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Sample records for aire sedimentos viales

  1. Metal pollution (Pb, Zn, Ni and Cr) in air, road and soil sediment in a high traffic area; Contaminacion por metales (Pb, Zn, Ni y Cr) en aire, sedimentos viales y suelo en una zona de alto trafico vehicular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchado, Anali; Garcia, Neyma; Garcia, Cezar; Acosta, Lorena; Cordova, Alberto; Linares, Maria; Giraldoth, Debora [Centro de Investigaciones CEDEGAS, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)]. E-mail: analimachado@yahoo.com; amachadop@luz.edu.ve; Velasquez, Harvi [Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2008-11-15

    Due to the important health effects of inhalable particles (PM10) and its associated metals, levels of four trace metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr) generated by mobile sources with variable toxicity incorporated to PM10 atmospheric samples in a high density traffic area were evaluated. Samples were collected at two different sites (being considered as emission and dispersion areas) during a dry-wet season period, using a low volume air sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters; after an acid extraction, samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. PM10 concentrations were two times higher in the emission area than in the dispersion area for both climatic regimens, but exhibited a better correlation between sites during the dry season. All the elements showed statistically significant differences between monitoring sites. On the other hand, when the total sampling period for PM10 is compared for all the tested metals, significant differences between sites and between meteorological seasons can be appreciated. The Venezuelan air quality standard for Pb was not exceeded, but a mean concentration of 1.13 {mu}g/m{sup 3} -very close to Venezuelan and USEPA standard- was obtained at the emission site. Nevertheless, Pb and Ni reported levels for both locations were above the Organizacion Mundial de la Salud (OMS) allowed limit during the whole sampling period. Further, the statistical analysis demonstrated the selection of the monitoring areas was adequate, confirming that motor vehicles are the main emission source of these atmospheric pollutants. [Spanish] Debido a la importancia del efecto sobre la salud de las particulas inhalables PM10 y los metales asociados a ellas, se evaluaron los niveles de cuatro metales traza (Pb, Ni, Zn y Cr) generados por fuentes moviles de dichas particulas, en sedimentos viales y suelo en una zona de alta densidad vehicular. Las muestras fueron colectadas en los sitios considerados como de emision y dispersion durante las epocas de

  2. Contaminación por metales pesados en los sedimentos acumulados sobre el corredor vial Bogotá - Soacha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Road sediments accumulated in dry weather carry metallic elements, which affects water resources when transported by runoff and deteriorates the air quality when suspended by wind and the turbulence induced by traffic. This paper presents the results of a pollution assessment on heavy metal particles associated to road sediment from two particular areas (i.e. Zones 1 and 2 of the Bogotá-Soacha highway (Colombia. Road sediment was collected in each area by direct sweep over a surface of 0.25 m2 and for a period of four months. The concentration of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ba and Pb was determined per size fraction (less than 250 µm from road sediment. These figures were obtained by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry and also by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results suggest that the main origin of heavy metals were the mobile sources (i.e. the wear of tires, brake pads and automotive parts. In addition, it is shown that the concentration of Pb and Zn was higher than that allowed by current regulations (used as reference. With regard to urban soils, heavy metals that exceeded the permissible limits were as follows: Pb (21.7 % and 87.0 % of the time in Zones 1 and 2, respectively and Zn (84.8 % and 82.6 % of the time in Zones 1 and 2, respectively.

  3. Seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2012-01-01

    Cada año, más de 1,3 millones de personas mueren en las carreteras del mundo y aproximadamente 50 millones de personas resultan lesionadas. Cada seis segundos, alguien muere o sufre traumatismos por falta de seguridad vial y más del 90% de estas incidencias se producen en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos. Este folleto presenta los objetivos y áreas de acción de la Iniciativa de Seguridad Vial del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID).

  4. Magnetismo de rocas en sedimentos cenozoicos tardíos en San Antonio de Areco, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Walther

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio geológico y geofísico en sedimentos fluviales postpampeanos, en la margen derecha del río Areco. La secuencia estudiada está compuesta por el Miembro Guerrero y el Miembro Río Salado de la Formación Luján, donde hay desarrolladas tres unidades pedogenéticas. de los estudios efectuados surge que los procesos pedogenéticos afectaron al material parental empobreciéndolo en los minerales ferrimagnéticos detríticos (magnetita y/o titanomagnetitas y generando neominerales de dos tipos: antiferromagnéticos y ferrimagnéticos. En el caso de los minerales ferrimagnéticos se trata de partículas de magnetita ultrafina (estado de dominio magnético superparamagnético, tamaño de grano aproximado en 0,01 mm formados durante los períodos de excesos de agua. Los minerales antiferromagnéticos (hematita y/o goethita se generaron en los periodos de grandes deficiencias hídricas. La presencia de estos minerales estaría indicando un clima cálido y húmedo con una marcada estación seca. El paleosuelo más antiguo se desarrolló sobre el Miembro Guerrero, se correlaciona con el Suelo Puesto Callejón Viejo el cual tendría una edad entre 10000 y 8000 años AP, en este perfil, mientras que el Miembro Río Salado y los dos paleosuelos en él desarrollados se habrían depositado y edafizado durante el período cálido denominado Megatermal entre los 9000 y los 7000 años AP.

  5. Registros paleomagnéticos y paleontológicos en sedimentos loessoides del Pleistoceno-Holoceno en el "Estadio Ciudad de La Plata", provincia de Buenos Aires, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bidegain

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentos de edad cuaternaria expuestos en la excavación de la obra "Estadio Ciudad de La Plata", 34º 57' 00" LS, 57º 57'40" LO, fueron estudiados mediante aplicación de la metodología paleomagnética convencional. Los vertebrados fósiles encontrados en los niveles basales de la secuencia sedimentaría corresponden a Scelidotheriinae ind., Doedicurus sp. y Panochthus intermedius, el último constituye el ejemplar más grande de Glyptodontidae registrado en la zona. De acuerdo a los datos paleomagnéticos los fósiles indicados quedan comprendidos en la zona de polaridad reversa que en el presente trabajo se asigna a la cronozona de Matuyama ( >0,78 Ma. El límite Brunhes / Matuyama se determinó a 4,6 m de profundidad desde el suelo actual. En virtud de esto, el registro sedimentario correspondiente a Brunhes es el de menor potencia obtenido para la región de La Plata. Al igual que lo observado en otras localidades de la provincia de Buenos Aires, la parte superior de la Zona Reversa de Matuyama coincide con el desarrollo de un paleosuelo (ciclo húmedo y la parte inferior de Brunhes con condiciones de clima más seco, que dieron lugar a capas de loess y sedimentos loessoides que se asocian a estadíos glaciales en la Cordillera y Patagonia.

  6. Effectiveness of Needleless Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, M.; Bayuse, T.

    2010-01-01

    Fluid Isolation in the medication vial: Air/ fluid isolation maneuvers were used to move the medication to the septum end of vial. This isolation may be achieved in multiple ways based on the experience of the astronaut with fluid management in microgravity. If vial adaptors/blunt cannula or syringe assembly is inserted into the to vial before fluid isolation commences, the stability of this assembly should be considered in an effort to limit the risk of "slinging off" of the vial during isolation. Alternatively, fluid isolation can be performed prior to attaching the syringe/vial adaptor assembly. Terrestrial practices for medication withdrawal from a nonvented vial require injection of an equivalent amount of air as the expected medication volume prior to withdrawing liquid. In microgravity, this action is still valid, however the injection of additional air into the vial creates a multitude of micro bubbles and increases the volume of medication mixed with air that then must be withdrawn to achieve the desired drug volume in syringe. This practice is more likely to be required when using vials >30ml in size and injection volumes >10mL. It is felt that based on the microgravity flight, the practice of air injection is more of a hindrance than help.

