WorldWideScience

Sample records for aires city region

  1. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    OpenAIRE

    P. Huszar; M. Belda; T. Halenka

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001–2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban e...

  2. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  3. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  4. Regional climate, local climate and ozone air pollution in Tours and Orleans cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the relations between climate and the air pollution justifies the interest related to the role of the urban heat island of heat with respect to the night persistence of ozone in urban environment. When the days are favourable with important ozone concentrations, the agglomerations of the area observe a dynamics day laborer of ozone different from that observed in rural environment. The study is undertaken on the towns of Turns and Orleans where the observations of Lig'Air revealed a night persistence of ozone whereas the concentrations drop more quickly in periphery. This phenomenon is remarkable during the little broken down anticyclonic days. The region region Centre is a ground of study privileged for ozone because of its situation in the south-west of the Island of France rich in precursors of ozone. When flow is of continental origin, the Centre area is found then under the influence of the Paris area. The investigation of a study of the air pollution must take into account the notes of the regional climate and local climate. Several preliminary studies must intervene to answer our principal problems. First of all a descriptive study of the regional climate is carried out with the participation of Meteo-France. The current absence of climatic atlas as well as the many disparities of the climate related to extended from the territory partly justify the interest of our study. The regional approach of the climate is also essential for the continuation of work on a finer scale on the agglomerations of Turns and Orleans in order to detect the urban heat island of heat there. Collaboration with Meteo-France and Lig'Air made it possible to establish a satisfying network of measurement making it possible to obtain notable thermal differences between the downtown area and the surrounding rural environment. The correlation between meteorology and the proven air pollution leads us to establish the climatology of ozone. Many are the studies having

  5. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  6. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Qing W. Tian; Peter Brimblecombe

    2008-01-01

    The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollut...

  7. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; Vautard, R.; Z. Klimont; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed bas...

  8. Resource allocation for mitigating regional air pollution–related mortality: A summertime case study for five cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kuo-Jen; Hou, Xiangting; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An important issue of regional air quality management is to allocate air quality management funds to maximize environmental and human health benefits. In this study, we use an innovative approach to tackle this air quality management issue. We develop an innovative resource allocation model that allows identification of air pollutant emission control strategies that maximize mortality avoidances subject to a resource constraint. We first present the development of the resource allocation model and then a case study to show how the model can be used to identify resource allocation strategies that maximize mortality avoidances for top five Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) (i.e., New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Dallas-Fort Worth, and Philadelphia) in the continental United States collectively. Given budget constraints in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Air Act assessment, the results of the case study suggest that controls of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and primary carbon (PC) emissions from EPA Regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and 9 would have significant health benefits for the five selected cities collectively. Around 30,800 air pollution–related mortalities could be avoided during the selected 2-week summertime episode for the five cities collectively if the budget could be allocated based on the results of the resource allocation model. Although only five U.S. cities during a 2-week episode are considered in the case study, the resource allocation model can be used by decision-makers to plan air pollution mitigation strategies to achieve the most significant health benefits for other seasons and more cities over a region or the continental U.S.Implications: Effective allocations of air quality management resources are challenging and complicated, and it is desired to have a tool that can help decision-makers better allocate the funds to maximize health benefits of air pollution mitigation. An innovative resource allocation model developed in

  9. Future Air Quality in Danish Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Winther, M.;

    The impact of new EU vehicle emission and fuel quality directives on the future air quality in Danish cities has been modelled for comparison with new limit values in the new EU directive on assessment and management of urban air quality. Nested modelling was applied using a set of air quality and...... emission models to predict concentration levels in the regional background, urban background and at street level. Air pollution levels were predicted to decrease for NO2, CO and benzene (ozone increased slightly) and the results show that the levels will not exceed the new EU limit values in 2010 despite...

  10. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; Vautard, R.; Z. Klimont; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year...

  11. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-01-01

    Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL), and examine the...

  12. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  13. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality policies. This paper describes the programs that are being used to fulfill the three tasks of the project: air pollution modeling and simulation, air pollution monitoring, and strategic evaluation. The two lead institutions for this project are the Mexican Petroleum Institute and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  14. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF AIR MONITORING IN VARIOUS CITIES OF THE STAVROPOL REGION BY MEANS OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamaev I. I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Federal statistical observation, in the Stavropol region in 2012 there were 463 companies and organizations, which have stationary sources of pollution, the emissions of harmful substances which have a negative impact on the atmosphere. The largest volume in the environmental pollution of Stavropol making venture for the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water, manufacturing, transport and communications, a considerable share - mining operation

  15. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF AIR MONITORING IN VARIOUS CITIES OF THE STAVROPOL REGION BY MEANS OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev I. I.; Sakhnyuk T. I.; Sakhnyuk P. A.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Federal statistical observation, in the Stavropol region in 2012 there were 463 companies and organizations, which have stationary sources of pollution, the emissions of harmful substances which have a negative impact on the atmosphere. The largest volume in the environmental pollution of Stavropol making venture for the production and distribution of electricity, gas and water, manufacturing, transport and communications, a considerable share - mining operation

  16. Sources of air pollution in a region of oil and gas exploration downwind of a large city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew P.; Griffin, Robert J.; Cevik, Basak Karakurt; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Gong, Longwen; Kim, Saewung; Flynn, James H.; Lefer, Barry L.

    2015-11-01

    The air quality in the outflow from Fort Worth, TX was studied in June 2011 at a location surrounded by oil and gas development in the Barnett Shale. The objectives of this study were to understand the major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic aerosols and explore the potential influence each VOC source had on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. Measurements of VOCs were apportioned between six factors using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF): Natural Gas (25 ± 2%; ±99% CL); Fugitive Emissions (15 ± 2%); Internal Combustion Engines (15 ± 2%); Biogenic Emissions (7 ± 1%); Industrial Emissions/Oxidation 1(8 ± 1%); and Oxidation 2 (18 ± 2%). Reactivity calculations suggest the Biogenic and Oxidation 2 factors were the most likely VOC sources to influence local ozone. However, enough OH reactivity was calculated for factors related to the oil and gas development that they could incrementally increase O3. Three organic aerosol (OA) types were identified with PMF applied to high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry measurements: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 11% of mass) and two classes of oxidized OA (semi- and less-volatile OOA, SV and LV; 45% and 44%, respectively). The HOA correlated with the Internal Combustion Engine VOC factor indicating that a large fraction of the HOA was emitted by gasoline and diesel motors. The SV-OOA correlated with the oxidized VOC factors during most of the study, whereas a correlation between LV-OOA and the oxidized VOC factors was only observed during part of the study. It is hypothesized that SV-OOA and the oxidized VOC factors correlated reasonably well because these factors likely were separated by at most only a few oxidation generations on the oxidation pathway of organic compounds.

  17. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Garland; Yang, H.; Schmid, O.; Rose, D.; Nowak, A.; P. Achtert; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; K. Kita; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; M. Shao; Zeng, L; Zhang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "...

  18. Urban growth and air quality in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. L. Ling

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban developments, land use patterns and activities not only influence the volume of emissions into the ambient air environment but also affect the ability of the urban ecosystem to purify the air. Therefore, urbanisation affects the quality of air in urban areas. However, urban air quality is also affected by global, regional or trans-boundary pollutants. The objectives of this paper are to understand the trend of air quality level and urban growth in Kuala Lumpur city (KL, and examine the relationship between these variables. Results of analysis show a significant and strong relationship between the number of unhealthy/hazardous days and urban land uses. The finding is contrary to the argument that the high concentration of air pollutants (unhealthy level in the Malaysian city is contributed by the forest fire in a neighbouring country (haze.

  19. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present-day levels over Paris is modeled under the "business-as-usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic "mitigation" scenario leads to a moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional-scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current urban-scale study is driven by volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional-scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas, projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer timescale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios, respectively, compared to the present-day period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the

  20. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large urban increment

  1. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Markakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (−3.5 ppb in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large

  2. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M. [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  3. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garland

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a regional background site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the "Program of Regional Integrated Experiments of Air Quality over the Pearl River Delta" intensive campaign (PRIDE-PRD2006, covering the period of 1–30 July 2006. Scattering and absorption coefficients of dry aerosol particles with diameters up to 10 μm (PM10 were determined with a three-wavelength integrating nephelometer and with a photoacoustic spectrometer, respectively.

    Averaged over the measurement campaign (arithmetic mean ±standard deviation, the total scattering coefficients were 200±133 Mm−1 (450 nm, 151±103 Mm−1 (550 nm and 104±72 Mm−1 (700 nm and the absorption coefficient was 34.3±26.5 Mm−1 (532 nm. The average Ångström exponent was 1.46±0.21 (450 nm/700 nm and the average single scattering albedo was 0.82±0.07 (532 nm with minimum values as low as 0.5. The low single scattering albedo values indicate a high abundance of, as well as strong sources of light absorbing carbon (LAC. The ratio of LAC to CO concentration was highly variable throughout the campaign, indicating a complex mix of different combustion sources. The scattering and absorption coefficients, as well as the Ångström exponent and single scattering albedo, exhibited pronounced diurnal cycles, which can be attributed to boundary layer mixing effects and enhanced nighttime emissions of LAC (diesel soot from regulated truck traffic. The daytime average single scattering albedo of 0.87 appears to be more

  4. Scenario planning for the Edinburgh city region

    OpenAIRE

    Docherty, I.W.; McKiernan, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the application of scenario planning techniques to the detailed and daunting challenge of city re-positioning when policy makers are faced with a heavy history and a complex future context. It reviews a process of scenario planning undertaken in the Edinburgh city region, exploring the scenario process and its contribution to strategies and policies for city repositioning. Strongly rooted in the recent literature on urban and regional economic development, the text outline...

  5. Mexico City air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, faces a severe air pollution problem due to a combination of circumstances. The city is in a high mountain basin at a subtropical latitude. The basin setting inhibits dispersion of pollution and contributes to frequent wintertime thermal inversions which further trap pollutants near the surface. The elevation and latitude combine to provide plentiful sunshine which, in comparison to more northern latitudes, is enhanced in the UV radiation which drives atmospheric photochemistry to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone. The Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico AMCW is defined to include the 16 delegations of the Federal District (D.F.) and 17 highly urbanized municipalities in the State of Mexico which border the D.F. The 1990 census (XI Censo General de Poblacion y Vivienda de 1990) records that slightly over 15 million people live in the AMCM. There are numerous other nearby communities which are in the airshed region of Mexico City, but which are not included in the definition and population of the AMCM. The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative is one project that is examining the complex relationship between air pollution, economic growth, societal values, and air quality management policies. The project utilizes a systems approach including computer modeling, comprehensive measurement studies of Mexico City's air pollutants, environmental chemical reaction studies and socioeconomic analysis. Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) and the Mexican Petroleum Institute are the designated lead institutions

  6. Mexico City Air quality: Progress of an international collaborative project to define air quality management options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Guzmán, Francisco

    The Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative was a 3-yr international collaborative project to develop or adapt a set of air quality management decision analysis tools for Mexico City and make them available to Mexican policy makers. The project comprised three tasks: modeling and simulation, characterization and measurement, and strategic evaluation. A prognostic, mesoscale meteorological model was adapted to the region of Mexico City and linked to a 3-D airshed model. These were extensively tested against data from the air quality monitoring network and from three intensive field campaigns. The interaction between policy and science was promoted through the development of a formal multiattribute decision analysis model to evaluate alternative control strategies. The project benefited by having researchers from both nations working side by side as peers, by having both nations investing resources and having an interest in the success of the project, and by having an objective, not of advocacy, but of the application of science to problem solving.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities of Air Quality Management in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2013-05-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is located in the central plateau of Mexico and is the capital of the country. Its natural characteristics present favorable conditions for air pollution formation and accumulation: mountains surrounding the city, frequent thermal inversions, high isolation all around the year and weak winds. To these natural conditions, a population of more than 20 million inhabitants, a fleet of 4.5 million vehicles and more than 4 thousands industries, make air quality management a real challenge for governments of the region. Intensive air quality improvement actions and programs began at the end of the 1980's and continued nowadays. Since then criteria air pollutants concentrations have decreased in such a way that currently most of pollutants meet the Mexican air quality standards, except for ozone and particulate matter. Applied measures comprised of fuel quality improvements, fuel replacements, regulations for combustion processes, closing of high polluting refineries and industries, regulations of emissions for new and on road vehicles, mandatory I/M programs for vehicles, circulation restrictions for vehicles (Day without car program), alert program for elevated air pollution episodes, improvement of public transportation, among others. Recent researches (MILAGRO 2006 campaign) found that currently it is necessary to implement emissions reduction actions for Volatile Organic Compounds, particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers PM2.5 and Nitrogen Oxides, in order to reduce concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter. Among the new measures to be implemented are: regulations for VOCs emissions in the industry and commercial sectors; regulation of the diesel fleet that includes fleets renewal, filters and particulate traps for in use vehicles and regulation of the cargo fleet; new schemes for reducing the number of vehicles circulating in the city; implementation of non-motorized mobility programs; among

  8. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  9. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  10. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Zhang

    2008-09-01

    strongly influenced by fresh emissions into a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. In spite of high photochemical activity during daytime, we found no evidence for strong local production of secondary aerosol mass.

    The average mass scattering efficiencies with respect to PM10 and PM1 concentrations derived from particle size distribution measurements were 2.8 m2 g−1 and 4.1 m2 g−1, respectively. The Ångström exponent exhibited a wavelength dependence (curvature that was related to the ratio of fine and coarse particle mass (PM1/PM10 as well as the surface mode diameter of the fine particle fraction. The results demonstrate consistency between in situ measurements and a remote sensing formalism with regard to the fine particle fraction and volume mode diameter, but there are also systematic deviations for the larger mode diameters. Thus we suggest that more data sets from in situ measurements of aerosol optical parameters and particle size distributions should be used to evaluate formalisms applied in aerosol remote sensing. Moreover, we observed a negative correlation between single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction, and we found that it affects the impact that these parameters have on aerosol radiative forcing efficiency and should be considered in model studies of the PRD and similarly polluted mega-city regions.

  11. Aerosol optical properties in a rural environment near the mega-city Guangzhou, China: implications for regional air pollution, radiative forcing and remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y. H.; L. M. Zeng; M. Shao; Hu, M.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; K. Kita; Wiedensohler, A.; Takegawa, N.; Nowak, A.; P. Achtert; Rose, D.; Schmid, O.; Yang, H.; R. M. Garland

    2008-01-01

    The scattering and absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key element of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however, highly variable and not well characterized, especially near newly emerging mega-cities. In this study, aerosol optical properties were measured at a rural site approximately 60 km northwest of the mega-city Guangzhou in southeast China. The measurements were part of the PRIDE-PRD2006 intens...

  12. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Ocean City, Maryland. (b) Definition: For purposes of enforcement of this section, Captain of the Port... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  13. Moving towards cleaner air: a progress report on the air quality strategy for the City of Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The City of Toronto Environmental Plan was adapted in principle by City Council in April 2000. The Plan contains 66 recommendations on land, air, water, governance, sustainability, energy, transportation, green economic development and monitoring. As part of the actions on air, the Plan recommended that the City develop a comprehensive strategy to make Toronto's air clean and free of harmful levels of pollutants. This document reports on progress in the development of this comprehensive air quality standard. Work on the standards was undertaken by an Air Quality Strategy Interdepartmental Working Group (AQSI Working Group) consisting of city departmental representatives, which is one of several working groups reporting to the Toronto Interdepartmental Environmental Team (TIE). While the AQSI Working Group has not yet concluded its work, it is able to report a number of preliminary conclusions. Among them are: implementation of several successful city-wide programs. In this context preliminary indications are that program effectiveness will be limited by the availability of staff and appropriate funding. Policy and legal studies that will provide essential information relating to the legal/jurisdictional context are well underway. Modelling and monitoring of Toronto's air quality are in progress, and will be relied upon for information to guide policy development. Final strategy will have to be formulated in a regional context, in concert with the provincial and federal governments, and will have to take into account trans-boundary (inter-regional, inter-provincial and international) issues

  14. Research Project: Assessment of Lead in Air of Guatemala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report all the activities concerning to quality of air in the city of Guatemala are considered. By measurements of lead in filters of air sampling using voltametry, the quality of air is going to be compared with international standards

  15. Seasonal variations of air pollutant concentrations within Krasnoyarsk City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailuta, Sergey V; Taseiko, Olga V; Pitt, Anne; Lezhenin, Anatoly A; Zakharov, Yuri V

    2009-02-01

    This paper examines the significant differences in seasonal variations of criteria pollutant concentrations in various parts of a large urban area. These differences are caused by the microclimatic heterogeneity of the city and show the influence of breeze and orographic-type circulations on urban air pollution. The temperature heterogeneity of Krasnoyarsk territory during the winter leads to an increase of 150% in CO air pollution levels in the central part of city. During the summer the orographical heterogeneity of Krasnoyarsk City leads to increases of up to 400% in air pollution for different areas. PMID:18330715

  16. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city. Appendix 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed since 1993 on the study of the elemental profile of Buenos Aires atmosphere is presented. Both aerosol direct sampling and biomonitors have been used and the samples have been analyzed mainly by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Due to problems with XRF, Anodic Stripping Voltammetry has been chosen for lead determination and Ion Chromatography for soluble anions. For aerosol direct sampling, analytical and sampling methods are described, as well as the sampling campaigns. Experiments have been performed for studying differences between day/night elemental concentrations along the week and a possible seasonal dependence. Some results of mass concentrations and others from INAA are presented. Sampling with the 'Gent sampler' began during August 1994 at an urban residential area of the city. The results of mass concentrations for the first 28 pairs of samples are shown together with some INAA results, as this is the only technique used for the analysis. Lichens and tree bark were the chosen biomonitors. Sampling and analytical methods by INAA are exposed, presenting some of the results that have been obtained. The participation in the aerosol analysis for the Ushuaia Global Atmospheric Watch Station is also commented. (author)

  17. Urban Air Environmental Health Indicators for Kuala Lumpur City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air environmental health indicators were defined operationally as a combination of air quality and air-related health indicators. Clean air is a basic precondition of human health. Air pollutants had been identified with potential negative impact on health especially on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, studies are necessary to identify and understand the state of environmental health. This study was aimed to examine and analyses the air environmental health condition in city of Kuala Lumpur by using a set of indicators. House to house questionnaire survey was carried out to collect air-related health data, and air quality sampling was carried out to identify ambient air quality level of the city. In general, city of Kuala Lumpur was found to have a moderate level of air quality. Air-related illnesses indicated by acute respiratory infection and asthma were found to be higher in more developed or higher density zones, as compared to other zones. Besides, air-related illnesses were significantly correlated to respondents exposure to air pollution. The findings imply that human health can be improved by managing the urban development and its environmental quality properly. (author)

  18. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  19. Long term surface air concentrations of sulphur dioxide in Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The city of Buenos Aires with an extension of 200 km2 and a population of 3 million inhabitants is the largest urban centre and the Capital of the Argentine Republic. The major emission sources at Buenos Aires are the electric power plants and the automobiles. There are four power plants in Buenos Aires city. A fifth plant is located in the suburbs near the southern limit of the city. This presentation is about the application of an atmospheric dispersion model to study the mean monthly and annual ground level air concentration of SO-2 originated from the electric power plants in Buenos Aires

  20. City-City Tourism Collaboration in the Straits of Malacca Development Region: Key Success Factors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Habibah; Hamzah, J; A. C. Er; A. Buang; S. Selvadurai; I. Mushrifah

    2013-01-01

    City to city collaboration has emerged as one of the regional initiatives to promote and sustained economic growth in many parts around the world. Within the Asean cooperation, city to city tourism collaboration is also an emerging sector. Although existing literatures assert on key success factors that lead to economic and cultural collaboration, little has been done to explore and elaborate deeply the key success factors in the city to city (C2C) tourism collaboration the Straits of Malacca...

  1. Mobile Air Monitoring: Measuring Change in Air Quality in the City of Hamilton, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; DeLuca, Patrick F.; Corr, Denis; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the change in air pollutant concentrations between 2005 and 2010 occurring in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. After analysis of stationary air pollutant concentration data, we analyze mobile air pollutant concentration data. Air pollutants included in the analysis are CO, PM[subscript 2.5], SO[subscript 2], NO,…

  2. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  3. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). ] Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  4. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  5. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  6. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  7. Characterization of the particulate air pollution in contrasted mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at characterizing the physics and the chemistry that govern particulate air pollution in two mega cities (Paris and Cairo) for which the size distribution and the chemical composition of airborne particles were poorly documented. Seasonal variations of the main aerosol sources and transformation processes are investigated in these two urban centres, with a particular attention to semi-volatile material and secondary organic aerosols. Short-term health effects of Paris size-segregated aerosols, as well as particulate pollution during the Cairo 'Black Cloud' season, are also emphasized here. Finally, the comparison of results obtained for the two mega cities and for another one (Beijing) allows investigating main factors responsible for particulate air pollution in urban centres with contrasted climatic conditions and development levels. Notably, this work also allows the build-up of an experimental dataset which is now available for the modelling of urban air quality and of environmental impacts of mega city air pollution. (author)

  8. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  9. Assessment of air quality in Shivamoga City, Karnataka (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the ambient air quality status in the selected location of Shivamoga city Karnataka State India was carried out for four years (2005 - 2009. Four stations (industrial, commercial, institutional and residential of Shivamoga city were selected purposively to spotlight an overview of the total air quality of this region. The air quality was assessed based on measuring three air pollutants namely Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM, Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx and Oxides of Sulphur (SOx. The average concentration of SPM in Amir Ahmed circle was the highest at 969.43 μg/m3 and was lowest at the Sahayadri college Campus (65.59 μg/m3. Vinobha nagar with an average of 803.46 μg/m3 is in the medium range as well as industrial area (269.00 μg/m3. The study shows that the average NO2concentration was highest in Amir Ahmed circle (6.79 μg/m3, followed by Vinobha nagar (6.06 μg/m3 ,(industrial area (2.97 μg/m3 and Sahayadri college Campus (1.97 μg/m3. The average SO2 concentration except Vinobha Nagr station (6.59 μg/m3 in all the other locations was below the detection level, i.e. 4 μg/m3Amir Ahmed circle had the second highest value (2.89 μg/m3 . followed by industrial area (1.49 μg/m3 and Sahayadri college campus (1.22 μg/m3. According to the air quality standards given by NAAQS and WHO standards, the SPM concentrations is high in Amir Ahmed circle and Industrial Area locations and SO2 and NOx pollutants values obtained are all within the standard level. Uncontrolled emission of pollutants by motorized traffic with heavy traffic jam is the main source of pollution in the urban area mainly.

  10. Air pollution in Damascus city, radiation, gases, air particulates and heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of the study were to have a general survey for pollutants in Damascus City, to define the polluted areas and to determine the relationship between the pollutants and its sources, in addition of determining the regretion coefficient for the following elements: K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb and Br. Samples of leaves from different regions of Damascus city were analysed by using x-ray flourescence (XRF) for the mentioned elements. Stat graphics computerized and Surfur programmes were used in order to plot the map of Pb pollutant for Damascus city. Chemical detector tubes produced by Drager Company were used in the absorbtion of air samples for Co, NO2 and ozon where its colours were changed according to the concentration of the interested gases. While, for the measurement of suspended particles, 1400 3m of air samples were taken through fiber gass filter (Wahtman 8x10 in) to measure the concentration of suspended particles. leaves samples were a good indicator for the level of pollution. Results of analysing, a samples by using XRF to determine the concentration of the following elements: Ca, K, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, Rb, Br, and Sr, by using gamma spectroscopy system to difine the isotopes included in it, and to define the activity of 212Pb show that dust and lead are the main pollutants in Damascus city, where the concentration of the suspended particles increased in the crowded transportation areas and reach to more than 700 mg/3m in which it decreases in holidays and at hight, as well as the decrease of the concentration of carbon monoxide at night, which increase in the morning due to the high trafic motion. Rains make a good cleaning factor for the suspended particles in about 80% of it, where the ratio of particles having a diameter less than 10μ to the whole particles range from 30% - 80%. (author)., 25 figs., 35 tabs

  11. AIR POLLUTION MANAGEMENT IN TWO COLOMBIAN CITIES: CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Uribe

    2005-01-01

    This document is a case study that focuses on the air pollution problems of Bogotá and Medellín. These are the largest; most populated and industrialized cities of Colombia. The document presents a brief description of the evolution of relevant institutional aspects. It describes the pollution problems of these cities, their sources, their effects on health and the measures to control and to prevent them. Following the framework of the WDR 20031, this document analyzes how society becomes awa...

  12. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  13. Air-sea linkages in European port cities

    OpenAIRE

    Ducruet, César; Joly, Olivier; Martell Flores, Hipolito

    2005-01-01

    This chapter aims at highlighting the relationships between air, maritime & logistic activities of port cities in Europe. Although recent studies have considered sea-air intermodality as a locational advantage for ports and coastal urban centres, they are still few and isolated case studies. Nevertheless, this subject appears to be of growing interest for transport, logistic players and urban planners to improve port performance in a competitive context. However, there is neither an estimatio...

  14. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO2 and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NOx and NO2, CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  15. Multi-year simulations of air pollution in two cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katrin; Berchet, Antoine; Emmenegger, Lukas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    As more and more people are living in urban areas world wide, air quality monitoring and forecasting at the city scale becomes increasingly critical. Due to the proximity to sources and the complex, fine-scale structure of the flow and turbulence in the built environment, air pollutant concentrations vary strongly in cities both spatially and temporally. Studies assessing the effect of air pollution on human health would greatly benefit from accurate knowledge of individual exposure, but given the high variability of concentrations and the mobility of the population, this is a marvellous task requiring highly-resolved, city-wide information on air pollutant concentrations. The Swiss Nano-Tera project OpenSense II addresses these issues using statistical and physical modeling of air pollution at very high resolution combined with long-term air pollution measurements and mobile networks of low-cost sensors. In the framework of this project, we have set up the nested meteorology and dispersion model system GRAMM/GRAL the cities of Lausanne and Zurich and improved several computational aspects of the system. Using the mesoscale model GRAMM, we simulate the flow in a larger domain around the two cities at 100 m resolution taking the complex topography and influences of different land cover on surface-atmosphere exchange of heat and momentum into account. These flow fields serve as initial and boundary conditions for the nested model GRAL, which simulates the flow inside the city at building-resolving scale (5 m resolution) based on the Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes equations, and computes the transport and dispersion of air pollutants in a Lagrangian framework. For computational efficiency, both GRAMM and GRAL simulations are run for a fixed catalog of 1008 weather situations varying in terms of background wind speed, direction and stability. Hourly time-series of meteorology and air pollutants are constructed from these steady-state solutions by selecting, for each

  16. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  17. Towards a System of Open Cities in China: Home Prices, FDI Flows and Air Quality in 35 Major Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Siqi Zheng; Kahn, Matthew E.; Hongyu Liu

    2009-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, China's major cities have experienced significant income and population growth. Much of this growth has been fueled by urban production spurred by world demand. Using a unique cross-city panel data set, we test several hypotheses concerning the relationship between home prices, wages, foreign direct investment and ambient air pollution across major Chinese cities. Home prices are lower in cities with higher ambient pollution levels. Cities featuring higher per-capi...

  18. STATUS OF AMBIENT AIR QUALITY IN BELLARY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. ZAREENA BANU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed survey of air quality was carried out at important junctions in Bellary city to study the ambient air quality using high volume sampler at respirable heights of the variety of known air pollutants, suspended particulate matter(SPM, respirable particulate matter(RPM, sulphur dioxide(SO2, oxides of nitrogen(NOx, were given much importance during the study. Sampling stations were established at 8 different places in the city. It was found that the level of suspended particulate matter(SPM & respirable particulate matter(RPM, exceeds the ambient air quality standard of central pollution control board and that of sulphur dioxide(SO2 and oxides of nitrogen(NOx were well within the limits. The factors which were considered responsible for such high levels of certain pollutants in the city includes traffic congestion, increased human activities, mining activities and high rise buildings existing parallel to each other. The remedial measure suggested including banning old technology vehicles, upgrading two stroke engines to four stroke engines, using catalytic, planting more trees along the roadsides and proper traffic regulation.

  19. CityAir app: Mapping air-quality perception using people as sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Cole-Hunter, Thomas; Robinson, Johanna; Keune, Hans; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problem affecting all people in developed and developing countries alike. Ambient (outdoor) air pollution in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. In modern society, people are expending an increasing amount of time in polluted urban environments, thus increasing their exposure and associated health responses. Some cities provide information about air pollution levels to their citizens using air quality monitoring networks. However, due to their high cost and maintenance, the density of the monitoring networks is very low and not capable to capture the high temporal and spatial variability of air pollution. Thus, the citizen lacks a specific answer to the question of "how the air quality is in our surroundings". In the framework of the EU-funded CITI-SENSE project the innovative concept of People as Sensors is being applied to the field of outdoor air pollution. This is being done in eight European cities, including Barcelona, Belgrade, Edinburgh, Haifa, Ljubljana, Oslo, Ostrava and Vienna. People as Sensors defines a measurement model, in which measurements are not only taken by hardware sensors, but in which also humans can contribute with their individual "measurements" such as their subjective perception of air quality and other personal observations. In order to collect the personal observations a mobile app, CityAir, has been developed. CityAir allows citizens to rate the air quality in their surroundings with colour at their current location: green if air quality is very good, yellow if air quality is good, orange if air quality is poor and red if air quality is very poor. The users have also the possibility of indicating the source of pollution (i.e. traffic, industry, wood burning) and writing a comment. The information is on-line and accessible for other app users, thus contributing to create an air-quality map based on citizens' perception

  20. City regions geoscience in Wales : scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, A.M.; Boon, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Several individuals from the public and private sector in Wales contributed to the initial consultation process and their assistance is gratefully acknowledged. We would particularly like to thank Cardiff Council, Newport City Council, City and County of Swansea Council, Neath Port Talbot Council, Rhondda Cynon Taf Council, Torfaen County Borough Council, Caerphilly County Borough Council, Atkins Global, Parsons Brinkerhoff, Welsh Water, Celtic Ltd, Natural Resources Wales, and...

  1. Air quality in Swedish cities; Luftkvalitet i taetorter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Karin; Persson, Karin; Lagerstroem, Malin [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Brodin, Yngve [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Air quality in Swedish cities has improved considerably over the last decades as a result of reduced emissions from traffic, industrial activity and households. The situation is however far from acceptable, and no further improvement is seen during recent years. Urban air pollution is considered to contribute to the death of more than a thousand people in Sweden each year. Measurements of air quality in Swedish cities are carried out since many years. The measurements have shown that concentrations of all serious air pollutants but ozone have decreased strongly since the 1980s. The improvement is attributed to reduced emissions from motor traffic by means of catalytic converters and cleaner fuels as well as decreased emissions from industrial activity and energy production in Sweden and neighbouring countries. The present report does however show no further downward trend for concentrations of air pollutants in Swedish cities since the late 1990s, and the concentrations of the winter 2002/2003 were higher than several previous winters. This information is gained from measurements done by around forty municipalities and gathered within the so called URBAN-measurement-net managed by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, and additional information from around ten municipalities which perform own measurements. Climatic variability may play an important role for the increase seen in the winter of 2002/2003, but it is also probable that continuously increasing traffic have counteracted some of the ameliorative environmental effects of improved exhaust emission control and cleaner petrol and diesel fuels. Measurements of the winter 2002/2003 show that air quality conditions are unacceptable in perhaps half of the Swedish cities, and that they run the risk of not being able to attain environmental quality standards for one or more substances. The standards for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide are those most difficult to manage within the time limits set

  2. Nordic City Regions in the Creative Class Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Isaksen, Arne;

    2010-01-01

    The Nordic countries have a quite different urban structure and social systems than the USA. Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden may then constitute a critical test of the empirical reach of Richard Florida’s much cited creative class thesis beyond its empirical basis in the USA. This paper employs...... comparative statistics to examine the importance of the quality of place in attracting members of the creative class to Nordic city regions, and it analyses the role of the creative class for regional economic development. Florida’s original study focused only on city regions with more than 100......,000 inhabitants. Our statistical analyses mainly support Florida’s results with regard to these larger Nordic city regions. The paper, however, also analyses smaller city regions, which are important in the Nordic urban structure. The findings are clearly less supportive for these smaller regions, which mean that...

  3. Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increases ...

  4. Characterization of organic compounds from biosolids of Buenos Aires city

    OpenAIRE

    S.I Torri; ALBERTI, C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of biosolids as a source of organic matter improves the physical and chemical properties of agricultural soils, resulting in an increase in crop yields. In previous studies, between 29-45% of sludge-borne carbon was recalcitrant a year after land application of biosolids from Buenos Aires City. Although high concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants have been worldwide reported to be present in this waste, this study has not been addressed in Argentina until now. Therefore,...

  5. Air pollution and unleaded gasoline in Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Bríd Gleeson Hanna; Alethia Jimenez Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Using a spline regression model and a monthly time series from January 1989 to December 2004 for Mexico City, we test for changes in the time trend for air pollution that coincide with the introduction of a new and relatively expensive unleaded gasoline in September 1990. At this time, new cars were required to have catalytic converters and leaded gasoline was significantly cheaper than unleaded gasoline. The price difference provided an incentive to use leaded gasoline in automobiles that we...

  6. Cluster Analysis of the Wind Events and Seasonal Wind Circulation Patterns in the Mexico City Region

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Carreón-Sierra; Alejandro Salcido; Telma Castro; Ana-Teresa Celada-Murillo

    2015-01-01

    The residents of Mexico City face serious problems of air pollution. Identifying the most representative scenarios for the transport and dispersion of air pollutants requires the knowledge of the main wind circulation patterns. In this paper, a simple method to recognize and characterize the wind circulation patterns in a given region is proposed and applied to the Mexico City winds (2001–2006). This method uses a lattice wind approach to model the local wind events at the meso-β scale, and h...

  7. Emission scenario model for regional air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution emissions are produced in a wide variety of sources. They often result in detrimental impacts on both environments and human populations. To assess the emissions and impacts of air pollution, mathematical models have been developed. This study presents results from the application of an air pollution emission model, the Finnish Regional Emission Scenario (FRES) model, that covers the emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), non-methane volatile or...

  8. The illness of the people of Daugavpils city and region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes the data about the illness of Daugavpils city and region during 1990-1995. The comparative analysis among the other cities and the average country's data was done also. The influence of Ignalina NPP upon the people's illness was not fixed. (author)

  9. Measuring Polycentricity of Mega-City Regions in China Based on the Intercity Migration Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaoyan; Yeh, Anthony G. O.

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses the intercity migration flows to examine relations between Chinese cities, identify the important mega-city regions and measure each region's polycentricity from an interaction perspective. Data set contains the long-term residential migration trajectories of three million Sina weibo users across 345 cities. Cities with close connectivity deployed around one or several mega cities are identified as mega-city regions. Features of the mega-city regions are characterized by the strength of migration flows, density of connections, and regional migration patterns. The results show that the disparities exist in different mega-city regions; most mega-city regions are lack of polycentricity.

  10. Continuous measurement of gaseous pollutants in Buenos Aires city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Horacio; Martín Negri, R.; San Román, Enrique

    Data on CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations measured in Buenos Aires city using a continuous monitoring station are reported. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in the city, which is, together with its surroundings, the third more populated in Latin America. Measurements were performed during 12 months in one of the principal avenues near downtown. Results indicate that vehicular traffic is the principal source of CO and NO x. The concentration of O 3 is generally quite low and results from the mixing of clean air masses with exhaust gases containing high amounts of NO. The monthly averages of CO and NO decrease from Winter to Summer in correlation with the increase of the mean wind speed and average temperature. These results are compared with previous measurements on the spatial distribution of NO 2 in the whole city using passive diffusion tubes and with the concentration of CO, which is being continuously registered since several years in the downtown area. Measurements performed at a green, windy, low traffic area beneath the La Plata river are also shown.

  11. Environmental Sustainability and Services in Developing Global City Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Panayotou

    2000-01-01

    Globalization brings unparalleled challenges and opportunities for global city-regions, both in terms of wealth creation and environmental sustainability. The purpose of this paper is (1) to analyze the environmental challenges of global city-regions, especially in developing countries, where they are more severe; (2) to examine the implications of globalization for these challenges; and (3) to explore public policy options, private sector involvement and innovative, flexible instruments for ...

  12. Regional investments in Southern European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the capacity of four medium-sized cities in Southern Europe, concerning the current situation of their assets (agglomeration economies, urban infrastructures, factors of labor and cost, etc.), the degree of development policies implementation and effectiveness by local authorities and finally the level of local authorities capacity to plan and implement particular policies and partnerships with the private sector in order to shape a favorable and attractive magnitude inve...

  13. Cities (and regions) within a city: subnational representations and the creation of European imaginaries in Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    Hein, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how sub-national institutions – representations from cities and regions – help create a European imaginary in Brussels. Political scientists and other scholars have noted the importance of these city and regional institutions, but have paid little attention to their physical form. Through a select set of case studies, this article analyses the vast impact that small-scale interventions in the use and re-imagination of select buildings occupied by the subnational institut...

  14. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO2 were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO2 and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs

  15. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-29

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO{sub 2} were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO{sub 2} and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs.

  16. Measurement of radon activity concentrations in air of Tuzla city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey was conducted over one year in the area of Tuzla city and its surrounding. At the measuring locations there were registered Daily and seasonal variations in outdoor radon concentration were observed, with average values lying within the region of 9 - 30 Bq/m3. The results of the measurements will be included in the concentration map of radon activity in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is under preparation. (P.A.)

  17. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p 100 (defined as “slightly polluted”), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as “severely polluted”). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4–7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality across the country. PMID:27486572

  18. Impact of trash burning on air quality in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, A; Wiedinmyer, C; Salcedo, D; Jimenez, J L

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution experienced by expanding urban areas is responsible for serious health effects and death for millions of people every year. Trash burning is a common disposal method in poor areas, yet it is uncontrolled in many countries, and its contribution to air pollution is unclear due to uncertainties in its emissions. Here we develop a new trash burning emission inventory for Mexico City based on inverse socioeconomic levels and recently measured emission factors, and apply a chemistry-transport model to analyze the effects on pollutant concentrations. Trash burning is estimated to emit 25 tons of primary organic aerosols (POA) per day, which is comparable to fossil fuel POA emissions in Mexico City, and causes an increase in average organic aerosol concentrations of ∼0.3 μg m(-3) downtown and up to 2 μg m(-3) in highly populated suburbs near the sources of emission. An evaluation using submicrometer antimony suggests that our emission estimates are reasonable. Mitigation of trash burning could reduce the levels of organic aerosols by 2-40% and those of PM(2.5) by 1-15% over the metropolitan area. The trash burning contributions to carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds were found to be very small (organic aerosols are also very small. PMID:22458823

  19. Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Negative Air Ion Concentrations in Danqinghe Experimental Forest,Harbin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, air ions, especially of negative air ion has received a universal attention for its health function. The density of negative air ion has become one of the important indexes that measure the air quality grade. With the air ions counter made in Japan, the spatial distribution characteristics of negative air concentrations at specific time in Danqinghe Experimental Forest were measured and studied, Harbin City, and the air quality was assessed by using ion polarity ration (q) and air ion asses...

  20. Statistical Analysis of the Impacts of Regional Transportation on the Air Quality in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Huiling; Tong, Lei; Xiao, Hang

    2016-04-01

    From October to December 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region had experienced several severe haze events. In order to assess the effects of the regional transportation on the air quality in Beijing, the air monitoring data (PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO) from that period published by Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) was collected and analyzed with various statistical models. The cities within BTH area were clustered into three groups according to the geographical conditions, while the air pollutant concentrations of cities within a group sharing similar variation trends. The Granger causality test results indicate that significant causal relationships exist between the air pollutant data of Beijing and its surrounding cities (Baoding, Chengde, Tianjin and Zhangjiakou) for the reference period. Then, linear regression models were constructed to capture the interdependency among the multiple time series. It shows that the observed air pollutant concentrations in Beijing were well consistent with the model-fitted results. More importantly, further analysis suggests that the air pollutants in Beijing were strongly affected by regional transportation, as the local sources only contributed 17.88%, 27.12%, 14.63% and 31.36% of PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO concentrations, respectively. And the major foreign source for Beijing was from Southwest (Baoding) direction, account for more than 42% of all these air pollutants. Thus, by combining various statistical models, it may not only be able to quickly predict the air qualities of any cities on a regional scale, but also to evaluate the local and regional source contributions for a particular city. Key words: regional transportation, air pollution, Granger causality test, statistical models

  1. Evaluation of anthropogenic influence on thermodynamics, gas and aerosol composition of city air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzhegova, Nina; Belan, Boris; Antokhin, Pavel; Zhidovkhin, Evgenii; Ivlev, Georgii; Kozlov, Artem; Fofonov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    In the last 40-50 years there is a global tendency of urbanisation, which is a consequence of most countries' economical development. Concurrently, the issue of environment's ecological state has become critical. Urban air pollution is among the most important ecological problems nowadays. World Health Organization (WHO) points out certain "classical" polluting agents: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), troposphere ozone (O3) (studied here), as well as lead, carbon dioxide (CO2), aldehydes, soot, benzpyrene and dredges (including dust, haze and smoke) [1]. An evaluation of antropogenic component's weight in the thermodynamical conditions and gas and aerosol composition of a city's atmosphere (by the example of Tomsk) is given in this paper. Tomsk is located at the South of West Siberia and is the administrative center of Tomsk region. The city's area is equal to 294,6 km2. Its population is 512.6 thousands of people. The overall number of registered motor vehicles in the city in 2008 was 131 700. That is, every fourth city inhabitant has a personal car. From 2002 to 2008 the number of motor vehicles in Tomsk has increased by 25 thousands units [2]. This increase consists mostly of passenger cars. There is also a positive trend in fuel consumtion by the city's industries and motor vehicles - from 2004 to 2007 it has increased by 10%. Such a quick rate of transport quantity's increase in the city provides reason to suggest an unfavorable ecological situation in Tomsk. For this study we have used the AKV-2 mobile station designed by the SB RAS Institute of Atmospheric Optics. The station's equipment provides the following measurements [3]: air temperature and humidity; aerosol disperse composition in 15 channels with a particle size range of 0.3-20 µm by use of the Grimm-1.108 aerosol spectrometer; NO, NO2, O3, SO2, CO, CO2 concentration. This paper describes a single experiment conducted in Tomsk. Date of

  2. An analytical quality framework for learning cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger-Kleine, Randolph

    2013-09-01

    There is broad agreement that innovation, knowledge and learning have become the main source of wealth, employment and economic development of cities, regions and nations. Over the past two decades, the number of European cities and regions which label themselves as "learning city" or "learning region" has constantly grown. However, there are also pitfalls and constraints which not only hinder them in unlocking their full potential, but also significantly narrow their effects and their wider impact on society. Most prominently, learning cities and regions manifest serious difficulties in rendering transparent the surplus value they generate, which is vital for attracting investment into lifelong learning. While evaluation and quality management are still perceived as being a bureaucratic necessity rather than a lesson one could learn from or an investment in the future, it is also true that without evaluation and quality assurance local networks do not have the means to examine their strengths and weaknesses. In order to design strategies to maximise the strengths and effectively address the weaknesses it is necessary to understand the factors that contribute to success and those that pose challenges. This article proposes an analytical quality framework which is generic and can be used to promote a culture of quality in learning cities and regions. The proposed framework builds on the findings and results of the R3L+ project, part-funded by the European Commission under the Grundtvig (adult education) strand of the Lifelong Learning programme 2007-2013.

