mental-emotional disturbances were determined by using the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using relative risk by Cox regression with constant time. From 128 subjects interviewed, 109 could be analyzed. Most of the subjects were married (73.4% and college graduates (91.7%. The number of captains and first officers were almost equal. The prevalence of mental-emotional disturbances was 39.4%. Mental-emotional disturbances were significantly related to work stressors and moderately related to household tension (P = 0.184. Compared to pilots with low levels of work stressors, those with high or very high levels of work stressors had a risk of 4.6 times of mental-emotional disturbances [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 4.64; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01 – 19.65]. Adequate guides to cope work stressors and household tension which related to mental-emotional disturbance is recommended. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:117-21Keywords: mental-emotional disturbance, work stressors, household tension, airline pilots

  8. Singapore Airlines to Fly A380 to Beijing Due to Olympics Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Customers will enjoy exhilarating sporting action,exciting moments when they fly with Singapore Airlincs during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.To satisfy higher demand on its flights during the of the Olympic Games,Singapore Airlines will fly the Airbus A380 super-jumbo,the world's largest passenger plane,on one of its three daily flights between Singapore and Beijing for one week in early August.

  9. CRISIS COMMUNICATION: A STUDY OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES' RESPONSE TO THE MH17 CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This project investigates Malaysia Airlines communicative efforts in the MH17-crisis. The theoretical frame consists of W. Timothy Coombs’ Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT) and Image Restoration Theory by William L. Benoit. The Coombs’ analysis entails looking at the contextual factors to develop relevant strategies. Benoit is used as a framework in the textual analysis to explore which strategies MAS employed - scrutinising press releases from the first 48 hours. We compar...

  10. Assessing the Relationship between Airlines' Maintenance Outsourcing and Aviation Professionals' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Rotorua

    The current economic and security challenges placed an additional burden on U.S. airlines to provide optimum service at reasonable costs to the flying public. In efforts to stay competitive, U.S. airlines increased foreign-based outsourcing of aircraft major repair and overhaul (MRO) mainly to reduce labor costs and conserve capital. This concentrated focus on outsourcing and restructuring, ignored job dissatisfaction among remaining employees which could reduce and or eliminate an airline's competitiveness. The purpose of this quantitative study was (a) to assess the relationship between increased levels of foreign-based MRO outsourcing and aviation professionals' job satisfaction (Y1); (b) to assess the influence of increased levels of foreign-based outsourcing on MRO control (Y2), MRO error rate (Y3), and MRO technical punctuality (Y4) as perceived by aviation professionals; and (c) to assess the influence of increased levels of foreign-based MRO outsourcing on technical skills (Y5) and morale ( Y6) as perceived by aviation professionals. The survey instrument was utilized based on Paul Spector's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire and MRO specific questions. A random sample of 300 U.S. airline participants was requested via MarketTools to meet required sample size of 110 as determined through a priori power analysis. Study data rendered 198 useable surveys of 213 total responses, and correlation, multiple regression, and ANOVA methods were used to test study hypotheses. The Spearman's rho for (Y 1) was statistically significant, p = .010 and multiple regression was statistically significant, p < .001. A one-way ANOVA indicated participants differed in their opinions of (Y2) through (Y6), Recommendations for future research include contrasting domestic and global MRO providers, and examining global aircraft parts suppliers and aviation technical training.

  11. Secondhand Smoke and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and is retained in clothing, hair, curtains, and furniture. Many people find ETS unpleasant, annoying, and irritating ... children of non-smoking mothers. Modest impairment in school performance and intellectual achievement has also been demonstrated. ...

  12. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  13. Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty: A Study of Interrelationships and Effects in Nigerian Domestic Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim A. Ganiyu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate concerning the interrelationships and effects between customer satisfaction and loyalty has been tossed back and forth, without a consensus opinion. This study examines the linkages between customer satisfaction and loyalty in Nigerian domestic airline industry. The study adopted correlation research design to elicit information via questionnaire from 600 domestic air passengers drawn through convenience sampling technique. The data obtained from the respondents were analysed with Pearson correlation analysis, linear regression, and One-way analysis of variance. Based on 383 completed data, the results provide support for the association and influence of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The study also found out that frequent air travelers displayed more loyalty tendency towards airline carriers compared to non-frequent air passengers. On the basis of aforementioned findings, the study concludes that customer satisfaction is extremely important in building and enhancing customer loyalty. Therefore, airline carriers should implement strategies that will guarantee long-term relationship with air travellers by offering service quality that will meet and exceeds their expectations and by extension customer satisfaction.

  14. Assessing the structure of non-routine decision processes in Airline Operations Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richters, Floor; Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Heerkens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Unfamiliar severe disruptions challenge Airline Operations Control professionals most, as their expertise is stretched to its limits. This study has elicited the structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during unfamiliar disruptions by mapping three macrocognitive activities on the decision ladder: sensemaking, option evaluation and action planning. The relationship between this structure and decision quality was measured. A simulated task was staged, based on which think-aloud protocols were obtained. Results show that the general decision process structure resembles the structure of experts working under routine conditions, in terms of the general structure of the macrocognitive activities, and the rule-based approach used to identify options and actions. Surprisingly, high quality of decision outcomes was found to relate to the use of rule-based strategies. This implies that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing. Practitioner Summary: We examined the macrocognitive structure of Airline Operations Control professionals' decision process during a simulated unfamiliar disruption in relation to decision quality. Results suggest that successful professionals are capable of dealing with unfamiliar problems by reframing them into familiar ones, rather than to engage in knowledge-based processing.

  15. Considering Competition to Solve a Flight Schedule and Aircraft Routing Problem for Small Airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Díaz-Ramírez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For the case of low-cost airlines, which are characterized by having a single fleet with a small number of airplanes, ina previous work, a heuristic algorithm (AFS-MRA was developed to simultaneously find the flight schedule and theaircraft routes subject to maintenance constraints. This work advances this algorithm by incorporating competition inthe planning process (MAFS-MRA.Within a time frame with a given demand data, competition is seen as a game with two players (one airline and all itscompetitors, where the strategies are all the potential origin-destinations that could be included in the flight schedule,and the payment matrix contains the objective function coefficients that depend on the market share and the routespreviously selected.Numerical experimentation was undertaken using real data for the case of two airlines that operate at TolucaInternational Airport in Mexico. It was found that, by considering competition, the occupation improves to 3% and thatthe number of flights required to satisfy the demand was reduced to 21%. Besides, the updating process reduces theprofit computation error in almost 80%, as compared to the real market behavior for the period under study.