  7. Mineralogía magnética y registros de susceptibilidad en sedimentos cuaternarios de polaridad normal (Brunhes y reversa (Matuyama de la cantera de Juárez, provincia de Buenos Aires Magnetic mineralogy and susceptibility records in Quaternary sediments of normal (Brunhes and reverse (Matuyama polarity in the Juarez quarry, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Bidegain

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Los sedimentos expuestos en la cantera de Juárez, situada en el partido de La Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires, (34°57'0''S y 57º53'00'' O son del Pleistoceno y Holoceno. Las unidades sedimentarias corresponden a la Formación Ensenada, a la Formación Buenos Aires y al post-Pampeano. La primera, es de polaridad reversa (Matuyama en la base y normal (Brunhes en la parte superior, la Formación Buenos Aires y los sedimentos del post-Pampeano son de polaridad normal (Brunhes. Los valores de susceptibilidad más elevados se obtienen en el loess de la Formación Ensenada (189 x 10-8 m³/kg, los más bajos en los sedimentos de la Formación Buenos Aires (11 x 10-8 m³/kg y en paleosuelos hidromórficos de la Formación Ensenada (30 y 50 x 10-8 m³/kg, en ambos casos, asociados a condiciones climáticas de mayor humedad relativa. El incremento de los valores magnéticos en la fracción limo mediano a grueso, refleja el predominio de fuertes vientos como agente de transporte de los minerales ferromagnéticos en períodos de mayor aridez de los períodos glaciales. La susceptibilidad dependiente de la frecuencia (factor F varía entre 0 % y 6,45 %. Los registros del factor F más elevados se obtienen en horizontes con mayor grado de meteorización de períodos interglaciales, no obstante, están en una posición intermedia con respecto a los de Siberia y China. Esta particularidad nos permite sugerir la existencia de un tercer modelo de comportamiento de la susceptibilidad en relación a los climas del Cuaternario: el modelo de los fuertes vientos modificado por los procesos pedológicos en latitudes medias.Sediments exposed in the Juárez quarry of Buenos Aires Province (34°57'10''S and 57º53'00'' W, belong to the Pleistocene and Holocene. The sedimentary units are those of the Ensenada and Buenos Aires formations and the so-called Post-Pampean. The Ensenada Formation has reversed polarity (Matuyama at the bottom of the exposed sequence and normal

  8. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  9. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency. PMID:26502885

  10. MDBs - Iniciativa de seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Diez-Roux

    2012-01-01

    Este documento es una presentación de Esteban Diez-Roux, especialista principal de Transporte como representante de los Bancos Multilaterales de Desarrollo en el contexto del Tercer Congreso Iberoamericano de Seguridad Vial (CISEV). Este evento facilita el encuentro de los gobiernos en la región para buscar soluciones eficaces, conocer e intercambiar información, compartir conocimientos, además de promover mejores prácticas. De igual forma proporciona el escenario adecuado para promover las p...

  11. Magnetismo de rocas en sedimentos cenozoicos tardíos en San Antonio de Areco, provincia de Buenos Aires Rock magnetism in late Cenozoic sediments at San Antonio de Areco, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Walther

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio geológico y geofísico en sedimentos fluviales postpampeanos, en la margen derecha del río Areco. La secuencia estudiada está compuesta por el Miembro Guerrero y el Miembro Río Salado de la Formación Luján, donde hay desarrolladas tres unidades pedogenéticas. de los estudios efectuados surge que los procesos pedogenéticos afectaron al material parental empobreciéndolo en los minerales ferrimagnéticos detríticos (magnetita y/o titanomagnetitas y generando neominerales de dos tipos: antiferromagnéticos y ferrimagnéticos. En el caso de los minerales ferrimagnéticos se trata de partículas de magnetita ultrafina (estado de dominio magnético superparamagnético, tamaño de grano aproximado en 0,01 mm formados durante los períodos de excesos de agua. Los minerales antiferromagnéticos (hematita y/o goethita se generaron en los periodos de grandes deficiencias hídricas. La presencia de estos minerales estaría indicando un clima cálido y húmedo con una marcada estación seca. El paleosuelo más antiguo se desarrolló sobre el Miembro Guerrero, se correlaciona con el Suelo Puesto Callejón Viejo el cual tendría una edad entre 10000 y 8000 años AP, en este perfil, mientras que el Miembro Río Salado y los dos paleosuelos en él desarrollados se habrían depositado y edafizado durante el período cálido denominado Megatermal entre los 9000 y los 7000 años AP.A geological and geophysical study in fluvial post-pampean sediments cropping out on the right bank of the Río Areco was carried out. The sequence studied comprises the Guerrero and Río Salado members of the Luján Formation, in which three palaeosols are developed. The geophysical studies suggest an impoverishment of the detrital ferrimagnetic minerals (magnetite and titanomagnetite in the parent material, due to the action of pedogenic processes, accompanied by the generation of two neominerales, one antiferromagnetic and the other ferrimagnetic. The

  12. Drawing medicine out of a vial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000530.htm Drawing medicine out of a vial To use the sharing ... a clean area. Wash your hands. Check Your Medicine Carefully check your medicine: Check the label. Make ...

  13. INTEGRITY OF VOA-VIAL SEALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preservation of soil samples for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) requires both the inhibition of VOC degradation and the restriction of vapor movement in or out of the sample container. Clear, 40,mL glass VOA vials manufactured by the four major U.S. glass manu...

  14. Vial freeze-drying, part 1: new insights into heat transfer characteristics of tubing and molded vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Wagner, Christophe; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-03-01

    In order to optimize a freeze-drying cycle, information regarding the heat transfer characteristics of the container system is imperative. Two most recently developed tubing (TopLyo™) and molded (EasyLyo™) vial designs were compared with a standard serum tubing and molded vial, a polymer vial (TopPac™), and an amber molded EasyLyo™. In addition, the impact of methodology on the determination of reliable vial heat transfer coefficient (K(v) ) data is examined in detail. All K(v) s were gravimetrically determined by sublimation tests with pure water at 50, 100, 200, and 400 mTorr. In contrast to the traditional assumption that molded vials exhibit inefficient heat transfer characteristics, these vials showed a very similar performance compared with their serum tubing counterparts in the relevant pressure range for freeze-drying. At 100 mTorr, the TopLyo™ center vials show only 4% higher K(v) values than the EasyLyo™ center vials. All glass vials outmatch the polymer vial in terms of heat transfer, up to 30% elevated heat transfer for the TopLyo™ center vials at 400 mTorr. Sublimation tests have demonstrated to be a valuable tool to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of vials, but results are dependent on methodology. New developments in molded vial manufacturing lead to improved heat transfer performance.

  15. Radioactivity measurement with a plastic scintillation vial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Liquid scintillation counting method is commonly used to measure radioactivity especially for beta emitters because of its high sensitivity. However, since the sample should be mixed with scintillation cocktail of organic liquid, there are problems that the sample could not be recovered and radioactive organic liquid waste is produced. The radioactive waste is usually burned with a specially designed incinerator, so that it needs costs and labor. To resolve the problems, I tried to develop a novel method to measure radioactivity using liquid scintillation counter without scintillation cocktail, and investigated the feasibility of the method. Method: A cylindrical plastic scintillator with well was installed in a counting vial, which is named 'ScintiVial' Sample contained in a 1500 μL microtube was put in the ScintiVial, and was measured with a liquid scintillation counter. Samples including 200-800 Bq of 32P in 25-1300 μL of solution and 900 Bq of 125I in 100 μL solution were measured using the ScintiVial. Results and Discussion: The counting efficiency for 25-1300 μL of 32P was 28-10%, and that for 100 μL of 125I was 3%. The counting efficiency was decreased with the increase of the sample volume. The pulse height distribution of the ScintiVial was similar to that of usual liquid scintillation of the nuclide in question. The microtube, commonly known as 'Eppendorf tube', for containing the sample is widely used for experiments of chemistry etc., and also used to contain most of labeled compounds. Using the ScintiVial made them possible that the sample on an experiment may be measured as it is and the sample may be recovered and reused. In addition, the method will not produce any radioactive organic liquid waste. Not producing the active organic liquid will eliminate the load for its incineration, and then CO2 with the incineration will not be generated. Therefore, the method will potentially assist the resolution of the environmental problem

  16. Sedimentos: errores cometidos en el proceso productivo de Vodka

    OpenAIRE

    Idania Blanco; Bárbara S. Gregory; Raimundo Guardarrama; María del C. Vasallo

    2008-01-01

    Los sedimentos en las bebidas alcohólicas destiladas son, en su mayoría, errores que se cometen en el proceso productivo, los cuales afectan la calidad de las mismas. Éstos fundamentalmente son sustancias coloidales, que dependiendo de diferentes factores pueden precipitar formando sedimentos en el producto ya envasado. En la producción de bebidas alcohólicas destiladas es de vital importancia seguir todas las especificaciones de calidad establecidas para cada una de las materias primas e ins...