  3. Understanding temporal patterns and characteristics of air quality in Beijing: A local and regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Cai, Jun; Gao, Bingbo

    2016-02-01

    Sources, characteristics and seasonal variation of airborne pollutants in China, especially in Beijing, have been massively examined. However, most studies analyze local air quality from an isolated perspective and interactions between local and regional air quality have not been fully considered. This research attempts to evaluate Beijing air quality at the local and regional scale. The weighted cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) and convergent cross mapping (CCM) method are employed for similarity and causality analysis respectively. At the local scale, the air quality in Beijing experiences frequent and sudden change, yet changes smoothly across a day's time. At the regional scale, the air quality in Beijing and four neighboring cities is compared. The result suggests that although air quality in Beijing and neighboring cities is of some differences, strong bidirectional coupling exists between the local and regional air quality. The research indicates that air quality in Beijing is better than the general situation in this region, and Tianjin should be a good comparative site for monitoring and evaluating air quality in Beijing. This research provides a feasible methodology for comprehensive analysis of local air quality at multiple scales, which may shed some lights on the forthcoming implementation of local air quality evaluation.

  4. The role of air quality modelling in particulate matter management in cities. Results from the Air Implementation Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    Castell N.; Guerreiro C; Denby B.R.; Ortiz González A.

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission and the EEA agreed to reinforce efforts to improve knowledge on implementation of air quality legislation through a joint pilot project. The Air Implementation Pilot run from March 2012 to June 2013 and aimed at better understanding the challenges cities faced in implementing air quality policy. Twelve European cities were selected and invited to join the project. One of the focus of the Pilot project was to assess the use of models ...

  5. [Regional eco-economic resilience of Changzhi city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Yu; Yang, Xin-mei; Shi, Chun-Fen

    2009-07-01

    Based on the theory of resilience, an eco-economic resilience coefficient model was proposed, and the regional eco-economic resilience of Changzhi City in 2001-2006 was analyzed. In the City, the ecological footprint was increased from 8.6569 x 10(6) hm2 in 2001 to 19.8190 x 10(6) hm2 in 2006. The ecological footprint of energy was 1/2 or more of the regional ecological footprint, and its increasing rate was decreasing and lower than that of regional economic growth. The eco-economic resilience coefficient of the City decreased from 0.80 in 2002 to 0.10 in 2006. Relative to economic growth, the demand for natural resources was decreasing. To achieve the sustainable development of Changzhi City, some countermeasures including readjusting industrial structure, changing habitant consumption patterns, increasing regional ecological capacity, decreasing the increasing rate of ecological footprint, and strengthening regional eco-economic resilience were proposed. PMID:19899459

  6. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  7. FUNGAL FLORA OF THE AIR OF BABOL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Omran

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal conidia and spores are among various organisms found in the air, causing different types of mycoses. In this study (from February 1994 until March 1995 fungal spores and conidia were collected by their settlement on to petri - dishes from 33 locations in Babol city during 4 seasons. Plates of sabouraud dextrose agar were laid 1.5 M. from the ground and then sent to mycology laboratory where they were incubated at room temperature. The fungi were examined by microscop and gross examination. 1520 colonies including 24 genera (Hyphomycetes 27.54% and yeast 25.46% grew on 132 plates (11.5 colonies I plate. The most prevalent fungi isolated in this study were Cladosporiurn, yeast and Penicilliwn, Most of the colonies detected observed in summer (704 colonies, and there had been the least number of colonies isolated in winter (187 colonies.

  8. AIR POLLUTION FROM FOSSIL FUEL IN ARAB REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohamedGomma Elnour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of air quality conditions and atmospheric pollution in the Arab Region has been addressed through consideration of the energy production and energy consumption pattern. Global, regional and local sources of air pollution in the study have been considered. Emission scenarios of many Arab countries of the region have been outli ned. It has been realized that air pollution constitutes one of the major sources of loss on GNP of many Arab countries in the region due to weak institutional capabilities for air pollution management and control. Major types of air pollution sources in t he region such as greenhouse gas emissions and other gases from various industries are considered. Local sources of air pollution are found due to urban growth, transportation systems, industrialization and lack of awareness and shortage of institutional c apabilities all contributed to the relatively low air quality and weak control in the Arab Region. The purpose of this paper is to review all available literature on the issue of air pollution in Arab countries due to combustion of fossil fuel coming from mobile sources and petroleum gas flaring in order to present the dire situation of the air quality in Arab countries. The report is organized based on certain factors which make the transport sector , power plants and associated gas flaring are significan t polluters of the air in the Arab region. We present a brief introduction to the composition of the transport sector in most of Arab countries and the forms of emissions resulting from it, then the report continues with the explanation of the major impact s that old - aged machines like automobiles, old petroleum production technology and old electrical energy plants technology have in terms of causing air pollution in these countries and thus; making them very inefficient and also very harmful towards the en vironment in most of Arab countries. In this paper also we have used the statistical data during

  9. Analysis on the Characteristics of Environmental Kuznets Curve and Assessment of Air Quality in Qingdao City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze the characteristics of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) and assess air quality in Qingdao City. [Method] The EKC characteristics of Qingdao from 1996 to 2008 were studied based on air pollutant discharge indices, air pollution indices and economic data from the environmental quality reports and statistics yearbooks of Qingdao, and the air quality of Qingdao City was assessed. [Result] With the increase of GDP per capita, the total discharge of industrial waste gases impro...

  10. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10. The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  11. [Migration toward medium-sized cities. Profound regional transformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, R; Tuiran, R

    1994-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred over the past two decades in the volume, intensity, direction, and modalities of internal migration in Mexico. Interstate migration, for example, has increased greatly. The number of persons living in a state different from that of their birth grew from 7.5 million in 1970 to 15.4 million in 1990, equivalent to 14.5% and 18.1% of the population, respectively. The growing volume and intensity of interstate migration have been accompanied by a declining rate of migration to Mexico City and to a lesser extent Guadalajara and Monterrey. Cities of intermediate size, defined as 100,000 to one million inhabitants, have multiplied since 1970 and a few have achieved great economic and demographic dynamism. In 1970, 16.6% of the population or 33.6% of the urban population lived in 37 intermediate cities, while by 1990 nearly 23.7% of the population and 39.0% of the urban population lived in 56 intermediate sized cities. Census and survey data confirm the power of attraction of a group of intermediate cities, but also reveal a complex array of situations. 24 of the 56 intermediate cities had populations of 100,000-250,000, and 21 had populations of 250,000-500,000. Most intermediate cities are located in the Northwest, Center-North, or Gulf regions. Some states have a number of intermediate cities and some have only one that concentrates most of the urban population. 26 of the 56 had growth rates over the two decades of over 4% annually and 20 had rates varying from 3% to 4%. 1990 census data show that 35% or more of the population were in-migrants in five cities: Tijuana, Mexicali and Ensenada in the Northwest, Cuernavaca in the Center-North, and Cancun in the Yucatan peninsula. Between 20% and 34% of the population were in-migrants in 14 intermediate cities. Cancun and Tijuana had the highest proportions of recent migrants. The volume of net migration of most states generally reflected that of their intermediate cities. The economic crisis

  12. Assessment of the Air Quality of Isfahan City, Iran, Using Selected Air Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, air pollution is one of the major problems in large cities including Isfahan. Methods: The objective of this study was to investigate the variations of ozone (O3, carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, and particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in different months at three stations and also to explore the correlations between pollutants. Monthly averages of air pollutant concentrations recorded in three pollution monitoring stations (Bozorgmehr, Azadi, and Laleh were obtained in 2008 and 2009. Results: There were significant monthly variations in the concentrations of air quality parameters. Results showed that there was a correlation between ozone and particle matter (p<0.05, and between nitric oxide and nitrogen oxides (p<0.01. The statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the O3, NO, NOx and PM10 concentrations. Conclusion: The air quality monitoring data collected in city center of Isfahan showed seasonal variations for O3, CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, and PM10.

  13. Cross ranking of cities and regions: population versus income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Ausloos, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the inner economical structure of communities and their population distribution through a rank-rank analysis of official data, along statistical physics ideas within two techniques. The data is taken on Italian cities. The analysis is performed both at a global (national) and at a more local (regional) level in order to distinguish ‘macro’ and ‘micro’ aspects. First, the rank-size rule is found not to be a standard power law, as in many other studies, but a doubly decreasing power law. Next, the Kendall τ and the Spearman ρ rank correlation coefficients which measure pair concordance and the correlation between fluctuations in two rankings, respectively,—as a correlation function does in thermodynamics, are calculated for finding rank correlation (if any) between demography and wealth. Results show non only global disparities for the whole (country) set, but also (regional) disparities, when comparing the number of cities in regions, the number of inhabitants in cities and that in regions, as well as when comparing the aggregated tax income of the cities and that of regions. Different outliers are pointed out and justified. Interestingly, two classes of cities in the country and two classes of regions in the country are found. ‘Common sense’ social, political, and economic considerations sustain the findings. More importantly, the methods show that they allow to distinguish communities, very clearly, when specific criteria are numerically sound. A specific modeling for the findings is presented, i.e. for the doubly decreasing power law and the two phase system, based on statistics theory, e.g. urn filling. The model ideas can be expected to hold when similar rank relationship features are observed in fields. It is emphasized that the analysis makes more sense than one through a Pearson Π value-value correlation analysis

  14. City Size, Density and Sectoral Structure: Exploring Urban Sustainability in the Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in history, the Global population is more urban than rural and the trend is obvious at various scales. Cities do not serve just as dynamic centres of activities, jobs and consumption markets, social interactions and cultural expressions, but also carry the weight of the main environmental problems of current times and the near future. Global Warming, air and water pollution, population growth and recourse constraints, i.e. reduction of carrying capacity of the environment are among the well known ones. The overall aim of this research is to develop mitigation (at various scales) and adaptation systems, tailored to urban settlements. They should be effective at the very local as well as regional levels, assess and introduce innovative urban technologies and policies, reduce ecological footprint of cities and increase recycling efficiency. We propose the empirical method of urban sustainability assessment, that supports our hypothesis that city functioning, the changes in its population and area growth depends on the size, average and internal densities and the geographical form. The existing cities of three regions are examined: Western and Eastern Europe (incl. Russia), Latin America and China. There are fundamental urban developmental differences and also within the first region, namely between EU countries and the Eastern part of European geographical region. The cities are considered not only as some agglomerates of areas with dense population but from the ecological point of view, namely examining inflow of food and energy and outflow of waste products across the boundaries. There are major differences between the patterns of urbanisation in the studied regions, urban systems functioning and resilience. Continuous investigation of these differenced helps building regional scenarios of cities development, population allocation and pollution management for the 21st century.

  15. Decentralising integration policies: managing migration in cities, regions and localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Penninx

    2009-01-01

    As cities and regions across Europe struggle to manage the integration challenges posed by immigration, a growing number of people are looking to decentralisation for answers. This paper argues that increasing the financial and decision-making power of local authorities is a necessary precondition f

  16. Relationship between air pollutants and economic development of the provincial capital cities in China during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; Chen, Huai; Zhu, Qiu'an; Peng, Changhui; Yang, Gang; Yang, Yanzheng; Zhang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    With the economic development of China, air pollutants are also growing rapidly in recent decades, especially in big cities of the country. To understand the relationship between economic condition and air pollutants in big cities, we analysed the socioeconomic indictors such as Gross Regional Product per capita (GRP per capita), the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2) and the air pollution index (API) from 2003 to 2012 in 31 provincial capitals of mainland China. The three main industries had a quadratic correlation with NO2, but a negative relationship with PM10 and SO2. The concentration of air pollutants per ten thousand yuan decreased with the multiplying of GRP in the provincial cities. The concentration of air pollutants and API in the provincial capital cities showed a declining trend or inverted-U trend with the rise of GRP per capita, which provided a strong evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), that the environmental quality first declines, then improves, with the income growth. The results of this research improved our understanding of the alteration of atmospheric quality with the increase of social economy and demonstrated the feasibility of sustainable development for China. PMID:25083711

  17. Indoor air pollution in four cities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reports the investigation of indoor air pollution carried out in four cities in China (Chengde, Shanghai, Shenyang and Wuhan). The concentrations of RP, SO2, CO and NO2 were measured in kitchens and bedrooms, both in summer and in winter. The results showed that indoor air pollution, as measured by RP, SO2, CO, was heavy when coal was used as domestic fuel. This was particularly severe in winter. For example, the concentrations of SO2 in homes with coal stoves were more than 10 times higher than those in homes with gas or LPG in Shanghai. The concentrations of pollutants in kitchens were higher than those in bedrooms. The source of pollutants was fuel combustion from kitchen. The highest concentrations in kitchen could reach 665 micrograms/m3 (RP), 860 micrograms/m3 (SO2) and 14.07 mg/m3 (CO). The concentrations in bedrooms were up to 270 micrograms/m3, 502 micrograms/m3, and 13.67mg/m3, respectively

  18. Application of SIM-air modeling tools to assess air quality in Indian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2012-12-01

    A prerequisite to an air quality management plan for a city is some idea of the main sources of pollution and their contributions for a city. This paper presents the results of an application of the SIM-air modeling tool in six Indian cities - Pune, Chennai, Indore, Ahmedabad, Surat, and Rajkot. Using existing and publicly available data, we put together a baseline of multi-pollutant emissions for each of the cities and then calculate concentrations, health impacts, and model alternative scenarios for 2020. The measured annual PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 micron meter) concentrations in μg m-3 averaged 94.7 ± 45.4 in Pune, 73.1 ± 33.7 in Chennai, 118.8 ± 44.3 in Indore, 94.0 ± 20.4 in Ahmedabad, 89.4 ± 12.1 in Surat, and 105.0 ± 25.6 in Rajkot, all exceeding the annual standard of 60 μg m-3. The PM10 inventory in tons/year for the year 2010 of 38,400 in Pune, 50,200 in Chennai, 18,600 in Indore, 31,900 in Ahmedabad, 20,000 in Surat, and 14,000 in Rajkot, is further spatially segregated into 1 km grids and includes all known sources such as transport, road dust, residential, power plants, industries (including the brick kilns), waste burning, and diesel generator sets. We use the ATMoS chemical transport model to validate the emissions inventory and estimate an annual premature mortality due to particulate pollution of 15,200 for the year 2010 for the six cities. Of the estimated 21,400 premature deaths in the six cities in 2020, we estimate that implementation of the six interventions in the transport and brick kiln sectors, can potentially save 5870 lives (27%) annually and result in an annual reduction of 16.8 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities.

  19. Examples of scale interactions in local, urban, and regional air quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, C.; De Ridder, K.; Deutsch, F.; Lefebre, F.; Van de Vel, K.

    2008-09-01

    Air quality modeling can help to improve understanding of scale interactions related to meteorology, transport, emissions, formation, removal, and other processes taking place at local, urban, and regional scales. For the local scale, we used the coupling of a street canyon model with a Gaussian dispersion model to study the interactions of emissions and concentrations in urban streets and surrounding urban neighborhoods. The model combination was applied to a city quarter in Ghent, Belgium, and showed that up to 40% of the PM 2.5 concentrations inside street canyons were caused by emissions from the surrounding streets. For the urban scale, the AURORA model has been used successfully in assessments of urban air quality for entire cities or urbanized areas. It has been applied to the Ruhr area in Germany to evaluate the impact of compact or polycentric cities versus the impact of urban sprawl developments. Results for ozone and PM 10 showed that compact city structures may have more adverse effects in terms of air pollution exposure. For the regional scale, the EUROS model was used to study the urban and regional-scale interactions that are important in simulating concentrations of ozone, PM 2.5, and PM 10. It has been applied to study seasonal changes in aerosol concentrations in Flanders. High secondary aerosol concentrations were found during summer. This contribution was related to large contributions from outside the region, showing the importance of the continental scale when studying regional air quality problems.

  20. Uncertainty in Regional Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digar, Antara

    Effective pollution mitigation is the key to successful air quality management. Although states invest millions of dollars to predict future air quality, the regulatory modeling and analysis process to inform pollution control strategy remains uncertain. Traditionally deterministic ‘bright-line’ tests are applied to evaluate the sufficiency of a control strategy to attain an air quality standard. A critical part of regulatory attainment demonstration is the prediction of future pollutant levels using photochemical air quality models. However, because models are uncertain, they yield a false sense of precision that pollutant response to emission controls is perfectly known and may eventually mislead the selection of control policies. These uncertainties in turn affect the health impact assessment of air pollution control strategies. This thesis explores beyond the conventional practice of deterministic attainment demonstration and presents novel approaches to yield probabilistic representations of pollutant response to emission controls by accounting for uncertainties in regional air quality planning. Computationally-efficient methods are developed and validated to characterize uncertainty in the prediction of secondary pollutant (ozone and particulate matter) sensitivities to precursor emissions in the presence of uncertainties in model assumptions and input parameters. We also introduce impact factors that enable identification of model inputs and scenarios that strongly influence pollutant concentrations and sensitivity to precursor emissions. We demonstrate how these probabilistic approaches could be applied to determine the likelihood that any control measure will yield regulatory attainment, or could be extended to evaluate probabilistic health benefits of emission controls, considering uncertainties in both air quality models and epidemiological concentration-response relationships. Finally, ground-level observations for pollutant (ozone) and precursor

  1. Improving the City-scale Emission Inventory of Anthropogenic Air Pollutants: A Case Study of Nanjing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Wang, H.; Qin, H.; Wu, X.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the improvement of city-scale emission inventory, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants for Nanjing is first developed combining detailed source information, and then justified through quantitative analysis with observations. The best available domestic emission factors and unit-/facility-based activity level data were compiled based on a thorough field survey on major emission sources. Totally 1089 individual emission sources were identified as point sources and all the emission-related parameters including burner type, combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of pollution control devices, are carefully investigated and analyzed. Some new data such as detailed information of city fueling-gas stations, construction sites, monthly activity level, data from continuous emission monitoring systems and traffic flow information were combined to improve spatiotemporal distribution of this inventory. For SO2, NOX and CO, good spatial correlations were found between ground observation (9 state controlling air sampling sites in Nanjing) and city-scale emission inventory (R2=0.34, 0.38 and 0.74, respectively). For TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, however, poorer correlation was found due to relatively weaker accuracy in emission estimation and spatial distribution of road dust. The mixing ratios between specific pollutants including OC/EC, BC/CO and CO2/CO, are well correlated between those from ground observation and emission. Compared to MEIC (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China), there is a better spatial consistence between this city-scale emission inventory and NO2 measured by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). In particular, the city-scale emission inventory still correlated well with satellite observations (R2=0.28) while the regional emission inventory showed little correlation with satellite observations (R2=0.09) when grids containing power plants are excluded. It thus confirms the improvement of city-scale emission

  2. Urban development and air pollution: evidence from a global panel of cities

    OpenAIRE

    Christian A. L. Hilber; Palmer, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Study examines air pollution concentration in 75 urban areas between 2005 and 2011. Focuses specifically on the impacts of changes in the urban environment and transportation mode on pollution. A surprising finding of the research is that increasing car and population densities significantly reduce air pollution concentration in city centers where air pollution induced health risks are greatest. These effects are largely confined to cities in non-OECD countries. Two possible mechanisms for th...

  3. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND AIR POLLUTION IN CHINA: EVIDENCE FROM CHINESE CITIES

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jie

    2008-01-01

    In order to gain deeper insight into the impacts of FDI on the air pollution situation in Chinese cities, I construct a simultaneous system. This system supposes the air pollution indicators to be determined by economic scale, industrial composition and technical characters of a city and in turn, FDI entry can affect the production scale, structure transformation and technical progress in pollution abatement activities. This system is tested for two air pollution cases in China: the annual av...

  4. The rise of low-cost sensing for managing air pollution in cities

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Morawska, L.; Martani, C; Biskos, G.; Neophytou, M; Di Sabatino, S.; Bell, M.; Norford, L; Britter, R

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ever growing populations in cities are associated with a major increase in road vehicles and air pollution. The overall high levels of urban air pollution have been shown to be of a significant risk to city dwellers. However, the impacts of very high but temporally and spatially restricted pollution, and thus exposure, are still poorly understood. Conventional approaches to air quality monitoring are based on networks of static and sparse measurement stations. However, these are proh...

  5. Airborne monitoring of radioactivity level in the regions surrounding Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the monitoring method and main results of environmental γ radioactivity level and surface density of 137Cs and 60Co on the ground in the regions surrounding Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and Shanghai City, using airborne γspectrometer. The results show that the absorbed dose rate in air (1 m above ground) is lower normal background, the average is 52.7 nGy/h in the regions. No pollution from Nuclear Power Plant had been monitored, but two artificial pollution points at the fertilizer factory of Fengxian County and the refractory material factory of Haiyan County had unexpectly been monitored

  6. Estimation of terrestrial air-absorbed dose rate from the data of regional geochemistry database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an estimation of air-absorbed dose rate from the data of K2O, U and Th content from Chinese regional geochemical database. A total of 421 group original data of combined samples in Zhongshan City (ZSC), Guangdong Province and south China were extracted from the national geochemical database. Estimated average value of air-absorbed dose rate is 139.4 nGy h-1 in the granite area and 73.7 nGy h-1 in the sedimentary area. The level of air-absorbed dose rate is closely related with the surface lithology. Estimated mean air-absorbed dose rate approximates to the measured average value by a portable plastic scintillator dosemeter in Zhuhai City were bordered with ZSC. The results show that the pre-evaluation of ionizing radiation level using regional geochemical data is feasible. (author)

  7. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Air Pollution, Climate Change, and Total Mortality in 120 Cities of China, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longjian; Yang, Xuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Mingquan; Welles, Seth; Márquez, Shannon; Frank, Arthur; Haas, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    China has had a rapid increase in its economy over the past three decades. However, the economic boom came at a certain cost of depleting air quality. In the study, we aimed to examine the burden of air pollution and its association with climatic factors and health outcomes using data from Chinese national and city-level air quality and public health surveillance systems. City-level daily air pollution index (API, a sum weighted index of SO2, NO2, PM10, CO, and Ozone) in 120 cities in 2012 and 2013, and its association with climate factors were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis, and panel fixed models. City-level ecological association between annual average API and total mortality were examined using univariate and partial correlation analysis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by taking the consideration of time-lag effect between exposures and outcomes. The results show that among the 120 cities, annual average API significantly increased from 2012 to 2013 (65.05 vs. 75.99, p China in 2012 and with the highest in east China in 2013. In 2012, 5 (4%) of the 120 cities had ≥60 days with API >100 (defined as "slightly polluted"), however, it increased to 21 cities (18%) that experienced API >100 for ≥60 days in 2013. Furthermore, 16 cities (13%) in 2012 and 35 (29%) in 2013 experienced a maximum API >300 (defined as "severely polluted"). API was negatively and significantly correlated with heat index, precipitation, and sunshine hours, but positively with air pressure. Cities with higher API concentrations had significantly higher total mortality rates than those with lower API. About a 4-7% of the variation in total mortality could be explained by the difference in API across the nation. In conclusion, the study highlights an increased trend of air pollution from 2012 to 2013 in China. The magnitude of air pollution varied by seasons and regions and correlated with climatic factors and total mortality

  8. Analysis of air quality and nighttime light for Indian urban regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Prakhar; Takeuchi, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    Indian urban regions suffer severe air pollution issues. A 2014 study by WHO highlighted that out of 20 cities globally with worst air quality, 13 lie in India. Although insufficient ground monitoring data and incomplete air pollution source characterization impedes putting policy measures to tackle this issue, remote sensing and GIS can overcome this hurdle to some extent. To find out how much of this hazard is due to economic growth, past researches have tried to make use of socio-economic growth indicators like GDP, population or urban area to establish its correlation with air quality in urban centres. Since nightlight has been found to correlate well with economic conditions at national and city level, an attempt has been made to analyse it with air quality levels to find regions with high contribution of anthropogenic emissions. Nighttime light activity was observed through DayNight Band (DNB) of VIIRS sensor while the air quality levels were obtained for ANG and AOD (using MODIS sensor) and SO2 and NO2 (using OMI sensor). We have classified Indian landmass into 4 air-quality and DNB classes: LowLight- HighPollution, HighLight-HighPollution, LowLight-LowPollution and HighLight- LowPollution for each air quality species using June 2014 data. It was found that around half of urban regions show high AOD and ANG values. On the other hand almost all urban regions exhibit high SO2 and NO2 values.

  9. Spatial disparities in developing countries: cities, regions and international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Venables, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial inequality in developing countries is due to the natural advantages of some regions relative to others and to the presence of agglomeration forces, leading to clustering of activity. This paper reviews and develops some simple models that capture these first and second nature economic geographies. The presence of increasing returns to scale in cities leads to urban structures that are not optimally sized. This depresses the return to job creation, possibly retarding development. Looki...

  10. Cluster Analysis of the Wind Events and Seasonal Wind Circulation Patterns in the Mexico City Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Carreón-Sierra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Mexico City face serious problems of air pollution. Identifying the most representative scenarios for the transport and dispersion of air pollutants requires the knowledge of the main wind circulation patterns. In this paper, a simple method to recognize and characterize the wind circulation patterns in a given region is proposed and applied to the Mexico City winds (2001–2006. This method uses a lattice wind approach to model the local wind events at the meso-β scale, and hierarchical cluster analysis to recognize their agglomerations in their phase space. Data of the meteorological network of Mexico City was used as input for the lattice wind model. The Ward’s clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance was applied to organize the model wind events in seasonal clusters for each year of the period. Comparison of the hourly population trends of these clusters permitted the recognition and detailed description of seven circulation patterns. These patterns resemble the qualitative descriptions of the Mexico City wind circulation modes reported by other authors. Our method, however, permitted also their quantitative characterization in terms of the wind attributes of velocity, divergence and vorticity, and an estimation of their seasonal and annual occurrence probabilities, which never before were quantified.

  11. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  12. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume 2, Problem definition, background, and summary of prior research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Air pollution in Mexico City has increased along with the growth of the city, the movement of its population, and the growth of employment created by industry. The main cause of pollution in the city is energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the city`s economic development and its prospects when considering the technological relationships between well-being and energy consumption. Air pollution in the city from dust and other particles suspended in the air is an old problem. However, pollution as we know it today began about 50 years ago with the growth of industry, transportation, and population. The level of well-being attained in Mexico City implies a high energy use that necessarily affects the valley`s natural air quality. However, the pollution has grown so fast that the City must act urgently on three fronts: first, following a comprehensive strategy, transform the economic foundation of the city with nonpolluting activities to replace the old industries, second, halt pollution growth through the development of better technologies; and third, use better fuels, emission controls, and protection of wooded areas.

  13. City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Larsen, J.C.;

    1996-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mutagens and other air pollutants was investigated in a busy street in central Copenhagen and in a park area adjacent to the street. The winter concentration of benzo(a)pyrene was 4.4+/-1.2 ng/m(3) in the street air and 1.4+/-0.6 ng/m(3) in...... the city park. The atmospheric concentrations of PAH decreased in the order of: street > city background air similar to suburbs > village > open land. The traffic contribution of PAH to street air was estimated to be 90% on working days and 60% during weekends and its contribution to city background...... air was estimated to be 40%. Four different approaches to evaluate the health effects are discussed. The direct effect of PAH air pollution, and other mutagens, is considered to be a maximum of five lung cancer cases each year out of one million people....

  14. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  15. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2014-04-01

    Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed. PMID:24759176

  16. Air quality estimates in Mediterranean cities using high resolution satellite technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Satellite imaging is an essential tool for monitoring air pollution because, unlike ground observations, it supplies continuous data with global coverage of terrestrial and atmospheric components. Satellite-based Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals reflect particle abundance in the atmospheric column. This data provide some indication on the extent of particle concentrations. However, it is difficult to retrieve AOD at high spatial resolution above areas with high surface reflectance and heterogeneous land cover, such as urban areas. Therefore, many crowded regions worldwide including Israel, AOD climatology are still uncertain because of the high ground reflectance and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. This study aims to investigate the spatial variability of AOD within Israeli and several other Mediterranean cities. In addition, we aim to characterize the impact of climatic condition on pollution patterns in-and-between cities and to identify days when cities exhibit the highest variability in AOD. Furthermore, we assessed the differences in pollution levels between adjacent locations. We will report on spatial variability in AOD levels derived from high 1km resolution MAIAC AOD algorithm on a temporal basis, in relation to season and synoptic-meteorological conditions.

  17. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A. Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North–South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density.

  18. Cities and regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaute, Elsa; Molinero, Carlos; Hatna, Erez; Murcio, Roberto; Vargas-Ruiz, Camilo; Masucci, A Paolo; Batty, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and urban agglomeration. At the larger scales, the observed hierarchical structures can be interpreted as regional fractures of Britain, observed in various forms, from natural boundaries, such as National Parks, to regional divisions based on social class and wealth such as the well-known North-South divide. At smaller scales, cities are generated through recursive percolations on each of the emerging regional clusters. We examine the evolution of the morphology of the system as a whole, by measuring the fractal dimension of the clusters at each distance threshold in the percolation. We observe that this reaches a maximum plateau at a specific distance. The clusters defined at this distance threshold are in excellent correspondence with the boundaries of cities recovered from satellite images, and from previous methods using population density. PMID:27152211

  19. Air pollution studies in Tianjing city using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sites of airborne sampling from industrial and residential areas were made in Tianjing city during February and June using PM-10 sampler and analyzed by NAA techniques; Comparison of air pollution between urban and rural area in Tianjing city was made using neutron activation analysis techniques and some other data analyzing techniques. (author)

  20. Using User Generated Online Photos to Estimate and Monitor Air Pollution in Major Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuncheng; Huang, Jifei; Luo, Jiebo

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy in China over the past decade, air pollution has become an increasingly serious problem in major cities and caused grave public health concerns in China. Recently, a number of studies have dealt with air quality and air pollution. Among them, some attempt to predict and monitor the air quality from different sources of information, ranging from deployed physical sensors to social media. These methods are either too expensive or unreliable, prompting us to...

  1. Www.airqualitynow.eu, a common website and air quality indices to compare cities across europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leger, Karine; Van Den Elshout, Sef; Ung, Anthony; Malherbe, Laure; Meleux, Frédérik; Songeur, Charlotte; Honore, Cécile; Pernot, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Air quality is a public concern. This is partly due to the "right to know" principle embodied in European legislation. Despite this common legislation, the way air quality is being interpreted and communicated differs considerably. For specialists raw monitoring data for Europe are available but these are not usable by the general public. Easy to understand and internationally comparable air quality information from one city to another is scarce: there are almost as many air quality indices a...

  2. The Politics of City Regions in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kantor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available An age of the urban regionalism has arrived. Postindustrial capitalism is evolving in ways that give renewed importance to city regions. New forms of economic interdependence, the rise of specialized flexible production, the spread of new technologies, and other factors are making the city region a prominent node in today’s globalized economy. Although governments at all levels have been responding to manage this reality, political intervention remains a contentious matter because regional economic development has unleashed new political tensions over governance. Some tensions arise from economic obstacles to regional political cooperation. Other tensions arise from the urban political process in city regions. Many political interests, including entire governments, oppose political collaboration necessary for regional governance because it threatens them with loss of power, status or wealth. The political forces favoring resistance at the local and metropolitan levels tend to differ in the North American and Western European contexts, however.L’âge du «régionalisme urbain» est arrivé. Le capitalisme postindustriel se développe avec des modalités qui accordent une nouvelle importance aux villes-régions. De nouvelles formes d’interdépendance économique, l’émergence d’une production spécialisée flexible, la diffusion des nouvelles technologies, et d’autres facteurs font des villes-régions un nœud prédominant dans l’économie globalisée d’aujourd’hui. Bien que les gouvernements de tous niveaux aient fourni des réponses pour gérer cette réalité, l’intervention politique demeure un objet de conflit parce que le développement économique régional a libéré de nouvelles tensions politiques. Certaines tensions naissent des obstacles économiques à une coopération politique de niveau métropolitain. D’autres proviennent de l’intérieur même du processus politique des villes. De nombreux int

  3. [Distribution of findings of scorpions in Buenos Aires city in the period 2001-2012 and their sanitary implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Laskowicz, Rodrigo D; Lanari, Laura C; Scarlato, Eduardo; Damin, Carlos; de Titto, Ernesto H; de Roodt, Adolfo R

    2016-02-01

    Scorpion stings and their associated mortality increased in the last years in Argentina, with a cumulative record of 73,617 cases and 30 deaths during the period 2001-2012, occurring almost all the deaths in pediatric patients. However, deaths due to severe envenoming by scorpion stings have not been recorded in Buenos Aires city and suburban regions, although the presence of scorpions in this city has been increasingly reported. We studied the temporal and geographical distribution of Tityus trivittatus findings in Buenos Aires city from the database of the Research and Development Area from the National Institute for Production of Biologics of the National Ministry of Health during the period 10/01/2001 to 31/12/2012 in order to correlate these findings with the distribution of health centers in the city. In this period 385 consults with identification of scorpions were recorded. Annual records showed a growing trend. Georeferenced data showed that findings appeared to increase in the surroundings of metro and train stations, mainly at the east of the city with expansion to the west. Although Toxicology services are geographically related to the zones with higher density of finding of scorpions, the accessibility to the centers with antivenom may hinder its application in the recommended time; some measures to avoid possible delays in the application of the treatment are suggested. PMID:26914081

  4. Healthy Cities in a global and regional context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Roderick J; Fudge, Colin

    2009-11-01

    Since the beginning of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network in 1987, the global and regional contexts for the promotion of health and well-being have changed in many ways. First, in 2000, the United Nations Millennium Goals explicitly and implicitly addressed health promotion and prevention at the global and regional levels. Second, the concern for sustainable development at the Rio Conference in 1992 was confirmed at the World Summit in Johannesburg in 2002. During the same period, in many regions including Europe, the redefinition of the roles and responsibilities of national, regional and local governments, reductions in budgets of public administrations, the privatization of community and health services, the instability of world trade, the financial system and employment, migration flows, relatively high levels of unemployment (especially among youth and young adults) have occurred in many countries in tandem with negative impacts on specific policies and programmes that are meant to promote health. Since 1990, the European Commission has been explicitly concerned about the promotion of health, environment and social policies by defining strategic agendas for the urban environment, sustainable development and governance. However, empirical studies during the 1990s show that urban areas have relatively high levels of tuberculosis, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, adult obesity, malnutrition, tobacco smoking, poor mental health, alcohol consumption and drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS), crime, homicide, violence and accidental injury and death. In addition, there is evidence that urban populations in many industrialized countries are confronted with acute new health problems stemming from exposure to persistent organic pollutants, toxic substances in building structures, radioactive waste and increasing rates of food poisoning. These threats to public health indicate an urgent need for new strategic policies and

  5. The importance of theory of regional culture in city image shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷

    2015-01-01

    In this paper:Regional culture in a certain region within the scope and the integration of the environment, as a regional brand, unique. The development of regional culture and heritage have important influence on city image.

  6. The traffic crisis and a tale of two cities: Traffic and air quality in Bangkok and Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendakur, V.S.; Badami, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper focuses on congestion management techniques, traffic congestion levels and air quality. By using data from Bangkok and Mexico City, it illustrates the need for drastic changes in transportation policy tools and techniques for congestion management and for improving environmental quality. New approaches to investment and regulatory policy analysis and implementation are suggested. This requires the inclusion of all costs and benefits (economic and ecological) in the policy matrix so that investment and regulatory policies act in unison. Megacities are dominant in social, political and economic terms. 30 to 60% of national GDP is typically produced in these cities. Their human and motor vehicle populations have been doubling every 15-20 and 6-10 years respectively. They also have the most severe traffic congestion and air quality problems. They have the nation`s highest incidence of poverty and absolute poverty. Large portions of their populations endure severely unhealthy housing and sanitation conditions. Following are important characteristics of urban transportation systems in the megacities: the city centres are heavily congested with motorized traffic; traffic crawl rates vary from 2 to 10 km/hr; car and motorcycle ownership are increasing at annual rates of 10-12% and 15-20% respectively; significant air pollution with no relief in sight; TDM strategies are primarily creating new supply of road capacity; fairly high transit trips with substantial transit investments; weak air pollution monitoring and enforcement; and fairly cheap fuel and high costs of vehicles.

  7. Impact of AIRS Thermodynamic Profile on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovee, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Prudent assimilation of AIRS thermodynamic profiles and quality indicators can improve initial conditions for regional weather models. AIRS-enhanced analysis has warmer and moister PBL. Forecasts with AIRS profiles are generally closer to NAM analyses than CNTL. Assimilation of AIRS leads to an overall QPF improvement in 6-h accumulated precipitation forecasts. Including AIRS profiles in assimilation process enhances the moist instability and produces stronger updrafts and a better precipitation forecast than the CNTL run.

  8. Air pollution and respiratory diseases in African big cities : the case of Cotonou in Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotonou is one of the most polluted cities in west Africa because of its preferred mode of transportation for residents, the zemidjan. The zemidjan is a two-wheeled vehicle taxi whose motorcycle exhaust emits air pollution, creating health risks for drivers, passengers and residents. The pollution contributes to respiratory diseases and other ailments such as respiratory infection, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This paper describes and statistically analyses the pollution problem in Cotonou by presenting information on the city of Cotonou, examining environment quality indicators (such as air quality) and presenting an overview of the situation. It also estimates and forecasts the human health risks to Cotonou residents. It reviews the measures taken by central and local governments to protect citizens against these risks. The paper also makes several recommendations including: organize a permanent and formal monitoring system for air quality management in the city; create stronger local laws and rules to regulate air pollution in the city; involve the population living in the city in decision making processes; and, conduct research studies on the perception and behaviour of the population towards environmental issues such as air pollution and air quality. 6 tabs., 1 fig., 11 refs

  9. Measurement the average gamma rate radiation for some regions in Baghdad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of radiation dose from natural sources is important because natural ionizing radiation is the largest contributor to the collective effective dose received by the world's population.Measured gamma dose rate in indoor and outdoor environments estimated corresponding annual effective dose for some regions in Baghdad city.Indoor and outdoor environmental gamma dose rates were measured using Inspector Exp instrument, in 6 selected regions [A, B, C, D, E and F].The average dose rates in air resulting from gamma background radiation indoor and outdoor were 121 ± 22 nSv.hr-1 and 111 ± 24 nSv.hr-1 with range 95 - 147 nSv.hr-1 and 80 - - 150 nSv.hr-1 respectively.Then the annual average effective dose of residents regions was 0.729 mSv

  10. Air-quality measurements in mega-cities: Focus on gaseous organic and particulate pollutants and comparison between two contrasted cities, Paris and Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid and important development of large urban areas ('mega-cities'), especially in developing countries, causes and will cause serious air-quality problems. Pollutant measurements in these cities help to characterize the chemical nature and the quantity of these pollutants and to constrain air-quality models. This paper focuses on measurements of volatile organic compounds and aerosols that have an important impact on air quality. We present a brief review on existing measurements and experimental strategies in mega-cities and then we show results from recent measurement campaigns that took place in two contrasted mega-cities: Paris and Beijing. (authors)

  11. Modeling Regional Air Quality Impacts from Indonesian Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumbam, L.; Raffuse, S. M.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Larkin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Smoke from thousands of forest-clearing burns in Indonesia cause widespread air quality impacts in cities across southeastern Asia. These fires, which can produce significant smoke due to peat burning, are readily detected by polar orbiting satellites. Widespread smoke can be seen in satellite imagery, and high concentrations of particulate matter are detected by ground based sensors. Here we present results of a pilot modeling study focusing on the September 2011 Indonesian smoke episode. In the study, fire location information was collected from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The BlueSky modeling framework, which links information about fire locations with smoke emissions and meteorological models, was used to pass the fire location information from MODIS through the Fire INventories from NCAR (FINN) methodology to estimate emissions of aerosol and gaseous pollutants from the fires. These emissions were further directed by BlueSky through the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, which predicted the dispersion and transport of PM2.5 from the fires. The resulting regional PM2.5 concentration maps from BlueSky were compared with satellite imagery and urban ground stations, where available. This work demonstrates the extension of a system developed for producing daily smoke predictions in the United States outside of North America for the first time. We discuss the implications of regional smoke impacts and possibilities for predictive smoke modeling to protect public health in southeastern Asia.

  12. How much spatial detail in meteorological parameters is needed to model air-quality in a city? A case study for the city of Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; De Ridder, Koen; Demuzere, Matthias; van Lipzig, Nicole; Brisson, Erwan; Lauwaet, Dirk; Viaene, Peter; Deutsch, Felix; Veldeman, Nele

    2013-04-01

    There exists a large discrepancy between the rural and urban land cover in terms of soil water, aerodynamical, thermal and radiative characteristics, and anthropogenic heat. This results in urban-scale meteorological features such as the urban heat island, reduced wind speed and the city breeze. Some of these effects have a considerable impact on human health in cities when the nocturnal cooling is reduced during heat waves or when air quality is affected during smog episodes. The question rises what impact does urban climate have on air quality in cities. The Regional climate model COSMO-CLM updated with the urban parameterization (TERRA_MLU) and the air-quality AURORA (VITO NV, Belgium) are used to quantify and understand the interactions between (urban) climate and air quality on different scales. COSMO-CLM is currently cascade-nested inside ECMWF 12.5km analysis up to a horizontal resolution of 1km over Antwerp (Belgium). The urban parameterization TERRA_MLU is implemented in COSMO-CLM using a tile approach in which the urban surface can coexist with the natural area in one grid-cell. The inclusion of anthropogenic heat is based on country-specific data of energy consumption downscaled with population density and urbanization. Meteorological model data from COSMO-CLM is used as forcing for the air-quality model AURORA. Results, in particular the urban heat island effect, are evaluated with urban/rural meteorological measurements in Antwerp, Ghent and Brussels starting from 2012. It is investigated whether air-quality modeling can be improved when forcing AURORA with (urban) microscale meteorological data from COSMO-CLM rather than with coarser meteorological data from ECMWF. Therefore each nesting step of COSMO is subsequently used as input for the air-quality model. In order to set priorities for the improvement of air-quality modelling in the future, the relative importance of orography, urban climate and the impact of uncertainty in pollutent emissions to

  13. Proceedings of the upwind downwind cities air and health conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upwind downwind conference examined the health impacts of poor air quality and how land use decisions impact air quality as well as the roles of industry, community groups, academia and government in improving air quality. Conference attendees included planners, public health officials, policy makers, environmental managers, non-government organizations, academics, industry, community groups and politicians. The conference covered several topics including partnerships between public health and planning with respect to improving air quality in urban environments; the use of science in decision-making and development of new projects, policies and regulations; airshed agreements in North America, in addition to Ontario's new air quality regulations; and examples of citizen groups, non-government organizations, industry, academia and local, provincial and federal governments partnering to improve air quality. A total of 16 presentations were presented at the conference, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. The conference also featured several keynote speakers and panel discussions. tabs., figs

  14. Polycentric Puzzles: Emerging Mega-City Regions Seen through the Lens of Advanced Producer Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyler, Michael; Kloosterman, Robert Christian; Sokol, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper introduces a special issue of Regional Studies on 'Globalization, City-Regions and Polycentricity in North West Europe'. The issue focuses on the thematic core of the EU-funded project POLYNET: the analysis of economic connections and information flows generated by advanced producer services in eight European polycentric city-regions. The paper first discusses key elements of the current debate on global city-regions and points out some unresolved gaps. A summar...