  16. Progress in airline distribution systems: The threat of new entrants to incumbent players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Sismanidou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, distribution has been a key ICT (Information and Communication Technology area for airlines and this sector has been dominated by four (now three Global Distribution Systems (GDSs whose primacy has been threatened over the last four years by a set of new players, the so called GDS New Entrants (GNEs.  GNEs emerged with the advent of the Internet and open source technology as ‘disintermediation’ facilitators and generated vast interest from airlines because they promised to reduce the cost of distribution. This paper explores the impact of ICTs on airlines with a focus on GDSs. It provides an overview of the changing market dynamics, analyses the environment that led to the appearance of GNEs and pinpoints the issues behind their until now failure to provide a true alternative to the GDSs.  This analysis complements existing academic research in that it clarifies critical issues in the air travel distribution field and provides an overview of current industry developments.

  17. Investigation of longitudinal aerodynamic parameters identification method for fly-by-wire passenger airliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhao; Wang Lixin; Xu Zijian; Tan Xiangsheng

    2013-01-01

    The flight control system of a fly-by-wire (FBW) passenger airliner with a complex frame-work and high feedback gain augmentation would change the original characteristic of a loaded sig-nal and suppress the excitation of an airplane’s pertinent motion modes. Taking a research example of an FBW passenger airliner model with longitudinal relaxed-static-stability, a new method of signal type selection and signal parameter design is proposed, through analysis of signal energy distribution and plane body’s frequency response. According to CCAR60--the Appraisal and Use Regulation of Flight Simulator Device, the simulation validation of the FBW passenger airliner’s longitudinal aerodynamic parameters identification is put forward. The validation result indicates that the designed signal could excite the longitudinal motion mode of the FBW passenger airliner adequately and the multiparameter comparison in simulation meets the objective test request of CCAR60. Meanwhile, the relative errors of aerodynamic parameters are less than 10%.

  18. Attractiveness-Based Airline Network Models with Embedded Spill and Recapture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Di Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In airline revenue management, the modeling of the spill and recapture effects is essential for an accurate estimation of the passenger flow and the revenue in a flight network. However, as most current approaches toward spill and recapture involve either non-linearity or a tremendous amount of additional variables, it is computationally intractable to apply those techniques to the classical network design and capacity planning models.Design/methodology: We present a new framework that incorporates the spill and recapture effects, where the spill from an itinerary is recaptured by other itineraries based on their attractiveness. The presented framework distributes the accepted demand of an itinerary according to the currently available itineraries, without adding extra variables for the recaptured spill. Due to its compactness, we integrate the framework with the classical capacity planning and network design models.Findings: Our preliminary computational study shows an increase of 1.07% in profitability anda better utilization of the network capacity, on a medium-size North American airline provided by Sabre Airline Solutions.Originality/value: Our investigation leads to a holistic model that tackles the network design and capacity planning simultaneously with an accurate modeling of the spill and re- capture effects.Furthermore, the presented framework for spill and recapture is versatile and can be easily applied to other disciplines such as the hospitality industry and product line design (PLD problems.

  19. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  20. 'Smoking kills' vs. 'Smoking makes restless': Effectiveness of different warning labels on smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glock, S.; Ritter, S.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Müller, B.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Warning labels on cigarette packages rely on the negative health aspects of smoking. For smokers, however, smoking is related to positive as well as to negative outcomes. Positive smoking outcomes are shown to be crucial in activating smoking behaviour. Thus, this study compared current health warni

  1. Circadian adaptation of airline pilots during extended duration operations between the USA and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa; van den Berg, Margo; Mulrine, Hannah; Signal, Leigh; Mangie, Jim

    2013-10-01

    This study tracked circadian adaptation among airline pilots before, during, and after trips where they flew from Seattle (SEA) or Los Angeles (LAX) to Asia (7--9 time zones westward), spent 7--12 d in Asia, and then flew back to the USA. In Asia, pilots' exposures to local time cues and sleep opportunities were constrained by duty (short-haul flights crossing ≤ 1 time zone/24 h). Fourteen captains and 16 first officers participated (median age = 56 versus 48 yrs, p.U) < 0.001). Their sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 d pre-trip to 5 d post-trip. For every flight, Karolinska Sleepiness and Samn-Perelli Fatigue scales and 5-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) tests were completed pre-flight and at top of descent (TOD). Participants had ≥ 3 d free of duty prior to outbound flight(s). From 72--24 h prior to departure (baseline sleep), mean total sleep/24 h (TST) = 7.00 h (SD = 1.18 h) and mean sleep efficiency = 87% (SD = 4.9%). Most pilots (23/30) flew direct to and from Asia, but 7 LAX-based pilots flew via a 1-d layover in Honolulu (HNL). On flights with ≥ 2 pilots, mean total in-flight sleep varied from 0.40 to 2.09 h outbound and from 0.74 to 1.88 h inbound. Duty patterns in Asia were variable, with ≤ 2 flights/d (mean flight duration = 3.53 h, SD = 0.53 h). TST on days 17 in Asia did not differ from baseline (p.F) = 0.2031). However, mean sleep efficiency was significantly lower than baseline on days 5--7 (p.F) = 0.0041). More pilots were on duty between 20:00 and 24:00 h on days 57 (mean = 21%) than on days 24 (mean = 14%). Sleep propensity distribution phase markers and chi-square periodogram analyses suggest that adaptation to local time was complete by day 4 in Asia. On pre-flight PVT tests in Asia, the slowest 10% of responses improved for flights departing 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0484). At TOD, the slowest 10% of responses improved across days for flights arriving 14:00--19:59 h (p.F) = 0.0349) and 20:00--01:59 h (p

  2. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  3. A National Survey of Public Support for Restrictions on Youth Access to Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, William J.; Crowe, James W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a national telephone survey that measured public support for seven proposals to restrict youth access to tobacco products. Nearly all respondents believed child and adolescent smoking was a serious problem. Most supported all proposed measures to restrict children's access to tobacco and to increase the cigarette excise tax. (Author/SM)

  4. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  5. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting.

  6. Smoking and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Behrakis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is considered to be one of the most significant causes of complications in pregnancy and is associated with an unfavourable outcome in childbirth compared with pregnancy in non-smokers. Specifically, smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of placenta praevia, abruptio placentae, ectopic gestation and premature rupture of the membranes (PRM. In addition, research has established that smoking during pregnancy increases the rates of low birth weight (LBW, perinatal mortality, premature birth and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS. As these children grow up they present a variety of health problems, including respiratory illness, behaviour disturbances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and high arterial blood pressure. LBW is also associated with an increased incidence of health problems in the neonatal period. Effects have been documented of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the future fertility of male infants and the occurrence of congenital abnormalities, and a connection has been reported between daily maternal smoking in early pregnancy and infantile autism. Pneumon 2010, 23(2:153-167.

  7. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  8. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  9. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Par 2; Analysis Using the Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation; the failure to increase capacity at the same rate as the growth in demand results in unreliable service and systemic delay. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making that affects geographic access, economic access, and airline finances, extending the analysis of these factors using historic data (from Part 1 of the report). The Airline Schedule Optimization Model (ASOM) was used to evaluate how exogenous factors (passenger demand, airline operating costs, and airport capacity limits) affect geographic access (markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size), economic access (airfares), airline finances (profit), and air transportation efficiency (aircraft size). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of airport capacity limits, as well as the effect of increased hedged fuel prices, which serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed; also incorporated are demand elasticity curves based on historical data that provide information about how passenger demand is affected by airfare changes.