  17. Plan de Movilidad Laboral y Seguridad Vial

    OpenAIRE

    Pinedo Alonso, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Máster queda englobado dentro de la seguridad en el trabajo, que es una de las especialidades en las que se mueve la prevención de riesgos laborales. El trabajo se titula “Plan de Movilidad Labora y Seguridad Vial”. En él se desarrolla un plan de movilidad, desde el punto inicial que es plantear la problemática de los accidentes de tráfico e indicar los objetivos del plan: reducción de los accidentes viales, mejora en las condiciones de los desplazamientos, disminución del i...

  18. Drogas ilegales, alcohol y agresividad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Benavidez Rodríguez, Daniela; Gómez Talegón, María Trinidad; Fierro Lorenzo, Inmaculada; Álvarez González, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    El consumo de alcohol, cocaína y cannabis se asocia a comportamientos agresivos, a ser víctima de lesiones de diversas causas, y a accidentes de tráfi co, pero existen pocos estudios acerca de cómo afecta el consumo de estas sustancias la experiencia de agresividad vial. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la bibliografía existente sobre el tema y extraer conclusiones claras respecto de su verdadero impacto. Se analizaron cinco publicaciones. Más de un tercio de los conduct...

  19. Sucesión sedimento-pedológica del Cenozoico Tardío de Zárate (Buenos Aires: registro continental del MIS 5 e intervalos interglaciales más antiguos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Rita Tófalo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la reconstrucción de una secuencia de procesos pedosedimentarios de una sección del Cuaternario Tardío en las proximidades de la localidad de Zárate con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento de la evolución del paisaje en el sector norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Para ello se integraron observaciones de campo con estudios de laboratorio: tamaño de grano, mineralogía de las fracciones arena, limo y arcilla, micromorfología, concentraciones de Rb y Sr, análisis por luminiscencia óptica (OSL y un estudio paleomagnético preliminar. Los paleosuelos se desarrollaron en loess y se observaron cuatro claras interrupciones en la sedimentación y generación de los mismos, que determinaron cuatro unidades con distintos tipos de calcretes. Los paleosuelos soldados desarrollados en la unidad C pueden correlacionarse con los observados en Baradero (provincia de Buenos Aires y Lozada (provincia de Córdoba y corresponderían al estadío isotópico 5 (MIS 5, último intervalo interglacial antes del presente, determinado en testigos marinos. El aumento de la relación Rb/Sr indica alteraciones ocurridas durante los procesos de meteorización química y en general se incrementa en los niveles de paleosuelos. Los niveles de calcretes de aguas subterráneas y pedogénicos y su asociación con esmectita, illita y óxido férrico indican que el clima habría sido más seco que el actual y marcadamente estacional. Finalmente, se sugiere la posible correlación de uno de los paleosuelos estudiados con el estadío isotópico 11 (MIS 11.

  20. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R;

    2015-01-01

    -1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT......(S): Test vial volume of 50 μL yielded lower CS than other volumes tested. Cryosurvival of 100 μL was similar to that of larger volumes tested. An intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C for 20 minutes) during cryopreservation did not affect post-thaw motility. Cryosurvival of TVs and ARTVs from...... not affect CS. CONCLUSION(S): This study provides experimental evidence for use of a single 100 μL TV per patient to predict CS when freezing multiple ejaculates over a short period of time (

  1. Sedimentos: errores cometidos en el proceso productivo de Vodka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Blanco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sedimentos en las bebidas alcohólicas destiladas son, en su mayoría, errores que se cometen en el proceso productivo, los cuales afectan la calidad de las mismas. Éstos fundamentalmente son sustancias coloidales, que dependiendo de diferentes factores pueden precipitar formando sedimentos en el producto ya envasado. En la producción de bebidas alcohólicas destiladas es de vital importancia seguir todas las especificaciones de calidad establecidas para cada una de las materias primas e insumos que se utilizan. Se detectó en una muestra la presencia de sedimentos en forma de pequeñas agujas o escamas de color blanco nacaradas, que se analizaron mediante espectrometría IR. Se demostró que el origen de los mismos provenía de las botellas que se utilizaron para guardar las muestras testigos de los lotes producidos, ya que las mismas no eran las recomendadas para almacenar el producto, ni les fue realizado la fase de lavado en la forma que se recomienda.

  2. Salud vial: ¿el conductor a terapia?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Calatayud Miñana, Constanza; Alamar Rocatí, Beatriz; Fernández Fernández, Cesáreo; Medina Sarmiento, José Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    El Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Tráfico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS) y Attitudes (programa social de Audi), tras la publicación de los libros "Salud vial: Teoría y prácticas de los trastornos físicos y psíquicos en la conducción." y "Salud vial: Diagnóstico de los conductores españoles.", se plantearon como actividad complementaria la realización de unas jornadas que cumplieran los siguientes objetivos: • Permitir avanzar en el conocimiento y la implementación de medidas que co...

  3. An assay for measurement of protein adsorption to glass vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmette, Elizabeth; Strony, Brianne; Haines, Daniel; Redkar, Rajendra

    2010-01-01

    Protein adsorption to primary packaging is one of the problems faced by biopharmaceutical drug companies. An assay was developed to quantify loss of proteins to glass vial surfaces. The assay involves the labeling of protein with a fluorescent dye, incubation of the labeled protein with the vial surface, elution of the adsorbed protein using a stripping buffer, and determination of fluorescence of the adsorbed protein using a fluorometer. The assay is simple to set up, accurate, sensitive, and flexible. The assay can be modified for indirect measurement of protein adsorption and offers an attractive alternative for researchers to quantify protein adsorption to glass vials and syringes. PMID:21502031

  4. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  5. La educación vial en Primaria

    OpenAIRE

    Concejo Vera, Pedro José

    2015-01-01

    Con este Trabajo de Fin de Grado de Maestro en Educación Primaria pretendo hacer una propuesta de intervención basada en la educación vial, así mismo este proyecto busca lograr la formación integral de los alumnos en el ámbito de la educación vial y con ello lograr que los alumnos sean capaces de desenvolverse con seguridad dentro de su ciudad, por ello se realizarán experiencias próximas ligadas al contexto en el que viven para lograr que adquieran hábitos seguros y de prevenc...

  6. Dosing Accuracy of Insulin Pens Versus Conventional Syringes and Vials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. Luijf; J.H. Devries

    2010-01-01

    Pen injection devices have acquired a pivotal role in insulin delivery, surpassing the use of conventional insulin syringes in many parts of the world. In this review we sought to determine differences in dosing accuracy between insulin pens and conventional syringes and vials, also touching on pati

  7. UNA APROXIMACION AL COMPORTAMIENTO VIAL DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DURKHEIMIANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ramón Paiva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende analiza casos de procesos y dramas sociales vinculados  a eventos generados en la vía pública, donde el comportamientos de conductores y peatones está atravesado por reglas y valores que más allá de estar legislada por las leyes y normas de tránsito, se sitúa en los preceptos de una vida moral laica que actúa restituyendo el orden público/vial frente a cualquier acto que lo amenace. En este sentido se apela a conceptos como el de solidaridad, moralidad y anomia. Por último se reflexiona sobre la transgresión a las normas viales.