  15. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L; Xu, R.; Xie, F; Q. Zhang; Yu, Y.; C. P. Nielsen; Qin, H.; Wang, H.; Wu, X; Li, W; J. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and ...

  16. City marketing in small and medium-sized cities in a regional context

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Krister; Berglund, Elin

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary western cities, city marketing is widely applied as a means for local economic development, city competitiveness and attractiveness. In practice, city marketing generally includes a wide range of promotional, organisational and spatial strategies and activities. It is often manifested in city centre revitalization including upgrading of public space, the construction of spectacular entertainment and cultural amenities, and image enhancing activities. Parallel to the growing pr...

  17. Air Quality Over Baghdad City Using Earth Observation And Landsat Thermal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Salah A. H. Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution problem is a major concern in many large cities and becomes increasingly critical in this present-day in developed or developing countries around the world. Mapping of urban air pollution dispersion is very complex as it depends upon various factors including weather conditions, urban structural features and their topologies. Air pollution dispersion distribution can be mapped by using mathematical models and interpolation methods based on ground local measurements of meteorolog...

  18. Will joint regional air pollution control be more cost-effective? An empirical study of China's Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Shiqiu

    2015-02-01

    By following an empirical approach, this study proves that joint regional air pollution control (JRAPC) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region will save the expense on air pollution control compared with a locally-based pollution control strategy. The evidences below were found. (A) Local pollutant concentration in some of the cities is significantly affected by emissions from their surrounding areas. (B) There is heterogeneity in the marginal pollutant concentration reduction cost among various districts as a result of the cities' varying contribution of unit emission reduction to the pollutant concentration reduction, and their diverse unit cost of emission reduction brought about by their different industry composition. The results imply that the cost-efficiency of air pollution control will be improved in China if the conventional locally based regime of air pollution control can shift to a regionally based one. PMID:25463568

  19. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  20. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  1. The city model as a tool for participatory urban planning - a case study: The Bilotti open air museum of Cosenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, S.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the 3D city model of the pedestrian area of Cosenza, which in recent years has become the Bilotti Open Air Museum (MAB). For this purpose were used both the data available (regional technical map, city maps, orthophotos) and acquired through several surveys of buildings and "Corso Mazzini" street (photos, topographic measurements, laser scanner point clouds). In addition to the urban scale model, the survey of the statues of the MAB was carried out. By means of data processing, the models of the same statues have been created, that can be used as objects within the city model. The 3D model of the MAB open air museum has been used to implement a Web-GIS allowing the citizen's participation, understanding and suggestions. The 3D city model is intended as a new tool for urban planning, therefore it has been used both for representing the current situation of the MAB and for design purposes, by acknowledging suggestions regarding a possible different location of the statues and a new way to enjoy the museum.

  2. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    B. Aouizerats; G. R. van der Werf; Balasubramanian, R; R. Betha

    2014-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of ...

  3. Study of air pollution in Buenos Aires city using neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenos Aires city and its surroundings, has a huge population and very dense traffic. There are many possible pollution sources that can be identified, but other characteristics such as weather and location counteract some of these sources to the benefit of the atmosphere of the city. Although several groups have been working on these subjects, there is not enough information about which elements are present in Buenos Aires air. The aim of this project is to provide information about the elemental profile of the atmosphere of the city and to evaluate and to make an interpretation of the obtained data. Both XRF and INAA are going to be used for analyzing the air filter samples with the participation of the Meteorological Service in sampling and interpretation of the results. By choosing adequate sampling sites and times, differences between day/night, week day/weekend will be looked for. The influence of non-leaded petrols will be studied. Some work on air samples was done before the beginning of this contract to settle future working conditions. Some results from this study are presented only as preliminary ones. Sampling will begin during this April at two sites with different traffic density. For both XRF and NAA suitable standards will be prepared. Medium and long lived nuclides are going to be analyzed by INAA. Plans for 1993 are given as well as possible collaboration with other groups in the country. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  4. Skilled Cities, Regional Disparities, and Efficient Transport: The state of the art and a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Proost, Stef; Thisse, Jacques-François

    2015-01-01

    The three themes of this survey—cities, regions, and transport—are closely intertwined and gathered in the category R of the JEL Classification System. We discuss cities and regions in separate sections because they are different spatial units facing specific problems. Transport issues affect both cities and regions and are discussed in each relevant section. The introductory remarks explain both the reason for this division, as well as what spatial economics is all about. Because general eco...

  5. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Challoner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this research aims to provide a framework for epidemiological studies by the use of publically available data from fixed outdoor monitoring stations to predict indoor air quality more accurately. Predictions are made using two modelling techniques, the Personal-exposure Activity Location Model (PALM, to predict outdoor air quality at a particular building, and Artificial Neural Networks, to model the indoor/outdoor relationship of the building. This joint approach has been used to predict indoor air concentrations for three inner city commercial buildings in Dublin, where parallel indoor and outdoor diurnal monitoring had been carried out on site. This modelling methodology has been shown to provide reasonable predictions of average NO2 indoor air quality compared to the monitored data, but did not perform well in the prediction of indoor PM2.5 concentrations. Hence, this approach could be used to determine NO2 exposures more rigorously of those who work and/or live in the city centre, which can then be linked to potential health impacts.

  6. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, contributing about 60, 22, 33, and 22% to primary OA (POA, secondary OA (SOA, total OA (TOA, and EC, respectively, on both the local and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. SOA formation due to the open fires and trash burning enhanced the OA concentration by about 10 and 5% in the MCMA, respectively. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that biomass burning contributed about 60, 30, and 25%, respectively, to the loadings of POA, SOA and EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, with about 35, 18, and 15% from open fires and trash burning. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the impacts of biomass burning on tropospheric chemistry, regional and global air quality, and climate change.

  7. The role of a peri-urban forest on air quality improvement in the Mexico City megalopolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality improvement by a forested, peri-urban national park was quantified by combining the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) and the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) models. We estimated the ecosystem-level annual pollution removal function of the park’s trees, shrub and grasses using pollution concentration data for carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), modeled meteorological and pollution variables, and measured forest structure data. Ecosystem-level O3 and CO removal and formation were also analyzed for a representative month. Total annual air quality improvement of the park’s vegetation was approximately 0.02% for CO, 1% for O3, and 2% for PM10, of the annual concentrations for these three pollutants. Results can be used to understand the air quality regulation ecosystem services of peri-urban forests and regional dynamics of air pollution emissions from major urban areas. - Highlights: ► Air quality regulation functions and ecosystem structure of a peri-urban forest in Mexico were quantified. ► Air pollution removal-formation dynamics were estimated using the UFORE and WRF-Chem models. ► Peri-urban forests positively contributed to air qualtiy improvement in Mexico City. ► Results can be used to quantify the ecosystem services of peri-urban forests. - Coupled models estimated air quality improvement and pollution removal-formation by peri-urban forest ecosystems in the Mexico City airshed.

  8. Trends and sources vs air mass origins in a major city in South-western Europe: Implications for air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R; de la Rosa, J D; Sánchez de la Campa, A M

    2016-05-15

    This study presents a 17-years air quality database comprised of different parameters corresponding to the largest city in the south of Spain (Seville) where atmospheric pollution is frequently attributed to traffic emissions and is directly affected by Saharan dust outbreaks. We identify the PM10 contributions from both natural and anthropogenic sources in this area associated to different air mass origins. Hourly, daily and seasonal variation of PM10 and gaseous pollutant concentrations (CO, NO2 and SO2), all of them showing negative trends during the study period, point to the traffic as one of the main sources of air pollution in Seville. Mineral dust, secondary inorganic compounds (SIC) and trace elements showed higher concentrations under North African (NAF) air mass origins than under Atlantic. We observe a decreasing trend in all chemical components of PM10 under both types of air masses, NAF and Atlantic. Principal component analysis using more frequent air masses in the area allows the identification of five PM10 sources: crustal, regional, marine, traffic and industrial. Natural sources play a more relevant role during NAF events (20.6 μg · m(-3)) than in Atlantic episodes (13.8 μg · m(-3)). The contribution of the anthropogenic sources under NAF doubles the one under Atlantic conditions (33.6 μg · m(-3) and 15.8 μg · m(-3), respectively). During Saharan dust outbreaks the frequent accumulation of local anthropogenic pollutants in the lower atmosphere results in poor air quality and an increased risk of mortality. The results are relevant when analysing the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the exposed population in large cities. The increase in potentially toxic elements during Saharan dust outbreaks should also be taken into account when discounting the number of exceedances attributable to non-anthropogenic or natural origins. PMID:26930305

  9. Detailed determination of air quality and noise pollution. Improving the local climate in Dutch cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two demonstration projects are discussed in which attention is paid to air quality and noise pollution in Dutch urban areas. One project concerns the relocation of a bus station in a city centre, focusing on the bottlenecks and the impacts of obstacles (screens, buildings) in the combined modelling of air and noise pollution. Another project concerns the exposure of noise and air pollution to occupants of a trailer camp near a highway. For both projects detailed computer calculations (CAR II, WinMiskam, Lasat) were carried out for the impact on air quality and noise pollution

  10. Stated preferences for improved air quality management in the city of Nairobi, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Ndambiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study uses contingent valuation (CV framework to assess individuals’ preferences for improved air quality management through motorized emission reductions in the city of Nairobi, Kenya. A conventional payment card (PC is used to draw preferences from individuals in order to estimate the mean and the median willingness to pay (WTP for air quality improvements in the city. Through interval regression analysis, the study finds that individuals are, on average, willing to pay Kshs. 396.57 ($4.67 and a median of Kshs. 244.94 ($2.88 to improve air quality management in the city. These amounts are found to increase with male gender, individuals’ income, certainty about future income and residence in an urban area. These amounts, however, decline with age, residential distance from nearby roads, and motor vehicle ownership. On the whole, the study shows significant public support towards improved air quality management in the city, which is of vital importance for effective formation and implementation of air quality management programmes.

  11. 14C AMS measurements of tree leaf samples to monitor air pollution induced by city traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, many radiocarbon measurement have been made for environmental studies such as source apportionment of air-borne particulates, and studies of the anthropogenic effects of nuclear power plants. In this presentation we report our accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon on tree leaf samples to investigate the impact of city traffic on our living-environment. The fossil-burning vehicles emit carbon dioxide (CO2) free of 14C content and, when mixed with the clean air CO2, lower 14C ratio compared to the normal reservoir value. This so-called Suess effect can be incorporated to monitor air quality in our living environments, since metabolic processes maintain the 14C content of living organism in equilibrium with atmospheric 14C. In other words, dead CO2 is admixed to the normal atmospheric CO2 and then photo-synthetically assimilated by the plants. Two kinds of tree leaf samples; pine tree needles and Ginkgo tree leaves were collected during a one-week period in the summer 1996 at five different locations with various traffic conditions in the region, within a 10-km diameter circle, south of the River Han, Seoul. The AMS targets were made by a simple sample-making procedure. The leaves have been pretreated by a standard acid-alkali treatment and then charred in a vacuum evaporator by applying ca. 800 deg C heat. The charred samples were mixed with Ag powder and pressed into the Al target holder for the AMS measurement.The AMS measurements were made using the accelerator mass spectrometry facilities of the Leibniz-Labor at the Christian-Albrecht University, Kiel,Germany. The observed Δ14C values, which ranged from 60TM to 158TM, have a good correlation with the traffic conditions in the places where the sampling took place and show a remarkable capability of 14C AMS measurements to monitor our fossil burning environment. The volume ratios of clean air to air from fossil-burn origin in the environmental CO2 reached to a level of 8

  12. RAPID MAPPING FOR CLEAN AIR IN COMMERCE CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate innovative methods for providing timely reporting of the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants in a heavily industrialized urban community. This methodology will utilize data from real-time measurements of meteorological...

  13. URBAIR. Urban Air Quality Management Strategy in Asia. DKI JAKARTA City Specific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenskei, K.E.; Gram, F.; Hagen, L.O.; Larssen, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsthoorn, Z.; Soedomo, M.; Achmadi, U.F.

    1996-03-01

    Started by the World Bank in 1992, the URBAIR programme develops a generalized Air Quality Management Strategy (AQMS) to be used for Asian cities and applies strategy to develop action plans to improve the air quality in DKI Jakarta, Greater Bombay, Kathmandu Valley and Metro Manila. This report describes the development of an action plan for Jakarta City, based on assessment of emissions and air quality in the metropolitan area, population exposure and health effects (damage), the assessment of costs related to the damage and to a number of proposed abatement measures, and a cost-benefit analysis. This is the main report; there is an accompanying report containing appendices on air quality measurements, emission factors and inventory, exposure calculation etc. 38 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dev

    2013-01-01

    Simulation and Optimization of a Solar Driven Air Conditioning System for Indian Cities Conventional air-conditioners need high grade energy i.e. electricity, which in India, is primarily produced from fossil fuels. In spite of several emission restraints exercised by many countries under Kyoto protocol, energy consumption and pollution levels are higher than ever. Therefore, an assessment from the ecological point of view needs to be implemented as the greenhouse gases effect remains a threa...

  15. Air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major problems faced by the over crowded mega-cities of the world in general and that in third world is the alarming levels of air pollution causing damage to the health of its inhabitants. In Cairo estimated lives lost annually due to air pollution varies between 4000 to 16000 while Delhi has been rated as the most polluted city in the world. Karachi now a mega-city typically represents pollution status of the third world. Major cause of pollution is more than 0.62 millions vehicles on the roads. The pollution due to industries is localized and mainly affects the health of the workers. Measurement carried out for the selected areas along the roads carrying high density traffic show a very high pollution level (CO, 3 to 10 ppm; CO/sub 2/,170 to 350 ppm; HC 0.274 to 0.360 vol. %; particulate matter 67.0 to 565.5 ug/m/sup 3/. A parallel hospital survey to correlate air borne disease with air pollution indicates that over 16600 to 22977 patients suffered from air borne diseases while 6377 from bacterial infection. Analysis showed that 70% of the patients suffering from airborne disease come from the surveyed areas with high level pollution. Cancer is shifting from old age to middle age group indicating deteriorating air environment. Ratio of male to female patients is 2:1, which is indicative of hazardous ambient air quality outside to which men are exposed more than women. The paper discusses in depth the air pollution and its impact on human health in mega cities with Karachi as a case study. (author)

  16. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; S. Sadeghian; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur...

  17. Shallow velocity structure and hidden faults of Kunming city region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Geng-Xin; Lou, Hai; Wang, Chun-Yong; Fu, Li-Yun; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Qin, Jia-Zheng; Yang, Run-Hai; Li, Hai-Ou

    2008-09-01

    In order to image the 3-D velocity structure of its shallow crust in Kunming region, China, finite-difference seismic tomography is used to invert the seismic data selected carefully from six-shot data. The result lays a foundation for the discussion of the relationship between the obtained velocity structure and the hidden faults, and for the illumination of the depth extents of main active faults surrounding Kunming city. Puduhe-Xishan fault lies on the western margin of the Kunming basin and is just situated on the west edge of the low velocity anomaly zone found at all depth levels. This indicates that this fault is a borderline fault of the Kunming basin. It can be concluded that the fault dips eastwards with a steep angle and its depth extent is large. Puji-Hanjiacun fault and Heilongtan-Guandu fault play a role in controlling the low velocity anomaly zone in middle basin. The depth extents of the two faults are comparatively small, without traversing the interface of basin floor.

  18. Air resource management program assessment (Rocky Mountain Region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rocky Mountain Region of the USDA Forest Service comprises 17 National Forests and seven National Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, and South Dakota. These contain sensitive ecosystems and spectacular scenery which can be harmed by existing and future air pollution. To minimize or prevent such damage, the Region has created the Air Resource Management Program Assessment. Its basic purpose is to ensure that the Region's most sensitive ecosystems will be identified and protected. Also, by helping to coordinate air resource management activities between Forests, unnecessary duplication of effort will be minimized

  19. Passive samplers and community science in regional air quality measurement, education and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlotte, in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, was ranked in the top ten cities with the worst air quality for ozone in the United States by the American Lung Association from 2009 to 2011. Nearby counties that may experience similar air quality do not have state or county monitors. This study utilized NOx and ozone Ogawa passive samplers and community scientists to monitor air quality in five counties surrounding Charlotte and increase public engagement in air quality issues. Community scientists deployed samplers weekly at a residential site within each county. Samples were analyzed using spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Elevated NOx concentrations were observed in four of the five counties relative to those with existing monitors. Ozone concentrations showed little county to county variation, except Iredell and Cabarrus which had higher concentrations than Rowan. Community involvement in this work led to an increase in local dissemination of the results, thus increasing air quality awareness. - Highlights: • NOx concentrations in four adjacent counties were higher than the Mecklenburg site. • Ozone concentrations showed little county to county variation. • Passive samplers and community science can extend the air quality monitoring network. • Community science increases community awareness of air quality issues. - Regional community air quality monitoring is important in educating communities about air quality science issues that can impact personal health and behavior

  20. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  1. Air pollution in Homs city, gases, suspended particulates and heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tree leaves were collected from streets to measure the concentration of Pb, Ca, K, Rb, Sr, Mn, by XRF. Total suspended particulates measured using high volume air sampler. The CO, CO2 and O3 measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 16 tabs

  2. Portsmouth the Island City - mainline rail connectivity proposals:high speed south England - sustainable regional growth

    OpenAIRE

    Menteth, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Proposals for a Portsmouth and Solent Region proposed mainline rail strategy. How Portsmouth and the Solent region with other south of England ring cities can inform future transportation strategy and development, to improve connectivity, sustainability and economic benefit.

  3. Regional air quality in the four corners studys region: modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochumson, D.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional Eulerian air pollutant transport model was used in an air quality study of the Four Corners region conducted for the National Commission on Air Quality. The regional modeling methodology and some sample results from the regional air quality analysis are presented. One major advantage of the regional transport model that was employed is that its solution involves the calculation of transfer coefficients that relate emissions to ambient concentrations and deposition and which can be used repeatedly to evaluate alternative scenarios and regulatory policies which represent different emission source configurations. The regional transport model was used in the calculation of the concentration and deposition of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and primary fine particulates; and these estimates were used as inputs to regional atmospheric visibility and mass budget calculations. Previous studies have shown that the methods used in the regional air quality analysis give good agreement when comparing observed and estimated values.

  4. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  5. Mexico City air quality research initiative, volume 3, modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the modeling and simulation task was to develop, test, and apply an appropriate set of models that could translate emission changes into air quality changes. Specifically, we wanted to develop models that could describe how existing measurements of ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) would be expected to change if their emissions were changed. The modeling must be able to address the effects of difference in weather conditions and changes in land use as well as the effects of changes in emission levels. It must also be able to address the effects of changes in the nature and distribution of the emissions as well as changes in the total emissions. A second objective was to provide an understanding of the conditions that lead to poor air quality in Mexico City. We know in a general sense that Mexico City`s poor air quality is the result of large quantities of emissions in a confined area that is subject to light winds, but we did not know much about many aspects of the problem. For example, is the air quality on a given day primarily the result of emissions on that day...or is there an important carryover from previous nights and days? With a good understanding of the important meteorological circumstances that lead to poor air quality, we learn what it take duce an accurate forecast of impending quality so that we can determine the advisability of emergency measures.

  6. Air pollution with particulates and heavy metals in some Syrian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of air pollution in different sites of five Syrian cities (Damascus, Aleppo, Tartous, Homs, and Sweda) was carried out. The concentrations of total suspended particulate less than 10 microns (PM 10) and less than 3 micron (PM3) were measured using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentration, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also determined using high volume air sampler (HVAS). Heavy element concentrations, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were also determined using anodic stripping voltammetry. The result showed that TSP, PM10 and PM3 were higher than WHO standards in several times. Mean lead concentrations ranged between 0.58 and 2.96 μg/m3 and 0.56 and 1.53 μg/m3 in Damascus and Aleppo respectively, while in the other cities these concentrations were less than WHO standards (0.5 - 1 μg/m3). (author)

  7. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents from Southeast Bulgarian cities with different levels of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Zlatka Georgieva; Kostadinova, Gergana Stoianova; Popov, Borislav Nikolov; Petkov, Georgi Stefanov; Stanilova, Spaska Angelova

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the exposure of different air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) has been related to adverse effect on immune system. Current study was designed to investigate cytokines in blood plasma of adolescent persons continuously exposed to different degrees of ambient air pollutions. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, and IL-10 were chosen as cytokines of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune response. The peripheral venous blood was taken from adolescents living in the cities of Stara Zagora region, Southeast Bulgaria, that is, in Stara Zagora, Kazanlak, and Chirpan. The quantity of cytokines in plasma samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results demonstrated that youths living in Stara Zagora showed significantly smaller quantity of TNF-α, compared with adolescents from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Moreover, adolescents living in Stara Zagora showed significantly higher quantity of IL-10 than students from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Analysis of the data of air quality gives reason to assert that PM10 and PM2.5 have been the main atmospheric pollutants around the monitoring points. The complex air quality assessment based on these criteria determined that the highest air pollution was in the city of Stara Zagora, followed by Chirpan and the relatively unpolluted town was Kazanlak. We concluded that air pollutants, mostly PM2.5, can modulate cytokine production and can change the balance between proinflammatory TNF-α and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production. Increased levels of IL-10 combined with decreased level of TNF-α in adolescents living in Stara Zagora can serve as a biomarker for suppression of T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity and exacerbation of Th2 humoral immune response and could be a prerequisite for the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23771874

  8. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10)...

  9. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  10. Saint Petersburg as a Global Coastal City: Positioning in the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachninsky S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic region consists of coastal areas of nine countries — Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The region’s hubs are the port cities located along the Baltic Sea coast. However, Peter Taylor and Saskia Sassen’s classification identifies higher status cities and ‘global cities’, which are to be considered in the global context. Seven coastal regions are distinguished within this region, whose organising centers are the global coastal cities of Stockholm, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Riga, Tallinn, St. Petersburg, and Malmö. The concept of a “global city-region” (Sassen can be used as a methodological framework for analyzing this connection. Within this hierarchy, the dominant alpha group global city is Stockholm. The authors argue that, as a global coastal city, St. Petersburg forms the St. Petersburg coastal region, which can be defined as a typical "global city region". The index method shows that the position of St. Petersburg in the system of global coastal cities of the Baltic region is relatively favorable in view of its transport, logistics, and demographic potential and the advantageous geo-economic situation. St. Petersburg has certain competitive advantages in the region brought about by its demographic potential, port freight capacity, and the favorable geo-economic position of the "sea gate" of Russia. However, the level of high-tech services and ‘new economy’ development is not sufficient for the port to become a match for the top three cities (Stockholm, Helsinki, and Copenhagen. This is increasingly important because transboundary global city networks demonstrate that global cities are functions of global networks. Saint Petersburg is just starting to integrate into these networks through the Pulkovo airline hub and seaports of Ust-Luga, Primorsk, and Saint Petersburg.

  11. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  12. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in nine French cities: a quantitative summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tertre, Alain; Quénel, Philippe; Eilstein, Daniel; Medina, Sylvia; Prouvost, Helene; Pascal, Laurence; Boumghar, Azzedine; Saviuc, Philippe; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Filleul, Laurent; Declercq, Christophe; Cassadou, Sylvie; Le Goaster, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1995, 9 French cities provided data on daily air pollution, total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and respiratory mortality. Personnel in individual cities performed Poisson regressions, controlling for trends in seasons, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, and humidity, to assess the short-term effects of air pollution. The authors describe results obtained from the quantitative pooling of these local analyses. When no heterogeneity could be detected, a fixed-effect model was used; otherwise, a random-effect model was used. Significant and positive associations were found between total daily deaths in these cities and the 4 air pollution indicators studied: (1) Black Smoke, (2) sulfur dioxide, (3) nitrogen dioxide, and (4) ozone. A 50-microg/m3 increase in Black Smoke (24 hr), sulfur dioxide (24 hr), nitrogen dioxide (24 hr), or ozone (8 hr) was associated with increases in total mortality of 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]) = 1.3, 4.4), 3.6% (95% CI = 2.1, 5.2), 3.8% (95% CI = 2.0, 5.5), and 2.7% (95% CI = 1.3, 4.1), respectively. Similar results were obtained for cardiovascular mortality. Except for sulfur dioxide, positive--but not significant--associations were found with respiratory mortality. The internal consistency among the cities studied, as well as consistency with previously published results, favors a causal interpretation of these associations. PMID:12530597

  13. Seasonal variations of 222Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survey of 222Rn concentrations in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II at Nagano City has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. Concentrations of several thousands Bq m-3 were observed at inner most areas of the tunnel. A seasonal variation was clearly observed; in summer, several times higher concentrations than in winter were observed, which may be due to a stack effect induced by the temperature difference between the tunnel air and the outside air in each season. The concentrations of radon in the tunnel air decrease exponentially towards the openings of the tunnel, which indicates that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air. (author)

  14. A representative survey of indoor radon in the sixteen regions in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico City, also called Federal District, covers an area of 1504 km2, and has more than 8 million inhabitants. It is located more than 2200 m above sea level in a zone of high seismicactivity, and founded on an ancient lake. At present it is one of the most crowded and contaminated cities in the world with thermal inversions. Chemical contaminants and aerosol particles in the environmental air are high most of the year. Due to these geological, environmental and socioeconomic conditions, Federal District presents very peculiar characteristics, which are important for understanding the distribution and measurement zone of high seismic activity of indoor radon concentration. In this work the results of 3 year (1998-2000) measurements of indoor radon levels in the Federal District are presented. For the detector distribution and measurements, the actual political administrative divisions of the Federal District, consisting of 16 very well defined zones was used. Nuclear track detection methodology was selected for the measurement, with a passive device close-end-cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack(r)) polycarbonate as the detection material, with one step chemical etching, following a very well established protocol developed at the Instituto de Fisica, UNAM. Calibration was carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and verification at the Instituto de Fisica chamber. The results show that the arithmetical mean values of the indoor radon concentration for each region of the Federal District follow a non-homogeneous distribution. (author)

  15. The use of biomonitors and neutron activation analysis in the study of air pollution of Buenos Aires city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomonitors were used as part of a pollution study of Buenos Aires city atmosphere under the International Atomic Energy Agency Research Contract ARG 7251, from the Co-ordinated Research Programme on Applied Research on Air Pollution using Nuclear Related Analytical Techniques. Lichens were primarily selected as indicators. Two different approaches were conducted, direct sampling of Parmotrema reticulatum, at a few places and the use of lichen bags, filled with Usnea sulcata from a northern national park, and hung at different sites. Simultaneously, tree bark was tried as biomonitor. Platanus acerifolia and Melia azedarach were selected as candidates, for being the most common trees in the city, but only P. acerifolia was analyzed. All the samples were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the Ezeiza Atomic Centre of the National Atomic Energy Commission. RA-3) reactor was used for the irradiations, determining: As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Concentration values for P. reticulatum compared well with values from literature. For U. sulcata differences were found among the tested sites and also, for some elements an increasing trend with time was observed. Enrichment factors calculated using Sc as reference and Mason's crustal average concentrations showed vehicules and refuse incineration as contributing sources to the aerosol. Tree bark from Buenos Aires and from a smaller city with mainly agricultural activities were analyzed and the results are coincident with those from lichens. This work is the first and preliminar contribution to the study of Buenos Aires aerosol using biomonitors. (author)

  16. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socio- economic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built en...

  17. The Regional Innovation Systems in the City of Casey: Perspective Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ameeta Jain

    2005-01-01

    The City of Casey in Victoria is the third most rapidly growing region of Australia in terms of population expansion and housing development. Infrastructure and services development do not appear to be growing at the same pace. Job leakages into the surrounding regions are high being around 80%. The city of Casey is unable to provide education, medical, social and employment opportunities to the current residents. From our review it appears that there is a poor Regional Innovation System (RIS...

  18. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3 and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC, increasing primary OA (POA by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash burning. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash burning and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash burning contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess

  19. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W.; Li, G.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-03-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were consistent with many observation-based estimates. We did not detect significant effects of open fires and trash burning on surface O3 concentrations in the MCMA and surrounding region. In contrast, they had important influences on OA and elemental carbon (EC), increasing primary OA (POA) by ~60%, secondary OA (SOA) by ~22%, total OA (TOA = POA + SOA) by ~33%, and EC by ~22%, on both the local (urban) and regional scales. Although the emissions of trash burning are substantially lower than those from open fires, trash burning made slightly smaller but comparable contributions to OA as open fires did, and exerted an even higher influence on EC. Of the ~22% enhancement in SOA concentrations (equivalent to a ~15% increase in TOA) simulated, about two third was attributed to the open fires and one-third to the trash burning. On the annual basis and taking the biofuel use emissions into consideration, we estimated that open fires, trash burning and biofuel use together contributed about 60% to the loading of POA, 30% to SOA, and 25% to EC in both the MCMA and its surrounding region, of which the open fires and trash burning contributed about 35% to POA, 18% to SOA, and 15% to EC. The estimates of biomass burning impacts in this study may contain considerable uncertainties due to the uncertainties in their emission estimates in magnitude, temporal and spatial distribution, extrapolations and the nature of spot comparison. More observation and modeling studies are needed to accurately assess the

  20. Application of the Improved City Blueprint Framework in 45 Municipalities and Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, Steven H A; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, water pollution, climate change and inadequate maintenance of water and wastewater infrastructures in cities may lead to flooding, water scarcity, adverse health effects, and rehabilitation costs that may overwhelm the resilience of cities. Furthermore, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is hindered by water governance gaps. We have analyzed IWRM in 45 municipalities and regions divided over 27 countries using the improved City Blueprint® Framework (CBF). The CBF...

  1. Great Britain's Second-Order City Regions in Recessions, 1978-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Champion, Tony; Townsend, Alan

    2012-01-01

    While it is now accepted that the 2008-09 recession accentuated regional differences in Britain, it is more difficult to identify the role of major cities, especially over a longer time scale. Using previously established methods focussed on employment, this paper assesses the record of nine city regions in the 2008-09 recession, both in its own right and in comparison with the previous two recessions. The 2008-09 recession is found to have impacted the nine city regions less than the previou...

  2. The Role of Efficient Urban Governance in Managing Kuala Lumpur City-Region Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Jusoh; Jalaluddin Abdul Malek; Azmizam Abdul Rashid

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss on the preliminary study on the concept of efficient in urban governance towards managing development of Kuala Lumpur City-Region. City-region development has been a major issue in the country’s latest development agenda. The issue is more obvious in city-region due to its role as an engine of growth economy development. Now, with its sights set on attaining the economic level of a fully developed nation by 2020, Malaysia must focus on securing a credible share of the lead ...

  3. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  4. Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Crouse, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Tjepkema, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies of environmental justice in Canadian cities have linked lower socioeconomic status to greater air pollution exposures at coarse geographic scales, (i.e., Census Tracts). However, studies that examine these associations at finer scales are less common, as are comparisons among cities. To assess differences in exposure to air pollution among socioeconomic groups, we assigned estimates of exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related pollution, from city-wide land use regression models to respondents of the 2006 Canadian census long-form questionnaire in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Data were aggregated at a finer scale than in most previous studies (i.e., by Dissemination Area (DA), which includes approximately 400-700 persons). We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models, which account for spatial autocorrelation, to identify associations between NO2 exposure and indicators of social and material deprivation. In Canada's three largest cities, DAs with greater proportions of tenants and residents who do not speak either English or French were characterised by greater exposures to ambient NO2. We also observed positive associations between NO2 concentrations and indicators of social deprivation, including the proportion of persons living alone (in Toronto), and the proportion of persons who were unmarried/not in a common-law relationship (in Vancouver). Other common measures of deprivation (e.g., lone-parent families, unemployment) were not associated with NO2 exposures. DAs characterised by selected indicators of deprivation were associated with higher concentrations of ambient NO2 air pollution in the three largest cities in Canada. PMID:26950027

  5. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were locate...

  6. Assessment of air quality of two metropolitan cities in Pakistan: elemental analysis using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of air quality of two cities in Pakistan. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) have been used. In all 26 elements were determined in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and soil samples. The SPM levels from different locations of Rawalpindi and Lahore indicate unhealthy to hazardous air quality much above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Metrological conditions and nature of soil that contains clay components mainly contribute to the inventory of the SPM clements of these cities. The calculated enrichment factors (EF) also indicate the dominance of the soil components. Contributions of inorganic elements due to heavy traffic with automotive exhaust and other commercial activities in this area have been identified. Areas of Qurtaba Chowk and Bank Square in Lahore in particular showed high EF for lead depicting burning of the automotive fuel and road dust. The accuracy and precision of the work has been maintained through the concurrent use of IAEA Reference Materials. (orig.)

  7. Universities for Cities and Regions: Lessons from the OECD Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischinger, Barbara; Puukka, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    Over the years and almost unnoticed, the Norwegian University of Technology (NTNU) had transformed Trondheim, a city 500 kilometers from the Arctic Circle, into Norway's technological capital. As such, high-tech companies like Google, Yahoo, and FAST chose to establish their Norwegian research and development (R&D) base in this far-away part of…

  8. Building Child Friendly Cities in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Osman El Hassan N.

    2013-01-01

    The notion of Child Friendly Cities (CFCs) was first developed during the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (HABITAT II), held in Istanbul in 1996. The concept is based on four general principles of the United Nations "Convention on the rights of the child": (1) fair treatment of every child, regardless of ethnicity,…

  9. Poverty on Display: Cirujeo in the City of Buenos Aires (2002-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Boy; Natalia Brutto; Mariano Perelman

    2010-01-01

    From an ethnographic perspective, this paper will focus on analyzing how «cirujas» —as people collecting reusable materials from waste are— are readapting themselves to the current urban space in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina), and how they confront stigmatizing social discourses. An account of theses uses and the strategies they formulate to face social differentiation they use to live with, to resist or coexist with stigmatizing stereotypes condemning them is provided. At the same tim...

  10. Ambient air quality observations in the Athabasca oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Syncrude and Suncor have plans to develop new oil sands leases and to increase crude oil and bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil sands region. In recognition of the effects that this will have on the environment, Suncor has proposed modifications to reduce SO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while Syncrude plans to develop additional ambient air quality, sulphur deposition and biomonitoring programs. This report discussed the ambient air quality monitoring that was undertaken in the Fort McMurray-Fort McKay airshed. Twelve continuous ambient air quality stations and 76 passive monitoring stations are maintained in the region. Environment Canada maintains eight precipitation monitoring stations in northern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Source characterization, ambient air quality and meteorology observations, air quality monitoring, and air quality data from continuous sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, acid rain and particulates analyzers were reviewed. The documentation of all computer files used for the analysis of the air quality data is discussed in the Appendix. 47 refs., 39 tabs., 53 figs

  11. Mexico City's Petroleos Mexicanos explosion: disaster management and air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta, Emmanuel; Varon, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Mexico City is the largest metropolitan area in the Americas and 1 of the largest in the world; its geographic location and uncontrolled population and industrial growth make this metropolis prone to natural and human-made disasters. Mass casualty disaster responses in Mexico City tend to have complications from multiple logistical and operational challenges. This article focuses on the experiences and lessons learned from an explosion that occurred in a government building in Mexico City and the current status of mass casualty disaster risks and response strategies in Mexico City as well as air medical evacuation, which is a critical component and was shown to be extremely useful in the evacuation of 15 critically ill and polytraumatized patients (Injury Severity Score > 15). Several components of the public and privately owned emergency medical services and health care systems among Mexico City pose serious logistical and operational complications, which finally will be addressed by a joint emergency preparedness council to unify criteria in communications, triage, and incident/disaster command post establishment. PMID:25441528

  12. URBAN PLANNING FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM CITIES IN KURDISTAN REGION-IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoob khaleel Ismael,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Kurdistan Region, the residential activities concentrating in a limited number of cities which suffering from great growth either in its urban layout or its resident's size. This happened as a result ofaccumulated factors during last years. The most important factors are the continue immigration from the rural area, the permanent increasing of population, and the concentration of most urban activities and public services in the metropolitans.The research problem is that the small and medium cities in Kurdistan Region suffering from many urgent problems in many fields; urban, social, and economic. The aim is to illustrate the main problems and to underline the available opportunities in small and medium cities in Kurdistan Region. In conclusion, this research suggests a group of policies that could help to improve the urban performance and achieve urban development for small and medium cities of Kurdistan Region.

  13. Trends of nitrogen oxides in ambient air in nine European cities between 1999 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Susann; Le Tertre, Alain; Atkinson, Richard W.; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco; Zeka, Ariana; Haluza, Daniela; Analitis, Antonis; Katsouyanni, Klea; Bouland, Catherine; Pascal, Mathilde; Medina, Sylvia; Goodman, Patrick G.

    2015-09-01

    Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has been credited with a general downward trend in NOx (NO2+NO) concentrations in Europe since the 1990's. However, recent studies suggest that traffic (roadside) (TR) NO2 concentrations have not decreased as expected, and in some cases increased, most likely due to the use of oxidation catalysts and particle filters in diesel vehicles (EURO III, IV, V, VI). In this study we describe the time trends in NOx, NO2 and NO concentrations in 9 European cities comparing TR and urban background (UB) monitoring locations. In each city, we collected hourly city-specific NOx, NO, and NO2 data from one TR and one UB monitoring site for each year. We describe hourly, weekly, seasonal and inter-annual patterns for periods corresponding to the implementation dates of various EURO vehicle emission standards regulating NOx emissions. The diurnal patterns in all 9 cities strongly reflected morning and evening traffic. In addition, lower weekend concentrations were observed. The NOx concentrations from the TR sites remain unchanged in the majority of the cities over the study period. When stratified by 3 time periods according to the implementation of the EURO standards, an increasing NO2/NOx ratio in 7/9 cities with time was noted. However, over the same time period the NO/NO2 ratio decreased in 8/9 cities. A permanent inversion of the NO/NO2 ratio was observed to occur in 2003 in 5/9 cities. Our analyses of temporal and diurnal patterns of NOx in European cities show reductions in concentrations consistent with reductions in primary emissions likely arising from the implementation of successive EURO standards. The generally constant or increasing NO2 concentrations in the majority of the cities assessed over the study period underline the need of further regulative measures to meet the air quality standards and consequently to minimise adverse effects on human health. The ongoing collection and analysis of pollution concentrations across

  14. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 μg/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 μg/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (China or nearby mega cities; Significant positive correlations were found between [Formula: see text] and urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P < 0.05), suggesting that urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:25113968

  15. Research on the Emission Inventory of Major Air Pollutants in 2012 for the Sichuan City Cluster in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J.; He, Q.

    2014-12-01

    This paper developed a high resolution emission inventory of major pollutants in city cluster of Sichuan Basin, one of the most polluted regions in China. The city cluster included five cities, which were Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, Meishan and Ziyang. Pollution source census and field measurements were conducted for the major emission sources such as the industry sources, on-road mobile sources, catering sources and the dust sources. The inventory results showed that in the year of 2012, the emission of SO2、NOX、CO、PM10、PM2.5、VOCs and NH3 in the region were 143.5、251.9、1659.9、299.3、163.5、464.1 and 995kt respectively. Chengdu, the provincial capital city, had the largest emission load of every pollutant among the cities. The industry sources, including power plants, fuel combustion facilities and non-combustion processes were the largest emission sources for SO2、NOX and CO, contributing to 84%, 46.5%, 35% of total SO2, NOX and CO emissions. On-road mobile sources accounted for 46.5%, 33%, 16% of the total NOx, CO, PM2.5 emissions and 28% of the anthropogenic VOCs emission. Dust and industry sources contributed to 42% and 23% of the PM10 emission with the dust sources also as the largest source of PM2.5, contributing to 27%. Anthropogenic and biogenic sources took 75% and 25% of the total VOCs emission while 36% of anthropogenic VOCs emission was owing to solvent use. Livestock contributed to 62% of NH3 emissions, followed by nitrogen fertilizer application whose contribution was 23%. Based on the developed emission inventory and local meteorological data, the regional air quality modeling system WRF-CMAQ was applied to simulate the status of PM2.5 pollution in a regional scale. The results showed that high PM2.5 concentration was distributed over the urban area of Chengdu and Deyang. On-road mobile sources and dust sources were two major contributors to the PM2.5 pollution in Chengdu, both had an contribution ratio of 27%. In Deyang, Mianyang

  16. ANALYSIS ON ABSORPTION OF TELKOMAS REGION, BIRINGKANAYA DISTRICT, MAKASSAR CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Patanduk, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: City of Makassar with a total population of approximately 1.3 million people has a fairly rapid process of urbanization, seen from the rampant development in the suburbs. Coefficient changes the basic building the greater the likely impact of the lack of green open spaces and groundwater catchment area. Gradually the surface condition of ground water will decrease and the external impact on other areas surrounding the lower. With the condition of the catchment area t...

  17. NINGBO: A REGIONAL CITY LEAPFROG INTO HI-TECH DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdson, Jon

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic development in Ningbo illustrates local changes that have their basis in government support and resources from all levels of government. The rapid development arises from a combination of excellent infrastructure, a strong private entrepreneurship and strong foreign direct Investment (FDI) to exploit the geographical location which will be further enhanced when the bridge, across Hangzhou Bay to Shanghai, is completed by 2008.Ningbo, a famous port city in China, reached in 2000 a ...