  10. Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby grow. Try to get 8 hours of sleep (or more) each night. An hour or 2 of rest in the afternoon is also good for you. Finally, if you smoke, drink alcohol or use drugs, stop now. These things can hurt your baby. This may be all that is needed to improve your baby's health, as well as your own. ...

  11. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  12. Do cognitive attributions for smoking predict subsequent smoking development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Azen, Stanley P; MacKinnon, David P; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals' cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (β=0.11, psocial image (β=0.10, p=Social image (β=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (β=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (β=0.15, pmediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs.

  13. Handbook of smoke control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Klote, John H; Turnbull, Paul G; Kashef, Ahmed; Ferreira, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Smoke Control Engineering extends the tradition of the comprehensive treatment of smoke control technology, including fundamental concepts, smoke control systems, and methods of analysis. The handbook provides information needed for the analysis of design fires, including considerations of sprinklers, shielded fires, and transient fuels. It is also extremely useful for practicing engineers, architects, code officials, researchers, and students. Following the success of Principles of Smoke Management in 2002, this new book incorporates the latest research and advances in smoke control practice. New topics in the handbook are: controls, fire and smoke control in transport tunnels, and full-scale fire testing. For those getting started with the computer models CONTAM and CFAST, there are simplified instructions with examples. This is the first smoke control book with climatic data so that users will have easy-to-use weather data specifically for smoke control design for locations in the U.S., Can...

  14. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting.

  15. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke include children, African Americans, those living in poverty, the less well- educated, and those who live ... avoid all indoor environments that permit smoking.” 10 • World Health Organization (2007) – In its report, Protection From ...

  16. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  17. Quit Smoking: Latest NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... with chest X-rays. Clinical Trials Related to Smoking Clinical trials are scientific studies that try to ...

  18. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Electronic Cigarette Explosions and Fires: The 2015 Experience Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  19. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older ... may wonder if it’s too late to quit smoking. Or you may ask yourself if it’s even ...

  20. CO2 column-averaged volume mixing ratio derived over Tsukuba from measurements by commercial airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsueda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (XCO2 during the period from January 2007 to May 2008 over Tsukuba, Japan, were derived by using CO2 concentration data observed by Japan Airlines Corporation (JAL commercial airliners, based on the assumption that CO2 profiles over Tsukuba and Narita were the same. CO2 profile data for 493 flights on clear-sky days were analysed in order to calculate XCO2 with an ancillary dataset: Tsukuba observational data (by rawinsonde and a meteorological tower or global meteorological data (NCEP and CIRA-86. The amplitude of seasonal variation of XCO2 (Tsukuba observational from the Tsukuba observational data was determined by least-squares fit using a harmonic function to roughly evaluate the seasonal variation over Tsukuba. The highest and lowest values of the obtained fitted curve in 2007 for XCO2 (Tsukuba observational were 386.4 and 381.7 ppm in May and September, respectively. The dependence of XCO2 on the type of ancillary dataset was evaluated. The average difference between XCO2 (global from global climatological data and XCO2 (Tsukuba observational, i.e., the bias of XCO2 (global based on XCO2 (Tsukuba observational, was found to be -0.621 ppm with a standard deviation of 0.682 ppm. The uncertainty of XCO2 (global based on XCO2 (Tsukuba observational was estimated to be 0.922 ppm. This small uncertainty suggests that the present method of XCO2 calculation using data from airliners and global climatological data can be applied to the validation of GOSAT products for XCO2 over airports worldwide.

  1. Comparison of different decontaminant delivery methods for sterilizing unoccupied commercial airliner cabins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Qingyan [National Air Transport Center of Excellence for Research in the Intermodal Transport Environment (RITE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47905 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Effective decontamination is crucial if an airliner cabin is contaminated by biological contaminants, such as infectious disease viruses or intentionally released biological agents. This study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method as a tool and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an exemplary decontaminant and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores as a simulant contaminant to investigate three VHP delivery methods for sterilizing two different airliner cabins. The CFD first determined the airflow and the transient distributions of the contaminant and decontaminant in cabins. Auxiliary equations were implemented into the CFD model for evaluating efficacy of the sterilization process. The improved CFD model was validated by the measured airflow and simulated contaminant distributions obtained from a cabin mockup and the measured efficacy data from the literature. The three decontaminant delivery methods were (1) to supply the mixed VHP and air through the environmental control system of a cabin, (2) to send mixed VHP and air through a front door and to extract them from a back door of a cabin, and (3) to send directly VHP to a cabin and enhance the mixing with air in the cabin by fans. The two air cabins studied were a single-aisle and a twin-aisle airliner one. The results show that the second decontaminant delivery method (displacement method) was the best because the VHP distributions in the cabins were most uniform, the sterilization time was moderate, and the corrosion risk was low. The method displaced the existing air by the air/disinfectant solution, rather than dispersive mixing as the other two methods. (author)

  2. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Demir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001. The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5% among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5% among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

  3. The impact of downsizing on knowledge sharing in an airline company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Kusumawardhani Soeprapto Putri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies are becoming more proactive towards changes in face of the turbulent environment. As the market becomes increasingly unpredictable, people are forced to develop their individual potentials for the sake of survival. Besides personal development, interaction among people through sharing of knowledge is equally critical. This paper discusses the impact of downsizing on knowledge sharing environment in an airline company. The findings reveal that employees had different views on the impact of downsizing on knowledge sharing. Their views were influenced by self-enthusiasm towards knowledge sharing. The availability of media for sharing also had an influence on knowledge sharing.

  4. Airline seat inventory control benefiting from currency differentials to enhance revenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Love

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop an airline seat inventory control model which will capitalise on currency differentials that exist between city pairs. The approach taken here is to maximise Expected Marginal Seat Revenues as proposed by Belobaba for non-nested fare classes. the basic Expected Marginal Seat Revenue model is extended to explicitly include the effects of overbooking. Data from the South African Airways return flight between Cape Town and London is utilised to demonstrate the model.

  5. In situ emission measurements in the wake of subsonic jet airliners at cruise altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, P.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baughcum, St. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    In the course of the POLINAT campaigns of 1994 and 1995 several flights were carried out to measure NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} in the young exhaust plumes of commercial wide-bodied jet airlines at altitude. From these measurements in flight NO{sub x} emission indices were derived which were used to test current NO{sub x} emission index prediction methods. Taking into account the error of the measurements and uncertainties in the input parameters for the predictions, the results of the two fuel flow base prediction methods agreed well with the measured values. (author) 13 refs.