  8. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las lesiones viales

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de las lesiones viales, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  9. Nota técnica: Seguridad vial: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2011-01-01

    Esta nota sectorial ha servido de apoyo para el dialogo con el Gobierno Chileno en la preparación de la estrategia país del BID con Chile 2011-2014. En este se describe el estado de la situación de la seguridad vial en el país, se realiza un diagnostico del sector, se exponen los desafíos de desarrollo y se realizan recomendaciones de política.

  10. Red Vial de Nicaragua (Optimización y Mantenimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La red vial es un patrimonio nacional, el cual es necesario: proteger, conservar, aumentar y mejorar; para apoyar eldesarrollo socioeconómico de nuestro país. La actividad de mantenimiento, constituye un factor determinante quegarantiza la operación satisfactoria del transporte durante la vida útil de los caminos; en sus diferentes modalidades. La ausencia de un mantenimiento preventivo y de un mantenimiento correctivo tardío, conduce a que la inversiónrealizada sufra una depreciación más acelerada, acortando su vida útil; obteniendo un grado de aprovechamientomenor que se traduce en una disminución de los beneficios estimados, ya que la rentabilidad no podrá ser óptima aldescuidar esta función. “Con frecuencia, los costos operativos de los vehículos, excederán los costos de losdepartamentos viales por un factor de 10 o màs, especialmente en carreteras de gran volumen de trànsito”.(Zaniewski, 1989. Por lo tanto, los costos (economía de los usuarios deben ser tomados en cuenta al momento deproyectar la construcción de una carretera. Por tal razón el Gobierno de Nicaragua, en conjunto con lasinstituciones correspondientes, han asumido un rol prioritario en la ejecución y mantenimiento de la red vial. Esteensayo pretende aportar elementos cuantitativos y cualitativos, para el análisis y mejoramiento de la Red Vial.

  11. Sucesión sedimento-pedológica del Cenozoico Tardío de Zárate (Buenos Aires: registro continental del MIS 5 e intervalos interglaciales más antiguos A pedosedimentary succession of the Late Cenozoic of Zárate (Buenos Aires: continental record of the MIS5 and older inter glacial intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Rita Tófalo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la reconstrucción de una secuencia de procesos pedosedimentarios de una sección del Cuaternario Tardío en las proximidades de la localidad de Zárate con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento de la evolución del paisaje en el sector norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Para ello se integraron observaciones de campo con estudios de laboratorio: tamaño de grano, mineralogía de las fracciones arena, limo y arcilla, micromorfología, concentraciones de Rb y Sr, análisis por luminiscencia óptica (OSL y un estudio paleomagnético preliminar. Los paleosuelos se desarrollaron en loess y se observaron cuatro claras interrupciones en la sedimentación y generación de los mismos, que determinaron cuatro unidades con distintos tipos de calcretes. Los paleosuelos soldados desarrollados en la unidad C pueden correlacionarse con los observados en Baradero (provincia de Buenos Aires y Lozada (provincia de Córdoba y corresponderían al estadío isotópico 5 (MIS 5, último intervalo interglacial antes del presente, determinado en testigos marinos. El aumento de la relación Rb/Sr indica alteraciones ocurridas durante los procesos de meteorización química y en general se incrementa en los niveles de paleosuelos. Los niveles de calcretes de aguas subterráneas y pedogénicos y su asociación con esmectita, illita y óxido férrico indican que el clima habría sido más seco que el actual y marcadamente estacional. Finalmente, se sugiere la posible correlación de uno de los paleosuelos estudiados con el estadío isotópico 11 (MIS 11.Pedosedimentary processes, recorded in a late Quaternary section near Zarate city, north Buenos Aires province are reconstructed in this study. Both field features and laboratory results were analyzed as a whole. Grain size, sand, silt and clay mineralogy, micromorphology, Rb and Sr concentrations, optical stimulated luminescence (OSL ages as well as preliminary paleomagnetic analysis were performed in order

  12. Edificio de oficinas. Viale di Trastevere – Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafuente, Julio G.

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available El solar, largo y estrecho, en esquina a Viale di Trastevere y Via Carlo Porta, y con fachada posterior a amplio patio de manzana, ha permitido resolver el bloque de viviendas en tres unidades alineadas, cada una de cuyas escaleras da acceso a dos viviendas por planta. No obstante, al exterior, el conjunto ha sido concebido con gran unidad de composición, jugando un papel importante el ritmo vigoroso de terrazas y paños ciegos de fábrica de ladrillo de sus miradores.

  13. Desarrollo de proyectos viales y aportes del estado en terrenos

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Marulanda; Miguel Montes

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo tiene como objetivo central identificar las condiciones bajo las cuales es factible que el aporte estatal a un proyecto vial (en el contexto de asociaciones público privadas) esté representado por cesión de terrenos y derechos de uso exclusivo de los mismos en zonas aledañas a una carretera concesionada. En el desarrollo del trabajo, se busca, en particular: 1) Identificar los aspectos críticos que se deben prever para organizar los concursos, valorar y negociar los aportes públ...

  14. Seguridad vial en el ámbito universitario

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Murcia, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    La Universidad politécnica de Cartagena, junto con la Universidad de Murcia, van desarrollando de manera conjunta e interdisciplinar, los estudios de Master de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales; entre la carga de contenidos que se desarrollan en dichas enseñanzas superiores, hay un bloque de contenidos dedicados a la Seguridad Vial, dicha seguridad se desarrolla tanto en el ámbito del uso privado y personal de vehículos como en el ámbito laboral, dándose por lo tanto la situación...

  15. La protección penal de la seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Cazorla, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    En esta tesis se pretende analizar si la seguridad vial, y en concreto la conducción con exceso de velocidad, merece protección penal o por el contrario basta con la ofrecida por el Derecho administrativo. Contenido: El trabajo está dividido en siete capítulos además de una introducción y unas conclusiones finales. La introducción contiene la explicación del contenido y estructura de todo el trabajo, y con ella es suficiente para conocer qué encontraremos a lo largo de todos los capítu...

  16. Plan de movilidad y seguridad vial en la empresa

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanuy Aguilera, Jose Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El Plan de Movilidad y Seguridad Vial, se presenta como una herramienta práctica y fácil de implementar en la empresa, para avanzar en materia de seguridad y salud de los trabajadores en sus traslados de su vivienda al trabajo y viceversa, así como en los desplazamientos debido a sus actividades inherentes al trabajo. Facilita por tanto la gestión de movilidad de los trabajadores, así como prevenir, reducir o paliar los accidentes de tráfico laboral tanto en desplazamientos en ...

  17. Vaccine Wastage Assessment After Introduction of Open Vial Policy in Surat Municipal Corporation Area of India

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Prakash B.; Jayesh J. Rana; Jangid, Sunil G.; Neha R. Bavarva; Patel, Manan J.; Raj Kumar Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Background As per the vaccine management policy of the Government of India all vaccine vials opened for an immunization session were discarded at the end of that session, irrespective of the type of vaccine or the number of doses remaining in the vial prior to 2013. Subsequently, open vial policy (OVP) was introduced in 2013 and should reduce both vaccine wastage as well as governmental healthcare costs for immunization. This study evaluates the vaccine wastage after introduction of the O...