  18. Improving local air quality in cities: To tree or not to tree?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegetation is often quoted as an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. In this work we demonstrate by the use of computer models that the air quality effect of urban vegetation is more complex than implied by such general assumptions. By modelling a variety of real-life examples we show that roadside urban vegetation rather leads to increased pollutant concentrations than it improves the air quality, at least locally. This can be explained by the fact that trees and other types of vegetation reduce the ventilation that is responsible for diluting the traffic emitted pollutants. This aerodynamic effect is shown to be much stronger than the pollutant removal capacity of vegetation. Although the modelling results may be subject to a certain level of uncertainty, our results strongly indicate that the use of urban vegetation for alleviating a local air pollution hotspot is not expected to be a viable solution. Highlights: ► We model the impact of roadside urban vegetation on the local air quality. ► Vegetation in general lowers the wind speed thereby reducing the ventilation. ► In general roadside urban vegetation does not appear to decrease concentrations. ► Roadside urban trees have a pronounced detrimental effect on the local air quality. ► City planners and policy makers need to be better informed about this topic. -- Rather than improving the local air quality, our results suggest that roadside urban vegetation increases the pollutant concentrations at the footpath

  19. U.S.-Mexico Integration and Regional Economies: Evidence from Border- City Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H. Hanson

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether U.S.-Mexico economic integration is causing economic activity in the United States to relocate to the U.S.-Mexico border region. The approach I take is to study U.S.- Mexico border-city pairs. Border cities are natural laboratories in which to study the effects of trade policy. To the extent transport costs are the main non-trade policy barriers to trade, we expect regional economic integration to cause economic activity in border cities to expand. I exploit t...

  20. Analysis of Mexico City urban air pollution using nitrogen dioxide column density measurements from UV/Visible spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Payne, D. G.; Grutter, M.; Melamed, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The differential optical absorption spectroscopy method (DOAS) was used to get column densities of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the analysis of zenith sky UV/visible spectra. Since the optical path length provides critical information in interpreting NO2 column densities, in conjunction with NO2 column densities, the oxygen dimer (O4) column density was retrieved to give insight into the optical path length. We report observations of year round NO2 and O4 column densities (from august 2009 to september 2010) from which the mean seasonal levels and the daily evolution, as well as the occurrence of elevated pollution episodes are examined. Surface nitric oxide (NO) and NO2 from the local monitoring network, as well as wind data and the vertical aerosol density from continuous Lidar measurements are used in the analysis to investigate specific events in the context of local emissions from vehicular traffic, photochemical production and transport from industrial emissions. The NO2 column density measurements will enhance the understanding Mexico City urban air pollution. Recent research has begun to unravel the complexity of the air pollution problem in Mexico City and its effects not only locally but on a regional and global scale as well.

  1. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  2. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lei; G Li; L. T. Molina

    2013-01-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O3) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) wer...

  3. Modeling the impacts of biomass burning on air quality in and around Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    W. Lei; G Li; L. T. Molina

    2012-01-01

    The local and regional impacts of open fires and trash burning on ground-level ozone (O[subscript 3]) and fine carbonaceous aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and surrounding region during two high fire periods in March 2006 have been evaluated using WRF-CHEM model. The model captured reasonably well the measurement-derived magnitude and temporal variation of the biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), and the simulated impacts of open fires on organic aerosol (OA) were cons...

  4. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  5. Collaboration in air particulate analysis through sharing of regional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution research program of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute is being pursued in support of the 1999 Clean Air Act. This is being undertaken as part of the RCA/IAEA subproject, 'Air Pollution and Its Trends'. Since the PNRI research reactor (PRR-I) has been on extended shut down for the past 18 years, the PNRI depends solely on X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for elemental characterization of air particulate samples. NAA is a powerful and efficient tool in air particulate characterization and is used in many national programs in the region. Collaboration in air pollution studies through exchange of samples between XRF and NAA groups will widen the range of elements that could be detected by one group. In the RCA/IAEA RAS/4/020, 'Improvement of Research Reactor Operation and Utilization' sharing of research reactor facilities is encouraged. Working out of mechanisms for such sharing will be advantageous to research groups without operational research reactors. This could take the form of exchange of samples or fellowship at a regional host institution. This will allow training of technical staff from countries without research reactors, thus ensuring continuing expertise in NAA even after long periods of reactor shutdown. (author)

  6. Urban air temperature anomalies and their relation to soil moisture observed in the city of Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wiesner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of the urban air temperature for the city of Hamburg is analyzed based upon a one-year dataset of meteorological and pedological measurements. As local air temperature anomalies are subject to land-use and surface cover, they are monitored by a network of measurement stations within three different urban structures. Mean annual temperature deviations are found to be +1.0K$+1.0\\,\\text{K}$ for inner city sites and +0.25K$+0.25\\,\\text{K}$ to -0.2K$-0.2\\,\\text{K}$ for suburban sites compared to a rural reference. The nocturnal urban heat island (UHI is identified and averages +1.7K$+1.7\\,\\text{K}$ at the inner city stations, +0.7K$+0.7\\,\\text{K}$ at a suburban district housing area and +0.3K$+0.3\\,\\text{K}$ at a nearby green space. The observed UHI effect is most prominent when the wind speed is low (≤2ms-1$\\leq2\\,\\text{ms}^{-1}$ and the sky is only partly cloudy (≤6∕8th$\\leq6/8^{\\text{th}}$. In spring 2011 an average inner city UHI of up to +5.2K$+5.2\\,\\text{K}$ is observed during situations matching these conditions, while the extraordinary dry fall of 2011 lead to remarkably high air temperature differences at all observed stations. As expected, no evidence for a significant impact of topsoil moisture on nighttime UHI effect is found. The analysis of air temperature anomalies during daytime results in an annual mean deviation of -0.5K$-0.5\\,\\text{K}$ above unsealed, vegetated surfaces from a sealed site during days with a turbulent mixing induced by wind speed >2ms-1$>2\\,\\text{ms}^{-1}$. Here, there is an indication for a relation between the water content of upper soil layers and the warming of air: 11 to 17 % of the variance of the diurnal air temperature span is found to be explained by the soil water content for selected relevant days.

  7. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  8. Long Term Variations of the Atmospheric Air Pollutants in Istanbul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kurtulus Ozcan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High population density and intense industrial activity has resulted in various forms of pollution in megacities. Air pollution ranks at the top of this list. This study investigated long-term changes in air pollutant parameters (SO2, CO, NO, NO2, NOx in Istanbul City, Turkey, using data from air-quality measurement stations on the Asian and European sides of Istanbul. The results show decreases from 2002 to 2010 in the amounts of SO2 (one of the main pollutants released as a result of the burning of fossil fuels and CO (indicative of incomplete combustion. However, NOx concentrations showed fluctuations over time, rather than a steady decline throughout the study period.

  9. Mixed deterministic statistical modelling of regional ozone air pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Kalenderski, Stoitchko Dimitrov

    2011-03-17

    We develop a physically motivated statistical model for regional ozone air pollution by separating the ground-level pollutant concentration field into three components, namely: transport, local production and large-scale mean trend mostly dominated by emission rates. The model is novel in the field of environmental spatial statistics in that it is a combined deterministic-statistical model, which gives a new perspective to the modelling of air pollution. The model is presented in a Bayesian hierarchical formalism, and explicitly accounts for advection of pollutants, using the advection equation. We apply the model to a specific case of regional ozone pollution-the Lower Fraser valley of British Columbia, Canada. As a predictive tool, we demonstrate that the model vastly outperforms existing, simpler modelling approaches. Our study highlights the importance of simultaneously considering different aspects of an air pollution problem as well as taking into account the physical bases that govern the processes of interest. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..

  10. RELMAP: A REGIONAL LAGRANGIAN MODEL OF AIR POLLUTION - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regional Lagrangian Model of Air Pollution (RELMAP) is a mass conserving, Lagrangian model that simulates ambient concentrations and wet and dry depositions of SO2, SO4=, and fine and coarse particulate matter over the eastern United States and southeastern Canada (default do...

  11. Experiments on air conductivity relevant to source region EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments important to source region EMP have been performed on conductivity and electric field breakdown in air. These concern ion-ion recombination, mobility and attachment rate as a function of electric-field-to-pressure ratio, and ionization enhanced breakdown. New results are compared to previous experimental results

  12. ARAMIS a regional air quality model for air pollution management: evaluation and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to better understand the dynamics of air pollutants and to forecast the air quality over regional areas in order to develop emission abatement strategies for air pollution and adverse health effects. To accomplish this objective, we developed and applied a high resolution Eulerian system named ARAMIS (A Regional Air Quality Modelling Integrated System) over the north-east of Spain (Catalonia), where several pollutants exceed threshold values for the protection of human health. The results indicate that the model reproduced reasonably well observed concentrations, as statistical values fell within Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations and European (EU) regulations. Nevertheless, some hourly O3 exceedances in summer and hourly peaks of NO2 in winter were underestimated. Concerning PM10 concentrations less accurate model levels were obtained with a moderate trend towards underestimation during the day. (Author)

  13. The Energy Master Plan: Transition to self-sufficient city regions by means of an approach to local energy potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Broersma, S.; Tillie, N.M.J.D.; Fremouw, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    City regions and metropolitan areas form the scale on which the battle for will be won or lost, and the level at which cities can become resilient and even self-sufficient. A master plan for a sustainable energy system for city regions is not a luxury anymore. An energy master plan will be based on

  14. Opportunistic mobile air pollution monitoring: A case study with city wardens in Antwerp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bossche, Joris; Theunis, Jan; Elen, Bart; Peters, Jan; Botteldooren, Dick; De Baets, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential of opportunistic mobile monitoring to map the exposure to air pollution in the urban environment at a high spatial resolution. Opportunistic mobile monitoring makes use of existing mobile infrastructure or people's common daily routines to move measurement devices around. Opportunistic mobile monitoring can also play a crucial role in participatory monitoring campaigns as a typical way to gather data. A case study to measure black carbon was set up in Antwerp, Belgium, with the collaboration of city employees (city wardens). The Antwerp city wardens are outdoors for a large part of the day on surveillance tours by bicycle or on foot, and gathered a total of 393 h of measurements. The data collection is unstructured both in space and time, leading to sampling bias. A temporal adjustment can only partly counteract this bias. Although a high spatial coverage was obtained, there is still a rather large uncertainty on the average concentration levels at a spatial resolution of 50 m due to a limited number of measurements and sampling bias. Despite of this uncertainty, large spatial patterns within the city are clearly captured. This study illustrates the potential of campaigns with unstructured opportunistic mobile monitoring, including participatory monitoring campaigns. The results demonstrate that such an approach can indeed be used to identify broad spatial trends over a wider area, enabling applications including hotspot identification, personal exposure studies, regression mapping, etc. But, they also emphasize the need for repeated measurements and careful processing and interpretation of the data.

  15. SAMIRA - SAtellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Stebel, Kerstin; Ajtai, Nicolae; Diamandi, Andrei; Horalek, Jan; Nicolae, Doina; Stachlewska, Iwona; Zehner, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present a new ESA-funded project entitled Satellite based Monitoring Initiative for Regional Air quality (SAMIRA), which aims at improving regional and local air quality monitoring through synergetic use of data from present and upcoming satellites, traditionally used in situ air quality monitoring networks and output from chemical transport models. Through collaborative efforts in four countries, namely Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic and Norway, all with existing air quality problems, SAMIRA intends to support the involved institutions and associated users in their national monitoring and reporting mandates as well as to generate novel research in this area. Despite considerable improvements in the past decades, Europe is still far from achieving levels of air quality that do not pose unacceptable hazards to humans and the environment. Main concerns in Europe are exceedances of particulate matter (PM), ground-level ozone, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While overall sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have decreased in recent years, regional concentrations can still be high in some areas. The objectives of SAMIRA are to improve algorithms for the retrieval of hourly aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps from SEVIRI, and to develop robust methods for deriving column- and near-surface PM maps for the study area by combining satellite AOD with information from regional models. The benefit to existing monitoring networks (in situ, models, satellite) by combining these datasets using data fusion methods will be tested for satellite-based NO2, SO2, and PM/AOD. Furthermore, SAMIRA will test and apply techniques for downscaling air quality-related EO products to a spatial resolution that is more in line with what is generally required for studying urban and regional scale air quality. This will be demonstrated for a set of study sites that include the capitals of the four countries and the highly polluted areas along the border of Poland and the

  16. Resource-based Regions, the Dutch Disease and City Development

    OpenAIRE

    Takatsuka, Hajime; Zeng, Dao-Zhi; Zhao, Laixun

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between resource development and industrialization. When transport costs are high, regions with more valuable natural resources offer higher welfare than other regions. However, when transport costs decrease, firms begin to move out of the region, resulting in the Dutch disease, initially in terms of industry shares, but eventually in terms of welfare too when transportation is sufficiently free. If resource goods are also used as manufacturing inputs as w...

  17. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  18. Variations of 7Be concentrations in surface air at Nagano City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been measuring 7Be concentration in surface air from April 2000 at Shinshu University in Nagano City and now on. From our preliminary results, it was found that the monthly concentrations of 7Be in surface air at Nagano City are in the range of 0.2-15 mBq/m3, and there is a tendency for a maximum in fall and spring and a minimum in winter and summer, which are almost in agreement with previous measurements done in Japan. 7Be is well known as a useful atmospherically derived radioactive tracer for studying precipitation processes, aerosols transit and residence times in the troposphere, atmospheric transportations, exchanges of the air between stratosphere and troposphere and so forth. It has been considered that the annual variations are attributed mainly to the changes in the atmospheric production rate, while the seasonal variations of 7Be concentrations are primarily due to exchanges between stratosphere and troposphere. When extending the use of this nuclide to examining various atmospheric processes, it is necessary to obtain quantitative data from continuous monitoring. In this report we also describe preliminary results for the correlations between 7Be concentrations and precipitations or other meteorological phenomena. (author)

  19. Modeling air quality in main cities of Peninsular Malaysia by using a generalized Pareto model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseran, Nurulkamal; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman; Latif, Mohd Talib

    2016-01-01

    The air pollution index (API) is an important figure used for measuring the quality of air in the environment. The API is determined based on the highest average value of individual indices for all the variables which include sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and suspended particulate matter (PM10) at a particular hour. API values that exceed the limit of 100 units indicate an unhealthy status for the exposed environment. This study investigates the risk of occurrences of API values greater than 100 units for eight urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of January 2004 to December 2014. An extreme value model, known as the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), has been fitted to the API values found. Based on the fitted model, return period for describing the occurrences of API exceeding 100 in the different cities has been computed as the indicator of risk. The results obtained indicated that most of the urban areas considered have a very small risk of occurrence of the unhealthy events, except for Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, and Klang. However, among these three cities, it is found that Klang has the highest risk. Based on all the results obtained, the air quality standard in urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia falls within healthy limits to human beings. PMID:26718946

  20. Spatial variations, temporal trends, and emission sources of air pollutants in seven cities of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, WEI; TAO, SHU; WANG, CHEN

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the derivatives of PAHs (nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs) were measured each month between April, 2010 and March, 2011 in seven large cities (18 sites) in the ambient air of northern China. Similarities in the concentrations of PM, PAHs and oxy-PAHs between rural village and urban area are found, indicating the severe air pollution in the rural villages and strong contribution of solid fuels combustion. Higher nitro-PAHs concentrations in the cities than those in the rural area suggests the influence of motor vehicles, both on primary emission and secondary formation. Without local emission sources, pollutants levels in the rural field area are the lowest. Air pollution in the less developed west China is as severe as that in the east with more population and urbanization, both heavier than that in the coastal area. Such spatial patterns are caused by differences in the sources of contaminants and the removal process. A strong seasonality of all pollutants with higher concentrations in winter and lower in summer is observed due to large heating demand for solid fuel combustion in winter and rich precipitation in summer. Natural sources such as sandstorms also take effects on the spatial distribution and temporal trend of PM.

  1. Local, regional, and global views of tropospheric carbon monoxide from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. Wallace; Yurganov, Leonid

    2008-04-01

    More than five years of CO retrievals from the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite reveal variations in tropospheric CO on timescales from twelve hours to five years and on spatial scales from local to global. The shorter timescales are invaluable to monitor daily variations in CO emissions, to enable three-dimensional tracking of atmospheric motions, and to enhance insights into atmospheric mixing. Previous studies have utilized AIRS CO retrievals over the course of days to weeks to track plumes from large forest fires. On the local scale, we will present AIRS observations of pollution from several northern hemisphere Megacities. On the regional scale, we will present AIRS observations of the Mexico City pollution plume. We will illustrate global scale AIRS CO observations of interannual variations linked to the influence of large-scale atmospheric perturbations from the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In particular, we observe a quasi-biennial variation in CO emissions from Indonesia with varying magnitudes in peak emission occurring in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Examining satellite rainfall measurements over Indonesia, we find the enhanced CO emission correlates with occasions of less rainfall during the month of October. Continuing this satellite record of tropospheric CO with measurements from the European IASI instrument will permit construction of a long time-series useful for further investigations of climatological variations in CO emissions and their impact on the health of the atmosphere.

  2. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  3. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  4. Urban Modality: Modelling and evaluating the sustainable mobility of urban areas in the city-region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gil, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and m

  5. Downscaling a Global Climate Model to Simulate Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional and Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, M.; Tsimpidi, A. P.; Liu, P.; Tsigaridis, K.; Hu, Y.; Nenes, A.; Russell, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can exacerbate future regional air pollution events by making conditions more favorable to form high levels of ozone. In this study, we use spectral nudging with WRF to downscale NASA earth system GISS modelE2 results during the years 2006 to 2010 and 2048 to 2052 over the continental United States in order to compare the resulting meteorological fields from the air quality perspective during the four seasons of five-year historic and future climatological periods. GISS results are used as initial and boundary conditions by the WRF RCM to produce hourly meteorological fields. The downscaling technique and choice of physics parameterizations used are evaluated by comparing them with in situ observations. This study investigates changes of similar regional climate conditions down to a 12km by 12km resolution, as well as the effect of evolving climate conditions on the air quality at major U.S. cities. The high resolution simulations produce somewhat different results than the coarse resolution simulations in some regions. Also, through the analysis of the meteorological variables that most strongly influence air quality, we find consistent changes in regional climate that would enhance ozone levels in four regions of the U.S. during fall (Western U.S., Texas, Northeastern, and Southeastern U.S), one region during summer (Texas), and one region where changes potentially would lead to better air quality during spring (Northeast). We also find that daily peak temperatures tend to increase in most major cities in the U.S. which would increase the risk of health problems associated with heat stress. Future work will address a more comprehensive assessment of emissions and chemistry involved in the formation and removal of air pollutants.

  6. Downscaling a global climate model to simulate climate change impacts on US regional and urban air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trail

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can exacerbate future regional air pollution events by making conditions more favorable to form high levels of ozone. In this study, we use spectral nudging with WRF to downscale NASA earth system GISS modelE2 results during the years 2006 to 2010 and 2048 to 2052 over the continental United States in order to compare the resulting meteorological fields from the air quality perspective during the four seasons of five-year historic and future climatological periods. GISS results are used as initial and boundary conditions by the WRF RCM to produce hourly meteorological fields. The downscaling technique and choice of physics parameterizations used are evaluated by comparing them with in situ observations. This study investigates changes of similar regional climate conditions down to a 12 km by 12 km resolution, as well as the effect of evolving climate conditions on the air quality at major US cities. The high resolution simulations produce somewhat different results than the coarse resolution simulations in some regions. Also, through the analysis of the meteorological variables that most strongly influence air quality, we find consistent changes in regional climate that would enhance ozone levels in four regions of the US during fall (Western US, Texas, Northeastern, and Southeastern US, one region during summer (Texas, and one region where changes potentially would lead to better air quality during spring (northeast. We also find that daily peak temperatures tend to increase in most major cities in the US which would increase the risk of health problems associated with heat stress. Future work will address a more comprehensive assessment of emissions and chemistry involved in the formation and removal of air pollutants.

  7. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  8. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  9. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    OpenAIRE

    B. Aouizerats; G. R. van der Werf; Balasubramanian, R; R. Betha

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aeroso...

  10. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases. PMID:27038903

  11. Indoor air quality in urban nurseries at Porto city: Particulate matter assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, P. T. B. S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Martins, F. G.; Sousa, S. I. V.

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality in nurseries is an interesting case of study mainly due to children's high vulnerability to exposure to air pollution (with special attention to younger ones), and because nursery is the public environment where young children spend most of their time. Particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the air pollutants with greater interest. In fact, it can cause acute effects on children's health, as well as may contribute to the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases like asthma. Thus, the main objectives of this study were: i) to evaluate indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and PMTotal) on different indoor microenvironments in urban nurseries of Porto city; and ii) to analyse those concentrations according to guidelines and references for indoor air quality and children's health. Indoor PM measurements were performed in several class and lunch rooms in three nurseries on weekdays and weekends. Outdoor PM10 concentrations were also obtained to determine I/O ratios. PM concentrations were often found high in the studied classrooms, especially for the finer fractions, reaching maxima hourly mean concentrations of 145 μg m-3 for PM1 and 158 μg m-3 PM2.5, being often above the limits recommended by WHO, reaching 80% of exceedances for PM2.5, which is concerning in terms of exposure effects on children's health. Mean I/O ratios were always above 1 and most times above 2 showing that indoor sources (re-suspension phenomena due to children's activities, cleaning and cooking) were clearly the main contributors to indoor PM concentrations when compared with the outdoor influence. Though, poor ventilation to outdoors in classrooms affected indoor air quality by increasing the PM accumulation. So, enhancing air renovation rate and performing cleaning activities after the occupancy period could be good practices to reduce PM indoor air concentrations in nurseries and, consequently, to improve children's health and welfare.

  12. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  13. Cairo city air quality research initiative part-i: A meteorological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified meteorological model Hotmac (Higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation) is a three-dimensional and finite grid model developed primarily for simospheric motions and based on solving the conservation equations of mass momentum, energy and turbulent kinetic energy. The model is used for studying air quality of cairo cty and its surrounding to treat a domain that includes an urbanized area for understanding problems of air pollution. The acquired terrain (elevation) data for Egypt was obtained. The local and upper level geostrophic data were provided by rawinsonde of wind speed and direction, temperature,relative humidity, water vapour, and pressure The potential temperature was obtained by a computer program. The meteorological data was obtained for helwan site, about 20 kilometer south of cairo city. Three mested grids were used, with grids resolutions of 2 6 and 18 kilometers to cover a domain of approximately 360 km that extended from the red Sea to the mediterranean Sea

  14. The Verification of Air Pollution Control Episodes in Industrialized Regions.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovgar, V.

    1996-01-01

    There are two approaches for the protection of ambient air against the violation of the admissible threshold values and pollution impacts in large industrial regions. The first approach is the so-called "technological way". This approach leads to "green" technologies supporting the lowest level of a harmful pollutant emission. It would be the best solution for the FSU countries, but, unfortunately, this approach is difficult to implement. Many industrial enterprises in these countries ar...

  15. The spatial division of talent in city regions 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsø Hansen, Høgni; Winther, Lars

    2010-01-01

    important location factor, including the recent focus on the creative class and human capital. Based on an analysis of Copenhagen, we examine the spatial division of talent within industries to provide evidence that new uneven economic geographies of city regions are currently being produced as a result of......The paper focuses on the location dynamics and spatial distribution of talent by workplace to provide evidence of the multiplicity of economic geographies of city regions. City regions are not just homogenous growth machines but complex urban landscapes. The economic growth and revitalisation of...... the new location dynamics of the knowledge economy. Further, it is argued that the intraregional division of talent differs considerably even within knowledge intensive industries....

  16. 40 CFR 81.274 - Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain Counties Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.274 Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Mountain Counties Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  17. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billings Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.88 Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Montana) has been renamed the Billings Intrastate Air Quality...

  18. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... AGENCY Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional... Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective...-selective reduction on September 30, 2011. In consideration of legislative history, the guidance...

  19. Soil concentrations, occurrence, sources and estimation of air-soil exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Breivik, Knut; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-08-15

    Past studies have shown potentially increasing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indian environment. This is the first attempt to investigate the occurrence of PCBs in surface soil and estimate diffusive air-soil exchange, both on a regional scale as well as at local level within the metropolitan environment of India. From the north, New Delhi and Agra, east, Kolkata, west, Mumbai and Goa and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern India were selected for this study. 33 PCB congeners were quantified in surface soil and possible sources were derived using positive matrix factorization model. Net flux directions of PCBs were estimated in seven major metropolitan cities of India along urban-suburban-rural transects. Mean Σ33PCBs concentration in soil (12ng/g dry weight) was nearly twice the concentration found in global background soil, but in line with findings from Pakistan and urban sites of China. Higher abundance of the heavier congeners (6CB-8CB) was prevalent mostly in the urban centers. Cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata with evidence of ongoing PCB sources did not show significant correlation with soil organic carbon (SOC). This study provides evidence that soil is acting as sink for heavy weight PCB congeners and source for lighter congeners. Atmospheric transport is presumably a controlling factor for occurrence of PCBs in less polluted sites of India. PMID:27136304

  20. Unpacking polycentricity at the city-regional scale: Insights from Dusseldorf and Stockholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schmitt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The normative concept of polycentricity has become a promising tool to pursue spatial policy goals such as spatial equity and justice, sustainable and balanced development, and, more recently territorial cohesion, at various scales across Europe. As earlier research has shown, a number of city-regions use the concept for their planning and development work. In pursuit of polycentric development, they call for a robust terminology, solid analysis and methods. As a result, literature analysing polycentricity at the city- or mega-regional scale has grown significantly and it appears that some consensus has been achieved in regards to the main facets and dimensions. Recognizing that the potentials to comprehend city-regional dynamics by focussing on the extent to which polycentric urban patterns evolve has not yet been fully utilised, this paper intends to contribute to a more comprehensive view on polycentricity at the city-regional scale. In doing so, we study the (potentially emerging urban patterns of two cases, the Dusseldorf and Stockholm city-regions, employing different theoretical starting points and analytical approaches. With this in mind, we aim to unpack the concept of polycentricity at the city-regional scale and to offer academics, as well as planning professionals and policy-makers, further insights into qualifying, analysing and understanding the complexity of the topic at hand. Likewise, we argue that sound strategies to promote and mobilise different facets of polycentric development should be carefully reflected and related to the theoretical, methodological and even normative starting point of any attempt to comprehending polycentricity.

  1. Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Kristen Lee

    2004-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of

  2. Regional Technolgy Policy and Factors Shaping Local Innovation Networks in Small German Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Andrea; Nam, Chang Woon; Parsche, Rüdiger

    2003-01-01

    Local innovation networks have been considered to be particularly important to innovation and technological change and to the growth prospects of regions and cities in Germany. Accordingly, innovation is a process that results from various (economic and social) interactions of different institutions located in a given region. Consequently, when analysing the local (or regional) innovation system, one should not only investigate the (horizontal and vertical) relations among firms but also the ...

  3. Air quality evaluation of some industrial cities of Pakistan using INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) have been employed for the characterization of 40 trace elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and soil samples from Pakistan's industrially important cities of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. The air particulates, which were collected from five different locations of each city, indicate moderate to unhealthy air quality with SPM levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Enrichment factors (EF) for all the elements have been calculated with respect to their concentrations in the soils. Some of the areas of Gujranwala show high EF values for Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd and Ca, which may indicate contributions due to heavy traffic with automotive exhaust, tanneries and many other acute anthropogenic activities in this area. The presence of high concentration of Cr is due to chrome plating units and leather industry in the adjoining areas. Similarly few sites from Faisalabad have high Pb, Cd and Sb contents from vehicular aerosols with the contributions from coal combustion, battery manufacturing industries, lead smelters and numerous other industries. IAEA Reference Materials were analyzed for the validation of INAA and AAS procedures employed and to ensure the accuracy and precision of the characterized data. (orig.)

  4. Application of meteorology of air pollution in nuclear design of the city of Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is clear that the urban environment provides the setting for the life framework of a large and growing proportion of the world's population. In consequence, urban dwellers spend much of their lives in a quite distinctive type of man-modified (polluted) climate. This study focuses on two aspects of urban climatology in the city of Tehran: Climate and Urban Form. Each building reacts with its atmospheric envelope and these micro climatic effects are then integrated into macro climatic zones which commonly mirror the form of urban development and major land uses. More specifically this research paper intends to test the hypothesis that concentration or dispersion of urban air pollutants depend on atmospheric conditions and heat island in the urban areas, which is affected in turn, by topography and urban form. By some modifications in urban form, therefore, the atmospheric conditions may be changed (wind direction and speed) in an urban area which will eventually lead to better air quality in the city. Part of the study was based on an experiment in a low speed wind tunnel, which was built for this purpose. Also satellite data was the source of information for preparing the heat islands in Tehran

  5. Air pollution assessment in two Moroccan cities using instrumental neutron activation analysis on bio-accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for the air pollution assessment studies. In this work, lichens and barks have been used as bio-accumulators in several sites in two Moroccan cities (Rabat and Mohammadia). The specific ability of absorbing and accumulating heavy metals and toxic element from the air, their longevity and resistance to the environmental stresses, make those bioindicators suitable for this kind of studies. The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultra-trace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrated by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, a preliminary investigation employing lichens, barks and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was carried out to evaluate the trace elements distribution in six different areas of Rabat and Mohammadia cities characterised by the presence of many industries and heavy traffic. Samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced activity was counted using high-resolution Germanium-Lithium detectors. More than 30 elements were determined using two modes : short irradiation (1 minute) and long irradiation (17 hours). Accuracy and quality control were assessed using the reference standard material IAEA-336. This was less than 1% for major and about 5 to 10% for traces.

  6. Incorporating environmental constraints to electricity generation in the city of Buenos Aires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype for an integrated system that includes air quality constraints to the procedure that is presently in use to determine the daily economic dispatch of power plants in Argentina is proposed. The recent incorporation of new machines to the installed capacity of the three power plants located in the densely populated metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the thermal-based future expansion of the power sector and the relatively high nitrogen oxides concentrations that can be associated to electricity generation in the city of Buenos Aires, served to motivate this work. The prototype attempts to generate a dispatch that is compatible with the environment taking into account the present economic dispatch, weather forecast and dispersion models to evaluate ambient air concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) caused by the combined operation of the thermal power plants. Although the prototype deals exclusively with NOx, since these are the pollutants of primary concern considering the fuel consumption pattern of argentinean power plants, its structure is general enough to take into account other pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and particulate matter. (author)

  7. Air pollution impact on aerosol variability over mega cities using remote sensing technology: case study, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution problems over mega cities differ greatly and are influenced by a number of factors, including topography, demography, meteorology, level and rate of industrialization and socioeconomic development. Cairo is considered a key city for economy, education, politics industry and technology in the Middle East.Increasing business and industrial activities in the city accompanied by shortage of the institutional capabilities for monitoring and control, in addition to environmental impact negligence that prevails over many of the production sectors, have contributed to excessive air pollution problems that have reached the level of crisis. A contributor to this problem is natural and man made effects such as dust and aerosols uptakes. Such pollution episodes are observed during the months of October showing the so called Black Cloud. Such pollution leads to wide variability of aerosols behavior over Cairo. Hence, aerosol related parameters obtained from satellite measurements have been studied here. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) behavior showed a dual maxima nature in each year from 2000 till 2005 during the months of (April, May) and October confirming dust and air pollution events, respectively. Such behavior is confirmed by the high negative correlation with the aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) reaching -0.75. FMF product confirms a higher value during the months of October representing the Black Cloud episodes due to fine particles contribution in these events rather than during the dust events. However, lower values are observed in the last two years due to the new control measures enforced by the government for the environment protection. The difference between the AOD and FMF showed a higher contribution of the fine grains during the Black Cloud events rather than coarser grains during dust events as expected. Among the sources known to contribute to the black cloud formation is the fire burns over the Nile Delta region during the months of September and

  8. Cities and Regions in Britain through hierarchical percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Arcaute, E.; Molinero, C.; Hatna, E.; Murcio, R.; Vargas-Ruiz, C.; Masucci, P.; M Batty

    2015-01-01

    Urban systems present hierarchical structures at many different scales. These are observed as administrative regional delimitations which are the outcome of complex geographical, political and historical processes which leave almost indelible footprints on infrastructure such as the street network. In this work, we uncover a set of hierarchies in Britain at different scales using percolation theory on the street network and on its intersections which are the primary points of interaction and ...

  9. Emission Inventories for Regional Air Quality Planning in the Western U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Emissions affecting western U.S. regional air quality are different in several ways from those of the Midwestern and Eastern U.S. regions. Natural or quasi-natural sources such as wildland fire and windblown dust are significant but episodic and stochastic. Anthropogenic sources such as coal-fired power plants are much smaller than the rest of the U.S. This results in air quality that is quite good across much of the rural areas and smaller cities in the West, with the exception of large urban complexes and other well-known industrial source areas. Much of the West is public lands with unique emissions profiles and complex terrain concentrates emissions under poor circulation conditions. To address areas in the West violating more stringent future national ambient air quality standards and aesthetic/ecosystem protection goals, a broader range of source types must be inventoried, for which emissions rates, chemical profiles, and source activity is difficult to measure and track, but emissions from these poorly characerized sources (relative to power plants and automobiles) are equally important to determining which sources to control and to what degree. This talk will provide data and description of current Western emissions inventories and identify key data gaps where the research community could develop analysis techniques, surrogate estimation methods, and apply remote sensing tools to assist with Western emission inventories.

  10. Air pollution and risk of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in the most populous city in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Hien, To Thi; Linh, Ho Nhut; Luong, Ly M T; Morawska, Lidia; Chu, Cordia; Binh, Nguyen Duy; Thai, Phong K

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution has become an alarming issue in Vietnam recently; however, there was only one study so far on the effects of ambient air pollution on population health. Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effects of air pollutants including PM10, NO2, SO2, and O3 on respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), the largest city in Vietnam. Data on hospitalization from the two largest hospitals in HCMC and daily records of PM10, NO2, SO2, O3 and meteorological data were collected from February 2004 to December 2007. A time-series regression analysis with distributed lag model was applied for data analysis. Changes in levels of NO2 and PM10 were strongly associated with hospital admissions for both respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (CVD); whereas levels of SO2 were only moderately associated with respiratory and CVD hospital admissions and O3 concentration was not associated with any of them. For a 10μg/m(3) increase of each air pollutant, the risk of respiratory admissions increased from 0.7% to 8% while the risk of CVD admissions increased from 0.5% to 4%. Females were found to be more sensitive than males to exposure to air pollutants in regard to respiratory diseases. In regard to CVD, females (RR, 1.04, 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) had a slightly higher risk of admissions than males (RR, 1.03, 95% CI, 1-1.06) to exposure to NO2. In contrast, males (RR, 1.007, 95%CI, 1-1.01) had a higher risk of admission than females (RR, 1.004, 95%CI, 1.001-1.007) to exposure to PM10. People in the age group of 5-65year-olds had a slightly higher risk of admissions caused by air pollutants than the elderly (65+years old) except for a significant effect of PM10 on the risk of cardiovascular admissions was found for the elderly only. PMID:27016680

  11. Identifying and quantifying transported vs. local sources of New York City PM 2.5 fine particulate matter air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Thurston, George D.

    New York City (NYC) is presently in violation of the nation's PM 2.5 annual mass standard, and will have to take actions to control the sources contributing to these violations. This paper seeks to differentiate the impact of long-range transported aerosols on the air quality of downtown NYC, so that the roles of local sources can more clearly be evaluated. Past source apportionment studies have considered single sites individually in their source apportionment analyses to identify and determine sources affecting that site, often finding secondary sulfates to be an important contributor, but not being able to quantify the portion that is transported vs. local. In this study, a rural site located in Sterling Forest, NY, which is near to the NYC area, but unaffected by local NYC sources, is instead used as a reference to separate the portion of the aerosol that is transported to our Manhattan, NYC site before conducting the source apportionment analysis. Sterling Forest is confirmed as a background site via elemental comparisons with NYC during regional transport episodes of Asian and Sahara sandstorm dusts, as well as by comparisons with a second background site in Chester, NJ. Two different approaches that incorporate Sterling Forest background data into the NYC source apportionment analysis are then applied to quantify local vs. transported aerosols. Six source categories are identified for NYC: regional transported sulfate, trans-continental desert dust, traffic, residual oil, "local" dust and World Trade Center fires pollution. Of these, the transported sulfates and trans-continental desert dust accounted for nearly half of the total PM 2.5 mass in Manhattan during 2001, with more than half coming from these transported sources during the summer months. More than 90% of the Manhattan elemental carbon was found to be of local origins. Conversely, roughly 90% of the NYC sulfate mass was identified as transported into the city. Our results indicate that transported

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from cities and regions: International implications revealed by Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diversity of greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting methodologies currently utilized by cities around the world make meaningful comparisons of their emissions almost impossible. Consequently, the 2010 United Nations International Standard for Determining Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Cities promotes a “harmonized protocol for quantifying the GHG emissions attributable to cities and local regions.” The UN's common standard has important implications for comparison, benchmarking and policy assessment related to energy policies. This paper uses Hong Kong as a case study to illustrate these implications. Hong Kong's per capita contribution to GHG emissions are among the highest in the world, yet the local government's official statistics indicate emissions that are far below those reported by most affluent economies. This discrepancy arises from a reporting methodology that does not require inclusion of GHG emissions linked to consumption of imported goods or emissions from aviation and shipping. The Hong Kong case reveals that current inventories do not provide sufficient information to guide policymaking related to energy and climate change. They also do not provide adequate information for comparing policies of cities internationally. Alternative emissions-reporting standards that focus more on pollution from consumption will create avenues for more effective climate-related policies. - Highlights: ► Flawed GHG inventory methodologies can lead cities to adopt misguided policies. ► Diverse GHG inventory methodologies make meaningful comparisons among cities difficult. ► A Hong Kong case study highlights that GHG inventories can misrepresent cities' climate impacts. ► City inventories often exclude GHG emissions linked to imports, aviation and shipping. ► The International Standard for Determining GHG Emissions for Cities can assist climate policy.

  13. Air borne heavy metal pollution of Cedrus libani (A. Rich.) in the city centre of Konya (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Serpil; Dursun, Sukru

    The contents of heavy metal accumulated by air pollution in the cedar tree needles from the green area of Konya city centre were measured by chemical analyses. The needle samples were collected from two types of trees (about 10-15 and 20-25-years-old trees) from eight different pollution regions for two different sampling periods. Results of sulphur dioxide and particle matter analyses were used for measurement of air pollution effect on accumulation of heavy metals in the vegetation. Contents of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Cd and V) were determined for sampling periods, tree ages and sampling places. Results of the present study showed that accumulations of heavy metals in the old trees were generally higher than those of young trees. Similarly, heavy metal contents of needles collected in spring 2004 were higher than those of needles collected in autumn 2003. Accumulation of heavy metals via sulphur dioxide pollution and particle matter originated from usage of low quality fossil fuels, which might affect the living organisms in the city centre. On the other hand, Pb levels in the samples from Karatay Industry Park (3.53 ppm in 2004) showed that people are health living around the industry, and heavy traffic area is under risk. According to the other sampling areas, the chromium levels were also very high around the Chrome-Magnesite Factory Garden (87.15 ppm in 2004); it could be a toxic risk for people working around the factory. The heavy metal levels obtained from the other samples were not as high a risk level for the living organisms in the sampling areas.

  14. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough onsite survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small inter-annual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at 9 state-opertated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively. The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground observations. The inter

  15. Advantages of city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L.; Xu, R.; Xie, F.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H.; Wang, H.; Wu, X.; Li, W.; Zhang, J.

    2015-07-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough onsite survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small inter-annual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at 9 state-opertated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground observations. The inter-annual variability and

  16. Air pollution and forest ecosystems: a regional to global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the atmospheric concentrations of a number of air pollutants over the last century are hallmarks of the magnitude and extent of human impact on the environment. Some of these changes are important to ecologists because many pollutants, acting singly or in combination, affect ecological systems in general and forests in particular. The greatest concern lies with chronic levels of tropospheric ozone, cumulative deposition of hydrogen ion, nitrogen, and sulfur via wet and dry processes, a select number of airborne chemicals (e.g., mercury) that tend to bio accumulate in continental landscapes, and ultraviolet—B radiation through the loss of stratospheric ozone. Because the atmospheric residence time of most pollutants of concern to ecologists is measured on time frames extending from a few weeks to decades, pollutant distribution and effects are regional to global in dimension. We present evidence that ambient levels of some air pollutants in North America are affecting managed and unmanaged forests, and that the two most important pollutants are tropospheric ozone and chronic nitrogen loading. Further evidence indicates that while concentrations of some air pollutants have been declining over the last decade in North America, others are expected to remain unchanged or increase, including tropospheric ozone. We conclude that air pollution is affecting many North American forests and some remote forests around the globe. In the immediate future, the concern for air pollution effects on forests and associated natural resources will broaden to include interactions with changes in climate and pollution effects in the world's developing countries. There has been a rapid evolution in air pollution studies in ecology, shifting away from the agricultural paradigm of single—factor experimentation toward new methodologies that are ecologically and multidisciplinarily based. This shift has been promoted by the recognition that air pollution is one of several

  17. CHATTANOOGA AIR TOXICS (CATS) MONITORING RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (CHCAPCB), the United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 4 (Region 4), and other stakeholders, in a cooperative effort, conducted an air toxics study in the Chattanooga area (city population approximately 285...

  18. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    OpenAIRE

    X. Jiang; Hong, C; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, B.; Guan, D; Gouldson, AP; Zhang, Q.; K. He

    2015-01-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China's State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments' activit...

  19. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  20. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2013-10-01

    The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s-1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%), at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23%) and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb) and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb) and rural T2 (5 ppb) supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels from technological

  1. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local air quality of Mexico Megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Almanza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The air quality of megacities can be influenced by external emissions sources on both global and regional scale, and at the same time their outflow emissions can exert an important impact to the surrounding environment. The present study evaluates an SO2 peak observed on 24 March 2006 at the suburban supersite T1 and ambient air quality monitoring stations located in the north region of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA during MILAGRO campaign. We found that this peak could be related to an important episodic emission event from Tizayuca region, northeast of the MCMA. Back trajectories analyses suggest that the emission event started in the early morning at 04:00 LST and lasted for about 9 h. The estimated emission rate is noticeably high, about 2 kg s−1. This finding suggests the possibility of "overlooked" emission sources in this region that could influence the air quality of the MCMA. This further motivated us to study the cement plants, including those in the State of Hidalgo and in the State of Mexico, and we found that they can contribute in the NE region of the basin (about 41.7%, at the suburban supersite T1 (41.23% and at some monitoring stations their contribution can be even higher than from the Tula Industrial Complex. The contribution of Tula Industrial Complex to regional ozone levels is estimated. The model suggests low contribution to the MCMA (1 ppb to 4 ppb and slightly higher at the suburban T1 (6 ppb and rural T2 (5 ppb supersites. However, the contribution could be as high as 10 ppb in the upper northwest region of the basin and in the southwest and south-southeast regions of State of Hidalgo. In addition, a first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Emission rates are estimated with a CFD combustion model. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence in SO2 levels

  2. RECLAIMing Air, Redefining Democracy : : A History of the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market, Environmental Justice, and Risk, 1960 - present

    OpenAIRE

    Tribbett, Krystal L.