  6. Lessons from cross-fleet/cross-airline observations - Evaluating the impact of CRM/LOFT training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the crew resource management/line oriented flight training (CRM/LOFT) program to help determine the level of standardization across fleets and airlines in the critical area of evaluating crew behavior and performance. One of the goals of the project is to verify that check airmen and LOFT instructors within organizations are evaluating CRM issues consistently and that differences observed between fleets are not a function of idiosyncracies on the part of observers. Attention is given to the research tools for crew evaluation.

  7. Comparative Qualitative Research Distinguishing Safety Features Among Aviation Safety Action Programs in the United States Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakalapudi, Naga Swathi Kiran

    Over the years, aviation safety has been influenced by continuous implementations of both proactive and reactive policies by both regulatory boards and also, aviation service providers. This achievement has been possible mainly because of the safety management tools like the Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) which derives its roots from the much earlier Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides guidelines and procedures for installation and development of an ASAP, for every airline in the United States. In this study, how different United States air carriers apply ASAP in their organizations is investigated.

  8. Building An Airline,EVA Airways and Its Worldwide Aviation Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Evergreen Group is as comfortable in the air as it is on the sea, and its prominence in international transport is growing steadily in these realms. After establishing Evergreen Marine and making it into one of the world's premier ocean carriers with just 20 years of service, the company took to the skies in 1989 by forming EVA Air. It focused on quality service and safety,and built EVA to become Taiwan's leading independent airline. Today, EVA Air carries passengers and cargo to all corners of the globe.

  9. A survey of schoolchildren's exposure to secondhand smoke in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Stephen W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data describing the exposure of Malaysian schoolchildren to Secondhand Smoke (SHS. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing schoolchildren's exposures to SHS in Malaysia. Method This cross-sectional study was carried out to measure salivary cotinine concentrations among 1064 schoolchildren (10-11 years attending 24 schools in Malaysia following recent partial smoke-free restrictions. Parents completed questionnaires and schoolchildren provided saliva samples for cotinine assay. Results The geometric mean (GM salivary cotinine concentrations for 947 non-smoking schoolchildren stratified by household residents' smoking behaviour were: for children living with non-smoking parents 0.32 ng/ml (95% CI 0.28-0.37 (n = 446; for children living with a smoker father 0.65 ng/ml (95% CI 0.57-0.72 (n = 432; for children living with two smoking parents 1.12 ng/ml (95% CI 0.29-4.40 (n = 3; for children who live with an extended family member who smokes 0.62 ng/ml (95% CI 0.42-0.89 (n = 33 and for children living with two smokers (father and extended family member 0.71 ng/ml (95% CI 0.40-0.97 (n = 44. Parental-reported SHS exposures showed poor agreement with children's self-reported SHS exposures. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that cotinine levels were positively associated with living with one or more smokers, urban residence, occupation of father (Armed forces, parental-reported exposure to SHS and education of the father (Diploma/Technical certificate. Conclusions This is the first study to characterise exposures to SHS using salivary cotinine concentrations among schoolchildren in Malaysia and also the first study documenting SHS exposure using salivary cotinine as a biomarker in a South-East Asian population of schoolchildren. Compared to other populations of similarly aged schoolchildren, Malaysian children have higher salivary cotinine concentrations. The partial nature of smoke

  10. The Effects of Applying Revenue Management on Customer Satisfaction in Airline Industry: An Experimental Study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambat Lupiyoadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research mainly discusses about the effects of applying revenue management, specifically in the contexts of inventory control (variation in ticket prices for the same flight and class and denied boarding (permissibility of reservations exceeding carrying capacity as a hedging practice over the possibility of tickets cancellation on the customers’ satisfaction toward airlines in Indonesia. Experimental method was applied on the research, involving students from University of Indonesia asparticipants. The results showed that inventory control policy partly affected customer satisfaction, while the denied boarding policy fully affected their satisfaction. These research findings can contributeto further studies on consumers’ behaviour in dynamic airlines industry, mainly in emerging markets such as Indonesia.Keywords: Airlines, Revenue Management, Customer Satisfaction

  11. 75 FR 43564 - TA-W-71,483, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Houston, TX; TA-W-71,483A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration TA-W-71,483, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Houston, TX; TA-W-71,483A, Continental Airlines, Inc., Reservations Division, Tampa, FL;...

  12. Market presence in China strengthened Network growth and Dual-Chinese-Hub Strategy More frequet Flyer Benefit——Air China and shanhai Airlines Join Star Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the end of 2007, Air China Limited (hereinafter "Air China") and Shanghai Airlines, formally joined Star Alliance at a ceremony held in the new Terminal Three at Beijing Capital International Airport. With the addition of the two Chinese airlines, Star Alliance now has 19 member carriers operating 17,000 daily flights to 897 destinations in 160 countries.

  13. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental fact

  14. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Can I Quit Smoking? A A A What's in this article? Where ... becoming tobacco-free. Many people don't quit smoking because they think it's too hard, and it's ...

  15. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma A A A What's in this ... family photo albums full of pictures with people smoking at all kinds of events, from kids' birthday ...

  16. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease and stroke. 2,4,5 Secondhand smoke causes nearly 34,000 premature deaths from heart disease each year in the United States among nonsmokers. 4 Nonsmokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or at ... smoke exposure causes more than 8,000 deaths from stroke annually. ...

  17. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  18. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepeis Neil E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all California casinos currently allow smoking, which leads to potentially high patron exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke pollutants. Some argue that smoking restrictions or bans would result in a business drop, assuming > 50% of patrons smoke. Evidence in Nevada and responses from the 2008 California tobacco survey refute this assertion. The present study investigates the proportion of active smokers in southern California tribal casinos, as well as occupancy and PM2.5 levels in smoking and nonsmoking sections. Methods We measured active-smoker and total-patron counts during Friday or Saturday night visits (two per casino to smoking and nonsmoking gaming areas inside 11 southern California casinos. We counted slot machines and table games in each section, deriving theoretical maximum capacities and occupancy rates. We also measured PM2.5 concentrations (or used published levels in both nonsmoking and smoking areas. Results Excluding one casino visit with extremely high occupancy, we counted 24,970 patrons during 21 casino visits of whom 1,737 were actively smoking, for an overall active- smoker proportion of 7.0% and a small range of ~5% across casino visits (minimum of 5% and maximum of 10%. The differences in mean inter-casino active-smoker proportions were not statistically significant. Derived occupancy rates were 24% to 215% in the main (low-stakes smoking-allowed slot or table areas. No relationship was found between observed active-smoker proportions and occupancy rate. The derived maximum capacities of nonsmoking areas were 1% to 29% of the overall casino capacity (most under 10% and their observed occupancies were 0.1 to over 3 times that of the main smoking-allowed casino areas. Seven of twelve visits to nonsmoking areas with no separation had occupancy rates greater than main smoking areas. Unenclosed nonsmoking areas don’t substantially protect occupants from PM2.5 exposure. Nonsmoking areas