  18. Determination of growth value thresholds for BACTEC PLUS aerobic blood culture vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, J E; Metchock, B G

    1992-04-01

    Growth value thresholds used to identify positive blood culture vials can be defined by users for each BACTEC NR-660 bacteremia detection instrument. Growth values were compared with the recovery of organisms from vials flagged as positive during the testing of 3.056 high-volume vials containing aerobic (BACTEC PLUS 26) medium over a 2-month period. Results showed that optimal threshold values for our use of these vials varied from those recommended by the manufacturer; if the thresholds defined from these data had been used during the study period, total vials flagged as positive from which no organisms were recovered (false alarms) would have been reduced from 181 (5.9/100 vials tested) to 71 (2.3/100 vials tested), with a minimal decrease in the identification of vials containing usual or occasional pathogens (hits). Adjustments of growth value thresholds by the individual user can make the use of BACTEC instruments more efficient by decreasing further processing of vials from which no organisms are recovered. PMID:1572964

  19. Profile of radiopharmaceutical single vial dried-kit of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc-ciprofloxacin) is used in nuclear medicine to diagnose infection by imaging method. This radiopharmaceutical is available in the dried-kit which is packed in a single vial and the preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into the dried-kit. The aim of this research was to know the profile of single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceutical of ciprofloxacin. The preparation of the dried-kit using lyophilized method has been carried out. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was determined by double chromatography system using Whatman I/methyl ethyl ketone and ITLC-SG with ethanol - water - ammonia (2:5:1) as a mobile phase. The stability test on 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, in-vitro stability in plasma and the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purity. Studies on the effect of volume on Na99mTcO4 solution to the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiochemical purity, and sterility test of the dried-kit had also been carried out. The lyophilized process has made the single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceuticals sterile and vacuum. The result showed that 99mTc-ciprofloxacin contained 92.07 ± 1.39% of radiochemical purity, which was stable for 30 minutes either at room temperature (26 ± 1°C ) or at 4 ± 1°C in storage. In-vitro stability test of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in plasma indicated that more than 90% of the radiochemical purity was still stable until 5 hours of storage. Utilization of Na99mTcO4 volume was more than 1.6 mL on the labelling of ciprofloxacin dried-kit gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. Studies on the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit showed that the kit remained stable with the radiochemical purity more than 90 % after 17 weeks of storage 4 ± 2°C . (author)

  20. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  1. Vial OrganicTM-Organic Chemistry Labs for High School and Junior College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Thomas J.; Meszaros, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Vial Organic is the most economical, safe, and time-effective method of performing organic chemistry experiments. Activities are carried out in low-cost, sealed vials. Vial Organic is extremely safe because only micro quantities of reactants are used, reactants are contained in tightly sealed vials, and only water baths are used for temperature control. Vial Organic laboratory activities are easily performed within one 50-minute class period. When heat is required, a simple hot-water bath is prepared from a beaker of water and an inexpensive immersion heater. The low cost, ease of use, and relatively short time requirement will allow organic chemistry to be experienced by more students with less confusion and intimidation.

  2. Inventario de deslizamientos en la red vial colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Montero O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El Ministerio de Obres Públicas y Transporte solicitó en 1985 a la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en Bogotá, la realización de una investigación piloto sobre los deslizamientos que afectan la red vial nacional, en desarrollo de la cual se efectuó un inventario de los deslizamientos y movimientos de masa más importantes. Con base en los resultados obtenidos se propone la división del territorio nacional en ocho regiones, cada una con características similares desde el punto de vista de la estabilidad de los taludes, y se comentan los resultados y perspectivas de mayor interés.

  3. Effectiveness of Needles Vial Adaptors and Blunt Cannulas for Drug Administration in a Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda; Bayuse, Tina

    2009-01-01

    The need for a new system of injectable medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) was identified. It is desired that this system fly medications in their original manufacturer's packaging, allowing the system to comply with United States Pharmacopeia (USP) guidelines while minimizing the resupply frequency due to medication expiration. Pre-filled syringes are desired, however, the evolving nature of the healthcare marketplace requires flexibility in the redesign. If medications must be supplied in a vial, a system is required that allows for the safe withdrawal of medication from the vial into a syringe for administration in microgravity. During two reduced gravity flights, the effectiveness of two versions of a blunt cannula and needleless vial adaptors was evaluated to facilitate the withdrawal of liquid medication from a vial into a syringe for injection. Other parameters assessed included the ability to withdraw the required amount of medication and whether this is dependent on vial size, liquid, or the total volume of fluid within the vial. Injectable medications proposed for flight on ISS were used for this evaluation. Due to differing sizes of vials and the fluid properties of the medications, the needleless vial adaptors proved to be too cumbersome to recommend for use on the ISS. The blunt cannula, specifically the plastic version, proved to be more effective at removing medication from the various sizes of vials and are the recommended hardware for ISS. Fluid isolation within the vials and syringes is an important step in preparing medication for injection regardless of the hardware used. Although isolation is a challenge in the relatively short parabolas during flight, it is not an obstacle for sustained microgravity. This presentation will provide an overview of the products tested as well as the challenges identified during the microgravity flights.

  4. 76 FR 36576 - Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Institution of Investigation... importation of certain flip-top vials and products using the same by reason of infringement of certain claims... importation of certain flip-top vials and products using the same that infringe one or more of claims 1-5...

  5. Development of the detection threshold concept from a close look at sorption occurrence inside a glass vial based on the in-vial vaporization of semivolatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Parker, David

    2014-07-01

    Headspace (HS) analysis has been recommended as one of the most optimal methods for extracting and analyzing volatile organic compounds from samples in diverse media such as soil and water. Short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA, C3-C7) with strong adsorptivity were selected as the target compounds to assess the basic characteristics of the HS analysis through simulation of HS conditions by in-vial vaporization of liquid-phase standards (VL) in 25 mL glass vials. The reliability of the VL approach was assessed by apportioning the in-vial VFA mass into three classes: (1) vaporized fraction, (2) dynamic adsorption on the vial walls (intermediate stage between vaporization and irreversible absorption), and (3) irreversible absorptive loss (on the vial wall). The dynamic adsorption partitioning inside the vial increased with n-VFA carbon number, e.g., 43% (C2: acetic acid, extrapolated value), 65% (C3: propanoic acid), and 98% (C7: heptanoic acid). The maximum irreversible losses for the studied n-VFAs exhibited a quadratic relationship with carbon number. If the detection threshold limit (DTL: the onset of mass detection after attaining the maximum irreversible loss) is estimated, the DTL values for target VFAs were in the range of 101 ng for i-valeric acid to 616 ng for propionic acid, which are larger than the method detection limit by about 3 orders of magnitude. Consequently, quantitation of VFAs using the VL approach should be critically assessed by simultaneously considering the DTL criterion and the initial VFA masses loaded into the vial.

  6. Glass delamination: a comparison of the inner surface performance of vials and pre-filled syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxiu; Lavalley, Virginie; Mangiagalli, Paolo; Wright, Justin M; Bankston, Theresa E

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of glass delamination is a serious concern for parenteral drug products. Over the past several years, there has been a series of product recalls involving glass delamination in parenteral drugs stored in vials which has led to heightened industry and regulatory scrutiny. In this study, a two-pronged approach was employed to assess the inner surface durability of vials and pre-filled syringes. Non-siliconized syringes were used in order to directly compare glass to glass performance between vials and syringes. The vial and syringe performance was screened with pharmaceutically relevant formulation conditions. The influence of pH, buffer type, ionic strength, and glass type and source was evaluated. In addition, an aggressive but discriminating formulation condition (glutaric acid, pH 11) was used to ascertain the impact of syringe processing. Advanced analytical tools including inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed significant differences in glass performance between vials and syringes. Pre-filled syringes outperform vials for most tests and conditions. The manufacturing conditions for vials lead to glass defects, not found in pre-filled syringes, which result in a less chemically resistant surface. The screening methodology presented in this work can be applied to assess suitability of primary containers for specific drug applications.