    2014-01-01

    Depending on whom you ask, the Regional Clean Air Incentive Market (RECLAIM), the nation's first regional smog market, is either a revolutionary approach to cleaning the air of the South Coast Air Basin, the most polluted region in the country, or a failed social experiment that put the interests of business and the marketplace above public health. In its original iteration, RECLAIM rules were intended to produce emissions reductions consistent with the command-and-control approach to complia...

  3. Effects of Soil and Air Drying Methods on Soil Plasticity of Different Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashan Ijaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atterberg Limits were initially defined in 1911, by Albert Atterberg, a Swedish scientist. Their purposes are to classifying cohesive soils and determine engineering properties of soils. According to ASTM, all the soils tested by Atterberg limits should be oven dried, it is because drying the soils in different degree will alter their properties significantly. Some of the physical properties of soils will undergo changes that appear to be permanent. Therefore, the soil samples should be in natural or air-dried form. However, in reality, due to time constraint and other factors, many will run the tests by using soil samples that are prepared by oven drying method. They assumed that there is no difference between the results of two types of drying method. However, in reality, the properties of soil will be affected and thus give a misleading result. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of two drying methods, air-drying method and oven drying method, on the soil plasticity. Six soil samples from different cities were tested. These tests include sieve analysis, specific gravity test, hydrometer analysis, Plastic limit and liquid limit test. Conclusively, the oven drying method could not replace the air-drying method in soil preparation for both Atterberg limits tests.

  4. Dietary intake, lung function and airway inflammation in Mexico City school children exposed to air pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Sánchez David

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Air pollutant exposure has been associated with an increase in inflammatory markers and a decline in lung function in asthmatic children. Several studies suggest that dietary intake of fruits and vegetables might modify the adverse effect of air pollutants. Methods A total of 158 asthmatic children recruited at the Children's Hospital of Mexico and 50 non-asthmatic children were followed for 22 weeks. Pulmonary function was measured and nasal lavage collected and analyzed every 2 weeks. Dietary intake was evaluated using a 108-item food frequency questionnaire and a fruit and vegetable index (FVI and a Mediterranean diet index (MDI were constructed. The impact of these indices on lung function and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and their interaction with air pollutants were determined using mixed regression models with random intercept and random slope. Results FVI was inversely related to IL-8 levels in nasal lavage (p 1 (test for trend p 1 and FVC as was with MDI and ozone for FVC. No effect of diet was observed among healthy children. Conclusion Our results suggest that fruit and vegetable intake and close adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a beneficial effect on inflammatory response and lung function in asthmatic children living in Mexico City.

  5. Developing the Rotterdam City Region Food System: acting and thinking at the same time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The city region of Rotterdam is located in the western part of the Netherlands, bordering the North Sea. It contains the municipality of Rotterdam and several neighbouring municipalities, with about 1.2 million inhabitants. Rotterdam hosts Europe’s largest sea port as well as a large (inland-oriente

  6. The foundation of computer based closed radionuclide sources turnover control system in Moscow city region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns the problem of Closed Radionuclide Sources (CRS) automated account and control in Moscow city and Moscow region. Information relations structure between authorities and enterprises is shown. Special computer oriented system of CRS turnover monitoring is used for this purposes. Its possibilities and numeric characteristics of database are mentioned. This system benefit and application aspects are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Hub-and-Spoke System in Air Transportation and Its Implications to Regional Economic Development——A Case Study of United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei; MA Yanji

    2006-01-01

    Considerable changes have taken place in commercial passenger air transport since the enactment of the 1978Airline Deregulation Act in the US and the deregulation of airline networks that has occurred elsewhere. The commercial and operational freedoms have led most of the larger carriers to develop hub-and-spoke networks, within which certain cities or metropolitan areas emerge as key nodes possessing tremendous advantages over other locations in the air transport system. This paper examines the nature of hub-and-spoke operations in air transportation services, and the benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to an airline hub. In particular, it looks into linkages between the air service hub and local economic development. Four potential types of impact of airports on the regional economy are defined and discussed. As an example, the assessment of the economic impacts of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport (CVG), a major Delta Airlines hub, is introduced.

  8. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sanyal

    2003-03-01

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral indices at below and above the knee are -2.45± 0.03 and -2.91± 0.05 respectively. Measurements at different atmospheric depths correspond to the same values within the error limits both for below and above the knee. The present experimental results have been compared with similar such experiments.

  9. Report of the second STREAM regional conference. Tagaytay City, Philippines 8-10 June 2003

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Second STREAM Regional Conference was held in Tagaytay City, Philippines, from 8-10 June 2003 with the participation of 23 people from Australia, Cambodia, India, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Yunnan (China). Following a regional overview of STREAM’s themes, country partners, donors and funding, and activities, participants visited four “stations” on the themes of livelihoods, institutions, policy development, and communications, working in groups representing National Coor...

  10. Intimate partner violence against women in the Erbil city of the Kurdistan region, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Atrushi, Hazha H; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is a worldwide problem and serious human rights abuse that occurs among all social, cultural, economic and religious groups. There is a paucity of research on intimate partner violence against women in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan region. This study assessed the prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women and the impact of physical violence in Erbil, the main city of the Iraqi Kurdistan region. Methods A cross-s...

  11. Selected organochlorine pesticides in the atmosphere of major Indian cities: levels, regional versus local variations, and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Liu, Xiang; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2010-11-01

    India has extensive production and usage of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) for agriculture and vector control. Despite this, few data are available on the levels and distribution of OCPs in the urban atmosphere of India. Passive and active air sampling was therefore conducted between Dec 2006 and March 2007 in 7 metropolitan cities: New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Goa, and Agra. Concentrations (pg·m(-3)) were as follows: HCHs 890-17000 (mean: 5400 ± 4110); DDTs 250-6110 (1470 ± 1010); chlordanes 290-5260 (1530 ± 790); endosulfans 240-4650 (1040 ± 610); and hexachlorobenzene 120-2890 (790 ± 510). HCHs observed in India appear to be the highest reported across the globe. Chlordanes and endosulfans are lower than levels reported from southern China. Passive sampling enabled within- and between-city variations to be assessed. As expected, paired-sample t-test analysis revealed higher regional than local variation. Comparisons with the limited data available from studies conducted in 1989 suggest general declines of HCHs and DDTs for most regions. γ-HCH dominated the HCH signal, reflecting widespread use of Lindane in India, although the isomeric composition in Kolkata suggests potential technical HCH use. High o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios in northern India indicate recent DDT usage. High HCB levels in the industrial areas of New Delhi and Kolkata indicate ongoing sources. Correlation between trans- and cis-chlordane implies ongoing usage. Endosulfan sulfate generally dominated the endosulfan signal, but high values of α/β-endosulfan at Chennai, Mumbai and Goa suggest ongoing usage. Backward trajectories were computed using the NOAA HYSPLIT model to trace the air mass history. Result shows local/regional sources of OCPs within India. PMID:20879790

  12. Aerosol airmass type mapping over the urban Mexico City region from space-based multi-angle imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Patadia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR and sub-orbital measurements from the 2006 INTEX-B/MILAGRO field campaign, in this study we demonstrate MISR's ability to map different aerosol air mass types over the Mexico City metropolitan area. The aerosol air mass distinctions are based on shape, size and single scattering albedo retrievals from the MISR Research Aerosol Retrieval algorithm. In this region, the research algorithm identifies dust-dominated aerosol mixtures based on non-spherical particle shape, whereas spherical biomass burning and urban pollution particles are distinguished by particle size. Four distinct aerosol air masses are identified in the MISR data on 6 March 2006; these results are supported by coincident, airborne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL measurements. Aerosol optical depth (AOD gradients are also consistent between the MISR and sub-orbital measurements, but particles having SSA558≈0.7 must be included in the retrieval algorithm to produce good absolute AOD comparisons over pollution-dominated aerosol air masses. The MISR standard V22 AOD product, at 17.6 km resolution, captures the observed AOD gradients qualitatively, but retrievals at this coarse spatial scale and with limited spherical absorbing particle options underestimate AOD and do not retrieve particle properties adequately over this complex urban region. However, we demonstrate how AOD and aerosol type mapping can be accomplished with MISR data over urban regions, provided the retrieval is performed at sufficiently high spatial resolution, and with a rich enough set of aerosol components and mixtures.

  13. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; L. P. Qiu; Xu, R.Y.; F. J. Xie; Q. Zhang; Y. Y. Yu; C. P. Nielsen; H. X. Qin; H. K. Wang; Wu, X.C.; W. Q. Li; J. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory (with a horizontal resolution of 3 × 3 km) of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed, incorporating the best available information on local sour...

  14. Poverty on Display: Cirujeo in the City of Buenos Aires (2002-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Boy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From an ethnographic perspective, this paper will focus on analyzing how «cirujas» —as people collecting reusable materials from waste are— are readapting themselves to the current urban space in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina, and how they confront stigmatizing social discourses. An account of theses uses and the strategies they formulate to face social differentiation they use to live with, to resist or coexist with stigmatizing stereotypes condemning them is provided. At the same time, by focusing on urban spaces with interacting groups from different socio-economic sectors, the idea of social segregation will be challenged, by showing these processes come along with new encounter modalities between the different social groups based on the realization of a differentiated use of public space.

  15. Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors in houses of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration levels of radon in air, indoors and outdoors have been obtained in houses from Mexico City, with the purpose of relating them with the local environment. Measurements were performed both outdoors and indoors in 60 unifamiliar houses. Track detectors, LR-115, Type II, were used in several detection arrangements during four recording periods with times of exposure of three months each, with the purpose of analyzing the fluctuations due to seasonal changes. Data were obtained about the construction materials were the detection systems were located in order to establish a correlation of radon levels with the climatic parameters and the construction materials. The results of radon concentrations both indoors or outdoors were lower than the international recommendations (148 Bq/m3) (Author)

  16. Descentralizing memory. Two logics of urban space intervention on the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sanjurjo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban space is one of the surfaces where the marks are inscribed to keep memory of the genocide perpetrated by the last military dictatorship in Argentina. In the last yeards, various initiatives have intervened on urban space to produce a “descentralized memory” —not exclusionarily anchored—, in the so-called memory places. We began our inquiry by asking whether there is a single recognizable logic behind the practices of “memory descentralization” or whether, on the contrary, these practices of marking urban space correspond to different yuxtaposed grammars. This reflection will focus on the public space signalling policy the Buenos Aires City Government has made, on one hand, and on the actions of urban space intervention made by the various commissions of collective “Neighborhoods for Memory and Justice”, especially the initiative intitled “Tilings for Memory”.

  17. Chemical characterization of individual particles (PM10) from ambient air in Guiyang City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM10 samples were collected during 5 days in Guiyang, China in July 2003. A total of about 2300 particles was analyzed by an automated Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to identify different particle types that occurred in the aerosol. Seventeen particle types were identified and presented in the order of decreasing number abundance as: silicomanganese slag, soil and fly ash, coal burning, silicomanganese, quartz, syngenite, S-bearing iron, calcium rich, gypsum, sphalerite, dolomite, iron, alloy, lead sulfate, zinc rich, sulfur-rich particles and aluminum manufacturing dust. The majority of the particles in the studied size range are of anthropogenic origin, especially from metallurgical industry. The study illustrates the complexity of particle pollution in air of an industrial Chinese city and the results should be useful in planning mitigation measures

  18. Air pollution dispersion models as used in Poland in regional development planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruchnicki, J.

    1977-02-01

    This paper discusses air pollution models used in regional development planning in Poland. After outlining the institutional structure and legislature dealing with air pollution control, the paper describes the air quality standards currently in effect. Dispersion models used in predicting air pollution concentrations are then detailed. Finally the application of air pollution modelling to urban design is discussed.

  19. Air temperature field distribution estimations over a Chinese mega-city using MODIS land surface temperature data: the case of Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weichun; Zhou, Liguo; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Dai, Xiaoyan

    2016-03-01

    The capability of obtaining spatially distributed air temperature data from remote sensing measurements is an improvement for many environmental applications focused on urban heat island, carbon emissions, climate change, etc. This paper is based on the MODIS/Terra and Aqua data utilized to study the effect of the urban atmospheric heat island in Shanghai, China. The correlation between retrieved MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature measured at local weather stations was initially studied at different temporal and spatial scales. Secondly, the air temperature data with spatial resolutions of 250 m and 1 km were estimated from MODIS LST data and in-situ measured air temperature. The results showed that there is a slightly higher correlation between air temperature and MODIS LST at a 250m resolution in spring and autumn on an annual scale than observed at a 1 km resolution. Although the distribution pattern of the air temperature thermal field varies in different seasons, the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai is characterized by a distribution pattern of multiple centers, with the central urban area as the primary center and the built-up regions in each district as the subcenters. This study demonstrates the potential not only for estimating the distribution of the air temperature thermal field from MODIS LST with 250 m resolution in spring and autumn in Shanghai, but also for providing scientific and effective methods for monitoring and studying UHI effect in a Chinese mega-city such as Shanghai.

  20. Assessment of drugs purchased in the public health network of the cities in the Ourinhos micro-region, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Obreli Neto, Paulo R.; Nambu, Maurício M.; Cuman, Roberto K. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the criteria and procedures for the selection of antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs purchased by the public health network of the cities in the Ourinhos Micro-region, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional, multi-center, exploratory, quantitative study was developed in the 12 cities that constitute the Ourinhos Micro-region. The data obtained showed that cities standardize and purchase a large number and diverse range of pharmaceutical specialties, i...

  1. Radiological appearance of air introduced during equine regional limb anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve horses were injected intra-articularly into the metacarpophalangeal joint and extra-articularly in the region of the lateral palmar digital nerve with 1 ml air and local anaesthetic to simulate gas accidentally introduced during regional anaesthesia. Half the horses underwent limited exercise after which all horses were radiographed at 15 and 45 min and then every 24 h until all evidence of gas had disappeared. Intra-articular gas appeared as gas capped radiolucencies (GCR) in the proximal aspect of the joint. Extra-articular gas appeared as linear radiolucencies (LR) which initially tended to migrate proximally. There was no significant difference in gas resorption in exercised and nonexercised horses. All gas was resorbed within 96 h with most of the gas already gone at 48 h

  2. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The e...

  3. A garage-building programme for the city of Vienna and resulting air quality. Related health aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Walter, R. [Inst. of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Urban traffic influences air quality in cities considerably. This is particularly true for the medieval parts of the big European cities, which have not been designed for today s heavy traffic. A problem closely associated with city traffic, is the lack of parking lots, particularly for residents. In Vienna, the parking problem is tackled by the building of underground car parks. In the next years more than 50 large garages (>100 sites) are being planned. The main goal is the clearing of the beautiful old places and streets of Vienna from the bulk of parking vehicles and supplying the citizens with parking spaces in the neighbourhood. According to a recent decision of the City Council of Vienna the construction of `large garages` (>100 parking spaces) requires an official approval by various local authorities. Among them are those responsible for town design and architecture, for fire precaution and fire fighting, for city traffic, for planning and building and for environmental health. In this context the Institute of Environmental Medicine of the City Council of Vienna faced the task of establishing criteria for a health risk assessment linked with `large garages`. Health-risks may be caused by air pollution and noise. This presentation deals with the air pollution problem. Air pollution problems may occur due to traffic in and out of the garage, by insufficient ventilation systems and by construction failures. In the garage programme the health officers have to bring evidence that residents of the houses with underground car parks and residents in the close neighbourhood are not exposed to any health risk due to air pollution

  4. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  5. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  6. Local and Regional Interactions Between Air Quality and Climate in New Delhi -- a Sector Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrapu, P.; Cheng, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Beig, G.; Spak, S.; Lin, M.; Decker, M.; Schultz, M. G.; Winiwarter, W.

    2011-12-01

    Out of the 26 mega-cities in the world, 13 of them are affected by atmospheric brown clouds with high aerosol loadings and 5 of them are in South Asia. New Delhi (India) is one of the world's most polluted megacities. In this study we evaluate the air pollution levels in Delhi and their impacts on weather and climate. The two way interactions between pollution and meteorology are evaluated using the WRF-Chem model. The analysis period is focused on October 2010, the time period of the Commonwealth Games. The model is compared to BC and PM2.5 measurements at 11 sites. A sector based analysis is performed to assess the contributions to pollution and direct radiative forcing from transport, residential, power and industrial emissions. The contributions from emissions outside of Delhi are also evaluated to see the extent that regional emissions need to be controlled to meet air quality targets in Delhi. Results of simulations for emission scenarios generated by the GAINS model that address air quality and climate strategies are also discussed

  7. Parametric time-series analysis of daily air pollutants of city of Shumen, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Voynikova, D.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S.; Boyadzhiev, D.

    2012-10-01

    The urban air pollution is one of the main factors determining the ambient air quality, which affects on the human health and the environment. In this paper parametric time series models are obtained for studying the distribution over time of primary pollutants as sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and a secondary pollutant ground level ozon in the town of Shumen, Bulgaria. The methods of factor analysis and ARIMA are used to carry out the time series analysis based on hourly average data in 2011 and first quarter of 2012. The constructed models are applied for a short-term air pollution forecasting. The results are estimated on the basis of national and European regulation indices. The sources of pollutants in the region and their harmful effects on human health are also discussed.

  8. An optimal model and its application for the management of municipal solid waste from regional small cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yongfeng; Li, Tianwei; Yan, Gang; Wang, Yeyao; Ma, Xiaofan

    2004-02-01

    Based on the basic characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) from regional small cities in China, some optimal management principles have been put forward: regional optimization, long-term optimization, and integrated treatment/disposal optimization. According to these principles, an optimal MSW management model for regional small cities is developed and provides a useful method to manage MSW from regional small cities. A case study application of the optimal model is described and shows that the optimal management scenarios in the controlling region can be gained, adequately validating and accounting for the advantages of the optimal model. PMID:14977320

  9. 40 CFR 81.26 - Hartford-New Haven-Springfield Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hartford-New Haven-Springfield... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.26 Hartford-New Haven-Springfield Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Hartford-New Haven-Springfield Interstate Air Quality Control Region...

  10. 40 CFR 81.120 - Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.120 Section 81.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.120 Middle Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  11. An Index of Productivity and Development for the Girardot City Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Girardot is the most important tourist destination in the Upper Magdalena Valley, and there exists many industrial, commercial and service bussinesses, which contribute to the development of the city. However, the city lacks a good source of information about investment in the various economic sectors and for this reason investors are wary of committing to the region and the opportunity to create jobs and foster development is being lost. By consulting with local entities, an index is formulated to help investors identify the financial and economic sector which offer greatest opportunity for investment.

  12. Competitive advantages of Central European cities in the cross-border region Alpe-Adria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pichler-Milanović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the competitive advantages of the major cities in the Alpe-Adria region, defined by the authors on the basis of a survey conducted among experts and leading individuals from various fields. First opinions on the international image of cities, international functions, marketing properties and rivals are shown. The next theme is quality of life, researched through housing, urban services, natural and business environments. A chapter about development projects and interurban cooperation follows. In conclusion there are three chapters dealing with directions for improving the supra-national setting and quality of life in the region’s cities, new urban development strategies and directions for improving the supra-national position of Ljubljana.

  13. Hydrogeology aspects of the Tandilia piedmont region (Buenos Aires, Argentine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sierras de Tandilia piedmont area is a region trending NW-SE from the Atlantic Ocean to the China Hills (Olavarria) in the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires. Despite the intense demand for groundwater in the area, more so than in almost any other part of Argentina, knowledge about the aquifers is very scarce or highly localized. In a large part of the region little or nothing is known about the aquifer units, which might afford very important comparative benefits in terms of potential water exploitation rates. The aim of this study has been to analyse the main features of these aquifers, bearing in mind their different sedimentary architectures (depositional characteristics of the region), to define the basic hydrogeologic models. We also include a brief analysis of the hydraulic characteristics determined in these aquifers with reference to their architectural types. We have identified various types of aquifer: leaky, unconfined, semi-unconfined, and fractured, and obtained very diverse transmissivity values, from 30 m2/d with specific flow capacities of 1 m3/hm, to 500 m2/d with specific flow capacities of 20 m3/hm or more. We propose that these variations in the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifers conditioned to a great extent by the hydro stratigraphy and, especially, the types of sedimentary architecture that go to framing the hydrogeologic models in this region. (Author) 37 refs.

  14. The air quality in Norwegian cities. Development - reasons - measures - future; Luftkvaliteten i norske byer. Utvikling - aarsaker - tiltak - framtid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larssen, Steinar; Hagen, Leif Otto

    1998-12-01

    There is an increasing focus on the air quality in Norwegian cities and townships. The air quality depends on several factors and the connections are complex. The aim of this report is to present a short and simple survey of this complex field. The report consists of three parts: Part 1 is a survey of the development until today. Measurements of SO{sub 2} and soot were started in the 1950's. Systematic determinations of NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2}, CO and particles, ozone and benzene was started during the last three decades. The population exposure to air pollutants and their main sources are described as well as the air quality in Norwegian cities compared to other cities in Europe. In part 2 developments within transport, a sector necessary for understanding the development, are described. Part 3 is a survey of forecasting the air quality in Norway, pollution warnings and surveillance. The forecasts are based on assumed developments in important sectors such as transport, energy consumption for heating and industrial purposes and the effects of demands for fuel and vehicles. Effect analyses of further measures which may be useful for reaching the national goals for the air quality are carried out. A survey of the most important limiting values and criteria as well as technical terms is presented in the report and in the appendix. The report is commissioned by the Norwegian Petroleum Institute (Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt) and the Norwegian Road Federation (Opplysningsraadet for Veitrafikken)

  15. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  17. A new heating system based on coupled air source absorption heat pump for cold regions: Energy saving analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A double-stage coupled air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) is proposed. • The coupled ASAHP exhibits stable and high performance in very cold regions. • Energy-saving rate of the coupled ASAHP in all the typical cities is above 20%. - Abstract: Energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water is very high. The heating system based on an air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) had been assessed to have great energy saving potential. However, the single-stage ASAHP exhibits poor performance when the outdoor air temperature is very low. A double-stage coupled ASAHP is proposed to improve the energy-saving potential of single-stage ASAHP in cold regions. The heating capacity and primary energy efficiency (PEE) of the proposed system operated in both coupled mode and single-stage mode are simulated under various working conditions. The building load and primary energy consumption of different heating systems applied in cold regions are analyzed comparatively to investigate the energy-saving potential of the coupled ASAHP. Results show that the coupled ASAHP exhibits stable PEE and provides high heating capacity in very cold conditions. The energy-saving rate of the coupled ASAHP in all the typical cities is above 20%. In addition, the energy-saving potential of the single-stage ASAHP in severely cold areas can be improved obviously by coupled ASAHP, with an improvement of 7.73% in Harbin

  18. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010–2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations

  19. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  20. Spatial Planning and High-tech Development A comparative study of Eindhoven city-region, the Netherlands and Hsinchu City-region, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Huang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High-tech development—which lies at the very heart of the processes of economic growth—has been recognised by many developed and developing countries as a strategic instrument to enhance and sustain their competitiveness in the global economic network. Although the concept of high-tech development differs between countries, many share the underlying assumption that the core of high-tech development is to create a sound environment where innovation thrives. This ideology implies a definite spatial dimension. As a result, various spatial strategies have been formulated and implemented to support high-tech development. This has had intentional and unintentional effects on the economy, society and space.Numerous studies have been devoted to exploring, analysing and theorising this global phenomenon. However, there has been less attention given to the role spatial planning may play in the process of high-tech development and to the factors that shape the spatial planning approaches to high-tech development in a particular place. The major objectives of this research are to advance the knowledge of the role of spatial planning in the process of high-tech development, and to establish an analytical framework that helps reveal the major institutional factors that shape spatial planning mechanisms for dealing with the spatial issues of high-tech development in different places. This contributes to the field of high-tech spatial policies transfer and lesson-drawing.In order to explore the major factors that shape the practices of spatial planning in hightech development, a comparative approach is applied in this research. The Eindhoven city-region in the Netherlands and the Hsinchu city-region in Taiwan are selected as case study areas. Both city-regions can be recognised as success stories of high-tech development not only on a national scale but also on a global scale, despite the fact that they apply different approaches. In the Eindhoven city-region

  1. "Zafar," So Good: Middle-Class Students, School Habitus and Secondary Schooling in the City of Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Analia Ines

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how students from the "loser" sections of the middle class dealt with the game of secondary schooling in a "good" state school in the city of Buenos Aires (Argentina). It engages with Bourdieu's theory of social practice and, in particular, with its concepts of game, habitus and cultural capital. It argues that middle-class…

  2. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    (OSPM). This research proposed the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) spatial city model as a new physical data input for OSPM. The five Level of Details (LOD) of 3D spatial city model shows the scale applicability for the dispersion model implementtation. Subsequently 3D spatial city model data......Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing...... air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection such as...

  3. Comparison of boundary conditions from Global Chemistry Model (GCM) for regional air quality application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yun Fat; Cheung, Hung Ming; Fu, Joshua; Huang, Kan

    2015-04-01

    Applying Global Chemistry Model (GCM) for regional Boundary Conditions (BC) has become a common practice to account for long-range transport of air pollutants in the regional air quality modeling. The limited domain model such as CMAQ and CAMx requires a global BC to prescribe the real-time chemical flux at the boundary grids, in order to give a realistic estimate of boundary impacts. Several GCMs have become available recently for use in regional air quality studies. In this study, three GCM models (i.e., GEOS-chem, CHASER and IFS-CB05 MACC provided by Seoul National University, Nagoya University and ECWMF, respectively) for the year of 2010 were applied in CMAQ for the East Asia domain under the framework of Model Inter-comparison Study Asia Phase III (MISC-Asia III) and task force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) jointed experiments. Model performance evaluations on vertical profile and spatial distribution of O3 and PM2.5 have been made on those three models to better understand the model uncertainties from the boundary conditions. Individual analyses on various mega-cities (i.e., Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Taipei, Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Seoul and Tokyo) were also performed. Our analysis found that the monthly estimates of O3 for CHASER were a bit higher than GEOS-Chem and IFS-CB05 MACC, particularly in the northern part of China in the winter and spring, while the monthly averages of PM2.5 in GEOS-Chem were the lowest among the three models. The hourly maximum values of PM2.5 from those three models (GEOS-Chem, CHASER and IFS-CB05 MACC are 450, 321, 331 μg/m3, while the maximum O3 are 158, 212, 380 ppbv, respectively. Cross-comparison of CMAQ results from the 45 km resolution were also made to investigate the boundary impacts from the global GCMs. The results presented here provide insight on how global GCM selection influences the regional air quality simulation in East Asia.

  4. A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Ma, Stefan; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2002-01-01

    The causal interpretation of reported associations between daily air pollution and daily admissions requires consideration of residual confounding, correlation between pollutants, and effect modification. If results obtained in Hong Kong and London--which differ in climate, lifestyle, and many other respects--were similar, a causal association would be supported. We used identical statistical methods for the analysis in each city. Associations between daily admissions and pollutant levels were estimated using Poisson regression. Nonparametric smoothing methods were used to model seasonality and the nonlinear dependence of admissions on temperature, humidity, and influenza admissions. For respiratory admissions (> or = 65 years of age), significant positive associations were observed with particulate matter ozone in both cities. These associations tended to be stronger at shorter lags in Hong Kong and at longer lags in London. Associations were stronger in the cool season in Hong Kong and in the warm season in London, periods during which levels of humidity are at their lowest in each city. For cardiac admissions (all ages) in both cities, significant positive associations were observed for PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) with similar lag patterns. Associations tended to be stronger in the cool season. The associations with NO(2) and SO(2) were the most robust in two-pollutant models. Patterns of association for pollutants with ischemic heart disease were similar in the two cities. The associations between O(3) and cardiac admissions were negative in London but positive in Hong Kong. We conclude that air pollution has remarkably similar associations with daily cardiorespiratory admissions in both cities, in spite of considerable differences between cities in social, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The results strengthen the argument that air pollution causes detrimental short-term health effects. PMID:11781167

  5. Impact air quality by wildfire and agricultural fire in Mexico city 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Campos, Alejandra; Agustín García Reynoso, José; Castro Romero, Telma Gloria; Carbajal Pérez, José Noel; Mar Morales, Bertha Eugenia; Gerardo Ruiz Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    A forest fire is a large-scale process natural combustion where different types of flora and fauna of different sizes and ages are consumed. Consequently, forest fires are a potential source of large amounts of air pollutants that must be considered when trying to relate emissions to the air quality in neighboring cities of forest areas as in the Valley of Mexico. The size, intensity and occurrence of a forest fire directly dependent variables such as weather conditions, topography, vegetation type and its moisture content and the mass of fuel per hectare. An agricultural fire is a controlled combustion, which occurred a negligence can get out of control and increase the burned area or the possibly become a wildfire. Once a fire starts, the dry combustible material is consumed first. If the energy release is large and of sufficient duration, drying green material occurs live, with subsequent burning it. Under proper fuel and environmental conditions, this process can start a chain reaction. These events occur mainly in the dry season. Forest fires and agriculture fires contribute directly in the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere; The main pollutants emitted to the atmosphere by a wildfire are the PM10, PM2.5, NOx and VOC's, the consequences have by fire are deforestation, soil erosion or change of structure and composition of forests (Villers, 2006), also it affects ecosystems and the health of the population. In this study the impact of air quality for the emissions of particulate matter less than ten microns PM10, by wildfire and agricultural fire occurred on the same day and same place, the study was evaluated in Mexico City the Delegation Milpa Alta in the community of San Lorenzo Tlacoyucan, the fire occurred on 3rd March, 2015, the wildfire duration 12 hours consuming 32 hectares of oak forest and the agricultural fire duration 6 hours consumed 16 hectares of corn. To evaluate the impact of air quality the WRF-Chem, WRF-Fire and METv3

  6. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botequilha-Leitão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues, city form—monocentric, polycentric, and diffused—is discussed. The hypothesis set forth is that cities can improve the pathway to sustainability by adopting intermediate, network urban forms such as polycentric urban systems (PUS under a broader vision (as compared to the current paradigm, to make way to urban ecological regions. It discusses how both the principles of SLP and those emergent ideas can contribute to integrate PUS with their functional hinterland, adopting an ecosystemic viewpoint of cities. It proposes to redirect the current dominant economic focus of PUS to include all of the other functions that are essential to urbanites, such as production (including the 3Rs, recreation, and ecology in a balanced way. Landscape ecology principles are combined with complexity science in order to deal with uncertainty to improve regional systems’ resilience. Cooperation in its multiple forms is seen as a fundamental social, but also economic process contributing to the urban network functioning, including its evolving capabilities for self-organization and adaptation.

  7. Solution spaces for decision-making-a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sound development of city-regions presents a major planning challenge, as these regions are and will be the living spaces for the majority of the population. Therefore, a key question is how city-regions can be managed so that they develop in a sustainable way. Although Environmental Impact Assessment, Integrated Assessment, and other currently used approaches provide significant inputs for managing transition-processes towards sustainability, they must be extended to respond to three major deficiencies, which are (i) using lists of isolated indicators (ii) not performing a consistency analysis of the targets to be achieved, and (iii) not utilizing the potential of transdisciplinary approaches. The authors present an approach to constructing Sustainability Solution Spaces for Decision-Making (SSP). This approach fulfils the systemic, normative, and procedural requirements of an appropriate sustainability assessment as elaborated in the technical literature. It provides a consistent set of targets considering the systemic relations among the indicators representing the city-region. This gives the decision-makers a concise guideline for sustainable decisions and makes them aware of the synergistic and contradictory effects of their decisions. The modular tool is first depicted as a general procedure and later differentiated into two transdisciplinary approaches, a participatory and an expert approach

  8. The Role of Development Agencies in Touristic Branding of Cities, A Document Analysis on Regional Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah ÖZKUL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research is to determine the role of development agencies in which the branding of cities in the region. At research, the role of development agencies; identification of unknown tourist values, determination and improving of deficiencies, opportunities, were investigated in accordance with the agency's goals and objectives. To achieve this goal used in document analysis from qualitative research methods and Regional Plans were investigated which was published by the Development Agencies. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis, in the case of some unidentified concepts by going in-depth content analysis. Despite all the advantages of having Turkey, made enough promotion of national and international level many regions in Turkey and so the tourism industry has led to overshadowed by the industrial and agricultural sectors. For this reason, development agencies determining the values of regional tourism have undertaken to task of changing perceptions of tourist consumers with their targeted projects on behalf of perform the city branding. Thus, was concluded that cities could become a center of attraction and the brand both investors and visitors.

  9. Multi-Gas analysis of ambient air using FTIR spectroscopy over Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Michel [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to analyze the composition of ambient air at a specific site in Mexico City metropolitan area. A continuous flow of air was passed through a multi-pass cell and the absorption spectra were collected over a period of two weeks. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of the classical-least square (CLS) method using synthetically generated spectra as references and calibration sources. Ambient levels of CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are reported with a time resolution of five minutes for September 2001, showing interesting results in their diurnal patterns. Comments on the precision, detection limits and signal to noise of the instrument are included for the evaluation of this technique. Water concentrations were estimated and compared with those obtained with a relative humidity sensor. The technique of extractive FTIR for ambient trace gas monitoring was utilized in Mexico for the fist time and some potential applications are given. [Spanish] Se utilizo un espectrometro en el infrarrojo por transformadas de Fourier (FTIR) para analizar la composicion de aire ambiente en un sitio de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de Mexico. Para ello se introdujo un flujo constante de aire a una celda de gases de paso multiple y se colectaron los espectros durante un periodo de dos semanas. Para el analisis cuantitativo, se aplico el metodo clasico de minimos cuadrados (CLS) utilizando espectros sinteticos como referencias y fuentes de calibracion. Se observaron patrones interesantes en los niveles ambientales de CO, CO{sup 2}, CH{sub 4} y N{sub 2}O, los cuales son reportados con una resolucion temporal de cinco minutos para el mes de septiembre del 2001. En la evaluacion de esta tecnica se incluyen comentarios sobre la precision, los limites de deteccion, asi como de la relacion senal/ruido del instrumento. Se estimaron concentraciones de vapor de agua a traves de sus absorciones en el infrarrojo y se

  10. DNA-adduct formation in lungs, nasal mucosa, and livers of rats exposed to urban roadside air in Kawasaki City, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potency of ambient air for DNA-adduct formation was estimated using Wistar rats. The animals were maintained in a small-animal facility located beside a main highway intersection in Kawasaki City, Japan, for up to 60 weeks and were exposed to roadside air contaminated mainly with automobile emission (exposure group, EG) or to clean air (control group, CG). Compared to CG, the relative adduct levels (RAL) were increased significantly in EG lungs (17.1-fold (P<0.05)), nasal mucosa, and livers after exposure for 4 weeks. However, there were no significant differences in RAL between EG and CG after exposure for 12 weeks, but they were elevated again in EG after exposure for 48 or 60 weeks. These results suggest that roadside air in this region can cause the generation of DNA adducts. This activity of ambient roadside air can be estimated using experimental animals, indicating that biological monitoring of DNA-adduct formation may be a powerful tool to assess the effect of ambient air on human health

  11. Workshop on future needs for regional air pollution strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compiles the outcome of a workshop on future scientific and policy needs within the area of transboundary air pollution in Europe and North America. The workshop was held in Saltsjoebaden 10-12 April 2000 and organised in collaboration with the UN ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution and the European Commission DG Environment. The workshop was held in the view of the recently signed protocol for the control of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia (Gothenburg Protocol, December 1999). Representatives of most subsidy bodies of the UN ECE CLRTAP were participating. The European Union and WMO were also represented. The workshop focused on regional environmental and health problems related to emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia. It was held to identify the future measures needed after the recently signed Gothenburg Protocol and the proposal for an EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. These agreements will reduce the emission in Europe substantially. However, additional extensive control measures are necessary in order to reach the environmental goals in terms of critical loads etc. in all Europe. It is expected that revisions of the Gothenburg protocol as well as the EU directive will take place in abouth 5 years time. The next few years will therefore offer the possibility for improvement of the scientific knowledge in order to support future policy work. This is also the aim of the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme of the European Commission which is planned to commence early in 2001. (EHS)

  12. Statistical persistence of air pollutants (O3,SO2,NO2 and PM10) in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Femat, R.; Echeverria, J. C.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2015-06-01

    The rescaled range (R / S) analysis was used for analyzing the statistical persistence of air pollutants in Mexico City. The air-pollution time series consisted of hourly observations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter obtained at the Mexico City downtown monitoring station during 1999-2014. The results showed that long-range persistence is not a uniform property over a wide range of time scales, from days to months. In fact, although the air pollutant concentrations exhibit an average persistent behavior, environmental (e.g., daily and yearly) and socio-economic (e.g., daily and weekly) cycles are reflected in the dependence of the persistence strength as quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent. It was also found that the Hurst exponent exhibits time variations, with the ozone and nitrate oxide concentrations presenting some regularity, such as annual cycles. The persistence dynamics of the pollutant concentrations increased during the rainy season and decreased during the dry season. The time and scale dependences of the persistence properties provide some insights in the mechanisms involved in the internal dynamics of the Mexico City atmosphere for accumulating and dissipating dangerous air pollutants. While in the short-term individual pollutants dynamics seems to be governed by specific mechanisms, in the long-term (for monthly and higher scales) meteorological and seasonal mechanisms involved in atmospheric recirculation seem to dominate the dynamics of all air pollutant concentrations.

  13. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Amelija; Ristić Goran; Živković Nenad; Todorović Branimir; Hristov Slađan; Milošević Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution). The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10) and carbon monoxide (CO) and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the in...

  14. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC air pollutants and lung function measures across subjects. There were significant interaction terms indicating gender differences for lung function impairment and pulmonary function from exposure to some pollutants (P air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  15. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  16. Residential environmental evaluation of local cities considering regional characteristic and personal residential preference-a case study of Saga City,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire surveys and subjective evaluations on residential environment were performed in order to grasp the main factors of residential environment of small local cities. The suitable evaluation index system was established, and the regional residential environment characteristics and personal residential preference types were analyzed, so that their influence on residential environment evaluation could be grasped. The results can be applied to the residential environment planning, construction and monitoring of local cities.

  17. Evaluation Clean Air Effects on Tehran City Residential Houses Price in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour Sabbagi M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundsandObjectives: Environmental activitiesunknownprice and value caused establishing of some unique characteristics for mentioned commodities. One of these characteristics was existing gap between private and social cost and benefit. For assessing these activities different approaches include travel cost, willingness to pay and hedonic price had been suggested. According to Tehran's air pollution problem, in this study Hedonic approach had was used for the assessment of healthy air on Tehran's residential house price.Materials and Method : Hedonic approach is one of the methods that are used for evolution environmental goods. In this method, each good's price is estimated as a functions of that good`s properties. To gather this study information 300 questionnaires has been collected by random sampling from different area of Tehran.Result: Results revealed that activities in order to reduce air pollutions, in addition to environmental value have economical value form the point of view of consumers. Also, results show that willingness to pay of every Tehran's citizens for every square meter of house located in region with less pollution is between 1120 to 1350 thousands Rials.Conclusion: According to the obtained results can be said that, clean air as an environmental good from the viewpoint of consumers has economic value that can be calculated this value using methods such as Hedonic.

  18. Patterns of sustainable mobility and the structure of modality in the Randstad city-region

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Gil, J.A.; Read, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable mobility vision for city-regions proposes a more integrated and ‘seamless’ multi-modal public transport system around quality neighborhoods, shifting mobility to soft transportation modes and to public transport at various scales. Existing models of sustainable urban form address this challenge focusing on the location, density and diversity of activities, on the composition of the street layout, and on the presence of transport nodes and the quality of the public transport se...

  19. Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-07-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  20. Study of statistically correcting model CMAQ-MOS for forecasting regional air quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jianming; HE Jinhai; YANG Yuanqin; WANG Jiahe; XU Xiangde; LIU Yu; DING Guoan; CHEN Huailiang; HU Jiangkai; ZHANG Jianchun; WU Hao; LI Weiliang

    2005-01-01

    Based on analysis of the air pollution observational data at 8 observation sites in Beijing including outer suburbs during the period from September 2004 to March 2005, this paper reveals synchronal and in-phase characteristics in the spatial and temporal variation of air pollutants on a city-proper scale at deferent sites; describes seasonal differences of the pollutant emission influence between the heating and non-heating periods, also significantly local differences of the pollutant emission influence between the urban district and outer suburbs, i.e. the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutant is closely related with that of the pollutant emission intensity. This study shows that due to complexity of the spatial and temporal distribution of pollution emission sources, the new generation Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed by the EPA of USA produced forecasts, as other models did, with a systematic error of significantly lower than observations, albeit the model has better capability than previous models had in predicting the spatial distribution and variation tendency of multi-sort pollutants. The reason might be that the CMAQ adopts average amount of pollutant emission inventory, so that the model is difficult to objectively and finely describe the distribution and variation of pollution emission sources intensity on different spatial and temporal scales in the areas, in which the pollution is to be forecast. In order to correct the systematic prediction error resulting from the average pollutant emission inventory in CMAQ, this study proposes a new way of combining dynamics and statistics and establishes a statistically correcting model CMAQ-MOS for forecasts of regional air quality by utilizing the relationship of CMAQ outputs with corresponding observations, and tests the forecast capability. The investigation of experiments presents that CMAQ-MOS reduces the systematic errors of CMAQ because of the uncertainty of pollution

  1. Air Quality Bioindicator Using the Population of Epiphytic Macrolichens in Bogor City, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about lichens and pollution in South-East Asia are restricted because the lichens are poorly known. A research project about air quality bioindicator using epiphytic macrolichens in Bogor City was conducted from March 2012 until July 2013. Purposive sampling method was applied in 3 plots: plot 1 was in the centre of Bogor Botanical Garden (BBG that far from busy roads, plot 2 was in a part of BBG adjacent to main and busy roads, and plot 3 was along busy roads and near a factory. In each plot, macrolichens were observed in 8 canary trees using 2 mini quadrats (32 x 20 cm2. The population conditions of epiphytic macrolichens were analyzed and to be used as bioindicator of air quality. Seven genera of macrolichens were found: Coccocarpia, Leptogium, Canoparmelia, Parmotrema, Dirinaria, Physcia, and Pyxine. Plot 1 was having Coccocarpia and Leptogium that were not found in other plots and therefore they can be used as sensitive bioindicators, none of Canoparmelia and Pyxine, a few and infrequent Dirinaria but with larger average coverage (AC = 6.15 cm2, and Physcia was found abundantly (sensitive bioindicator. Conversely, plot 2 and 3 were having none of Coccocarpia and Leptogium, few or many Canoparmelia and Pyxine and therefore appeared to be tolerant, many and frequent Dirinaria but with smaller AC (plot 2 = 2.85 cm2, plot 3 = 1.16 cm2, and few or none of Physcia was found. Being found in all plots, Dirinaria showed a clear pattern of increasing thallus number and decreasing AC from plot 1 to plot 3, so it can be used as tolerant bioindicator. Conversely, Parmotrema had unclear pattern of population condition. Similar researches on different trees are necessary to explore more details regarding epiphytic macrolichens population condition.