  19. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  20. The Smoking Milkshake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer; Luebbers, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea is designed for students to learn about the ingredients in cigarettes and the potential short-term health consequences of these ingredients, as well as to learn about the general effects of smoking. Students will complete an activity to use this information in a hypothetical, but potentially, real-world situation.…

  1. Up in Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    An activity that introduces the concept of chaos to students is presented. Smoke rising from burning incense is used to represent changes in atmospheric flow. The lab, involving fluid dynamics, avoids mathematical models to highlight deterministic chaos within nature itself. Reproducible pages are provided. (KR)

  2. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  3. Einstein Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  4. Competitive Strategies Analysis of Airlines%航空企业的竞争战略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣

    2012-01-01

    随着航空客运市场竞争的日趋激烈,如何在激烈的市场竞争中求得生存并取得发展,是所有航空公司不得不考虑的问题。文中结合以服务闻名的新加坡航空公司、以及以低价闻名的春秋、西南航空公司航空的成功案例,对比低成本战略和差异化服务战略的具体优势,提出航空公司应该使用有侧重的合并战略来应对El益激烈的竞争市场。最后对针对航空公司的营运规模提出具体的建议与方法。%With the competition increasingly fierce, all Airlines have no alternative but force themselves to directly facing the cruel problem--how to survive. This paper takes Singapore Airlines which is known with fabulous service, Spring Airlines and Southwest Airlines which are famous with their low price as success examples to compare the advantages of adopting the low-cost strategy and differentiation strategy. Moreover, it claims that to prepare for the competitive market in future, airlines should employ combined strategy with emphasis on either of them. Finally, some precious suggestions are summed assorting to airlines operating scales.

  5. [Smoking and art. History of smoking in Norway in paintings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I F

    1997-12-10

    The habit of smoking was well-known in Norway in the first half of the sixteenth century. Tobacco-smoking is seen in Norwegian paintings. In the nineteenth century, long and artistic pipes were used by men relaxing after a pleasant dinner. In self portraits of Christian Krohg and Edvard Munch we see them smoking pipes and cigarettes surrounded by smoke. In an exhibition of portraits of Norwegian Authors, ten out of seventy authors were portrayed with a pipe, a cigar or a cigarette. There are various interpretations of the use of smoking in art. A simple explanation is that this was an accepted part of life at that time. The authors may have believed that they concentrated better when they smoked and elegance may have been of importance for many of them. The symbolic significance of cigarette-smoking has been of great value in the marketing of tobacco-products.

  6. Design of Spider WebAirline Network Model%蛛网式航线网络模型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛伟; 朱金福; 吴薇薇

    2012-01-01

    在枢纽式航线网络蓬勃发展的背景下,蛛网式航线网络作为一种新兴的网络结构,它的出现引起了国内外的广泛关注.针对蛛网式航线网络的要素进行了深入分析,从减少非必要的中转的角度出发,提出旅客时间价值系数的概念,将航空公司的运输成本和旅客时间价值作为总效用,设计出蛛网式航线网络效用模型.通过使用该模型,可以设计出蛛网式航线网络并分析其每条航线的竞争力.基于该模型对于每条起讫节点流(Origin-Destination,OD流)可分解的性质,提出了基于效用理论的最短路径算法,利用我国15城市数据建立了蛛网式航线网络模型实例.求解的结果表明,旅客时间价值系数对蛛网式航线网络以及蛛网式航线网络的竞争力的影响.%The spider web airline network, a new airline network, has attracted international and domestic scholars' attentions. It is different from,the current mainstream hub-and-spoke airline network in terms of network structure and operating style. After analyzing the spider web airline network considering minimizing unnecessary transfer, this paper proposes a concept of passengers' value of travel time. Furthermore, a spider web airline network utility model is developed using a total utility which combines transport cost and passenger' s cost of travel time. One advantage of this model is that it can decompose the Origin-Destination (OD) flow. Based on this feature, a shortest utility path algorithm is presented to solve the problem. An empirical study is conducted based on a spider web airline network using the data from 15 Chinese major metropolitan airports. The empirical study demonstrates the advantages of spider web airline network. It also indicates that passengers' value of travel time has impacts on the spider web airline network.

  7. A Selection Model to Logistic Centers Based on TOPSIS and MCGP Methods: The Case of Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Huang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The location selection of a logistics center is a crucial decision relating to cost and benefit analysis in airline industry. However, it is difficult to be solved because there are many conflicting and multiple objectives in location problems. To solve the problem, this paper integrates fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS and multichoice goal programming (MCGP to obtain an appropriate logistics center from many alternative locations for airline industry. The proposed method in this paper will offer the decision makers (DMs to set multiple aspiration levels for the decision criteria. A numerical example of application is also presented.

  8. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  9. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  10. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  11. [Costs and benefits of smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, J J; van Gils, P F; Kok, L; Talhout, R; Feenstra, T L

    2017-01-01

    - Two recent societal cost-benefit analyses have documented the costs of smoking and the cost-effectiveness of preventing smoking.- Smoking costs the Netherlands society EUR 33 billion per year.- The majority of this is the monetary value of health loss; these are "soft" euros that cannot be re-spent.- There is not a great deal of difference between costs and benefits when expressed in "hard" euros, which means that there is no clear business case for anti-smoking policy.- The greatest benefit of discouraging smoking is improved health for the individual and increased productivity for the business sector; however, the benefits cannot be easily realised, because even in the most favourable scenario the number of smokers will decrease slowly.- Excise duties seem to offer the most promising avenue for combating smoking. The benefits of anti-smoking policy, therefore, consist mainly of tax revenues for the government.- Stringent policy is required to transform tax revenues into health gains.

  12. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  13. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  14. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  15. Inter-annual variations of CO2 observed by commercial airliner in the CONTRAIL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Niwa, Yosuke; Umezawa, Taku

    2016-04-01

    Since 2005, we have conducted an observation program for greenhouse gases using the passenger aircraft of the Japan Airlines named Comprehensive Observation Network for TRace gases by AIrLiner (CONTRAIL). Over the past 10 years, successful operation of Continuous CO2 Measuring Equipment (CME) has delivered more than 6 million in-situ CO2 data from about 12000 flights between Japan and Europe, Australia, North America, or Asia. The large number of CME data enable us to well characterize spatial distributions and seasonal changes of CO2 in wide regions of the globe especially the Asia-Pacific regions. While the mean growth rates for the past 10 years were about 2 ppm/year, large growth rates of about 3 ppm/year were found in the wide latitudinal bands from 30S to 70N from the second half of 2012 to the first half of 2013. The multiyear data sets have the potential to help understand the global/regional CO2 budget. One good example is the significant inter-annual difference in CO2 vertical profiles observed over Singapore between October 2014 and October 2015, which is attributable to the massive biomass burnings in Indonesia in 2015.