  7. Valoraciones sobre la gestión del sistema de seguridad vial en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar con enfoque crítico el cumplimiento de la agenda del Observatorio Iberoamericano para la Seguridad Vial (OISEVI que evidencie los aciertos y desaciertos en esta actividad, se analiza en la literatura los enfoques de los autores Tony Bliss y Jeanne Breen que enfatizan en la concepción de sistema no solo a la seguridad vial sino también a la gestión de esta como sistema y se realiza una aplicación de los aspectos de la encuesta del OISEVI a la gestión de la seguridad vial en Cuba por el grupo de asesores de la Comisión Nacional de seguridad vial, pertenecientes a la Universidad de Sancti Spíritus, que durante los últimos años estudian esta problemática, detallando los argumentos que conciben para otorgar los valores en las respuestas al cuestionario. Con esta encuesta se obtiene una primera aproximación del estado de la gestión de la seguridad vial en el país, y se arriban a valoraciones acerca de cómo se encuentra Cuba respecto a los lineamientos básicos y generales que hacen exitosa a la gestión en seguridad vial, basada en los cinco pilares del Plan Mundial para el Decenio de Acción para la Seguridad Vial 2011-2020.

  8. Hydraulic sediment remotion in physical models; Aplicacion en modelos fisicos de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo Mogollon, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2001-03-01

    Sediment remotion in reservoirs has received an increased attention worldwide because of the difficulty to build new dams. This paper shows the application of some flushing techniques in two hydraulic experimental models that were used in order to estimate the efficiency in sediment remotion, as well as feasible solutions to be applied in our country. [Spanish] La remocion de sedimentos que se acumulan en los embalses ha recibido recientemente una gran atencion en diversas partes del mundo debido fundamentalmente a la dificultad de construir nuevas presas. Este articulo muestra el uso de la remocion hidraulica de sedimentos en embalses aplicados a dos modelos hidraulicos experimentales que se emplearon para estimar la eficiencia de dicha remocion, ademas de posibles soluciones que se consideran factibles de utilizarse en nuestro pais.

  9. Evaluation of the open vial method in the radon measurement; Evaluacion del metodo del vial abierto en la medicion de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del Rio, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The open vial method is a simple technique, under-utilized but that take advantage of the great radon solubility in organic solvents, therefore applies in the measurement of the radon concentration exhaled in soil. The method consists on the exposition to the gas radon of an open vial with scintillating solution. An integral mathematical model for indoors that describes the emanation processes and gas radon exhalation was developed, as well as the radon dissolution in the scintillation liquid, besides obtaining the characteristic parameters of the experimental system proposed for the radon concentration calculation exhaled by soils. Two experimental arrangements were designed with exposition cameras of 12 and 6 L and quantity of different soil. The open vial was prepared with a mixture of 8 ml of deionized water and 12 ml of scintillation liquid OptiPhase Hi Safe 3 in polyethylene vials; the measurements of the dissolved radon were carried out in scintillation liquid equipment. As a result, on average 2.0% of the exhaled radon is dissolved in the open vial and the dissolved fraction is independent of the experimental arrangement. Also was observed that the exposition time does not affect the radon dissolution significantly, in correspondence with the reported in the literature. (Author)

  10. Supervisando la seguridad vial en el Perú Supervising road safety in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Sagástegui

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se describe algunos problemas en seguridad vial que la Defensoría del Pueblo del Perú, en su trabajo como ente supervisor de la administración pública ha detectado, entre esos problemas se mencionan a: la escasa y mala elaboración de estadísticas de accidentes de tránsito; la inconsistencia del Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y la irresponsabilidad de los gobiernos regionales y locales por su falta de aplicación del Plan Nacional de Seguridad Vial. Ante ello, la Defensoría...

  11. Isolation of Hepatitis C Virus in Norjizac Vials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zary Nokhodian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been recognized as a major health problem worldwide. The estimated number of infected individuals is over 170 million people worldwide (1. After hepatitis B, it is the most important cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, prevention of HCV infection is one of the most important public health concerns, because the majority of infected people would experience chronic hepatitis (2, 3. HCV can be easily transmitted through blood products transfusion and infected syringes. No surprise, the infection rate is remarkably high among injecting drug abusers (IDUs (4, 5.HCV has been identified as the most common viral infection affecting IDUs (6. Sharing contaminated needles and syringes, going to shooting galleries, using cocaine, unprotected sex, and sharing shaving equipments, are all among the major causes of contaminating IDUs with HCV (7, 8. In some countries such as India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Thailand, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibody among the IDUs is reported to be at least 90% (9. The reported prevalence from Iran ranged from 38% to 47% (10 and in another study it is about 60% (11."Norjizac," also known as "hand-made Temgizac," and "Ab Crack (Crack solution," is a slang name for a drug which is abused by a number of IDUs in Iran since five years ego. It is usually used as intravenous injections, although some of drug abusers use Norjizac intramuscularly and/or subcutaneously. Norjizac is one of the most hard drugs in Iran and accompanying several complications like abscess formation, development of septic emboli and soft tissue infections in IDUs. Based on reports on probable human contamination in Norjizac vials, we conducted this study to find out why some of IDUs who used the drug have developed HCV infection without any history of sharing in injection tools. In a case series reported from Isfahan conducted in 2008, 14 vials of Norjizac bought from smugglers from various

  12. Inventarios viales y categorización de la red vial en estudios de Ingeniería de Tránsito y Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las principales consideraciones y los aspectos técnicos fundamentales de la elaboración de Inventarios Viales y la Categorización de la Red Vial, aplicadas a la realización de estudios de ingeniería de tránsito y transporte. Se exponen los aspectos generales relacionados con la elaboración de los inventarios de infraestructura vial, de señalización y dispositivos de control, de estacionamientos, de paraderos y de rutas de transporte público colectivo urbano de pasajeros, como una herramienta práctica para complementar los procedimientos de campo y optimizar los procesos y análisis de resultados orientados a identificar, caracterizar y cuantificar las variables relacionadas con el desarrollo del fenómeno del tránsito y la actividad del transporte.

  13. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna R Caceda

    Full Text Available The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN, Yellow Fever (YF, Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE, West Nile (WN, Ilheus (ILH, Group C (GC, Oropouche (ORO, Mayaro (MAY and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH. MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO. For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  14. Mechanosynthesis of zinc ferrite in hardened steel vials: Influence of ZnO on the appearance of Fe(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline ZnFe2O4 spinel powders are synthesized by high-energy ball milling, starting from a powder mixture of hematite (α-Fe2O3) and zincite (ZnO). The millings are performed under air using hardened steel vials and balls. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectrometry are used to characterize the powders. A spinel phase begins to appear after 3 h of milling and the synthesis is achieved after 9 h. Phase transformation is accompanied by a contamination due to iron coming from the milling tools. A redox reaction is also observed between Fe(III) and metallic iron during milling, leading to a spinel phase containing some Fe(II). The mechanism for the appearance of this phase is studied: ZnO seems to have a non-negligeable influence on the synthesis, by creating an intermediate wuestite-type phase solid solution with FeO

  15. Una alternativa para la formación vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Belén Tencio Blanco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra de manera general la problemática que actualmente se vive a nivel mun-dial, y que ha venido aumentado año tras año en la sociedad costarricense, con cifras alarmantes donde la edad, el sexo, el credo, status social no escapan a tal situación, y que afecta las diferentes áreas sociales que velan por el bienestar de todos, una problemática que desencadena un sin fin de consecuencias fatales: los accidentes de tránsito. Esta epidemia como la llama la OMS (Organización Mundial de la Salud, ha sido desde ya hace décadas una enfermedad silen-ciosa, donde no se encuentran soluciones eficaces que acaben con tantas secuelas que deja a su paso, a pesar del esfuerzo de muchas instituciones del país. Es así como se pretende desarrollar una iniciativa desde una perspectiva que oriente la búsqueda de soluciones, desde las raíces de nuestra cultura, por medio de una formación integral continua desde edades tempranas. Esta tarea sin lugar a dudas le corresponde a todos los que somos partícipes, pero la visión y misión de formar ciudadanos concientes de sus derechos, sin olvidar sus deberes en armonía con lo que le rodea desde principios que demuestran una sociedad más responsable y segura, le corresponde al sistema edu-cativo costarricense, en conjunto con las diversas enti-dades que de una u otra forma son parte de esta situa-ción. Esto con el objetivo de encontrar en la educación continua y sistemática, una herramienta efectiva que a mediano o largo plazo logre disminuir las estadísticas de muertes en carretera, por la negligencia o error humano, causa de mayor incidencia en los accidentes de tránsito, por medio de una formación en y para una cultura vial, cuya política e ideología sea respetar la vida en la búsqueda del bienestar común.