  2. Review of the efficacy of low emission zones to improve urban air quality in European cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Claire; Harrison, Roy; Querol, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    Many cities still exceed the European Union (EU) air quality limit values for particulate matter (PM10, particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) and/or nitrogen dioxide (NO2). In an attempt to reduce emissions approximately 200 low emission zones (LEZs) have been established in 12 EU countries. These restrict the entry of vehicles based on the emission standard the vehicles were originally constructed to meet, but the restrictions vary considerably. This paper reviews the evidence on the efficacy of LEZs to improve urban air quality in five EU countries (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and UK), and concludes that there have been mixed results. There is some evidence from ambient measurements that LEZs in Germany, which restrict passenger cars as well as heavy duty vehicles (HDVs), have reduced long term average PM10 and NO2 concentrations by a few percent. Elsewhere, where restrictions are limited to HDVs, the picture is much less clear. This may be due to the large number of confounding factors. On the other hand there is some, albeit limited, evidence that LEZs may result in larger reductions in concentrations of carbonaceous particles, due to traffic making a larger contribution to ambient concentrations of these particles than to PM10 and PM2.5. The effects of day to day variations in meteorology on concentrations often mask more subtle effects of a LEZ. In addition, separating the direct effects of a LEZ from the effects of other policy measures, the economy and the normal renewal of the vehicle fleet is not easy, and may give rise to false results.

  3. Rapid fluctuations of the air and surface temperature in the city of Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Sorin; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Hustiu, Mihaita-Cristinel

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas derive significant changes of the ambient temperature generating specific challenges for society and infrastructure. Extreme temperature events, heat and cold waves affect the human comfort, increase the health risk, and require specific building regulations and emergency preparedness, strongly related to the magnitude and frequency of the thermal hazards. Rapid changes of the temperature put a particular stress for the urban settlements, and the topic has been approached constantly in the scientific literature. Due to its geographical position in a plain area with a temperate climate and noticeable continental influence, the city of Bucharest (Romania) deals with high seasonal and daily temperature variations. However, rapid fluctuations also occur at sub-daily scale caused by cold or warm air advections or by very local effects (e.g. radiative heat exchange, local precipitation). For example, in the area of Bucharest, the cold fronts of the warm season may trigger temperature decreasing up to 10-15 centigrades / hour, while warm advections lead to increasing of 1-2 centigrades / hour. This study focuses on the hourly and sub-hourly temperature variations over the period November 2014 - February 2016, using air temperature data collected from urban sensors and meteorological stations of the national network, and land surface temperature data obtained from satellite remote sensing. The analysis returns different statistics, such as magnitude, intensity, frequency, simultaneous occurrence and areal coverage of the rapid temperature fluctuations. Furthermore, the generating factors for each case study are assessed, and the results are used to define some preliminary patterns and enhance the urban temperature forecast at fine scale. The study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  4. The development of the urban system and the hierarchy of cities in newly opened regions: Hokkaido, Japan and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoji Teraya

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the pattern and process of distribution of cities in the newly opened regions by tracing the historical changes of the urban system in Hokkaido, Japan and in the Republic of South Africa. The history of colonization is not so long in the newly opened regions. This means that we can study the genesis and development process of cities from the beginning of colonization. These frontier cities often have the gateway func-tion influencing over the wide surrounding region...

  5. 76 FR 29647 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... 400 yards south of the shoreline of Morehead City. (b) Definition: For the purposes of this section..., Morehead City, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... held over the waters of Bogue Sound, adjacent to Morehead City, North Carolina. This Safety Zone...

  6. Long-term ambient air pollution and lung function impairment in Chinese children from a high air pollution range area: The Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Vivian, Elaina; Mohammed, Kahee A.; Jakhar, Shailja; Vaughn, Michael; Huang, Jin; Zelicoff, Alan; Xaverius, Pamela; Bai, Zhipeng; Lin, Shao; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Paul, Gunther; Morawska, Lidia; Wang, Si-Quan; Qian, Zhengmin; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent and inconclusive associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung function in children from Europe and America, where air pollution levels were typically low. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between air pollutants and lung function in children selected from heavily industrialized and polluted cities in northeastern China. During 2012, 6740 boys and girls aged 7-14 years were recruited in 24 districts of seven northeastern cities. Portable electronic spirometers were used to measure lung function. Four-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were measured at monitoring stations in the 24 districts. Two-staged regression models were used in the data analysis, controlling for covariates. Overall, for all subjects, the increased odds of lung function impairment associated with exposure to air pollutants, ranged from 5% (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01, 1.10) for FVC ambient air pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and lung function impairment, and females appear to be more susceptible than males.

  7. An amalgamation of 3D city models in urban air quality modelling for improving visual impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, U.; Anton, F.; Ariffin, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas is predomina......,engineers and policy makers to design the street geometry (building height and width, green areas, pedestrian walks, roads width, etc.).......Geographical Information Systems (GISs) can be seen as a common tool to map and visualize the air quality index based on geographical locations. However, in urban areas, the area resolution for air quality models is less than 2 kilometres.Since the main emissions agent in urban areas is...... physical data input. The Level of Details (LoD) in 3D city models (i.e. LoD1 and LoD2) ascertains the potentials of implementing air quality modelling for urban areas. Therefore, this research is focused towards investigating the integration of 3D city models in air quality modelling for urban areas. The...

  8. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only contributing significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also enhancing the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early morning, culminates at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  9. 2D mapping by Kohonen networks of the air quality data from a large city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Neva; Zupan, Jure; Reich, Silvia; Dawidowski, Laura; Gomez, Darío; Magallanes, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The 15-variable environmental data (7 concentrations: CO, SO2, O3, NOx, NO, NO2, particulate matter smaller than 10 micron (PM10), and 8 weather data: cloudiness, rainfall, insolation factor (Isfi), temperature, pressure at two locations, and wind intensity with direction) in a period of 45 days with 1-h intervals were extracted from a larger database of concentrations recorded in minute intervals for the same time period. The monitoring site was located in the City of Buenos Aires in a relatively heavy traffic crossroad of two avenues. The data required special pretreatment where the hourly content of rain, wind intensity, wind velocity, and cloudiness were concerned. The new variable named insolation factor (relative UV radiation) calculated on the basis of the general meteorological data, the geographic position of the monitoring site, cloudiness, date, and the time of the recording was composed. The relative intensity of UV radiation was modeled by a Gaussian function, multiplied by a cloudiness factor. Based on the 14-variable input and the 1-variable output (ozone) data, first, the clustering of all 980 data records was made. The top map clustering showing the ozone concentration was related to the maps of all 14 variables. The link between O3 clusters, NO2, and Isfi weight levels is shown and discussed. As a preliminary result of this study some of the most interesting correlations between the maps and remaining variables are given. PMID:15032509

  10. Improving the City environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All around the world cities are under severe environmental pressure. Water supplies, traffic congestion, air pollution, noise and waste disposal cause very similar problems in cities that are otherwise quite diverse. And attempts to improve conditions usually run into a range of difficulties. Indeed, environmental problems often persist for years before governments -national, regional and local- make any major effort to address them. 6 refs

  11. Complex sources of air-soil-water pollution processes in the Miyun reservoir region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Dongzhen; XU; Xiangde; LIU; Xiaoduan; XU; Qing; DING

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive impact of atmospheric dry deposition and wet deposition and the pollution sources of farmlands, mining areas, and towns along the Baihe River on the water quality of Miyun reservoir is investigated from the angle of the complex sources of air-soil-water pollution processes, in the context of the 1990-2001 precipitation chemical data at Shangdianzi station--a WMO regional background air pollution monitoring station 15 km far from the Miyun reservoir, in conjunction with the atmospheric dry deposition and wet deposition data of the 2002-2003 Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX). Analysis results suggest that the major ions in precipitation in the Miyun reservoir region in this period were SO, NO, NH and Ca2+; wet acid deposition quantity of Miyun reservoir in the summer half year (April to September) was greater than the quantity in the winter half year (October to March), and the annual wet acid deposition in the reservoir exhibited a rising trend with the mean 1038.45 t, the maximum 1766.31 t occurred in 1996, and the minimum 604.02 t in 1994; the long-term averaged pH of atmospheric precipitation in the Miyun reservoir region was 5.20, i.e. weakly acidic, and the interannual variation of pH values displayed a falling trend. pH values of water body at various depths in the Miyun reservoir were all greater than 7.0, but they exhibited vertical and horizontal nonhomogeneity, and at the same region pH decreased vertically with depth; the 2002 and 2003 annual dustfalls in the Miyun reservoir were 13513.08 t and 3577.64 t, respectively, and the spring dustfall was the number one in a year, accounting for the 61.91% and 44.56% of the annual totals of 2002 and 2003, respectively. Because the atmospheric dry deposition and wet depositions contain multiple types heavy metal elements and harmful elements, they to some extent exacerbated the eutrophication, acidification and potential heavy metal pollution of the reservoir water

  12. Selecting alternative industries for Chinese resource cities based on intra- and inter-regional comparative advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a method for choosing alternative industries for resource-based cities that are confronted with resource depletion and have to restructure their industries for future development. The method integrates intra- and inter-regional comparative advantages in a two-dimensional matrix model. We applied this method in an empirical study of Jiaozuo city, China and found that the size of the pool of alternative industries depends on the strictness of the selection criteria. - Highlights: ► Alternative industries should have intraregional and interregional comparative advantages. ► An indicator system is built to evaluate intraregional comparative advantage. ► A comparative advantage matrix is set up to select alternative industries

  13. Analysis of Leading Cities in Central Europe: Control of Regional Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Csomós György (1974-) (geográfus)

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the characteristic orientations in social science studies focusing on cities is the ranking of cities, as well as the definition of the world's leading cities (world cities, global cities) on the basis of various criteria. Central European countries are given just a minor role in these researches, particularly in comparison with German cities with their considerable economic performance. This analysis compares the large cities of Austria, Germany and the countries of the Vise...

  14. Oscillations, trends and anomalies in rainfall and air temperature in the principal cities in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villazon, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    Rainfall and temperature can be extremely variable in space and time especially in mountainous environment. The determination of climate variability and climate change needs a special assessment for water management. Increase our knowledge of the main climate trends in the region toward higher quality future climate determination is required. This research examines the anomalies of observed monthly rainfall and temperature data from 4 stations located in the principal cities in Bolivia (see Table below). Trends and anomalies in quantiles were determined for each station for monthly and 6-month seasonal block periods (wet period and dry period). The results suggest the presence of cycles rather than unidirectional trends. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) gives an indication of the development and intensity of El Niño or La Niña events in the Pacific Ocean. After determination of the anomalies for each of the stations, in both monthly rainfall and average temperature, together with the confidence intervals, comparison is made with the anomalies calculated in a similar way with data corresponding to the SOI. Comparison in cycles, shape and correlation has been performed between the anomalies from the observation data and the anomalies from the SOI with different time delay. The aim of this comparison is to identify the external influences of the anomalies in rainfall and temperature (Tele-connections). Influences have been identified during cycles of El Niño in the Andean zones La Paz, El Alto and Cochabamba dry cycles occur and in the most Amazonian side, Santa Cruz city, wet cycle is observed. This relation is opposite in La Niña periods.Meteorological stations under study;

  15. Monitoring of Regional Land Surface Temperature in city by Wireless Sensing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, H.; Jin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important environmental factor. The precise monitoring data of LST can provide crucial support for further ecological researches such as the environment change and urban heat island. The Wireless Sensing Network (WSN) is a kind of modern information technology which integrates sensor technology, automatic control technology with data network transmission, storage, processing and analysis technology. As a new kind of data collection method, WSN is innovatively applied to monitor regional LST in different land cover types of city in this study. The LST data with high temporal resolution is obtained from temperature sensors of WSN. The land cover types of city are extracted from WorldView-II image with high resolution. The Southeast University Wuxi Branch campus and its surroundings which covers 2 km2 is chosen as the study area in Wuxi city, Jiangsu province, China. WSN is established to continuously monitor LST in real-time for one week. Then, the heterogeneous pattern of LST is investigated at a fine spatial and temporal scale based on different land cover types. The result shows LST of streets is higher than LST of campus in the daytime, but lower than LST of campus at night. The spatial heterogeneity of LST in the campus is not significant. This is because the number of vehicle was larger in the daytime than that at night, while the population of campus in day and night almost having little change. Notably, the influence of plant activities (e.g. photosynthesis and respiration) on LST can be detected by WSN. This study is a new attempt to monitor regional environment of city by WSN technology. Moreover, compared to traditional methods, WSN technology can improve the detection of LST with finer temporal and spatial resolution.

  16. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NOx, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM10) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH4, N2O and CO2), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NOx and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  17. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006 in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem. We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3 while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10 in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA with values up to 600 μg m−3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA concentration slightly

  18. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2014-05-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled the largest fire-induced haze episode in the past decade (2006) in Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused mainly on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city-state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and CO concentrations. Two simulations were run with the model using the complex Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic, and b iomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent datasets for comparison including airborne measurements of Particulate Matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) column observations from 4 satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement of the model runs with both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration slightly increased. The

  19. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  20. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities. Results from the APHEA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.R. [St. George`s Hospital Medical School, Dept. of Public Health Sciences, London (United Kingdom); Spix, C. [GSF - National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. for Epidemiology, Neuherberg (Germany); Medina, S. [Observatoire Regional de la Sante, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city`s regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 {mu}g x m{sup -3} increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. (au) 42 refs.

  1. Aerosol analysis for the regional air pollution study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and operation of an aerosol sampling and analysis program implemented during the 1975 to 1977 St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study is described. A network of ten samplers were operated at selected sites in the St. Louis area and the total mass and elemental composition of the collected particulates were determined. Sampling periods of 2 to 24 hours were employed. The samplers were capable of collecting aerosol particles in two distinct size ranges corresponding to fine ( 2.4 μm diameter) particles. This unique feature allowed the separation of the particulate samples into two distinct fractions with differing chemical origins and health effects. The analysis methods were also newly developed for use in the St. Louis RAPS study. Total particulate mass was measured by a beta-particle attenuation method in which a precision of +- 5 μm/cm2 could be obtained in a one minute measurement time. Elemental compositions of the samples were determined using an energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence method in which detectable limits of 5 ng/cm2 or less were routinely achieved for elements ranging in atomic number from Al to Pb. The advantages of these analytical methods over more conventional techniques arise from the ability to automate the measurements. During the course of the two year study, a total of more than 35,000 individual samples were processed and a total of 28 concentrations measured for each sample

  2. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic heat (AH emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and the diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for two typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m−2 respectively, with the high values of 113.5 W m−2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the planetary boundary layer height rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s−1 in January and 0.5 m s−1 in July, with higher increment at night. And the enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease of water vapor at the ground level and the increase in the upper PBL, and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15–30 % over the megacities in July. The adding AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases of PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum changes

  3. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M.; Liao, J.; Wang, T.; Zhu, K.; Zhuang, B.; Han, Y.; Li, M.; Li, S.

    2015-11-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and the diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for two typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m-2 respectively, with the high values of 113.5 W m-2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the planetary boundary layer height rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s-1 in January and 0.5 m s-1 in July, with higher increment at night. And the enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease of water vapor at the ground level and the increase in the upper PBL, and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15-30 % over the megacities in July. The adding AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases of PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum changes of 2.5 ppb in January and 4

  4. Development of territorial marketing complex for industrial cities of old industrial regions social and economic potential increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Dubnitsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Role of territorial marketing in the innovation development process and in the improving of important components of social and economic potential possibilities efficiency of industrial cities regional economic complex is discovered in this article.

  5. Determination of Total Suspended Particulate Matter and Heavy Metals in Ambient Air of Four Cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Awan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Total suspended particulates (TSPs in ambient air of four cities of Pakistan were collected using a high volume sampling technique for subsequent heavy metal analysis. The sampling was conducted for 24hours and the concentration of TSPs ranged 568-2074, 1191-3976, 1133-4400 and 112-280 μg/m3 for Islamabad, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Bahwalnagar, respectively. The level of TSP contamination was very high in ambient air of two big industrial cities, Gujranwala and Faisalabad. TSPs were also analyzed for Cd, Pb and Zn using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following digestion using a mixture of analytical grade nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Compared to other metals, concentration of Cd was slightly high (around 325 ng/m3 in the samples of Gujranwala and Faisalabad. Overall, the order of metal concentrations were Cd > Pb > Zn.

  6. Downscaling a global climate model to simulate climate change over the US and the implication on regional and urban air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trail

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can exacerbate future regional air pollution events by making conditions more favorable to form high levels of ozone. In this study, we use spectral nudging with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model to downscale NASA earth system GISS modelE2 results during the years 2006 to 2010 and 2048 to 2052 over the contiguous United States in order to compare the resulting meteorological fields from the air quality perspective during the four seasons of five-year historic and future climatological periods. GISS results are used as initial and boundary conditions by the WRF regional climate model (RCM to produce hourly meteorological fields. The downscaling technique and choice of physics parameterizations used are evaluated by comparing them with in situ observations. This study investigates changes of similar regional climate conditions down to a 12 km by 12 km resolution, as well as the effect of evolving climate conditions on the air quality at major US cities. The high-resolution simulations produce somewhat different results than the coarse-resolution simulations in some regions. Also, through the analysis of the meteorological variables that most strongly influence air quality, we find consistent changes in regional climate that would enhance ozone levels in four regions of the US during fall (western US, Texas, northeastern, and southeastern US, one region during summer (Texas, and one region where changes potentially would lead to better air quality during spring (Northeast. Changes in regional climate that would enhance ozone levels are increased temperatures and stagnation along with decreased precipitation and ventilation. We also find that daily peak temperatures tend to increase in most major cities in the US, which would increase the risk of health problems associated with heat stress. Future work will address a more comprehensive assessment of emissions and chemistry involved in the formation and removal of air

  7. Measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons in Taipei city and their impact on ozone formation in relation to air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Sree, Usha; Chiu, Konghwa; Lo, Jiunn-Guang

    2006-08-18

    Air pollutants data from semi-continuous measurements at multiple sampling sites in Taipei metropolitan area of Taiwan was obtained by collecting air samples in canisters. The hydrocarbon composition was determined by using GC/MS and GC/FID. The air samples were pre-concentrated onto glass beads prior to separation by PLOT and DB-1 columns of GC. The method showed detection limit of NO2 were measured by UV-differential optical absorption spectroscopy (UV-DOAS), and were utilized to determine the relative importance of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and significant contribution of NO2 in limiting ozone formation. The obtained results suggest that ozone formation in Taipei city is probably limited by the supply of non-methane hydrocarbons. The concentration profile of targeted pollutants was compared to other metropolitan areas to determine air quality and the pollutant sources. PMID:17723619

  8. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  9. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN from fresh and aged air pollution in the megacity region of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gunthe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. CCN properties were measured and characterized during the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign at a regional site south of the megacity of Beijing, China. Size-resolved CCN efficiency spectra recorded for a supersaturation range of S = 0.07% to 0.86% yielded average activation diameters in the range of 190 nm to 45 nm. The corresponding effective hygroscopicity parameters (κ exhibited a strong size dependence ranging from ~0.25 in the Aitken size range to ~0.45 in the accumulation size range. The campaign average value (κ = 0.3 ± 0.1 was similar to the values observed and modeled for other populated continental regions.

    The hygroscopicity parameters derived from the CCN measurements were consistent with chemical composition data recorded by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and thermo-optical measurements of apparent elemental and organic carbon (ECa and OC. The CCN hygroscopicity and its size dependence could be parameterized as a function of AMS based organic and inorganic mass fractions using the simple mixing rule κ p ≈ 0.1 · forg + 0.7 · finorg.

    When the measured air masses originated from the north and passed rapidly over the center of Beijing (fresh city pollution, the average particle hygroscopicity was reduced (κ = 0.2 ± 0.1, which is consistent with enhanced mass fractions of organic compounds (~50% and ECa (~30% in the fine particulate matter (PM1. Moreover, substantial fractions of externally mixed weakly CCN-active particles were observed at low supersaturation (S = 0.07%, which can be explained by the presence of freshly emitted soot particles with very low hygroscopicity (κ<0.1. Particles in stagnant air from the industrialized region south of Beijing (aged

  10. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN from fresh and aged air pollution in the megacity region of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gunthe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. CCN properties were measured and characterized during the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign at a regional site south of the megacity of Beijing, China. Size-resolved CCN efficiency spectra recorded for a supersaturation range of S=0.07% to 0.86% yielded average activation diameters in the range of 190 nm to 45 nm. The corresponding effective hygroscopicity parameters (κ exhibited a strong size dependence ranging from ~0.25 in the Aitken size range to ~0.45 in the accumulation size range. The campaign average value (κ =0.3 ± 0.1 was similar to the values observed and modeled for other populated continental regions.

    The hygroscopicity parameters derived from the CCN measurements were consistent with chemical composition data recorded by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and thermo-optical measurements of apparent elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC. The CCN hygroscopicity and its size dependence could be parameterized as a function of only AMS based organic and inorganic mass fractions (forg, finorg using the simple mixing rule κp ≈ 0.1 · forg + 0.7 · finorg.

    When the measured air masses originated from the north and passed rapidly over the center of Beijing (fresh city pollution, the average particle hygroscopicity was reduced (κ = 0.2 ± 0.1, which is consistent with enhanced mass fractions of organic compounds (~50% and EC (~30% in the fine particulate matter (PM1. Moreover, substantial fractions of externally mixed weakly CCN-active particles were observed at low supersaturation (S=0.07%, which can be explained by the presence of freshly emitted soot particles with very low hygroscopicity (κ < 0.1. Particles in stagnant air from the industrialized region south of Beijing (aged regional

  11. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from belt roads, bypass roads and pedestrian areas situated in city centers is noted.

  12. A Systems Dynamics Approach to Explore Traffic Congestion and Air Pollution Link in the City of Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex A. N. M. Pappoe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and urbanization poses myriad challenges to transportation systems in relation to negative externalities such as traffic congestion and environmental health risks. Accra, the capital of Ghana, faces mounting urban planning problems, for example traffic congestion, air pollution, traffic safety, and land use planning, among others. The paper aims to provide a system dynamics perspective of the problems. Most of the drivers and cause-effect relationships of traffic congestion and its attendant air pollution are investigated and analyzed using causal loop diagrams. The paper further suggests mechanisms by which the negative externalities associated with road transport in the city of Accra can be addressed.

  13. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer. -- Air pollution has a greater influence on acute human mortality than weather type, with significant differences in risk from exposure to gaseous air pollution based on cause of death

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Air Pollutants and Inversion in the ABL over the City of Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; LI Hongyu

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the pollutant concentrations over the urban area and over the rural area of the city of Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, the relationships between the daytime inversion intensity and the pollutant concentration in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are studied with the consideration of wind speed and direction, potential temperature, specific humidity profiles, pollutant concentration in the ABL, the surface temperature, and global radiation on the ground. It was shown that the daytime inversion is a key factor in controlling air pollution concentration. A clear and positive feedback process between the daytime inversion intensity and the air pollutants over the city was found through the analysis of influences of climatic and environmental factors. The mechanisms by which the terrain and air pollutants affect the formation of the daytime inversion are discussed. The solar radiation as the essential energy source to maintain the inversion is analyzed, as are various out-forcing factors affecting the inversion and air pollutants. At last, aphysical frame of relationships of air pollution with daytime inversion and the local and out-forcing factors over Lanzhou is built.

  15. The occurrence of fungi in the air of the monumental buildings in the city of Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mędela-Kuder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mycological examinations have been carried out in several rooms of the seven monumental architectural complexes situated in the old city of Kraków. The results of examinations have shown considerable pollution in the investigated rooms. Species, such as: Penicillium, Aspergillus and Aureobasidium, have been represented in the most numerous way. In general about thirty species of fungi have been isolated from the air and from the building dividing walls.

  16. Re-representing the city: waste and public space in Buenos Aires, Argentina in the late 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Parizeau

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a moment of shift in urban neoliberal governance strategies under the purview of a new municipal Chief of Government of Buenos Aires at the end of the 2000s: the introduction of a regime of public space that has had implications for the waste management sector (and particularly informal recyclers or cartoneros). I document government attempts to re-represent the city as a modern, hygienic centre that is receptive to investment and tourism, drawing on discursive framing...

  17. Distributed attraction: the effects of street network connectivity upon the distribution of retail frontage in the City of Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Martin D Scoppa; John Peponis

    2015-01-01

    The City of Buenos Aires has a radial street plan, regular blocks, and a clear central place. On the basis of an analysis of the city’s GIS database, we show that measures describing the syntax of its street network have a significant relationship with commercial frontage density, over and above the impact of central business district attraction. These results are obtained while controlling for the effects of population and employment density, distance from public transportation stations, and...

  18. A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Ma, Stefan; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2002-01-01

    The causal interpretation of reported associations between daily air pollution and daily admissions requires consideration of residual confounding, correlation between pollutants, and effect modification. If results obtained in Hong Kong and London--which differ in climate, lifestyle, and many other respects--were similar, a causal association would be supported. We used identical statistical methods for the analysis in each city. Associations between daily admissions and pollutant levels wer...

  19. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM10 emissions will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Under REF[0] emissions, compared to 2005, the surface concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  20. Projections of air pollutant emissions and its impacts on regional air quality in China in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants in China influence not only local and regional environments but also the global atmospheric environment; therefore, it is important to understand how China's air pollutant emissions will change and how they will affect regional air quality in the future. Emission scenarios in 2020 were projected using forecasts of energy consumption and emission control strategies based on emissions in 2005, and on recent development plans for key industries in China. We developed four emission scenarios: REF[0] (current control legislations and implementation status, PC[0] (improvement of energy efficiencies and current environmental legislation, PC[1] (improvement of energy efficiencies and better implementation of environmental legislation, and PC[2] (improvement of energy efficiencies and strict environmental legislation. Under the REF[0] scenario, the emission of SO2, NOx, VOC and NH3 will increase by 17%, 50%, 49% and 18% in 2020, while PM will be reduced by 10% over East China, compared to that in 2005. In PC[2], sustainable energy polices will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 4.1 Tg, 2.6 Tg and 1.8 Tg, respectively; better implementation of current control policies will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emission by 2.9 Tg, 1.8 Tg, and 1.4 Tg, respectively; strict emission standards will reduce SO2, NOx and PM10 emissions by 3.2 Tg, 3.9 Tg, and 1.7 Tg, respectively. Under the PC[2] scenario, SO2 and PM10 emissions will decrease by 18% and 38%, while NOx and VOC emissions will increase by 3% and 8%, compared to that in 2005. Future air quality in China was simulated using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ with 2005 emissions and 2020 emission scenarios. Under REF[0] emissions, the concentrations of SO2, NO2, hourly

  1. Air-quality measurements in mega-cities: Focus on gaseous organic and particulate pollutants and comparison between two contrasted cities, Paris and Beijing; Mesures de la qualite de l'air dans les megapoles: zoom sur les polluants organiques gazeux et particulaires et comparaison entre deux villes contrastees, Paris et Pekin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, V.; Sciare, J. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE/IPSL), Laboratoire CEA/CNRS/universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Yu, T. [Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Centre (BMEMC), Beijing, PR (China)

    2007-10-15

    The rapid and important development of large urban areas ('mega-cities'), especially in developing countries, causes and will cause serious air-quality problems. Pollutant measurements in these cities help to characterize the chemical nature and the quantity of these pollutants and to constrain air-quality models. This paper focuses on measurements of volatile organic compounds and aerosols that have an important impact on air quality. We present a brief review on existing measurements and experimental strategies in mega-cities and then we show results from recent measurement campaigns that took place in two contrasted mega-cities: Paris and Beijing. (authors)

  2. A new air quality modelling approach at the regional scale using lidar data assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assimilation of lidar observations for air quality modelling is investigated via the development of a new model, which assimilates ground-based lidar network measurements using optimal interpolation (OI) in a chemistry transport model. First, a tool for assimilating PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter lower than 10 μm) concentration measurements on the vertical is developed in the air quality modelling platform POLYPHEMUS. It is applied to western Europe for one month from 15 July to 15 August 2001 to investigate the potential impact of future ground-based lidar networks on analysis and short-term forecasts (the description of the future) of PM10. The efficiency of assimilating lidar network measurements is compared to the efficiency of assimilating concentration measurements from the AirBase ground network, which includes about 500 stations in western Europe. A sensitivity study on the number and location of required lidars is also performed to help define an optimal lidar network for PM10 forecasts. Secondly, a new model for simulating normalised lidar signals (PR2) is developed and integrated in POLYPHEMUS. Simulated lidar signals are compared to hourly ground-based mobile and in-situ lidar observations performed during the MEGAPOLI (Mega-cities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) summer experiment in July 2009. It is found that the model correctly reproduces the vertical distribution of aerosol optical properties and their temporal variability. Additionally, two new algorithms for assimilating lidar signals are presented and evaluated during MEGAPOLI. The aerosol simulations without and with lidar data assimilation are evaluated using the AIRPARIF (a regional operational network in charge of air quality survey around the Paris area) database to demonstrate the feasibility and the usefulness of assimilating lidar profiles for aerosol forecasts. Finally

  3. Air temperature field distribution estimations over a Chinese mega-city using MODIS land surface temperature data: the case of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weichun MA; Liguo ZHOU; Hao ZHANG; Yan ZHANG; Xiaoyan DAI

    2016-01-01

    The capability of obtaining spatially distributed air temperature data from remote sensing measurements is an improvement for many environmental applications focused on urban heat island,carbon emissions,climate change,etc.This paper is based on the MODIS/Terra and Aqua data utilized to study the effect of the urban atmospheric heat island in Shanghai,China.The correlation between retrieved MODIS land surface temperature (LST) and air temperature measured at local weather stations was initially studied at different temporal and spatial scales.Secondly,the air temperature data with spatial resolutions of 250 m and 1 km were estimated from MODIS LST data and in-situ measured air temperature.The results showed that there is a slightly higher correlation between air temperature and MODIS LST at a 250 m resolution in spring and autumn on an annual scale than observed at a 1 km resolution.Although the distribution pattern of the air temperature thermal field varies in different seasons,the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai is characterized by a distribution pattern of multiple centers,with the central urban area as the primary center and the built-up regions in each district as the subcenters.This study demonstrates the potential not only for estimating the distribution of the air temperature thermal field from MODIS LST with 250 m resolution in spring and autumn in Shanghai,but also for providing scientific and effective methods for monitoring and studying UHI effect in a Chinese mega-city such as Shanghai.

  4. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  5. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  6. Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an emission inventory for major anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region for the year 2007. A "bottom-up" methodology was adopted to compile the inventory based on major emission sources in the sixteen cities of this region. Results show that the emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 in the YRD region for the year 2007 are 2392 kt, 2293 kt, 6697 kt, 3116 kt, 1511 kt, 2767 kt, and 459 kt, respectively. Ethylene, mp-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2,4-dimethylpentane, ethyl benzene, propylene, 1-pentene, and isoprene are the key species contributing 77 % to the total ozone formation potential (OFP. The spatial distribution of the emissions shows the emissions and OFPs are mainly concentrated in the urban and industrial areas along the Yangtze River and around Hangzhou Bay. The industrial sources, including power plants other fuel combustion facilities, and non-combustion processes contribute about 97 %, 86 %, 89 %, 91 %, and 69 % of the total SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and VOC emissions. Vehicles take up 12.3 % and 12.4 % of the NOx and VOC emissions, respectively. Regarding OFPs, the chemical industry, domestic use of paint & printing, and gasoline vehicles contribute 38 %, 24 %, and 12 % to the ozone formation in the YRD region.

  7. Be-7 measured at ground air level and rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Leonardo, Lucio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide {sup 7}Be (T{sub 1/2} = 53.3 d), produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracer for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that {sup 7}Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. There is limited data on the concentration of {sup 7}Be in rainfall and in particulate in the Southern Hemisphere and in Brazil, compared with data from the Northern Hemisphere. This paper presents the results obtained of {sup 7}Be concentrations measured from April 2011 to June 2013, in samples of air at ground level, each fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), which has its campus located in the city of Sao Paulo, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of {sup 7}Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using an extended range closed-end coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency and associated electronic devices and live counting time varying from 100,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained of {sup 7}Be in particulate and in rainfall were correlated to seasons, precipitation, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clear seasonal variation. (author)

  8. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO (primary HCHO, which together with photochemical production of HCHO from hydrocarbon oxidation (secondary HCHO, lead to high ambient HCHO levels. The CAMx chemical transport model was employed to evaluate the impact of primary HCHO on its ambient concentration, on the ROx radical budget, and on ozone (O3 formation in the MCMA. Important radical sources, including HCHO, HONO, and O3-olefin reactions, were constrained by measurements from routine observations of the local ambient air monitoring network and the MCMA-2003 field campaign. Primary HCHO was found not only to contribute significantly to the ambient HCHO concentration, but also to enhance the radical budget and O3 production in the urban atmosphere of the MCMA. Overall in the urban area, total daytime radical production is enhanced by up to 10% and peak O3 concentration by up to 8%; moreover primary HCHO tends to make O3 both production rates and ambient concentration peak half an hour earlier. While primary HCHO contributes predominantly to the ambient HCHO concentration between nighttime and morning rush hours, significant influence on the radical budget and O3 production starts early in the morning, peaks at mid-morning and is sustained until early afternoon.

  9. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Salisburgo, Cesare Dari; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; SPANTO, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber sys...

  10. Effects of South Asian dust storm on air quality over the capital city of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarragunta, Y.; Srivastava, S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, an intense unseasonal dust storm has been analyzed during third week of March 2012 from multi satellite datasets and from surface measurements over National Capital Region (NCR), Delhi. The intrusion of dust over study region has increased the MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm more than 1.0 whereas significant decrease in Angstrom Exponent (α) has been observed . Very high UV aerosol Index (> 2) over study location indicates the presence of UV absorbing aerosols . Fire activities are found to be negligible over the source region confirming the effect of dust storm. Strong southwesterly winds prevailed over northern Arabian Sea which trans ported the dust plume across the oceanic region towards Indian capital region. In-situ measurements of PM 2.5 and PM10, obtained from CPCB observational site over the IGI airport, NCR Delhi, showed abrupt increase on 20, 21 March. Eight hourly average concentration of the particulate matters less than 10 μm (PM10) is found to be ~990 μg/m3 and particulate matters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is found to be ~900 μg/m3 over IGI Airport, NCR Delhi. These values are remarkably higher as compared to the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) i.e. 100 μg/m3 and 60 μg/m3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. In addition, Vertical distribution of dust has been examined using CALIPSO observation. The layer of dust is found to be trapped within lower 3 km in altitude. The Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) modeling has been carried out to identify the specific source locations.

  11. Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC

  12. Impact of the Popocatepetl's volcanic activity on the air quality of Puebla City, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Gay, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Flores, Y. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    In this work we report measurements of atmospheric pollutants in Puebla City, including those registered during the period characterized by intense volcanic activity from Popocatepetl volcano between December 2000 and January 2001. We used a gaussian air dispersion model to calculate the impact of sulfur compounds from volcanic emissions on the measurements of these compounds in the stations belonging to Puebla City Atmospheric Monitoring Network. The data show that during the analyzed period, this volcanic emissions affected the air quality, increasing the indexes of PM{sub 1}0, CO and sulfur compounds. Also, the results of applying a Gaussian air dispersion model to these sulfur compounds explains the measurements from Tecnologico station for days with intense volcanic activity and wind coming from the volcano to Puebla City. [Spanish] En este trabajo se reportan mediciones de contaminantes atmosfericos en la ciudad de Puebla, incluyendo las registradas durante el periodo caracterizado por una intensa actividad del volcan Popocatepetl, entre diciembre de 200 y enero de 2001. Aplicamos un modelo de dispersion gaussiano para calcular el impacto de las emisiones volcanicas de compuestos de azufre en las mediciones de estos compuestos en las estaciones de la Red de Monitoreo Atmosferico de la ciudad de Puebla. Los datos muestran que durante el periodo analizado, las emisiones volcanicas afectaron la calidad del aire incrementando los indices de PM{sub 1}0, CO y compuestos de azufre. Ademas, los resultados del modelo gaussiano de dispersion del aire para los compuestos de azufre, explican las mediciones de la estacion Tecnologico para los dias con intensa actividad volcanica y viento viniendo del volcan hacia la ciudad de Puebla.

  13. Methodology for the assessment of PV capacity over a city region using low-resolution LiDAR data and application to the City of Leeds (UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, DA; Gooding, J.; Giesekam, JJ; Tomlin, AS; Crook, R.

    2014-01-01

    An assessment of roof-mounted PV capacity over a local region can be accurately calculated by established roof segmentation algorithms using high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) datasets. However, over larger city regions often only low-resolution LiDAR data is available where such algorithms prove unreliable for small rooftops. A methodology optimised for low-resolution LiDAR datasets is presented, where small and large buildings are considered separately. The roof segmentatio...

  14. Statistical Analysis of Air Traffic in Latvian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasyeva, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the research is statistical analyzes of air traffic in airport 'Riga' zone. Special statistical methods oriented to the concrete object area - airspace of Latvia are developed. Some experiments are made to discover season's and during twenty-four hours unstationarity of this process. Air traffic intensity for some stationary period for some airways is estimated.

  15. Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region - A Best Practice Scenario Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, John; Dawkins, Elena (Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden))|(Univ. of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom))

    2008-06-15

    The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) was commissioned by the Environment Agency to carry out a carbon footprint analysis of the housing sector, using the Leeds City Region (LCR) as an example. The aim was to determine our ability to meet the 80 per cent by 2050 challenge of energy efficiency in the housing sector. The study relates specifically to LCR but its findings will help any planning and development teams make the right decisions and gain the resources necessary to meet carbon budgets at regional and local levels. With a growing population and an additional 263,000 housing units to be built within LCR by 2026, the housing sector would need to reduce its expected total carbon dioxide emissions by 38 million tonnes between 2010 and 2026 to be on track for 80 per cent savings in 2050. The report outlines the most detailed analysis to date of the required measures to deliver a growth-based regional housing strategy, alongside reducing carbon emissions. If the city region's new and existing housing is to attain the levels of energy efficiency necessary to deliver these carbon savings, big changes will be required in the way we build, maintain and run our homes over the next 20 years. There are pockets of good practice already in the region and the study shows that by combining innovative measures on construction standards, improvements to existing housing, low and zero carbon technologies and changing behaviour of householders, LCR can achieve the necessary savings to meet its carbon budget

  16. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

    2012-08-01

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095

  17. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H R; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, J P; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan, Paris and Rotterdam, using a standardized approach to data eligibility and statistical analysis. Relative risks for daily COPD admissions were obtained using Poisson regression, controlling for: seasonal and other cycles; influenza epidemics; day of the week; temperature; humidity and autocorrelation. Summary effects for each pollutant were estimated as the mean of each city's regression coefficients weighted by the inverse of the variance, allowing for additional between-cities variance, as necessary. For all ages, the relative risks (95% confidence limits (95% CL)) for a 50 microg x m(-3) increase in daily mean level of pollutant (lagged 1-3 days) were (95% CL): sulphur dioxide 1.02 (0.98, 1.06); black smoke 1.04 (1.01, 1.06); total suspended particulates 1.02 (1.00, 1.05), nitrogen dioxide 1.02 (1.00, 1.05) and ozone (8 h) 1.04 (1.02, 1.07). The results confirm that air pollution is associated with daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European cities with widely varying climates. The results for particles and ozone are broadly consistent with those from North America, though the coefficients for particles are substantially smaller. Overall, the evidence points to a causal relationship but the mechanisms of action, exposure response relationships and pollutant interactions remain unclear. PMID:9163648

  18. Estimation of health and economic costs of air pollution over the Pearl River Delta region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lin, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Delta region (PRD) is the economic growth engine of China and also one of the most urbanized regions in the world. As a two-sided sword, rapid economic development causes air pollution and poses adverse health effects to the citizens in this area. This work estimated the negative health effects in the PRD caused by the four major ambient pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10) from 2010 to 2013 by using a log linear exposure-response function and the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Economic loss due to mortality and morbidity was evaluated by the value of statistical life (VSL) and cost of illness (COI) methods. The results show that the overall possible short-term all-cause mortality due to NO2, O3 and PM10 reached the highest in 2013 with the values being 13,217-22,800. The highest total economic loss, which ranged from 14,768 to 25,305million USD, occurred in 2013 and was equivalent to 1.4%-2.3% of the local gross domestic product. The monthly profile of cases of negative health effects varied by city and the types of ambient pollutants. The ratio of mortality attributed to air pollutants to total population was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. People living in the countryside should consider the possible adverse health effects of urban areas before they plan a move to the city. The results show that the health burden caused by the ambient pollutants over this region is serious and suggest that tighter control policies should be implemented in the future to reduce the level of air pollution. PMID:27220091

  19. 75 FR 25310 - Port Harbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Tri-City Regional Port District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Surface Transportation Board Port Harbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Line of Tri-City Regional Port District Port Harbor Railroad, Inc. (Port Harbor), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Tri- City Regional Port District (Tri-City), and...

  20. Defining a Canadian approach to municipal consolidation in major city-regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Lightbody

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Where there is a central government with an exclusive mandate over municipalities, along with a state executive structure using the Westminster model, then the consolidation of squabbling municipalities within metropolitan boundaries becomes a distinct possibility A general model of municipal restructuring for the Canadian metropolis is more widespread than the superficially unique circumstances of each case might suggest. The thinking here is informed by Clarence Stone’s urban regime model, which helps to clarify what influences constituted the political tipping point for central government action. The paper focuses primarily on the Toronto and Montreal city-regional municipal consolidations at the end of the last century. It is argued that the decisive element in setting the stage for significant change lay in the pervasive influence of corporate Canada in generally shaping provincial political discourse. What has not previously been of much interest for investigators is the matter of direct consequences for the low politics of city-regional governance. As will be seen, they were both tangible and considerable.

  1. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  2. Prediction of Indoor Air Exposure from Outdoor Air Quality Using an Artificial Neural Network Model for Inner City Commercial Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Avril Challoner; Francesco Pilla; Laurence Gill

    2015-01-01

    NO2 and particulate matter are the air pollutants of most concern in Ireland, with possible links to the higher respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates found in the country compared to the rest of Europe. Currently, air quality limits in Europe only cover outdoor environments yet the quality of indoor air is an essential determinant of a person’s well-being, especially since the average person spends more than 90% of their time indoors. The modelling conducted in this res...