  16. An evaluation of an airline cabin safety education program for elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Meng-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge, attitude, and behavior intentions of elementary school students about airline cabin safety before and after they took a specially designed safety education course were examined. A safety education program was designed for school-age children based on the cabin safety briefings airlines given to their passengers, as well as on lessons learned from emergency evacuations. The course is presented in three modes: a lecture, a demonstration, and then a film. A two-step survey was used for this empirical study: an illustrated multiple-choice questionnaire before the program, and, upon completion, the same questionnaire to assess its effectiveness. Before the program, there were significant differences in knowledge and attitude based on school locations and the frequency that students had traveled by air. After the course, students showed significant improvement in safety knowledge, attitude, and their behavior intention toward safety. Demographic factors, such as gender and grade, also affected the effectiveness of safety education. The study also showed that having the instructor directly interact with students by lecturing is far more effective than presenting the information using only video media. A long-term evaluation, the effectiveness of the program, using TV or video accessible on the Internet to deliver a cabin safety program, and a control group to eliminate potential extraneous factors are suggested for future studies.

  17. Neurobiological differences in mental rotation and instrument interpretation in airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladky, Ronald; Stepniczka, Irene; Boland, Edzard; Tik, Martin; Lamm, Claus; Hoffmann, André; Buch, Jan-Philipp; Niedermeier, Dominik; Field, Joris; Windischberger, Christian

    2016-06-21

    Airline pilots and similar professions require reliable spatial cognition abilities, such as mental imagery of static and moving three-dimensional objects in space. A well-known task to investigate these skills is the Shepard and Metzler mental rotation task (SMT), which is also frequently used during pre-assessment of pilot candidates. Despite the intuitive relationship between real-life spatial cognition and SMT, several studies have challenged its predictive value. Here we report on a novel instrument interpretation task (IIT) based on a realistic attitude indicator used in modern aircrafts that was designed to bridge the gap between the abstract SMT and a cockpit environment. We investigated 18 professional airline pilots using fMRI. No significant correlation was found between SMT and IIT task accuracies. Contrasting both tasks revealed higher activation in the fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, and medial precuneus for IIT, whereas SMT elicited significantly stronger activation in pre- and supplementary motor areas, as well as lateral precuneus and superior parietal lobe. Our results show that SMT skills per se are not sufficient to predict task accuracy during (close to) real-life instrument interpretation. While there is a substantial overlap of activation across the task conditions, we found that there are important differences between instrument interpretation and non-aviation based mental rotation.

  18. Using a pneumatic support to correct sitting posture for prolonged periods: a study using airline seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart M; Fenwick, Chad M J

    2009-09-01

    Prolonged sitting with spine flexion has been linked to low back disorders. A variety of mechanisms account for this based on biomechanical and neurological variables. Airline seats typically cause pronounced lumbar flexion due to their hollowed seat back design. A pneumatic support, placed between the seat back and the lumbar spine, was tested to see if lumbar flexion was reduced. Results showed that when the seats were positioned in the upright position, 15 of 20 participants experienced reduced lumbar flexion (by 15 degrees on average) with the support. The study was repeated on the five non-responders with the seatback set in the reclined position. This resulted in another four experiencing less lumbar flexion. Since seated flexion is associated with disc stress, reducing flexion with the support reduced lumbar stress. Spine flexion that results from prolonged sitting is associated with disc stress and pain. The pneumatic support tested here reduced spine flexion. While it is not known why airline seats are designed with no lumbar support, which causes excessive lumbar flexion while seated, the pneumatic support corrected this deficit. Reclining the seatback enhanced this effect.

  19. Multistage optical smoke detection approach for smoke alarm systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truc Kim Thi; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2013-05-01

    We propose a novel multistage smoke detection algorithm based on inherent optical characteristics such as diffusion, color, and texture of smoke. Moving regions in a video frame are detected by an approximate median background subtraction method using the diffusion behavior of smoke. These moving regions are segmented by a fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm that uses the hue and saturation components of moving pixels in the hue-saturation-intensity color space. A decision rule is used to select candidate smoke regions from smoke-colored FCM clusters. An object tracking approach is employed in the candidate smoke region to detect candidate smoke objects in the video frame, and image texture parameters are extracted from these objects using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The thirteen GLCM features are selected to constitute the feature vector by applying principal components analysis, resulting in high-accuracy smoke detection. Finally, a back propagation neural network is utilized as a classifier to discriminate smoke and nonsmoke using the selected feature vector. Experimental results using a standard experimental dataset of video clips demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art smoke detection approaches in terms of accuracy, making real-life implementation feasible.

  20. Forecasting of time series with trend and seasonal cycle using the airline model and artificial neural networks Pronóstico de series de tiempo con tendencia y ciclo estacional usando el modelo airline y redes neuronales artificiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J D Velásquez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many time series with trend and seasonal pattern are successfully modeled and forecasted by the airline model of Box and Jenkins; however, this model neglects the presence of nonlinearity on data. In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear version of the airline model; for this, we replace the moving average linear component by a multilayer perceptron neural network. The proposedmodel is used for forecasting two benchmark time series; we found that theproposed model is able to forecast the time series with more accuracy that other traditional approaches.Muchas series de tiempo con tendencia y ciclos estacionales son exitosamente modeladas y pronosticadas usando el modelo airline de Box y Jenkins; sin embargo, la presencia de no linealidades en los datos son despreciadas por este modelo. En este artículo, se propone una nueva versión no lineal del modelo airline; para esto, se reemplaza la componente lineal de promedios móviles por un perceptrón multicapa. El modelo propuesto es usado para pronosticar dos series de tiempo benchmark; se encontró que el modelo propuesto es capaz de pronosticar las series de tiempo con mayor precisión que otras aproximaciones tradicionales.

  1. DRUGS AND SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Lukina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a well – known risk factor of many diseases. It influences the efficacy and safety of drug treatment by affecting the course of different physiological processes and modifying the metabolism of drugs. The number of researches showed decrease in efficacy of some cardiovascular drugs in smokers.Aim. To compare efficacy and safety of selective and non-selective beta–adrenoceptor blockers in smokers and nonsmokers with chronic ischemic disease.Material and Methods. Antianginal efficacy of drugs in patients of both groups was evaluated by burden tests on treadmill, effective doses of bisoprolol and propranolol were adjusted.Results. The result shows that smokers two times more often need prescription of double doses of drugs. Depressed antianginal activity of both beta-adrenoceptor blockers, especially of non-selective propranolol, in smokers was revealed. When evaluating the parameters of spirography, it was found that non-selective beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranol statistically significant decreases figures of bronchial passage, irrespective of the status of smoking. Moreover, with propranol treatment, bigger number of side effects is registered in both groups, demonstrating 30% more in smokers compared to nonsmokers.Conclusion. Smoking attenuates efficacy and safety of beta-blockers, especially these of non-selective ones.