  16. Comparison of Bactec 9240 and Difco ESP blood culture systems for detection of organisms from vials whose entry was delayed.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapin, K.; Lauderdale, T L

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the Bactec 9240 (Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, Md.) and Difco ESP (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) instruments for the detection of organism growth from vials whose entry was delayed was evaluated. The instruments' capabilities for organism recovery, time to detection, rates of false-positive results, and numbers of vials in which growth was not detected were made by using seeded blood culture vial pairs and controls with and without delayed entry. Bactec 9240 and Difco ESP ae...

  17. Bahía de Cartagena (Colombia): distribución de sedimentos superficiales y ambientes sedimentarios

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C Restrepo; Diana Franco; Jaime Escobar; Iván Darío Correa; Luis Otero; Julio Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Se analizó la distribución espacial y las principales características texturales de 234 muestras de sedimentos superficiales de la bahía de Cartagena. Para caracterizar los ambientes de depósito en el fondo de la bahía se aplicaron tres funciones discriminantes para diferenciar entre: (i) depósitos de playa y marino somero agitado, (ii) depósitos fluviales y marino someros, y (iii) depósitos fluviales influenciados por corrientes de turbidez. Los sedimentos predominantes fueron lodos medios (...

  18. Prediction of the acoustic and bubble fields in insonified freeze-drying vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisnard, O; Cogné, C; Labouret, S; Montes-Quiroz, W; Peczalski, R; Baillon, F; Espitalier, F

    2015-09-01

    The acoustic field and the location of cavitation bubble are computed in vials used for freeze-drying, insonified from the bottom by a vibrating plate. The calculations rely on a nonlinear model of sound propagation in a cavitating liquid [Louisnard, Ultrason. Sonochem., 19, (2012) 56-65]. Both the vibration amplitude and the liquid level in the vial are parametrically varied. For low liquid levels, a threshold amplitude is required to form a cavitation zone at the bottom of the vial. For increasing vibration amplitudes, the bubble field slightly thickens but remains at the vial bottom, and the acoustic field saturates, which cannot be captured by linear acoustics. On the other hand, increasing the liquid level may promote the formation of a secondary bubble structure near the glass wall, a few centimeters below the free liquid surface. These predictions suggest that rather complex acoustic fields and bubble structures can arise even in such small volumes. As the acoustic and bubble fields govern ice nucleation during the freezing step, the final crystal's size distribution in the frozen product may crucially depend on the liquid level in the vial. PMID:25800984

  19. Diagnóstico de seguridad vial en América Latina y El Caribe: 2005 - 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Rosana Brandao; Esteban Diez-Roux; Alejandro Pablo Taddia; Sissi Maribel De la Peña Mendoza; Elena de la Peña

    2013-01-01

    Este documento, que sirve de base a la Estrategia de seguridad vial del BID, es un análisis exhaustivo del estado de la seguridad vial en los países América Latina y el Caribe. El estudio incluye un análisis de los aspectos institucionales, de financiación, planes de seguridad vial, estadísticas de siniestros, infraestructura, parque vehicular, políticas educativas y de formación vial además de aspectos de legislación y normativa que han afectado a la región entre 2005 y 2009 en materia de se...

  20. ¿Formación o educación vial?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Calatayud Miñana, Constanza; Montoro González, Luis; Sanfeliu Montoro, Antonio; Medina Sarmiento, José Eugenio; Alamar Rocatí, Beatriz; Fernández Fernández, Cesáreo

    2003-01-01

    El Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Tráfico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS) y Attitudes (programa social de Audi), tras la publicación de los libros "Formación y educación vial: Una visión a partir de algunas prácticas internacionales" y "Formación y educación vial: Una visión a través de la población española", se plantearon como actividad complementaria la realización de unas jornadas que cumplieran los siguientes objetivos: • Permitir avanzar en el conocimiento y la implementación ...

  1. Métodos de análise de sulfetos em amostras de rochas e sedimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. T. Corrêa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no período de agosto a dezembro de 1998, com o objetivo de comparar métodos de análise de sulfetos, visando obter uma técnica rápida, exata e reprodutível para avaliar o potencial de drenagem ácida em rochas e sedimentos. As amostras foram submetidas a digestões oxidativas com H2O2 e água régia. Nos extratos, foram determinados o S por gravimetria, por meio do Ba remanescente por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica (EAA, por turbidimetria e por colorimetria. Os teores de Fe e Pb foram determinados por EAA. Nos extratos de H2O2, determinou-se, também, a acidez por titulação com NaOH. A técnica mais indicada para avaliar o teor de sulfetos foi a digestão das amostras com água régia, seguida da determinação indireta do S, por meio do Ba remanescente por EAA. A digestão com H2O2 não foi eficiente para a oxidação total dos sulfetos presentes nas amostras, devendo subestimar o potencial de geração da drenagem ácida em amostras de rochas e sedimentos.

  2. Calidad del agua y sedimento en el lago de Maracaibo, estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovany José-Bracho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el agua y el sedimento del lago de Maracaibo en seis estaciones de muestreo distribuidas de norte a sur del lago. Los parámetros físicoquímicos y ambientales fueron determinados y establecidas las relaciones entre estos y las áreas afectadas por descargas de aguas residuales, depósitos de basura, residuos industriales líquidos y sólidos, actividad petrolera y agrícola y materiales orgánicos acarreados por ríos y drenajes pluviales. Se evidenció la contaminación por incremento de utrientes(nitrógeno y fósforo en las zonas influenciadas por los ríos y vertederos de agua residual y se validó la presencia de una cuña salina por la penetración al lago de las aguas del golfo de Venezuela. Las concentraciones de metalespesados están por debajo de los límites permisibles para el agua; en los sedimentos es muy heterogénea.

  3. Experiencia-modelo piloto de los talleres de seguridad vial, como alternativa a la pena privativa de libertad en los delitos contra la seguridad vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Germán Mancebo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos de los delitos contra la seguridad vial en España tienen asignada la pena de trabajos en beneficio de la comunidad (TBC. Y en la práctica se han percibido problemas en su implementación, entre otros motivos por el aumento de la comisión de los delitos de tránsito y la escasez de puestos de trabajo social para poder llevar a cabo los trabajos comunitarios. Tanto la reciente modificación del Código Penal, como de la normativa reguladora de esta sanción, permite desarrollar los TBC por medio de la realización de talleres. En este artículo se presenta la experiencia-modelo piloto de los talleres de seguridad vial que dan contenido a la pena de TBC, como alternativa a la pena privativa de libertad, lo que resulta de especial interés al ser una de las primeras experiencias de esta naturaleza en España. Para ello se describen los talleres desarrollados, mensualmente, durante el año 2010, a saber: su primer año de funcionamiento en la provincia de Gipuzkoa (España, detallando su estructura, dinámica y tareas -tanto formativas como de utilidad pública- que realizaron los penados. La implementación de estos talleres ha paliado las deficiencias percibidas en la aplicación de la pena de TBC, dotándola de contenido, y superando así las críticas a las que esta sanción se había visto expuesta. Los talleres de seguridad vial responden de forma efectiva al papel preventivo que se le ha otorgado a este tipo de sanciones en el ámbito de la seguridad vial.