  3. Assessment of Air Pollution in Different World Regions

    OpenAIRE

    DENTENER Franciscus; KELLEHER Eimear

    2008-01-01

    Climate Change (CC) and Air pollution (AP) are intimately linked through emissions from common sources, primarily those related to the use of fossil fuels. The Climate Change Unit (Institute for Environment and Sustainability), which is part of the Joint Research Centre based in Ispra, Northern Italy, performs scientific research on the linkages between air pollution and climate change to make policy makers aware of potential synergies and trade-offs that are imposed by the way the atmosphere...

  4. Dynamic evaluation of air quality models over European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Thunis, P.; Pisoni, E.; Degraeuwe, B.; Kranenburg, R.; Schaap, M.; Clappier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry-transport models are increasingly used in Europe for estimating air quality or forecasting changes in pollution levels. But with this increased use of modeling arises the need of harmonizing the methodologies to determine the quality of air quality model applications. This is complex for planning applications, i.e. when models are used to assess the impact of realistic or virtual emission scenarios. In this work, the methodology based on the calculation of potencies proposed by Thun...

  5. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Noralizawati Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation) and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant). Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. T...

  6. Passive samplers and community science in regional air quality measurement, education and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest Hauser, Cindy; Buckley, Alexandra; Porter, Juliana

    2015-08-01

    Charlotte, in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, was ranked in the top ten cities with the worst air quality for ozone in the United States by the American Lung Association from 2009 to 2011. Nearby counties that may experience similar air quality do not have state or county monitors. This study utilized NOx and ozone Ogawa passive samplers and community scientists to monitor air quality in five counties surrounding Charlotte and increase public engagement in air quality issues. Community scientists deployed samplers weekly at a residential site within each county. Samples were analyzed using spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. Elevated NOx concentrations were observed in four of the five counties relative to those with existing monitors. Ozone concentrations showed little county to county variation, except Iredell and Cabarrus which had higher concentrations than Rowan. Community involvement in this work led to an increase in local dissemination of the results, thus increasing air quality awareness. PMID:25556581

  7. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  8. Characterization of PM2.5 in the ambient air of Shanghai city by analyzing individual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM2.5 samples were collected simultaneously at three representative areas (central city, industrial area and clean air suburban) of Shanghai city. Their morphologies and elemental compositions were determined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy analysis (SEM-EDX). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Soot aggregates and spherical fly ash particles were the two dominant types and they were identified as originating from automobile exhaust, metallurgical industry and coal combustion. The size distribution of the particles showed that most had diameters in the range of 0.2-1.4 μm. Individual particles were measured by synchrotron radiation micro-beam X-ray fluorescence (micro-SXRF) and the micro-SXRF spectra were obtained. Pattern recognition techniques, which took the micro-SXRF spectrum of a single aerosol particle as its fingerprint, were used to identify the origins of the particles. Seven source types were identified. They were: metallurgical industry, vehicle exhaust, soil dust, coal combustion, diesel exhaust, oil combustion and motorcycle exhaust. Metallurgical industry, automobile exhaust, and coal combustion were recognized to be the main pollution sources of PM2.5 in the air of Shanghai city

  9. Synoptic weather types and aeroallergens modify the effect of air pollution on hospitalisations for asthma hospitalisations in Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollution levels and the effect of air pollution on human health can be modified by synoptic weather type and aeroallergens. We investigated the effect modification of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM10, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisation rates in seven synoptic weather types. We developed single air pollutant models, adjusted for the effect of aeroallergens and stratified by synoptic weather type, and pooled relative risk estimates for asthma hospitalisation in ten Canadian cities. Aeroallergens significantly modified the relative risk in 19 pollutant-weather type combinations, reducing the size and variance for each single pollutant model. However, aeroallergens did not significantly modify relative risk for any pollutant in the DT or MT weather types, or for PM10 in any weather type. Thus, there is a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the association between CO, O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5 and asthma hospitalisations that differs under specific synoptic weather types. - Highlights: • We model effect modification of aeroallergens on air pollutant–asthma association. • The air pollutant association was modelled in seven synoptic weather types. • Aeroallergens modify CO, O3, NO2, SO2, and PM2.5 effect on asthma hospitalisations. • Synoptic weather types modify the air pollutant and asthma association. - We identify a modifying effect of aeroallergens on the relationship between air pollutants and hospitalisation rates for asthma, that differs under specific synoptic weather types

  10. Projected increases in near-surface air temperature over Ontario, Canada: a regional climate modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Jinliang

    2015-09-01

    As the biggest economy in Canada, the Province of Ontario is now suffering many consequences caused by or associated with global warming, such as frequent and intense heat waves, floods, droughts, and wind gust. Planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies against the changing climate, which requires a better understanding of possible future climate outcomes over the Province in the context of global warming, is of great interest to local policy makers, stakeholders, and development practitioners. Therefore, in this study, high-resolution projections of near-surface air temperature outcomes including mean, maximum, and minimum daily temperature over Ontario are developed, aiming at investigating how the global warming would affect the local climatology of the major cities as well as the spatial patterns of air temperature over the entire Province. The PRECIS modeling system is employed to carry out regional climate ensemble simulations driven by the boundary conditions of a five-member HadCM3-based perturbed-physics ensemble (i.e., HadCM3Q0, Q3, Q10, Q13, and Q15). The ensemble simulations are then synthesized through a Bayesian hierarchical model to develop probabilistic projections of future temperature outcomes with consideration of some uncertain parameters involved in the regional climate modeling process. The results suggest that there would be a consistent increasing trend in the near-surface air temperature with time periods from 2030s to 2080s. The most likely mean temperature in next few decades (i.e., 2030s) would be [-2, 2] °C in northern Ontario, [2, 6] °C in the middle, and [6, 12] °C in the south, afterwards the mean temperature is likely to keep rising by ~ 2 °C per 30-years period. The continuous warming across the Province would drive the lowest mean temperature up to 2 °C in the north and the highest mean temperature up to 16 °C in the south. In addition, the spread of the most likely ranges of future outcomes shows a consistent

  11. From cities and towns to urban networks in Germany – intra regional competition versus regional co-operation and inter regional competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Mueller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the 20th century particular cities and towns were understood as integral parts of national and international urban systems. For many years the theory on central places and hierarchy of central places, first developed by Christaller and amended by Loesch, had a decisive influence on spatial research and regional development policies with guiding principles for urbanisation and the development of settlement patterns. However it is becoming ever more evident, that the planned effects of concepts for harmonising intra- and inter-regional differences were not reached. Moreover, inter-regional competition between neighbouring municipalities, as well as modern life styles and residential choices have caused the emergence of new settlement structures with dispersed spatial patterns and string functional ties. It is also true, that urban networking isn’t an easy task and that it inherently carries numerous obstacles.

  12. Examining 'Core-Periphery' Relationships in a Global City-Region: The Case of London and South East England

    OpenAIRE

    Pain, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the interdependencies between the London `core? and the South East England `Mega-City Region?. London?s description as a monocentric city in the European Spatial Development Perspective, belies functional connectivities that make a wide area to the west of the capital a web of dense inter-urban linkages. How are advanced business services creating a functional geography that differs from binary territorial representations? What are the implications for ...

  13. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanti, Brooke A; Chang, Howard H; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong associations between asthma morbidity and major ambient air pollutants. Relatively little research has been conducted to assess whether age is a factor conferring susceptibility to air pollution-related asthma morbidity. We investigated the short-term relationships between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and ambient ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta (1993-2009), Dallas (2006-2009), and St. Louis (2001-2007). City-specific daily time-series analyses were conducted to estimate associations by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-39, 40-64, and 65+ years). Sub-analyses were performed stratified by race and sex. City-specific rate ratios (RRs) were combined by inverse-variance weighting to provide an overall association for each strata. The overall RRs differed across age groups, with associations for all pollutants consistently strongest for children aged 5-18 years. The patterns of association across age groups remained generally consistent when models were stratified by sex and race, although the strong observed associations among 5-18 year olds appeared to be partially driven by non-white and male patients. Our findings suggest that age is a susceptibility factor for asthma exacerbations in response to air pollution, with school-age children having the highest susceptibility. PMID:26350981

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  15. Indoor exposures to air pollutants and allergens in the homes of asthmatic children in inner-city Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick N; Buckley, Timothy J; Williams, D'Ann; Beck, Christopher M; Jo, Seong-Joon; Merriman, Barry; Kanchanaraksa, Sukon; Swartz, Lee J; Callahan, Karen A; Butz, Arlene M; Rand, Cynthia S; Diette, Gregory B; Krishnan, Jerry A; Moseley, Adrian M; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Durkin, Nowella B; Eggleston, Peyton A

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents indoor air pollutant concentrations and allergen levels collected from the homes of 100 Baltimore city asthmatic children participating in an asthma intervention trial. Particulate matter (PM), NO2, and O3 samples were collected over 72 h in the child's sleeping room. Time-resolved PM was also assessed using a portable direct-reading nephelometer. Dust allergen samples were collected from the child's bedroom, the family room, and the kitchen. The mean PM10 concentration, 56.5+/-40.7 microg/m3, is 25% higher than the PM2.5 concentration (N=90), 45.1+/-37.5 microg/m3. PM concentrations measured using a nephelometer are consistent and highly correlated with gravimetric estimates. Smoking households' average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are 33-54 microg/m3 greater than those of nonsmoking houses, with each cigarette smoked adding 1.0 microm/m3 to indoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. Large percentages of NO2 and O3 samples, 25% and 75%, respectively, were below the limit of detection. The mean NO2 indoor concentration is 31.6+/-40.2 ppb, while the mean indoor O3 concentration in the ozone season was 3.3+/-7.7 ppb. The levels of allergens are similar to those found in other inner cities. Results presented in this paper indicate that asthmatic children in Baltimore are exposed to elevated allergens and indoor air pollutants. Understanding this combined insult may help to explain the differential asthma burden between inner-city and non-inner-city children. PMID:15820722

  16. Wet deposition of air pollution at southwest monsoon outbreak and its impact on groundwater resources of Greater Kochi region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, K.K.C.

    manded that factories in this industrial city should make public the names and quantities of chemicals contained in their inputs and effluents and be made acces sible to interested persons as is legally provided under the Water Act and Environ mental... of this city has become comparable with other major cities in the country. Pronounced as the most dreaded effect of air pollution, the acid rain, refers to the precipitation of carbonic, sulfuric. sulphurous and nitric acids during the rain fall. The analysis...

  17. Moessbauer study of contaminated soils by industrial activity in Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces, Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustamante, Angel, E-mail: angelbd1@gmail.com; Fabian, Julio [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru); Santos, Luis De Los; Barnes, C. H. W. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory (United Kingdom); Majima, Yutaka [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Materials and Structures Laboratory (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    In this work we characterize soils from the Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces in Peru, which are contaminated by residual chemicals (Br, As and Sr) from sugar and paper industry in the city. Four samples were collected, labelled as S1, S2, S3 and S4 and analized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. For all the samples, the chemical analysis by EDXRF revealed the presence of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, K, Br, Sr. The XRD detected the presence of quartz as principal phase and copper sulfide and potassium magnesium as secondary phases. The Moessbauer spectra at room temperature (RT) for all the samples exhibit sextets which reveal the presence of an iron oxide or hydroxide. The fitting Moessbauer for both samples S1 and S4 have three doublets corresponding to iron in paramagnetic phases and a magnetic component of around 35.50 T corresponding to goethite, {alpha}-FeOOH. Sample S2 have two magnetic phases with internal fields of 37 T and 34.6 T which correspond to the goethite and other incorporated element in the structure. The sample S3 have three magnetic fields of H1 = 36.8 T, H2 = 33.6 T and H3 = 34.8 T which correspond to hydroxide iron, pyrrhotite and goethite respectively.

  18. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1, followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the chemical

  19. Regional Air Quality Forecasting for the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corbet, L; Vlček, O.; Eben, Kryštof; Liczki, Jitka; Benešová, N.; Modlík, M.

    Aarhus University, 2013, s. 1-5. [HARMO 15. Madrid (ES), 06.05.2013-09.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : air quality forecast * CTM * emissions * verification Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.harmo.org/Conferences/Proceedings/_Madrid/topicIndex.asp?topicID=0

  20. Air Quality Monitoring in major Norwegian cities. October 1994 - March 1995; Maalinger av luftforurensninger i by/tettstedsprogrammet. Oktober 1994-mars 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, L.O.; Johnsrud, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report gives the results from the measurements of nitrogen oxides, suspended particles and meteorological conditions in major Norwegian cities during the winter half year 1994/95. Norwegian air quality guidelines were exceeded at most stations. In a colder winter with poorer dispersion conditions, air quality guidelines probably could be expected more frequently. 1 ref., 67 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. Improving air quality in large cities by substituting natural gas for coal in China: changing idea and incentive policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas has long been used in China mainly as chemical raw material. With the increasing emphasis on urban air pollution prevention, the issue of natural gas substitution to coal has been raised in many large Chinese cities. This paper reviews the environmental - economic - technical rationality of dashing-for-gas in urban area, especially for civil use such as cooking and heating in China. Taking Beijing and Chongqing as study cases, a cost-benefit analysis of natural gas substitution is done and the ongoing economic and system barriers to natural gas penetration are analyzed. Indications of natural gas penetration incentive policy making are given finally. (author)

  2. Pathological changes in turkeys liver associated with Histomoniasis in Duhok City,Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histomoniasis were detected and described among naturally affected of twenty three young Turkeys poult compared with the adults. Sample for study were collected from different areas of Duhok city in Kurdistan region/Iraq. Giemsa stain where used for identification of parasite from specimens of liver and cecum samples, then specimen, where fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathological study. The affected birds showed clinical signs of lethargic, drooping of head and wings with progressive emaciation and a clear distinctive signs in live ones, and appearance of continuous yellowish diarrhea. Pathologically there is an enlargement and discoloration of the liver associated with appearance of white to yellow multifocal nodules in the surface of the liver. While the result of histolpathological changes showed severs inflammatory reaction around necrotic tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes of the liver cells.

  3. The Limits of Polycentrism at the City-regional Scale: The case of Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Decoville

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years, promoters of the European spatial planning policy have presented polycentrism as the most promising strategy for answering the challenge of a more even spatial development. However, there is still no empirical evidence proving that this conceptual tool is adaptable to all scales. In this paper, we propose two different approaches of urban hierarchy with regards to its capacity to structure spatial development at a city-regional scale: the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. The first one depicts a classical urban hierarchy based on the location of urban amenities. The second one, which takes into account the accessibility to these amenities, shows the polycentric model in a more nuanced manner. Our results underline the differences between these two models and call for caution with respect to the adoption of the polycentric model at this spatial scale, since it could potentially lead to an increase in urban sprawl.

  4. Evolution of the Inca City region of Mars during southern spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nicolas; Hansen, Candice; Bridges, Nathan; McEwen, Alfred; Herkenhoff, Ken; Russell, Patrick

    MOC and THEMIS observations of the southern seasonal polar cap of Mars have provided evidence of the existence of venting from the sub-surface during early southern spring. Kieffer [JGR, 112, E08005, 2007] has presented a general model of the venting process. He emphasized, however, that regional variability of jet/geyser formation remains poorly understood. In this work we choose to investigate one specific region, namely the "Inca City" region of the seasonal polar cap (295.8E, 81.4S), using a time series of observations acquired by the High Resolution Imaging Sciences Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The Inca City area shows a wide variety of different phenomena. For example, many dark fans appear on the surface within 5 weeks of the time when sunlight first reaches this southern latitude. Most fans appear to be consistent with the concept of geyser formation with subsequent airfall of dark material (as described by Kieffer). We can, however, identify some fan structures within this region which appear to suggest near-surface flow. We also find that the directions of many observed fans follow the local topography. We suggest mechanisms by which this might occur. We also investigate the surface structures in this specific region and study their evolution through southern spring. We find, for example, that so-called "spiders" can be aligned in rows (possibly in response to local topography). We also observe variability in the structure of spiders which may indicate changes in local topography or in the local substrate over short length scales. On relatively steep slopes, fans can be observed although there is no obvious spider formation. At the end of spring, sloped surfaces becomes homogeneous in colour and brightness as the fan material coats the entire downslope surface. In early spring we also observe rocks with dark rings surrounding them which might be thought to indicate activity/venting. However, most of these do not evolve over

  5. Analysis of a wet scrubber network in the air remediation of industrial workplaces: benefit for the city air quality

    CERN Document Server

    Avveduto, Alessandro; Pace, Lorenzo; Curci, Gabriele; Monaco, Alessio; De Giovanni, Marina; Giammaria, Franco; Spanto, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Industrial activities carried out in confined spaces are characterized by a very specific type of air pollution. The extended exposure to this kind of pollution is often highly harmful, resulting in dramatic effects both on health and safety aspects. The indoor industrial abatement systems, adopted to purify the air, are typically applied to the emission points. The processed air is subsequently emitted outside. In this study we present the experimental results of three-stage wet scrubber systems installed in the industrial workplace of a (i) fiberglass processing plant, where the highest exposure levels to volatile compounds are nowadays today monitored,and of a (ii) waste-to-energy plant, characterized by a very high particulate matter level. The adopted technology, to be used as complementing strategy,does not require special disposal procedures and the processed air is re-emitted in the same work environment for the benefit of the work operators. The operation of the scrubbers network during the working a...

  6. «Goroda-bliznecy»: novaja forma prigranichnogo sotrudnichestva v Baltijskom regione? [Twin cities: a new form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic Sea Region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anishenko Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the first attempt in Russian political studies to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “twin city” movement as a form of cross-border cooperation in the Baltic region. This phenomenon emerged as a result of a global tendency towards more active involvement of municipal units in international cooperation, on the one hand, and aspirations of frontier cities and towns in the Baltic region to solve common problems together, on the other hand. This work is based on a comparative analysis method and a case study methodology. The authors consider four examples (city pairs: Tornio — Haparanda, Valga — Valka, Narva — Ivangorod and Imatra — Svetogorsk. The article specifies the terminological framework used in this field of research. The authors analyse achievements and failures of this type of international inter-municipal cooperation and emphasise that for twin cities it served not only as a means of survival in the difficult situation of the 1990s, but also as an experimental ground for new forms of crossborder cooperation. The authors arrive at the conclusion that this model proves to be promising for further development of integration processes in the Baltic region. This practice can be applied by Russian municipal, regional and federal authorities in promotion of cross-border cooperation not only in the Baltic region, but also in other regions of the country. Thus, influenced by the successful experience of Baltic frontier cities and towns, the Russian city of Nikel and the Norwegian city of Kirkenes decided to adopt this model for further development of their cooperation.

  7. Application of the Improved City Blueprint Framework in 45 Municipalities and Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, Steven H A; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid urbanization, water pollution, climate change and inadequate maintenance of water and wastewater infrastructures in cities may lead to flooding, water scarcity, adverse health effects, and rehabilitation costs that may overwhelm the resilience of cities. Furthermore, Integrated Water Resources

  8. Mezcla génica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Gene mixture in a population sample from Buenos Aires City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Avena

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivo estimar la mezcla génica en la población de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, a partir de muestras de dadores de sangre provenientes de un centro público de salud (Hospital de Clínicas. Los estudios se realizaron sobre 218 personas no emparentadas que donaron su sangre durante el año 2002. Se analizaron 8 sistemas genéticos eritrocitarios y los alotipos GM/KM. Se realizó una encuesta con la finalidad de obtener información sobre lugar de nacimiento, residencia actual y datos genealógicos de los dadores. Las frecuencias génicas se determinaron empleando métodos de máxima verosimilitud. Para calcular la mezcla génica se aplicó el programa ADMIX (trihíbrido. Se registró un 15.8% de aporte indígena (AI y 4.3% de africano (AA. Estos datos se compararon con un estudio previo realizado en un centro privado (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, no observándose diferencias significativas salvo en el sistema Km. Los resultados obtenidos se corresponden con la información histórica y demográfica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires.The aim of this study is to estimate the gene admixture in the population of Buenos Aires City from samples of blood donors, which come from a public health centre (Hospital de Clínicas. These studies were performed on 218 unrelated people, who donated blood during the year 2002. Eight erythrocyte genetic systems and GM/KM allotypes were analysed. A survey to obtain information about place of birth, present residence and genealogical data of the donors was performed. The gene frequencies were determined using a method of maximum likelihood. The genetic admixture was calculated through the ADMIX program (trihibride. The Amerindian and African contributions were 15.8% and 4.3% respectively. These data were compared with those obtained in a previous study performed in a private centre (Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires and significant differences were observed, except in the KM system. The

  9. Environmental characteristics of the cemeteries of Buenos Aires City (Argentina and infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzani Darío

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cemeteries with many water-filled containers, flowers, sources of human blood, and shade are favorable urban habitats for the proliferation of Aedes aegypti, a vector of yellow fever and dengue. A total of 22,956 containers was examined in the five cemeteries of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The vector was found in four cemeteries that showed an average infestation level of 5.5% (617 positive out of 11,196 water-filled containers. The four cemeteries positive for Ae. aegypti showed significantly different (p<0.01 infestation levels. Vegetation cover and percentage of infestation were significantly correlated (p<0.01, but neither cemetery area nor number of available containers were significantly related to the proportion of positive vases. Our results suggest that the cemeteries of Buenos Aires represent a gradient of habitat favorableness for this vector species, some of which may act as foci for its proliferation and dispersal.

  10. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2002, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  11. National Air Toxics Assessment - 2005, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  12. National Air Toxics Assessment - 1999, EPA Region 2 (EPA.AIR.NATA99_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer is based on the model results of the 1999 National-Scale Assessment (N-SA), a part of the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), conducted by EPA's...

  13. Evaluating the regional influence of Santiago de Chile on air quality and meteorology during VOCALS-REX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Molina, L. T.; Spak, S.; Campos, T.; Mc Naughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Gallardo, L.

    2009-04-01

    The VOCALS campaign was carried out in Chile during October-November 2008, gathering hundreds of scientists from all over the world with the objective to study stratocumulus decks in the East South Pacific, off the coast of Chile and Peru. Surface and airborne platforms measured multiple chemical and meteorological parameters, with support from chemical weather forecast models. Anthropogenic influence on meteorology and climate was evidenced due to in situ measurements, and satellite observations, as was expected from the large point sources of sulfur due to smelters and power plants in the region. However certain conditions benefited long range transport from central Chile, which made the Santiago plume clearly discernible (high ozone, organic aerosol, low CO) as sampled by the NSF C-130 almost 2000 km north of the city. This research will highlight how model products can provide guidance on the sources of the air masses sampled during the campaign, and how the Santiago plume influences regional air quality and meteorology (focusing on effective cloud radii and brightness temperature differences satellite measurements). Ultimately the research shows that the campaign's objective of contrasting cloud properties between pristine and anthropogenically influenced airmasses provided a unique opportunity to isolate the signal of a large emerging South American megacity from remote regions of the East South Pacific.

  14. Private cities of the 21st century. New strategies of the real estate in the metropolitan periphery of Buenos Aires / Ciudades privadas del siglo XXI. Nuevas estrategias del mercado inmobiliario en la periferia metropolitana de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vidal-Koppmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of urbanism, the beginning of the twenty-first century in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires has been characterized for the emergence of large-scale projects developed by private actors. Among them stand out private cities and commercial and services areas, called new centralities. Both urban designs are in close connection and require effective mobility conditions for its concretion. The intervention of private agents has impacted in the territorial transformations, creating a "parallel urban system" in the region, oriented towards attracting residents with a high socio-economic status. However, the traditional network of cities has not disappeared and, with the juxtaposition of this new system of private urbanism, it deepened the conditions of spatial fragmentation and social segregation. Desde la perspectiva del urbanismo, el comienzo del siglo XXI se caracteriza por la aparición en la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires, de proyectos de gran envergadura desarrollados por agentes privados. Entre ellos sobresalen las ciudades privadas y las áreas comerciales y de servicios, denominadas nuevas centralidades. Ambos diseños urbanos se mantienen en estrecha relación y requieren de eficaces condiciones de movilidad para su concreción y para su exitoso funcionamiento. La intervención de los agentes privados ha impactado en las transformaciones territoriales, creando un “sistema urbano paralelo” en la región, orientado a la captación de residentes con un alto nivel socio-económico. No obstante, la red de ciudades pre-existente no ha desaparecido y con la yuxtaposición de este nuevo sistema de urbanismo privado, se profundizan las condiciones de fragmentación espacial y de segregación social.

  15. Digitisation Project Planning in the Maribor City Library as a Form of Regional Cross Institutional Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hriberšek Vuk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:More and more Slovenian public libraries have been facing the question of selection criteria for digitisation of library materials as well as the issue of financial resources, copyright permission and the promotion of digitised materials. Libraries having long tradition of collecting valuable local history resources are more convinced about the selection criteria. Digitisation is, in spite of being expensive, time consuming and labour intensive, an easy method to enable quick access to library materials, to promote and preserve library collections. The mission of the central regional public library (cofinanced by the Ministry of Culture is not only to coordinate the collection, cataloguing and storage of local history resources but also to coordinate local history digital projects. Due to historical circumstances, the local history resources were first collected by the Maribor University Library. It is only in the recent past that the Maribor City Library has started to systematically collect these materials. Due to this fact, the Maribor City Library does not hold an extensive collection of rare and valuable local history items. It was initially faced with the problem of selection criteria for digitisation. However, it soon succeeded to establish the strategy to promote the local history collections in the region, regardless of their location. Thus the library started to cooperate with different regional institutions and the first partner projects were designed. In the year 2007 the library collaborated with the elementary school at Lovrenc na Pohorju and decided to digitise research papers of ex-pupils of the school. The first part of the project was accomplished in 2007 when 72 research papers were digitised, in the next two years their number was increased as the second part of the project was concluded. The papers were published on the KAMRA portal and the project was promoted at the summer annual meeting at Lovrenc na

  16. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  17. Annual and diurnal variations of gaseous and particulate pollutants in 31 provincial capital cities based on in situ air quality monitoring data from China National Environmental Monitoring Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun; Liu, Na; Qu, Jianjun; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term air quality data with high temporal and spatial resolutions are needed to understand some important processes affecting the air quality and corresponding environmental and health effects. The annual and diurnal variations of each criteria pollutant including PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), CO (carbon monoxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide) and O3 (ozone) in 31 provincial capital cities between April 2014 and March 2015 were investigated by cluster analysis to evaluate current air pollution situations in China, and the cities were classified as severely, moderately, and slightly polluted cities according to the variations. The concentrations of air pollutants in winter months were significantly higher than those in other months with the exception of O3, and the cities with the highest CO and SO2 concentrations were located in northern China. The annual variation of PM2.5 concentrations in northern cities was bimodal with comparable peaks in October 2014 and January 2015, while that in southern China was unobvious with slightly high PM2.5 concentrations in winter months. The concentrations of particulate matter and trace gases from primary emissions (SO2 and CO) and NO2 were low in the afternoon (~16:00), while diurnal variation of O3 concentrations was opposite to that of other pollutants with the highest values in the afternoon. The most polluted cities were mainly located in North China Plain, while slightly polluted cities mostly focus on southern China and the cities with high altitude such as Lasa. This study provides a basis for the formulation of future urban air pollution control measures in China. PMID:26562560

  18. Opportunity Knocks: Closing the Gaps between Leaders and the Public on Math, Science, & Technology Education--A Qualitative Research Report on the Kansas City Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, Alison; Friedman, Will

    2010-01-01

    The Kansas City region is in many ways representative of the larger national economy. As with many cities of its size, the largest area of employment, other than in government, is in the healthcare sector. While biomedical research is a major growth area across the nation, Kansas City is also the national leader in the animal healthcare industry,…

  19. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fry; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Adelman, Z.; West, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF) impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions decreases glo...

  20. Air quality and radiative forcing impacts of anthropogenic volatile organic compound emissions from ten world regions

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Fry; M. D. Schwarzkopf; Adelman, Z.; West, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) influence air quality and global climate change through their effects on secondary air pollutants and climate forcers. Here we simulate the air quality and radiative forcing (RF) impacts of changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate from halving anthropogenic NMVOC emissions globally and from 10 regions individually, using a global chemical transport model and a standalone radiative transfer model. Halving global NMVOC emissions de...

  1. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  3. Modeling of the anthropogenic heat flux and its effect on regional meteorology and air quality over the Yangtze River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Liao, Jingbiao; Wang, Tijian; Zhu, Kuanguang; Zhuang, Bingliang; Han, Yong; Li, Mengmeng; Li, Shu

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic heat (AH) emissions from human activities caused by urbanization can affect the city environment. Based on the energy consumption and the gridded demographic data, the spatial distribution of AH emission over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is estimated. Meanwhile, a new method for the AH parameterization is developed in the WRF/Chem model, which incorporates the gridded AH emission data with the seasonal and diurnal variations into the simulations. By running this upgraded WRF/Chem for 2 typical months in 2010, the impacts of AH on the meteorology and air quality over the YRD region are studied. The results show that the AH fluxes over the YRD have been growing in recent decades. In 2010, the annual-mean values of AH over Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are 14.46, 2.61 and 1.63 W m-2, respectively, with the high value of 113.5 W m-2 occurring in the urban areas of Shanghai. These AH emissions can significantly change the urban heat island and urban-breeze circulations in the cities of the YRD region. In Shanghai, 2 m air temperature increases by 1.6 °C in January and 1.4 °C in July, the PBLH (planetary boundary layer height) rises up by 140 m in January and 160 m in July, and 10 m wind speed is enhanced by 0.7 m s-1 in January and 0.5 m s-1 in July, with a higher increment at night. The enhanced vertical movement can transport more moisture to higher levels, which causes the decrease in water vapor at ground level and the increase in the upper PBL (planetary boundary layer), and thereby induces the accumulative precipitation to increase by 15-30 % over the megacities in July. The adding of AH can impact the spatial and vertical distributions of the simulated pollutants as well. The concentrations of primary air pollutants decrease near the surface and increase at the upper levels, due mainly to the increases in PBLH, surface wind speed and upward air vertical movement. But surface O3 concentrations increase in the urban areas, with maximum

  4. Urban air pollution: a representative survey of PM(2.5) mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; de Fatima Andrade, Maria; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Astolfo, Rosana; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-03-01

    In urban areas of Brazil, vehicle emissions are the principal source of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). The World Health Organization air quality guidelines state that the annual mean concentration of PM(2.5) should be below 10 μg m(-3). In a collaboration of Brazilian institutions, coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine and conducted from June 2007 to August 2008, PM(2.5) mass was monitored at sites with high traffic volumes in six Brazilian state capitals. We employed gravimetry to determine PM(2.5) mass concentrations, reflectance to quantify black carbon concentrations, X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition, and ion chromatography to determine the composition and concentrations of anions and cations. Mean PM(2.5) concentrations and proportions of black carbon (BC) in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Recife, and Porto Alegre were 28.1 ± 13.6 μg m(-3) (38% BC), 17.2 ± 11.2 μg m(-3) (20% BC), 14.7 ± 7.7 μg m(-3) (31% BC), 14.4 ± 9.5 μg m(-3) (30% BC), 7.3 ± 3.1 μg m(-3) (26% BC), and 13.4 ± 9.9 μg m(-3) (26% BC), respectively. Sulfur and minerals (Al, Si, Ca, and Fe), derived from fuel combustion and soil resuspension, respectively, were the principal elements of the PM(2.5) mass. We discuss the long-term health effects for each metropolitan region in terms of excess mortality risk, which translates to greater health care expenditures. This information could prove useful to decision makers at local environmental agencies. PMID:22408694

  5. ANTHROPIC IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY IN THE DANUBE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOINA A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There were monitored by data acquisition both in summer and winter period, the concentrations of pollutants - SO2, NO2 and particulate matter (PM10 – existing in air on the territory of 6 counties bordering the Danube. After processing and analysis of collected data have been found that: SO2 pollution may be due primarily burning fuel with high sulfur content and / or industrial activities for carbonic products (anodes for obtaining the electrolytic aluminum, graphite electrodes etc.; pollution with NO2 comes primarily from automobile exhaust gases; particulate matter pollution may be due both loess soil (high winds in dry periods characteristic of the area i

  6. 40 CFR 63.13 - Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Addresses of State air pollution control agencies and EPA Regional Offices. 63.13 Section 63.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES General Provisions § 63.13 Addresses of State air pollution control...

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of AIRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of a long-term series of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  8. The AQMEII Two-Continent Regional Air Quality Model Evaluation Study: Fueling Ideas with Unprecedented Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although strong collaborations in the air pollution field have existed among the North American (NA) and European (EU) countries over the past five decades, regional-scale air quality model developments and model performance evaluations have been carried out independently unlike ...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) A Appendix A to Part 81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...-Southwestern Virginia (Va.) 207 Metropolitan Memphis (Ark., Miss.) 18 Middle Tennessee 208 Tennessee...

  10. Detection of petroleum contamination in river sediments from Quebec City region using GC-IRMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic analysis by compound specific gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) is used to detect and characterize petroleum pollution in surficial sediments along the St Lawrence River, near Quebec City. Unusually mature n-alkane distributions have been found in some recent intertidal sediments in the region. GC-IRMS results suggest that the n-alkanes are not derived from indigenous organic sources because they carry delta13C values between -30.0 and -27.0 per mille, as well as very small isotopic differences between odd and even numbered n-alkanes, which are both typically associated with petroleum products. Comparison of these sediments with bunker fuel, an oil used in the shipping industry, has shown a close isotopic correlation in some sites, which is further supported by biomarkers. Overall, the contamination has been dispersed along the river but is generally localized around the industrial region where hydrocarbon transfer from shore storage to ships takes place. This study illustrates how GC-IRMS can be used effectively in the detection and characterization of petroleum pollutants in sediments. (author)

  11. Ground-level ozone in four Chinese cities: precursors, regional transport and heterogeneous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed measurements of ozone (O3 and its precursors made at rural/suburban sites downwind of four large Chinese cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, to elucidate their pollution characteristics, regional transport, in situ production, and impacts of heterogeneous processes. The same measurement techniques and observation-based model were used to minimize uncertainties in comparison of the results due to difference in methodologies. All four cities suffered from serious O3 pollution but showed different precursor distributions. The model-calculated in situ O3 production rates were compared with the observed change rates to infer the relative contributions of on-site photochemistry and transport. At the rural site of Beijing, export of the well-processed urban plumes contributed to the extremely high O3 levels (up to an hourly value of 286 ppbv, while the O3 pollution observed at suburban sites of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Lanzhou was dominated by intense in-situ production. The O3 production was in a VOCs-limited regime in both Shanghai and Guangzhou, and a NOx-controlled regime in Lanzhou. The key VOC precursors are aromatics and alkenes in Shanghai, and aromatics in Guangzhou. The potential impacts on O3 production of several heterogeneous processes, namely, hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5, uptake of hydro peroxy radical (HO2 on particles and surface reactions of NO2 forming nitrous acid (HONO, were assessed. The analyses indicate the varying and considerable impacts of these processes in different areas of China depending on the atmospheric abundances of aerosol and NOx, and suggest the urgent need to better understand these processes and represent them in photochemical models.

  12. THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDYING OF RADON INDOOR AIR CONCENTRATION IN THE JEWISH AUTONOMOUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Surits

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents the results of radon indoor air concentration estimations for dwellings and public buildings of the Jewish Autonomous region in 2000–2011. More than 15 000 measurements were carried out in all areas of the region during the entire observation period. Areas with an enhanced radon content in indoor air were revealed. The maximum values are registered in Obluchensky area, in separate buildings reaching 2 000 Bq/m3.

  13. An emissions inventory of air pollutants for the city of Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robra, Jan Philipp

    2010-01-01

    More than 8.5 million people live in the urban area of Bogotá and more than 1.4 million vehicles are taking the road every day. Air pollution is becoming more and more of a problem. Today, air pollution related respiratory diseases are the main cause of death in young children in Bogotá and more than 6000 people die prematurely every year in Colombia from cardiopulmonary diseases or lung cancer related to air pollution. The creation of a spatially and temporally distributed emission inventor...

  14. Elemental analysis of dust trapped in air conditioner filters for the assessment of Lahore city's air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Lahore by the elemental analysis of air conditioner (AC) filter dust samples collected from 15 different commercial sites. Samples were prepared using the Leeds Public Analyst Method and were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for up to 31 elements. The elements Al, As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn were detected in all 15 samples whereas the remaining elements have been detected in fewer samples; i.e. Mg, Sb and Tb were detected in 14 samples, Br and V in ten samples, U in nine samples and Ca and Ti in eight samples only. Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na were determined in all samples at percentage levels. The concentrations of most elements were found to lie around the mean values for the 15 samples studied and were not orders of magnitude different. However the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sn and Zn were found to be more variable and were found to be dependant on activities such as construction, fruit and vegetable handling, tin plating and transport, respectively. (author)

  15. Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over

  16. Sensitivity of Air-sea Exchange In A Regional Scale Coupled Ice/ocean/atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, C.; Hübner, U.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

    The sub-systems ice, ocean and atmosphere are coupled on the global as well as the regional scale. However, regional coupled modeling is only in the beginning, full cou- pled models which are able to describe the interaction on the regional scale and the feedback mechanism are rare at the moment. For the North Sea and the Baltic Sea such a coupled model has been developed and exemplary integrated over a full seasonal cy- cle. By comparison of different regionalization studies the impact of the regional at- mospheric modeling and coupling on the air sea fluxes have been investigated. It was shown that the regionalization as well as the coupling show strong influence on the air/sea fluxes and thus on the oceanic conditions. Further problems in regional mod- eling like the description of storm track variability and its influence on the regional ocean model were identified.

  17. Science-policy interplay: Air quality management in the Pearl River Delta region and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Liuju; Louie, Peter K. K.; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Yue, Dingli; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-09-01

    The information provided by the scientific studies and control measures implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of China reveals that tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of regional air pollution issues and the deployment of mitigation measures for alleviating these problems. Given the unparalleled rapid economic growth in the PRD over the past two decades, such progress was only made possible by strong, science-based support and the partnerships between government and research institutions in the region and overseas. Researchers from these partnership programs and related studies have deployed cutting-edge expertise and experience in various crucial mainland China and mainland China/Hong Kong-level projects. China recognizes the importance of protecting the environment and cleaning up the air in the pursuit of sustainable growth and economic development. To avoid falling into a cycle of event-driven clean-up efforts, China has recently taken a major step and updated the national ambient air quality standards. Clearly, China is implementing an increasing number of evidence-based policies to address air pollution problems. Thus, to bring a fresh impetus at a national level, the PRD must maintain and augment the Hong Kong-mainland collaborative momentum, inducing a "whole-China" effort to clean up air pollution. To strengthen the science-based support system and ensure continuous and concerted effort in implementing the regional multi-pollutant control strategy, there must be an overarching and integral Hong Kong-Guangdong science consortium framework supporting the formulation of regional policy and control measures built on common goals under the "one country, two systems" principle. The "PRD Approach" of the air quality management regime reflected regional cooperative efforts in synchronous air pollutant control, catalyzed the crucial role of information disclosure and subtly transformed the air quality management approach to overcome

  18. Characteristics and distributions of organic substances in the air of some American cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, L.A.; Tabor, E.C.; Foter, M.J.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary analyses obtained through 18 months of operation of a nation-wide air sampling program are reported. The sampling program reported includes more than 30 metropolitan complexes in the USA and one in England.

  19. Clustering of airport cities and cluster dynamic for the air passenger demand forecasting model based on a socio-economic scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Terekhov, Ivan; Gollnick, Volker

    2015-01-01

    This study presents methods of grouping cities into clusters by their socio-economic indicators and tracing changes in the content of cluster within a socio-economic scenario. For cities’ grouping, three main clustering approaches have been analyzed: hierarchical, exclusive and probabilistic clustering. Analyzing advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, probabilistic clustering of normal mixture has been chosen to separate cities from the air passenger demand (APD) forecasting model....

  20. Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Fen Chiu; Yi-Hao Weng; Ya-Wen Chiu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on w...

  1. Air quality and emissions reduction initiatives at the City of Calgary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To conserve, protect and improve the environment for the benefits of the citizens living in Calgary, the City of Calgary is committed to environmental leadership, as declared by the author as an opening statement to this Power Point presentation. The author described some of the partnerships and alliances to which the City of Calgary adheres, such as partner for climate protection program, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). The City is aiming at a 20 per cent reduction of 1990 greenhouse gas emission levels within ten years for municipal operations. The Greenhouse Gas Reduction Commitment is divided in three parts: (1) baseline inventory, (2) economic and emissions abatement assessment, and (3) implementation and each phase was explained. Phase 1 relates to an inventory of equivalent carbon dioxide as a standardized measure of greenhouse gases. Both municipal and corporate reduction targets have been identified, as well as targets for buildings. An innovative cooperative partnership with private industry has been initiated, called the energy performance contracting (EPC), where EPC provides upgraded building infrastructure with more energy efficient equipment. The entire concept was detailed. Other initiatives include green power substitutions and street lighting retrofits. The author concluded by providing a greenhouse gas reduction score sheet. Some initiatives at the community level include Web business office/Web initiatives, a public education outreach program and third party agencies. figs

  2. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  3. Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Outpatient Visits for Acute Bronchitis in a Chinese City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li Juan; ZHAO Ang; CHEN Ren Jie; KAN Hai Dong; KUANG Xing Ya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the short-term association between outdoor air pollution and outpatient visits for acute bronchitis, which is a rare subject of research in the mainland of China. Methods A time-series analysis was conducted to examine the association of outdoor air pollutants with hospital outpatient visits in Shanghai by using two-year daily data (2010-2011). Results Outdoor air pollution was found to be associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for acute bronchitis in Shanghai. The effect estimates of air pollutants varied with the lag structures of the concentrations of the pollutants. For lag06, a 10μg/m3 increase in the concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 corresponded to 0.94%(95%CI:0.83%, 1.05%), 11.12%(95%CI:10.76%, 11.48%), and 4.84%(95%CI: 4.49%, 5.18%) increases in hospital visits for acute bronchitis, respectively. These associations appeared to be stronger in females (P Conclusion Our analyses have provided the first evidence that the current air pollution level in China has an effect on acute bronchitis and that the rationale for further limiting air pollution levels in Shanghai should be strengthened.

  4. Leaching of biocides from building facades: Upscaling of a local two-region leaching model to the city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Rota, C.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Facades are protected by paints that contain biocides as protection against degradation. These biocides are leached by rainfall (albeit at low concentrations). At the city scale, however, the surface area of building facades is significant, and leached biocides are a potential environmental risk to receiving waters. A city-scale biocide-leaching model was developed based on two main steps. In the first step, laboratory experiments on a single facade were used to calibrate and validate a 1D, two-region phenomenological model of biocide leaching. The same data set was analyzed independently by another research group who found empirically that biocide leachate breakthrough curves were well represented by a sum of two exponentials. Interestingly, the two-region model was found analytically to reproduce this functional form as a special case. The second step in the method is site-specific, and involves upscaling the validated single facade model to a particular city. In this step, (i) GIS-based estimates of facade heights and areas are deduced using the city's cadastral data, (ii) facade flow is estimated using local meteorological data (rainfall, wind direction) and (iii) paint application rates are modeled as a stochastic process based on manufacturers' recommendations. The methodology was applied to Lausanne, Switzerland, a city of about 200,000 inhabitants. Approximately 30% of the annually applied mass of biocides was estimated to be released to the environment.