  2. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  3. Continental Airlines Tops U.S. Network Carriers for International Business Class Service,Say Conde Nast Traveler Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ For the ninth year in a row, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) outranked all of its U.S. competition in international Business Class service, according to results of a survey of Condé Nast Traveler readers published in the magazine's October 2006 edition.

  4. Continental Airlines Tops U.S. Network Carriers for International Business Class Service,Say Conde Nast Traveler Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      For the ninth year in a row, Continental Airlines (NYSE: CAL) outranked all of its U.S. competition in international Business Class service, according to results of a survey of Condé Nast Traveler readers published in the magazine's October 2006 edition.……

  5. On-the-Spot Problem Solving of Airline Professionals: A Case Study of Sky Business School Personnel Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This research explores how chief cabin crew members of major airlines made their decisions on-the-spot when they had unexpected problems. This research also presents some insights that may improve personnel training programs for future stewardesses and stewards based on the investigation of their decision-making styles. The theoretical framework…

  6. Damage reconstruction due to impact of high-energetic particles on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 (U)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Safety Board (DSB) investigates the crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 which occurred on Thursday July 17, 2014 in the Donetsk region (Ukraine). The DSB wants to provide a clear picture of the cause of the crash. A possible cause is fatal damage to the aircraft due to detonation of the

  7. Reconstructie van het schadebeeld door inslag van hoog energetische deeltjes op Malaysia Airlines vlucht MH17 (U)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    De Onderzoeksraad voor Veiligheid (OVV) onderzoekt het neerstorten van Malaysia Airlines vlucht MH17 op donderdag 17 juli 2014 in de regio Donetsk (Oekraïne). De Raad wil een zo helder mogelijk beeld geven over de oorzaak van de crash met de MH17. Een mogelijke oorzaak van de crash is dat de fatale

  8. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than...

  9. Investigating the Use of Google Translate in "Terms and Conditions" in an Airline's Official Website: Errors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhayasai, Tya; Keyuravong, Sonthida; Bunsom, Thanis

    2015-01-01

    In the era of globalization, the Internet is regarded as one of the most popular sources of information given the number of on-line browsers who have access to websites. The tourism industry, be it hotels or airlines, in the 21st century relies heavily on the provision of information via its official websites. Thus, it is crucial that the…

  10. Enable, Engage and Evaluate: Introducing the 3E Social Media Strategy Canvas Based on the European Airline Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, Ton A.M.; Effing, Robin; Both, Menno P.; Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Mantymaki, Matti; Ravishankar, M.N.; Janssen, Marijn; Clement, Marc; Slade, Emma L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Al-Sharhan, Salah; Simintiras, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    The strategic use of social media has increased in importance. However, there is a lack of theory to design and evaluate social media strategies. In a competitive environment, airlines need to excel on service, customer satisfaction and marketing. Social media could support those areas of business.

  11. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 1: Background Information and General/Pre-Flight Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In 1998, the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) took a heightened interest in the role of language in airline accidents. Its Air...Navigation Commission was directed to complete the task of strengthening relevant ICAO provisions concerning language requirements. Member states agreed to...language is required were proficient in conducting and comprehending radiotelephony communications in English. Since then, ICAO developed its English

  12. The perceived cultural changes and the changes in identification of the employees during a merger between two airlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores changes in perceived cultural differences and identification with the merged firm during the postmerger integration process. The information was gathered from an acquisition between two airlines. The research has been done over an extensive period of time thereby using the

  13. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.

  14. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.……

  15. Numerical simulation of blast loading on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 due to a warhead detonation (U)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Safety Board (DSB) investigates the crash of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 which occured on Thursday July 17, 2014 in the Donetsk region (Ukraine). The DSB wants to provide a clear picture of the cause of the crash. A possible cause is fatal damage to the aircraft due to detonation of the

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MAJOR AIRLINE COMPANIES IN UAE WITH REFERENCE TO PROFITABILITY, LIQUIDITY, EFFICIENCY, EMPLOYEE STRENGTH AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Hazarika

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The demand for air transport has been consistently increasing in UAE and has made significant growth in the aviation sector in terms of expansion and modernization. Within Dubai’s services sector, transport ranks first accounting for 14.8% of Dubai’s GDP in 2014.As per the Economics Report commissioned by Emirates and Dubai Airports, aviation sector is expected to contribute $53.1 billion to Dubai’s economy, 37.5 per cent to its GDP and will support over 750,000 jobs by 2020. The present study makes a comparative analysis of the top airline companies in UAE – Emirate Airlines and Air Arabia in terms of profitability, liquidity, efficiency and also Etihad Airways on employee strength and productivity from 2010 to 2014.Dubai’s aviation sector is projected to support over 1,194,700 jobs by 2030 and the total economic impact on UAE is expected to increase to $88.1 billion. The financial performance indicators of Emirates Airlines and Air Arabia has been compared and further analyzed to see if there is any significant impact of the macroeconomic indicators on the financial performance of the airline companies. Companies can create wealth either by increasing profit per employee or by increasing the number of employees earning such profits, or both.

  17. 75 FR 25202 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Orion Air, S.L. and Syrian Pearl Airlines; Order Renewing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Airlines; Order Renewing Order Temporarily Denying Export Privileges Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A, Eissenhower business center, 28042 Madrid, Spain Ad. de las Cortes Valencianas... therefore ordered: First, that, Orion Air, S.L., Canada Real de Merinas, 7 Edificio 5, 3'A,...

  18. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garuda Indonesia In order to provide a more careful and convenient service while catering to the market demand, Garuda Indonesia has launched direct flights from Beijing to Jakarta starting on January 13.

  19. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cathay Pacific Airways Launches New Mobile Service Cathay Pacific Airways has recently launched a new mobile service that offers pas-sengers more convenience and better mobility by connecting them to useful travel information through their mobile devices.

  20. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More Finnair Flights to Guangzhou and Shanghai; Non-Stop to Hong Kong Chinese destinations are set to receive even better connections with Europe as a result of increased Finnair flight frequencies. Improved service between Helsinki and Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Shanghai is in response to increased demand. The flights

  1. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    QATAR AIRWAYS INCREASES FLIGHTS TO SHANGHAI Qatar Airways has expanded its highly popular Doha-Shanghai route with the introduction of a fourth weekly scheduled flight. The extra flight operates to Shanghai every Thursday night from Doha, returning to the Qatari capital early Saturday morning. The Doha-Shanghai flights operate non-

  2. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Finnair Finnair is supporting the Baltic Sea Action Group (BSAG) in its work to improve the state of the Baltic Sea. The world’s most polluted sea needs immediate help. "Through cooperation, the best possible

  3. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  4. Comparisons of Attitudes of Smoking and Nonsmoking Teachers toward Smoking Education in Schools and the Health Consequences of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. Wayne; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of teachers in rural eastern Kentucky compared the attitudes of smokers and nonsmokers toward: (1) the impact of smoking on health; (2) adequacy of smoking education and school regulations; and (3) usefulness of sources of information about the risks of smoking. Teachers who smoked viewed smoking as less hazardous than did nonsmokers. (PP)

  5. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... metabolite and hormone concentrations in restricted ewes suggest that maternal tissues were being mobilised. Despite the ewes' adaptations their lambs weighed significantly less at birth. Furthermore, colostrum and milk yields were markedly reduced up until the latest measurement at 3 weeks post partum...