  5. Air Quality and Land Use in Urban Region of Petaling Jaya, Shah Alam and Klang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ling Hoon Leh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the global trend of urbanisation, large population are staying in urban areas as compared to rural. However, urban area /region is always related to higher air pollution level as compared to less developed area/region. The major contributors of air pollution are mobile sources (transportation and stationary sources (e.g. industry and power plant. Thus, the issue of air pollution is potentially caused by human choices and activities, and potentially affecting the human health. Therefore, the relationship between the urban activities (land use coverage/distribution and air quality level should be well understood. It helps the urban managers, planners and all parties in constructing healthier urban policies. A study of air quality and the relationship with urban land uses was carried out in Malaysia�s urban growth region of Klang-Shah Alam-Petaling Jaya. Air quality data was analysed in Air Pollution Index (API with the classification of good, moderate, unhealthy, very unhealthy and hazardous levels. The urban land uses were mainly divided into two categories, i.e. pollution-prone land uses (transportation, industrial, and infrastructure, and green land uses. This study found that urban area with higher coverage of transportation, industrial and infrastructure land uses are potentially unhealthier in term of the air quality than the area with less coverage of these land uses. Strategic proposal was discussed in line with the findings.

  6. Depreciation in Ambient Air Quality in Iron Ore Mining Region of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Goa is one of the most famous international tourist destinations of the world. Export of Iron ore extracted from the midland of Goa is a major economic activity. However, there is a serious concern of air pollution due to iron ore mining activities. In order to assess the impact of mining activities on the environmental regime, the air quality depreciation index was adopted for this study due to its realistic and meaningful presentation of deterioration in ambient air quality. The index had been applied to the ambient air quality monitoring results of thirty four locations in the iron ore mining region of Goa. To envisage upon the deterioration in air quality due to various activities, eight stations were selected around mines, twelve in the buffer zone (within 4 Km radius of the core mining activities and fourteen along the ore transportation routes for monitoring of SPM, PM10, SO2 and NOX. The deterioration of air quality in the iron ore mining region of Goa is clearly apparent as the depreciation in air quality was found < -1 from the most desired value of 0 at all the stations. In general, the air quality was found most depreciated along the ore transportation routes, which is also evidenced by a considerable load of particulate matters observed. This infers that ore transportation is the most devastating activity in the iron ore mining region of Goa and accordingly mitigation plan should be adopted.

  7. Air pollution investigation in Vitoria Metropolitan Region, ES, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and PIXE in the characterization of the particulate matter in atmospheric aerosols in Metropolitan Region of Vitoria (MRV), Brazil have been investigated. The main sources of particulate matter, natural, industrial and antropogenic from human activities, have been studied to identify its contribution in the atmospheric particles. During the years 1995 to 1999 samples of total suspended particles (TSP, diameter ≤ 100 μm) were collected from four points within MRV. The inhalable particles (PM10, diameter ≤ 10μm) and sedimented particles (SP) were also collected from the same region. A receptor modeling was used for the identification of the source of particulate matter in the collected urban aerosol. (author)

  8. Development of Regional Planning Criteria for Health Services in the City of Riyadh

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman S. Abu-Kharmeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at developing criteria for planning health services in the city of Riyadh through assessing the actual distribution of these services and comparing them with planning criteria adopted by the Municipality of Riyadh, local, Arab and foreign cities, in order to propose planning criteria that best serve citizens of Riyadh city more fairly and efficiently. Data related to health services and their attributes were gathered and incorporated into a GIS database. The results of the st...

  9. The Relevance Of The City Of Dubrovnik In Regional Touristic Development At The Beggining Of 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Dasen Jasprica

    2011-01-01

    The city of Dubrovnik is the main initiator of tourism in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County (further on: DNC). In this regard, many questions about its specificity are raised. Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, Dubrovnik is regionally developing on two levels: micro-regionally - inside of the DNC, and macroregionally - in the Mediterranean. Dubrovnik tourism within the DNC is becoming more differentiated. The share of Dubrovnik in the touristic business is rising, while in DNC is stagnat...

  10. Biological activities of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles: comparison between the cities of Teplice and Prague during the summer and winter seasons 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka; Cerna, Milena; Pastorkova, Anna; Jelinek, Richard; Benes, Ivan; Novak, Jiri; Sram, Radim J

    2003-04-09

    The capital of the Czech Republic, Prague, appears today to be one of the most polluted residential areas in the country, whereas air pollution in the Northern Bohemia region (the former 'Black Triangle Region') has substantially decreased during the last decade, especially with respect to the gaseous pollutant SO{sub 2}. This study evaluated the biological activities of complex mixtures of organic compounds adsorbed onto ambient air particles (PM10) collected during the summer and winter seasons of 2000-2001 at three monitoring sites - Teplice (TP), Prague-Smichov (PRG-SM) (city centre) and Prague-Libus (PRG-LB) (suburban area). The following short-term in vitro assays with strikingly different endpoints were used: a bacterial mutagenicity test using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 and YG1041, an acellular assay (CT DNA) combined with {sup 32}P-postlabelling to evaluate DNA adduct-forming potency and the chick embryotoxicity screening test (CHEST). The results of the mutagenicity test with the YG1041 strain, the acellular genotoxicity (DNA adducts) and the embryotoxicity tests responded to the amount of eight carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) analysed in the EOM (dichloromethane extractable organic matter) samples tested. Nevertheless, the biological effects of the EOM did not differ between locations. The highest biological activity of the ambient air in terms of organic compounds associated with particles (per unit volume of air) was seen in the Prague city centre during both summer and winter seasons. At this location, B[a]P concentration ranged from 0.1 to 8.9 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 0.3 and 3.6 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively), 13 PAHs ranged from 11 to 343 ng/m{sup 3} (mean 52 and 160 ng/m{sup 3} for summer and winter seasons, respectively). Generally, using in vitro tests, higher ambient air activity was found in the winter season as compared with the summer season at all three monitoring sites

  11. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions (p pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons. PMID:24098067

  12. Comparitive study of ambient air quality status for big cities of Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the quality of air in Lahore and Faisalabad at selected sites. Total eight sampling stations were selected and all the sampling locations fall in different environmental backdrops such as residential, commercial, industrial and rural (control) areas. To study the quality of air, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), Nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) and Sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) were selected In the present study, it was found that the SPM NO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 2/ levels in all the sampling locations are within the permissible limits. However, the raising levels indicated at Residential cum Industrial area (shopping complex along with banks) followed by pure industrial area. The source of these pollutants is primarily transport sector and secondly industries. The ambient air quality reported to be low except 2Kl reported as medium. Sociological survey was conducted to determine the health hazards and the diseases related to air pollution. The results were alarming and found to be compatible with Punjab Public Health and Engineering Department (PPHE). There fore it is suggested that air quality management demands. (author)

  13. Respirable mineral fibres in the atmospheric air of the city of Wroclaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpentine asbestos from the Naslawice mine, which contains mineral impurities of the serpentinite group-chrysotile and antigorite, has been used to built school sports grounds as well as roads and playgrounds within residential areas. The study was aimed to measure concentrations of respirable mineral fibers in the atmospheric air at the time children were playing on one of the playgrounds as well as at four other sites of Wroclaw. Air samples were collected using individual dosimeters and distributions of length and concentration of fibers were measured by means of a laser fiber monitor FM7400. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were used to determine the mineral composition of raw material collected from the playground. Morphology of particles of dust from the atmospheric air was analyzed by means of electronic microscopy. It was found that the concentration of mineral fibers in the air in question depended on the number of children playing, namely when 7 children were playing the concentration value was equal to 165 fibers/liter and 549 fibers/liter with the number of 20 children. The concentration of fibers in a flat in the vicinity of the playground covered with serpentinite was about 11 times higher than at a street crossing with heavy traffic of motor vehicles. Antigorite and chrysotile were found in samples of raw material used to cover the playground. Numerous particles of fibrous structure were observed in the electronic microscopy image of air dust samples collected from the playground. (author). 11 refs, 3 tabs, 4 figs

  14. Shallow velocity structure and hidden faults of Kunming city region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Geng-xin; LOU Hai; WANG Chun-yong; FU Li-yun; ZHANG Jian-guo; QIN Jia-zheng; YANG Run-hai; LI Hai-ou

    2008-01-01

    In order to image the 3-D velocity structure of its shallow crust in Ktmming region, China, finite-difference seismic tomography is used to invert the seismic data selected carefully from six-shot data. The result lays a founda-tion for the discussion of the relationship between the obtained velocity structure and the hidden faults, and for the illumination of the depth extents of main active faults surrounding Kunming city. Puduhe-Xishan fault lies on the western margin of the Kunming basin and is just situated on the west edge of the low velocity anomaly zone found at all depth levels. This indicates that this fault is a borderline fault of the Kunming basin. It can be concluded that the fault dips eastwards with a steep angle and its depth extent is large. Puji-Hanjiacun fault and Heilong-tan-Guandu fault play a role in controlling the low velocity anomaly zone in middle basin. The depth extents of the two faults arc comparatively small, without traversing the interface of basin floor.

  15. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-01-01

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments. PMID:27281519

  16. Evaluating the Environmental Performance of Urban Parks in Mediterranean Cities: An Example from the Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés-Franzi, Marc; Saurí-Pujol, David; Domene, Elena

    2006-11-01

    In a context of increasing urban sprawl and water scarcity common to other Mediterranean cities, this article focuses on the urban parks in the Region of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) to examine how these parks are distributed in this region and to assess whether their design and management follow criteria adapted to Mediterranean environmental conditions, especially in what concerns water use. In order to evaluate the environmental performance of these parks, we selected four factors possibly influencing the adoption of park management practices at the local scale: urban density, population size of the municipality, municipal income per capita, and political orientation of the city council. After determining the location and area of urban parks in the region, we correlated these four explanatory factors with several management tasks extracted from two different samples of parks (one of 315 parks and another of 125 parks) and a survey of 86 city councils. Results show that, in general, urban parks were more frequent in large, dense, and left/green municipalities but that environmentally sound practices were more common in small and low-density municipalities. We conclude that changes in certain practices (especially the substitution of high water demanding species) could improve significantly the environmental performance of public spaces in large urban areas with Mediterranean climates. Our observations may be pertinent for other cities interested in the provision of environmental public goods such as parks that necessitate water for irrigation.

  17. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF RELMAP (REGIONAL LAGRANGIAN MODEL OF AIR POLLUTION) INVOLVING FINE AND COARSE PARTICULATE MATTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The REgional Lagrangian Model of air pollution (RELMAP) is a mass-conserving, regional scale, Lagrangian model that simulates ambient concentrations as well as wet and dry deposition of SO2, SO4(2-), and more recently fine (diameters<2.5 micrometers) and coarse (2.5 < diameter < ...

  18. Improving Air Quality in Chinese Cities by Substituting Natural Gas for Coal: Barriers and Incentive Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mao Xianqiang; Guo Xiurui

    2001-01-01

    As a result of its rapid economic development and large volume of coal burning, China is faced with serious coal-smoke pollution in urban areas. In large cities such as Beijing and Chongqing, people are clearly suffering the adverse health effects of coal-smoke pollution, with PM-10 and SO2 as the main pollutants. Natural gas, although not the dominant energy source in China, is becoming one of the most attractive clean substitutes for coal. On one hand, there is widespread disagreement and d...

  19. EPA Region 2 AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM (AIRS-AFS) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information for EPA Region 2 facilities (NYS, NJ, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin...

  20. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  1. El acceso temático en las Bibliotecas Públicas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Subject access in public libraries of the city of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Chahbenderian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un trabajo de campo realizado en 2003, con el objetivo de conocer las herramientas de recuperación por materia ofrecidas por las bibliotecas públicas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Se describen el vocabulario y el sistema de clasificación utilizados; como así también, las posibilidades de acceso temático a través de estanterías abiertas, con un orden físico de la colección por materia, y catálogos en línea de acceso público. Se sugieren, al final, algunas recomendaciones para mejorar la eficiencia en la búsqueda por materia en las bibliotecas públicas.The article presents the results of a field work carried out in 2003 to verify the tools of subject retrieval offered by public libraries in the city of Buenos Aires. It describes the vocabulary and the classification system used and also the possibilities of subject access by open stacks with a physical arrangement of the collection by subject, and online public access catalogs. It concludes with some recommendations to improve the efficiency of subject searching in public libraries.

  2. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  3. CITY BRAND PERSONALITY – AN INTERNATIONAL CONCEPT WITH REGIONAL APPLIANCE IN THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Tugulea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The personality of a city is an important concept to be created and evaluated by local administrators as this should be part of the touristic strategic approach. The aim of this paper is to create a research instrument that allows researchers to define the brand personality of a Romanian city. In order to use one instrument in a specific geographical area, the instrument has to be created using a qualitative research. Three focus groups were conducted in order to identify items to create the research instrument which is presented at the end of the paper. This research is a preliminary step for a future quantitative research that is intended to measure the city brand personality of the city of Iasi. The created instrument can be applied to any Romanian city.

  4. EPA Region 2 AIRS Aerometric Information Retrieval System and the Air Quality System (AIRS/AQS) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ArcGIS 10.2 point feature class contains identification, location and status information for EPA Region 2 facilities (NYS, NJ, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin...

  5. Air pollution exposure and daily clinical visits for allergic rhinitis in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant level exposure and daily clinic visits for allergic rhinitis (AR) in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for AR and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period of 2006-2011. The relative risk for clinic visits for AR was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days (>23ºC) significant positive associations were found for increased rate of AR occurrence and ambient levels of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). On cool days (air pollutants were significantly associated with elevated number of AR visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3, and NO2 were significantly associated with higher rate of AR visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO levels remained significantly related with increased AR visits in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air contaminants enhance the risk of elevated frequency of clinic visits for AR. PMID:27294298

  6. Genotoxicity of environmental air pollution in three European cities: Prague, Košice and Sofia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gábelová, A.; Valovičová, Z.; Horváthová, E.; Slameňová, D.; Binková, Blanka; Šrám, Radim; Farmer, P. B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 563, - (2004), s. 49-59. ISSN 1383-5718 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air borne pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.020, year: 2004

  7. Performance analysis of solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in subtropical city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The meteorological data during the working period of air conditioning was measured. • The suitable working range of collector temperature of system was gotten. • The characteristic of hourly and monthly total efficiency of system were obtained. • The yearly performance of system was calculated. - Abstract: Due to the absence of cooling tower and independent on water, the air cooled solar double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system is more convenient to be used in commercial building and household use. The performance with collector temperature is an important field for such system. The paper mainly deals with the performance with collector temperature for the solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in subtropical city. The parameters of system are: aperture area of collector array is 27 m2, tilted angle of collector with respect to the horizontal plane is 20 toward to south evaporator temperature is 5 °C and the cooling capacity is 20 kW. The simulation is based on the meteorological data of monthly typical day which was summarized from a year round measured data. A corresponding parametric model was developed. The hourly and average performance with the collector temperature for monthly typical day was obtained and discussed. It was found that the suitable working range of inlet temperature of collector is 110–130 °C to improve performance and lower the risk of crystallization. The difference of hourly total efficiency in 9:00–16:00 is less, and the monthly total efficiency from May to October is approximate. The yearly performance of system including total efficiency, cooling capacity per area of collector and solar fraction was given. Furthermore, the effect of effectiveness of heat exchanger and pressure drop on total efficiency and solar fraction was studied and compared. The paper can serve as a preliminary investigation of solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in

  8. Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

  9. Decomposing the profile of PM in two low polluted German cities – Mapping of air mass residence time, focusing on potential long range transport impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to decompose the profile of particulates in Karlsruhe and Potsdam (Germany), focusing on the localization of PM potential transboundary sources. An air mass cluster analysis was implemented, followed by a study of air mass residence time on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Particulate/gaseous daily air pollution and meteorological data were used to indicate PM local sources. Four Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components were produced: traffic, photochemical, industrial/domestic and particulate. PM2.5/PM10 ratio seasonal trends, indicated production of PMCOARSE (PM10–PM2.5) from secondary sources in Potsdam during warm period (WP). The residing areas of incoming slow moving air masses are potential transboundary PM sources. For Karlsruhe those areas were mainly around the city. An air mass residence time secondary peak was observed over Stuttgart. For Potsdam, areas with increased dwelling time of the arriving air parcels were detected particularly above E/SE Germany. - Highlights: • Four components of air pollution were identified by PCA in Karlsruhe and Potsdam. • PMCOARSE production from secondary sources was indicated in Potsdam in warm period. • Associations among slow moving air masses and increased PM10 levels were suggested. • The residing areas of incoming air parcels are potential transboundary PM sources. - This paper implements a mixture of methods, to decompose PM sources in two low polluted German cities

  10. Imported Expertise in World-class Knowledge Infrastructures: The Problematic Development of Knowledge Cities in the Gulf Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosior, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the oil business, settlements in the Gulf Region developed into prosperous cities. But in the near future, oil is off. The plans of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC states bank on diversified and knowledge-intensive economies. Are those development plans realistic? What is the state of the art of knowledge institutions in the GCC countries? Applying the theoretical frameworks of Knowledge City and Science Indicators research, we empirically and theoretically studied the emerging Gulf cities Kuwait City (Kuwait, Manama (Bahrain, Doha (Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah (all UAE, and Muscat (Oman. Our methodological framework includes grounded theory, ethnographic field study, ServQual-like quantitative questionnaires and semi-standardized qualitative interviews conducted on-site with informed people, informetrics, and, finally, the use of official statistics. In particular, we describe and analyze the cities' knowledge infrastructures, their academics, and expenditure on R&D as input indicators; and publications as well as graduates as output indicators. A further crucial aspect of a knowledge society is the transition of graduates into knowledge-intensive public services and private companies.

  11. Air pollution patterns in two cities of Colombia, S. A. according to trace substances content of an epiphyte (Tillandsia recurvata L. ). [Tillandsia recurvata L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrimpff, E.

    1984-01-01

    The air pollution of two major Colombian cities (Medellin and Cali) has been examined by means of 66 samples of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata L., which acts as a biofilter. After performing heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr), pesticides (BHCs, HCB, dieldrine, endrine, DDTs), PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: FA, BaP, IcdP, BghiP) analyses, the results proved the utility of this inconspicuous plant to determine the airborne contamination of both inorganic and organic trace substances. Using principal component analysis, 10 classes of independent pollution sources could be discriminated for both regions: Zn and the PAH; BHCs, endrine and DDTs; Ni and Cr, and (4) to (10) the other contaminants, which resulted to be more or less independent from each other. By means of cluster analysis, 6 to 8 pollutional groups were clustered for heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH separately. The topographic and industrial features of the Cali and Medellin areas are discussed in relation to the regional means of heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH content. While Cali is distinctive of high levels of Pb, Cu, BaP, and pesticides, Medellin is more severely polluted by Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, FA, and IcdP. In comparison to the southern U.S. and Central Europe, both conglomeration areas appear to be heavily polluted by Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and DDTs.

  12. THE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF REGIONAL CITY SIZE DISTRIBUTION: ANDHRA PRADESH (1951-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems with measurable entities are characterized by certain properties of their size distribution. City Size Distribution (CSD and the underlying city size dynamics have received attention in the urban economic literature in recent years. In this approach we aim at evaluating the temporal dynamics of city size distribution in Andhra Pradesh, an Indian state for the period 1951-2001. The research framework-which is based on a function relating population size to rank-is used to test for the trends of deconcentration cities of population over the study period. The expansion methodology is used to investigate the dynamics of rank size function in temporal dimension. We have studied the threshold size and its influence on temporal trends. The size distribution of cities/towns from one period to another is modeled by way of a Markov Chain. Our findings reveal that all places in the urban system are growing with small towns growing at a faster rate during study period. The largest cities and the smallest towns display higher persistence than the medium sized cities.

  13. Regional model of EKC for air pollution: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to investigate a relationship between economic development and air pollution at the regional level, and further suggest energy policies for climate change mitigation. The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis analyzing annual panel data of 16 metropolitan regions in Korea over a 16-year time period. The analysis results show that there is no one-dominant shape of EKC for SO2 and NO2; each region has its own EKC. That is, although we find the potential existence of U-shaped and N-shaped curves, the region-specific coefficients are enormously heterogeneous across regions. For CO, on the other hand, the random coefficient model shows that there is a dominant U-shaped curve across regions. In addition, energy consumption appears to be the most significant variable in explaining air pollution. Based on these results, we assert that environmental policy should consider the different characteristics of each region and type of pollutant. - Highlights: → Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypotheses are tested for air pollution in Korea. → A relationship of economic growth and pollution is analyzed at the regional level. → No-dominant EKC is found for SO2 and NO2, but a dominant U-shaped curve for CO. → Environmental Policy should consider different features of each pollutant and region.

  14. Air-borne radioactive pollutants in twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated with collaboration of Pakistan Science Foundation (PSF) in orderer to ensure safe operation of PINSTECH nuclear facilities, protect the environment and general public from air-borne radioactive pollutants and establish base-line data for Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas. A total of 30 sampling points were initially earmarked and samples were collected from these sites. Radiometric analyses were performed using various measuring techniques. The range of ambient gamma dose was found to be 0.12 to 0.36 Svhr/sup -1/ with an average value of 0.25 +- 0.06 Svhr/sup -1/. The mean values of specific activity for /sup 7/Be and /sup 40/K were 3.7 +- 1.3 and 1.14 +- 0.6 mBq/m/sup 3/ respectively. The activity of /sup 7/Be in air as a function of percent of samples is shown. Analysis of /sup 90/Sr for all the samples showed very little activity. The specific activities of /sup 7/Be were lower that the world average (12.5 mBq/m/sup 3/) and comparable with other countries of the world. /sup 7/Be activity in air as a function of percent of samples. The average specific activity of /sup 40/K was significantly lower than the derived air concentration (6 X 106 mBq/m/sup 3/) reported by IAEA. The data showed that the concentrations of radionuclides in the surveyed area were nominal. Hence, they do not pose any potential health hazard to the environment and general public. (Orig./A.B.)

  15. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Anahí Magdaleno; Ángela Beatriz Juárez; Valeria Dragani; Magalí Elizabeth Saenz; Marta Paz; Juan Moretton

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was per...

  16. The influence of nebulosity on the air pollution in the area of Slatina City

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Maria (Oprea) Constantin; Elena Cofas

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the article is the detailed analysis of the nebulosity and the influence of meteorological parameters on the phenomenon of air pollution in the Slatina area. The nebulosity is described by specific and general climatic parameters: the monthly and annual averages, the monthly average and annual number of sunny days, the monthly average and annual number of cloudy days, the monthly average and annual number of covered days and the frequency monthly and annual average (number of c...

  17. Air pollution trends in the EMEP region between 1990 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Colette, Augustin; Aas, Wenche; Banin, Lindsay; Braban, Christine F.; Ferm, Martin; Gonzalez Ortiz, Alberto; Ilyin, Ilia; Mar, Kathleen; Pandolfi, Marco; Putaud, Jean-Phillippe; Shatalov, Victor; Solberg, Sverre; Spindler, Gerald; Tarasova, Oksana; Vana, Milan

    2016-01-01

    The present report synthesises the main features of the evolution over the 1990-2012 time period of the concentration and deposition of air pollutants relevant in the context of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution: (i) ozone, (ii) sulfur and nitrogen compounds and particulate matter, (iii) heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. It is based on observations gathered in State Parties to the Convention within the EMEP monitoring network of regional background station...

  18. RADON CONCENTRATION IN THE AIR OF NEWLY BUILT AND OPERATING BUILDINGS IN THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu Soloviev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues of radon accumulation in the air of dwellings and public buildings in the Rostov region. It is shown that radon concentration in the air of commissioned buildings does not depend on the season when the investigation was carried out, while equivalent equilibrium volumetric activity of radon in the operating buildings is approximately twice higher during the cold period, then during the hot period of a year.

  19. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    OpenAIRE

    Oikawa, P. Y.; C. Ge; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D.A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whethe...

  20. European atmosphere in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Colette, A.; Bessagnet, B.; R. Vautard; Szopa, S.; Rao, S; Schucht, S.; Z. Klimont; L. Menut; G. Clain; Meleux, F.; Curci, G.; L. Rouïl

    2013-01-01

    To quantify changes in air pollution over Europe at the 2050 horizon, we designed a comprehensive modelling system that captures the external factors considered to be most relevant, and that relies on up-to-date and consistent sets of air pollution and climate policy scenarios. Global and regional climate as well as global chemistry simulations are based on the recent representative concentration pathways (RCP) produced for the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Pane...

  1. Air Pollution and Daily Clinic Visits for Headache in a Subtropical City: Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fen Chiu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between air pollutant levels and daily clinic visits for headache in Taipei, Taiwan. Daily clinic visits for headache and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2011. The odds ratio of clinic visits for headache was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single pollutant models, on warm days (>23 °C statistically significant positive associations were found for increased rate of headache occurrence and levels of particulate matter (PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, carbon monoxide (CO, and ozone (O3. On cool days (<23 °C, all pollutants were significantly associated with increased headache visits except SO2. For the two-pollutant models, PM10, O3 and NO2 were significant for higher rate of headache visits in combination with each of the other four pollutants on cool days. On warm days, CO remained statistically significant in all two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increase the risk of clinic visits for headache.

  2. Estimating High Spatial Resolution Air Temperature for Regions with Limited in situ Data Using MODIS Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Rhee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of land surface temperature and vertical temperature profile data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, to estimate high spatial resolution daily and monthly maximum and minimum 2 m above ground level (AGL air temperatures for regions with limited in situ data was investigated. A diurnal air temperature change model was proposed to consider the differences between the MODIS overpass times and the times of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, resulting in the improvements of the estimation in terms of error values, especially for minimum air temperature. Both land surface temperature and vertical temperature profile data produced relatively high coefficient of determination values and small Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values for air temperature estimation. The correction of the estimates using two gridded datasets, National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and Climate Research Unit (CRU, was performed and the errors were reduced, especially for maximum air temperature. The correction of daily and monthly air temperature estimates using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, however, still produced relatively large error values compared to existing studies, while the correction of monthly air temperature estimates using the CRU data significantly reduced the errors; the MAE values for estimating monthly maximum air temperature range between 1.73 °C and 1.86 °C. Uncorrected land surface temperature generally performed better for estimating monthly minimum air temperature and the MAE values range from 1.18 °C to 1.89 °C. The suggested methodology on a monthly time scale may be applied in many data sparse areas to be used for regional environmental and agricultural studies that require high spatial resolution air temperature data.

  3. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Precipitation Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles in clear and cloudy regions with accuracy which approaches that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model using WRF-Var. Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in clear and partly cloudy regions, and uncontaminated portions of retrievals above clouds in overcast regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts resulting from improved thermodynamic fields. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  4. Source apportionment profile of the fine air particulate pollution in a sampling site in Quezon City (Philippines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air particulate matter (PM10) was monitored and collected at a sampling site in Quezon City, Philippines since 1998 for the purpose of source identification and source apportionment. For such to be achieved, parameters like particulate mass, black carbon, and elemental concentration and identification must be determined. These were attained by using gravimetry, reflectometr, and particle-induced x-ray emissions (PIXE) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), respectively. Source apportionment was attained with the use of Positive Matrix Factorization 2 (PMF2). This resulted to the identification of six air pollution sources. These are vehicular emissions (49%), smoke (14%), secondary S (22%), fine soil (8%) and industry (7%). Data also showed PM10 compliance to the Philippines 1-year guideline value of 60μg m-3 but in excedance of the WHO 1-year guideline value of 20μg m-3. Furthermore, PM2.5 levels are in exceedance of the WHO 1-year guideline value of 15μg m-3 and the WHO 1-year guideline value of 10μg m-3. Also worth noting, particulate lead (Pb) levels of the fine fractions observed to follow a decreasing pattern that coincides well with the introduction of unleaded-gasoline in 1998, and the eventual phase-out of the leaded-gasoline in 2001.(author)

  5. The Organization Culture In The Public Service At The Regional Secretariat Of Samarinda City

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar; Rakhmat; Hamsinah; Tehubijuluw Zacharias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this research to analyzing the process of the management of internal integration in an effort to improve public services in the secretariat of the city .In the research results seen that there are culture of bubuhan familial in the management of internal integration in the secretariat of the city of samarinda through a the creation of a language together and conceptual categories in b the distribution of power and status c establishment norms closeness of a wor...

  6. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

    OpenAIRE

    André Botequilha-Leitão

    2012-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP) and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape) ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues...

  7. Advantages of a city-scale emission inventory for urban air quality research and policy: the case of Nanjing, a typical industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Qiu, L. P.; Xu, R. Y.; Xie, F. J.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, Y. Y.; Nielsen, C. P.; Qin, H. X.; Wang, H. K.; Wu, X. C.; Li, W. Q.; Zhang, J.

    2015-11-01

    With most eastern Chinese cities facing major air quality challenges, there is a strong need for city-scale emission inventories for use in both chemical transport modeling and the development of pollution control policies. In this paper, a high-resolution emission inventory (with a horizontal resolution of 3 × 3 km) of air pollutants and CO2 for Nanjing, a typical large city in the Yangtze River Delta, is developed, incorporating the best available information on local sources. Emission factors and activity data at the unit or facility level are collected and compiled using a thorough on-site survey of major sources. Over 900 individual plants, which account for 97 % of the city's total coal consumption, are identified as point sources, and all of the emission-related parameters including combustion technology, fuel quality, and removal efficiency of air pollution control devices (APCD) are analyzed. New data-collection approaches including continuous emission monitoring systems and real-time monitoring of traffic flows are employed to improve spatiotemporal distribution of emissions. Despite fast growth of energy consumption between 2010 and 2012, relatively small interannual changes in emissions are found for most air pollutants during this period, attributed mainly to benefits of growing APCD deployment and the comparatively strong and improving regulatory oversight of the large point sources that dominate the levels and spatial distributions of Nanjing emissions overall. The improvement of this city-level emission inventory is indicated by comparisons with observations and other inventories at larger spatial scale. Relatively good spatial correlations are found for SO2, NOx, and CO between the city-scale emission estimates and concentrations at nine state-operated monitoring sites (R = 0.58, 0.46, and 0.61, respectively). The emission ratios of specific pollutants including BC to CO, OC to EC, and CO2 to CO compare well to top-down constraints from ground

  8. Importance of transboundary transport of biomass burning emissions to regional air quality in Southeast Asia during a high fire event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerats, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Balasubramanian, R.; Betha, R.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke from biomass and peat burning has a notable impact on ambient air quality and climate in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. We modeled a large fire-induced haze episode in 2006 stemming mostly from Indonesia using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). We focused on the evolution of the fire plume composition and its interaction with the urbanized area of the city state of Singapore, and on comparisons of modeled and measured aerosol and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Two simulations were run with WRF-Chem using the complex volatility basis set (VBS) scheme to reproduce primary and secondary aerosol evolution and concentration. The first simulation referred to as WRF-FIRE included anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) while the second simulation referred to as WRF-NOFIRE was run without emissions from biomass burning. To test model performance, we used three independent data sets for comparison including airborne measurements of particulate matter (PM) with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) in Singapore, CO measurements in Sumatra, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) column observations from four satellite-based sensors. We found reasonable agreement between the model runs and both ground-based measurements of CO and PM10. The comparison with AOD was less favorable and indicated the model underestimated AOD, although the degree of mismatch varied between different satellite data sets. During our study period, forest and peat fires in Sumatra were the main cause of enhanced aerosol concentrations from regional transport over Singapore. Analysis of the biomass burning plume showed high concentrations of primary organic aerosols (POA) with values up to 600 μg m-3 over the fire locations. The concentration of POA remained quite stable within the plume between the main burning region and Singapore while the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration

  9. Prediction of Monthly Mean Surface Air Temperature in a Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Keon-Tae SOHN

    2007-01-01

    In conventional time series analysis, a process is often modeled as three additive components: linear trend, seasonal effect, and random noise. In this paper, we perform an analysis of surface air temperature in a region of China using a decomposition method in time series analysis. Applications to the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Collaborative Reanalysis data in this region of China are discussed. The main finding was that the surface air temperature trend estimated for January 1948 to February 2006 was not statistically significant at 0.5904℃ (100 yr)-1.Forecasting aspects are also considered.

  10. State Rescaling, Contested Space, and Inequality in the Globalizing City-regions of China: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-reform China, the spatial forms of cities are defined by two combined forces—a downward decentralization of responsibility for economic development, and an upward centralization of power to larger urban cores. This process of administrative rescaling is creating an “entrepreneurial urban space” in the city cores and “commercialized towns and villages” in the city margins (McGee et al. 2007. As a result of the rescaling, a form of contested space has emerged, mostly in cities and their immediate margins, where local civil society is constantly resisting or adapting to the Chinese urban expansion manifested through territorial reorganization and boundary redefinition. Cities’ inner margins (suburbs have in particular seen the most dramatic increases in population and manufacturing due to migration, housing development, and industrial relocation. This paper seeks to provide a close dissection of the process of rescaling and the production of these contested urban spaces through a spatial lens. In adopting a comparative and case study approach, this paper analyzes census data from three large city-regions in China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou to explore two questions: (1 whether this rescaling is creating segmentation, displacement, or polarization in residence and work spaces; and (2 at which scales (district or community these spatial outcomes are unfolding. The paper concludes that inequalities are increasingly concentrated in the inner margins, where an entrepreneurial city core meets the self-initiated urban expansion of the towns in the outer margins, and farmers, displaced urbanites, rural migrants, and foreign workers aggregate and compete for space.

  11. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009–2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of...

  12. Air pollution reduction and control in south asia need for a regional agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing urbanization and economic growth, air pollution is becoming an urgent concern in South Asia. The objective of this study is to look into and discuss the socioeconomic situation of South Asia, the existing situation of air pollution in the countries of the region, resulting health impacts of air pollution on the population and the responses, if any, of national governments to combat this problem. With the increase in industrial activity and exponential growth in number of vehicles and population, the contribution of each South Asian country to the regional air pollution will increase over time. As evident from the review of the available country data, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been rising steadily over past few decades. The air pollutants can be transported across state and national boundaries, therefore, pollutants produced by one country can, as well, have adverse impacts on the environment and public health of neighboring countries. It has been reported by the country national health authorities that air pollution has pushed respiratory diseases up in the ranks as the leading cause of hospitalization. To minimize the socio-economic and health impacts, resulting from air pollution, South Asian states have developed environmental legal and regulatory frameworks in their respective countries. However, the implementation of country national environmental action plan has been limited due to lack of financial resources and technical know-how. Recommendations have been made for policy actions, including a legally binding agreement for South Asia (LBA-SA), for strengthening the framework for air pollution reduction at regional and national levels in South Asia. (author)

  13. Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Thermodynamic Profiles on Regional Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Hung; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Jedlovee, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations can be used to improve analyses and lead to better forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), provides temperature and moisture profiles with accuracy comparable to that of radiosondes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to assimilate AIRS thermodynamic profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimension variational (3DVAR) analysis component (WRF-Var). Quality indicators are used to select only the highest quality temperature and moisture profiles for assimilation in both clear and partly cloudy regions. Separate error characteristics for land and water profiles are also used in the assimilation process. Assimilation results indicate that AIRS profiles produce an analysis closer to in situ observations than the background field. Forecasts from a 37-day case study period in the winter of 2007 show that AIRS profile data can lead to improvements in 6-h cumulative precipitation forecasts due to instability added in the forecast soundings by the AIRS profiles. Additionally, in a convective heavy rainfall event from February 2007, assimilation of AIRS profiles produces a more unstable boundary layer resulting in enhanced updrafts in the model. These updrafts produce a squall line and precipitation totals that more closely reflect ground-based observations than a no AIRS control forecast. The location of available high-quality AIRS profiles ahead of approaching storm systems is found to be of paramount importance to the amount of impact the observations will have on the resulting forecasts.

  14. Microenvironmental air and soil monitoring of contaminants: An evaluation of indoor and outdoor levels in Chihuahua City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Rios, Marcos

    Like most of the cities around the world Chihuahua City suffers atmospheric and soil pollution. This is a problem that requires immediate attention from both public authorities and the scientific community. Although it is known that high levels of heavy metals are present in the airborne particulate matter, soil and dust in many urban regions, the information about personal exposure to these pollutants in Chihuahua City is nonexistent. This study focuses on the analysis and characterization of lead and arsenic in the airborne and soil particulate matter present in the interiors of households and their surrounding outdoor environments in the southern part of Chihuahua City. The sampling area chosen for this study was located in the southern part of Chihuahua City. An atmospheric sampling point selected by the Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) was selected as a geographical center, with a 2 km radius forming the sampling area. The households selected for analyses were located on Lombardo Toledano Street, a high-traffic street. The main objectives of this study were to establish the maximum exposure level in outdoor and indoor environments for particulate matter less than 10 mum (PM 10), Pb, and As, to determine the background level of Chihuahua City for these same elements, to determine the isotopic ratios of Pb206 and Pb207 in the indoor and outdoor atmospheric samples, and to verify if the source of the pollution is from anthropogenic and/or natural sources. Additionally, a comparison of the analytical data from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) versus the analytical data from inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was conducted. The comparison of these techniques was based on sample preparation, speed of analysis, and accuracy of results. In the case of sample preparation, two extraction techniques were performed for a comparison of the extraction/leaching of Pb and As from the samples. These microwave

  15. Human diffusion and city influence

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and hierarchy in terms of influence at local, regional or global scales naturally emerges. Traditionally, there have been important efforts to describe this hierarchy by indirect measures such the sharing of company headquarters, traffic by air, train or boats or economical exchanges. In this work, we take a different approach and introduce a method that uses geolocated Twitter information to quantify the impact of cities on rural or other urban areas. Since geolocated tweets are becoming a global phenomenon, the method can be applied at a world-wide scale. We focus on $58$ cities and analyze the mobility patterns of people after visiting them for the first time. Cities such as Rome and Paris appear consistently as those with largest area covered by Twitter users after their visit and as those attracting visitors most diverse in origin. The study is also performed discerning users mobility b...

  16. Assessment of the Air Pollution Level in the City of Rome (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Battista

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to pollutants is usually higher in cities than in the countryside. Generally, in the urban areas pollution sources as traffic, power generator and domestic heating system are more intense and spatially distributed. The pollutants can be classified as a function of long-term toxicological effects due to an exposure and inhalation. In the present work, several kinds of pollutants concentration generated in Rome during 2015 have been analyzed applying different advanced post-processing technique. In particular, statistic and cross-statistic have been computed in time and phase space domain. As main result, it is observed, as expected, that all the pollutant concentrations increase during the winter season into a couple of time ranges despite of [O3] that has high values in summer. It can be clearly concluded that Rome has a strongly unsteady behaviour in terms of a family of pollutant concentration, which fluctuate significantly. It is worth noticing that there is a strong linear dependence between [C6H6] and [NO] and a more complex interdependence of [O3] and [C6H6]. Qualitatively is provided that, to a reduction of [C6H6] under a certain threshold level corresponds an increase of [O3].

  17. Effects of Urbanization Expansion on Landscape Pattern and Region Ecological Risk in Chinese Coastal City: A Case Study of Yantai City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied with remote sensing, GIS, and mathematical statistics, the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of urbanization expansion of Yantai city from 1974 to 2009 was studied. Based on landscape pattern metrics and ecological risk index, the landscape ecological risk from the landscape pattern dynamics was evaluated. The results showed that the area of urban land increased by 189.77 km2 with average expansion area of 5.42 km2 y−1 from 1974 to 2009. The urbanization intensity index during 2004–2009 was 3.92 times of that during 1974–1990. The land use types of urban land and farmland changed greatly. The changes of landscape pattern metrics for land use patterns indicated that the intensity of human activities had strengthened gradually in study period. The landscape ecological risk pattern of Yantai city shaped half-round rings along the coastline. The ecological risk index decreased with increase of the distance to the coastline. The ratio of high ecological risk to subhigh ecological risk zones in 2009 was 2.23 times of that in 1990. The significant linear relationship of urbanization intensity index and regional ecological risk indicated that the anthropological economic activities were decisive factors for sustainable development of costal ecological environment.

  18. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  19. Local-scale variability in regional air quality modelling: Implications on temporal distribution of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Christoph; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2010-05-01

    In the field of air quality modeling, the comparison of model results with ground-based measurements is essential for validation purposes. The usefulness of these measurements for regional air quality modeling is however limited by the extremely local nature of station measurements. This is especially true for short-lived species like NO2, which is of high importance for public health. Nevertheless station observations are the only continuously available source of data on ground level air quality besides model results. Uncertainties in air quality models mainly arise from the lack of precise knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of pollutants. Most emission inventories provide aggregated values for long periods of time and yield no information on the temporal (diurnal) distribution of emissions. By applying ground-based measurements, our study yields optimized diurnal variations of anthropogenic emissions for different urban regions of Germany. In the course of the study the variability of air pollution on the urban scale (the model's subgrid scale) is also addressed. The study applies the newly established POLYPHEMUS/DLR model at a moderate resolution. In the framework of the GMES project "PROMOTE", this model system operationally analyzes and forecasts air quality in Bavaria, Germany. The model employs the latest version of the EMEP emission register in combination with high-resolution emission data provided by Bavarian authorities.

  20. Future anthropogenic pollutant emissions in a Mediterranean port city with emphasis on the maritime sector emissions - Study of the impact on the city air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Markakis, Konstantinos; Giannaros, Theodoros; Karagiannidis, Athanasios; Melas, Dimitrios

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is the estimation of the future emissions in the area of the large urban center of Thessaloniki (Greece) with emphasis on the emissions originated from the maritime sector within the port area of the city which are presented in detail. In addition, the contribution of the future anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric pollution levels in Thessaloniki focusing on PM levels is studied. A 2km spatial resolution anthropogenic gaseous and particulate matter emission inventory has been compiled for the port city of Thessaloniki for the year 2010 with the anthropogenic emission model MOSESS, developed by Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. MOSESS was used for the estimation of emissions from several emission sources (road transport, central heating, industries, maritime sector etc) while the natural emission model NEMO was implemented for the calculation of dust, sea salt and biogenic emissions. Maritime emissions originated from the various processes inside the area of the port (harbor operations such as stockpiles, loading/unloading operations, machineries etc) as well as from the maritime transport sector including passenger ships, cargo shipping, inland waterways vessels (e.g. pleasure crafts) and fish catching ships. Ship emissions were estimated for the three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by local and national authorities (e.g.Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A.). Pollutant anthropogenic emissions were projected to the year 2020. The emissions from all the anthropogenic sources except for the maritime sector were projected using factors provided by the GAINS model. Future emissions from the maritime activities were estimated on the basis of the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and of the legislation for shipping in the future. Future maritime emissions are determined by the vessels