  6. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  7. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8% were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01. Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068 among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475 among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml. In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05 among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS

  8. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days.

  9. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  10. Public health response to commercial airline travel of a person with Ebola virus infection - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Joanna J; Jungerman, Robynne; Montiel, Sonia H; Newsome, Kimberly; Objio, Tina; Washburn, Faith; Roland, Efrosini; Petersen, Emily; Twentyman, Evelyn; Olaiya, Oluwatosin; Naughton, Mary; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Lippold, Susan A; Tabony, Laura; McCarty, Carolyn L; Kinsey, Cara Bicking; Barnes, Meghan; Black, Stephanie; Azzam, Ihsan; Stanek, Danielle; Sweitzer, John; Valiani, Anita; Kohl, Katrin S; Brown, Clive; Pesik, Nicki

    2015-01-30

    Before the current Ebola epidemic in West Africa, there were few documented cases of symptomatic Ebola patients traveling by commercial airline, and no evidence of transmission to passengers or crew members during airline travel. In July 2014 two persons with confirmed Ebola virus infection who were infected early in the Nigeria outbreak traveled by commercial airline while symptomatic, involving a total of four flights (two international flights and two Nigeria domestic flights). It is not clear what symptoms either of these two passengers experienced during flight; however, one collapsed in the airport shortly after landing, and the other was documented to have fever, vomiting, and diarrhea on the day the flight arrived. Neither infected passenger transmitted Ebola to other passengers or crew on these flights. In October 2014, another airline passenger, a U.S. health care worker who had traveled domestically on two commercial flights, was confirmed to have Ebola virus infection. Given that the time of onset of symptoms was uncertain, an Ebola airline contact investigation in the United States was conducted. In total, follow-up was conducted for 268 contacts in nine states, including all 247 passengers from both flights, 12 flight crew members, eight cleaning crew members, and one federal airport worker (81 of these contacts were documented in a report published previously). All contacts were accounted for by state and local jurisdictions and followed until completion of their 21-day incubation periods. No secondary cases of Ebola were identified in this investigation, confirming that transmission of Ebola during commercial air travel did not occur.

  11. The clinical implications of a smoking ban on submarines in the U.S. Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anil N; Arnold, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    By the end of calendar year 2010, a total smoking ban on submarines is expected to be implemented throughout the submarine force because of the negative health effects of environmental tobacco smoke and the recently demonstrated exposure of nonsmoking submariners to measurable levels of nicotine during submarine deployments. Historically, smoking has been highly prevalent in the military, but new data on the negative health effects of tobacco have led the military to change its policies, restricting its use in certain environments. A number of research studies have examined the effect of smoking on the military, cessation and prevention interventions, effect of environmental tobacco smoke onboard the submarine, and treatment modalities aimed at smokers attempting to quit. With the potential for considerable physical and psychological effects, a mass tobacco cessation program is being implemented to support the prohibition onboard the submarine. Recommendations for a successful implementation program are included.

  12. Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The primary aim of the ban was to reduce people's exposure to second-hand smoke. A 95% compliance rate among employers suggests this aim was achieved. By prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor working places, an effect of the ban was to increase the non-monetary cost of smoking. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. A difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. The research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared with the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed.

  13. Gendered Dimensions of Smoking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Flaherty, Brian; Carkoglu, Asli; Taylor, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Ethnographic research, including interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted to explore gendered dimensions of smoking among low level smokers, including the acceptability of smoking in different contexts; reasons for smoking; the monitoring of self and friends' smoking; and shared smoking as a means of communicating concern and…

  14. The prevention of involuntary smoking by children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the prevention of exposure to tobacco smoke (passive smoking) in infants and young children. 'Exposure to tobacco smoke' means the inhalation of somebody else's smoke and the components it contains. The term includes the exposure of the unborn child to a mother who smokes. How

  15. 30 CFR 75.1702 - Smoking; prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking; prohibition. 75.1702 Section 75.1702... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1702 Smoking; prohibition. No person shall smoke, carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground, or smoke in or around oil...

  16. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  17. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  18. Bilinear Fourier restriction theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Demeter, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general scheme for proving $L^p$ estimates for certain bilinear Fourier restrictions outside the locally $L^2$ setting. As an application, we show how such estimates follow for the lacunary polygon. In contrast with prior approaches, our argument avoids any use of the Rubio de Francia Littlewood--Paley inequality.

  19. Glaucoma and cigarette smoking: a review of narrative reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Murro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy associated with visual field changes for which high intra-ocular pressure is a major risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors, among which the cigarette smoke, besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. Objective: The objective of the study was to perform a review of narrative reviews to examine on the relationship between cigarette smoking and glaucoma. Methods: The results of all narrative reviews in the scientific literature about glaucoma and tobacco smoking were analyzed. A quality assessment was performed according to an easy and convenient tool for the quality assessment of narrative reviews for systematic reviews (International Narrative Systematic assessment the INSA tool. Literature searches were performed using PubMed. Results: 20 studies about relation between glaucoma and smoke were collected, no restriction language was applied. 15 of these studies have been excluded. We selected among them 5 reviews. With the INSA tool we measured the quality of the 5 selected narrative reviews. Studies that had a highest score with the INSA tool were two: A. Coleman et al. “Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention” and R. Salowe et al. “Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Individuals of African Descent: A Review of Risk Factors”. Conclusion: The narrative reviews analyzed underline that there is no definitive association between cigarette smoking.

  20. Evolution of 'smoke' induced seed germination in pyroendemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. E.; Pausas, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Pyroendemics are plants in which seedling germination and successful seedling recruitment are restricted to immediate postfire environments. In many fire-prone ecosystems species cue their germination to immediate postfire conditions. Here we address how species have evolved one very specific mechanism, which is using the signal of combustion products from biomass. This is often termed ‘smoke’ stimulated germination although it was first discovered in studies of charred wood effects on germination of species strictly tied to postfire conditions (pyroendemics). Smoke stimulated germination has been reported from a huge diversity of plant species. The fact that the organic compound karrikin (a product of the degradation of cellulose) is a powerful germination cue in many species has led to the assumption that this compound is the only chemical responsible for smoke-stimulated germination. Here we show that smoke-stimulated germination is a complex trait with different compounds involved. We propose that convergent evolution is a more parsimonious model for smoke stimulated germination, suggesting that this trait evolved multiple times in response to a variety of organic and inorganic chemical triggers in smoke. The convergent model is congruent with the evolution of many other fire-related traits.