  4. Valoraciones sobre la gestión del sistema de seguridad vial en Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra; Suyen Rodríguez Álvarez; Anisley Pérez Silva

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar con enfoque crítico el cumplimiento de la agenda del Observatorio Iberoamericano para la Seguridad Vial (OISEVI) que evidencie los aciertos y desaciertos en esta actividad, se analiza en la literatura los enfoques de los autores Tony Bliss y Jeanne Breen que enfatizan en la concepción de sistema no solo a la seguridad vial sino también a la gestión de esta como sistema y se realiza una aplicación de los aspectos de la encuesta del OISEVI a la ge...

  5. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Taddia; Elena de la Peña

    2012-01-01

    Presentación de Elena de la Peña de la Asociación Española de la Carretera y Alejandro Taddia, especialista de Transporte del BID donde se muestra esta Guía interactiva para preparación de proyectos de seguridad vial en el contexto latinoamericano. Se realizó durante el Congreso Iberoamericano de Seguridad Vial (CISEV) III de Bogotá DC. Para acceder al recurso mencionado en la presentación, consulte el campo "Related URL" más abajo.

  6. Seguridad vial laboral escenario preventivo necesario. ISO 39001, la herramienta ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Ollé, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Los accidentes laborales viales suponen una de las causas con mayor impacto en la seguridad y salud de los trabajadores. Las empresas han desviado la atención sobre los accidentes viales, argumentando que sobre aquello que sucede fuera del ámbito físico y/o temporal de la jornada laboral, no es prioritario intervenir, y creyendo que así ahorran costes. la norma ISO 39001 es la herramienta más eficaz para abordar este asunto.

  7. Plan de Movilidad Vial: adaptación a un Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete Trinidad, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto se ha realizado con el objetivo principal de fomentar la seguridad laboral vial en las empresas, a través de la implantación de un documento que analice los accidentes laborales de tráfico y recoja información, responsables y acciones preventivas para combatir, desde la organización, este tipo de accidentes laborales. Por dicho motivo, en este proyecto, se elabora un documento que sirve como primer paso para promover la seguridad laboral vial desde la empresa, por ello, se pr...

  8. Particulate contamination in solutions of antibiotics packed as dry powders in vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Veltman, A M

    1988-05-01

    The particulate contamination in 12 formulations of antibiotic solutions in vials packed as dry powders from five South African sources has been analysed quantitatively using a HIAC PC 320 light blockage particle analyser linked to a CMB 60 sensor. Results showed that the level of particulate contamination fell well within the limits set by the USP XXIst Edition for Small Volume Parenterals although four formulations contained some particles greater than or equal to 50 micron. There was no apparent difference between the quality of the same antibiotics from different sources or between vials of the same antibiotics packed in different strengths. PMID:2899632

  9. Inventarios viales y categorización de la red vial en estudios de Ingeniería de Tránsito y Transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las principales consideraciones y los aspectos técnicos fundamentales de la elaboración de Inventarios Viales y la Categorización de la Red Vial, aplicadas a la realización de estudios de ingeniería de tránsito y transporte. Se exponen los aspectos generales relacionados con la elaboración de los inventarios de infraestructura vial, de señalización y dispositivos de control, de estacionamientos, de paraderos y de rutas de transporte público colectivo urbano de pasajeros, como una herramienta práctica para complementar los procedimientos de campo y optimizar los procesos y análisis de resultados orientados a identificar, caracterizar y cuantificar las variables relacionadas con el desarrollo del fenómeno del tránsito y la actividad del transporte.

  10. INFLUENCIA DE LAS CONDICIONES FISICOQUÍMICAS DEL SEDIMENTO Y LA INTERFASE AGUA-SEDIMENTO EN LA TRANSFERENCIA EXPERIMENTAL DEL O,O-DIETIL O?- 3,5,6 TRICLORO-2-PIRIDINIL FOSFOROTIATO (CLORPIRIFOS Y EL 3,5,6 TRICLORO-2-PIRIDINOL (TCP, EN EL EMBALSE RIOGRANDE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Agudelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación experimental se evaluó la influencia de algunas variables fisicoquímicas de sedimentos procedentes del embalse Riogrande II y de la interfase agua-sedimento en la transferencia de Clorpirifos y TCP. El análisis de clorpirifos y TCP en sedimentos y agua se realizó por extracción en fase sólida. Las muestras fueron detectadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (Trace GC Ultra MS 2030-Thermo Scientific. Se evidenció una fuerte adsorción de ambos compuestos en los sedimentos, dado el alto contenido de arcillas y de carbono orgánico, lo cual limitó su movilidad hacia la interfase. La interfase agua-sedimento se caracterizó por una condición de hipoxia durante toda la fase experimental, mientras que la conductividad eléctrica aumento en el tiempo. Se determinó que un pH neutro o ligeramente alcalino favoreció el aumento de la concentración de clorpirifos en la interfase agua-sedimento, lo cual sugiere un incremento de su transferencia desde el sedimento a la interfase, mientras que un pH ligeramente ácido favorece la transformación del compuesto parental en el sedimento.

  11. 76 FR 58841 - In the Matter of Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ..., Kentucky; and Airsec S.A.S. of France. 76 FR 36576 (June 22, 2011). The complaint alleged a violation of... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flip-Top Vials and Products Using the Same; Notice of Commission Decision... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain flip-top vials and products...

  12. Contaminación por hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos en sedimentos y organismos del Puerto de Salinas Cruz, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Botello, Alfonso V.; Susana Villanueva; Gilberto Díaz; Yolanda Pica

    1995-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se evaluaron las concentraciones de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) en sedimentos y organismos del Puerto de Salina Cruz, Oaxaca y áreas adyacentes por medio de cromatografía de gases de alta resolución empleando columnas capilares. Los resultados muestran variabilidad estaciona1 de las concentraciones de HAP en los sedimentos y concentraciones elevadas de los mismos en el área del puerto y antepuerto, las cuales disminuyen en los sedimentos oceánicos. En or...

  13. Protect Patients by Using Single- and Multi-Dose Vials Correctly

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-10

    CDC’s One & Only Campaign urges healthcare providers to recognize the differences between single-dose and multi-dose vials, and to understand appropriate use of each container type.  Created: 7/10/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/10/2014.

  14. Hacia el desarrollo sostenible en la seguridad vial : el caso holandés.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    En esta ponencia, se hace un estudio general sobre la Seguridad Vial en los Países Bajos, mostrando la evolución del indice de accidentes. Se indican cuales son los objetivos fijados por el Gobierno neerlandés y la estrategia a seguir desde el punto de vista político. Aparece el concepto de "segurid

  15. On-line measurements to control the forming process of glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Francesco; Bianchini, Gianandrea; Fanti, Giulio; Mozzi, Massimo

    1993-02-01

    The most relevant parameters to control the quality of glass vials are the internal and external diameters of the mouth and the height of the rim. A low cost vision system based on a 486 PC, a frame grabber, 4 CCD cameras (768 X 512 pixels) and I/O device to control the production of vials, by adjusting the flames temperature in the moulding section of the machine, has been developed and tested. A 24 mandrel machine rotating at about 300 rpm with a production capability of about 4200 pieces/hour had to be monitored with an accuracy of +/- 0.02 mm in the measure of the mouth diameters and +/- 0.04 mm on the rim height. In order to minimize the time delay required for the machine temperature compensation, the measurements had to be taken during the forming process. The system must be fast enough to follow the process, able to take into account the temperature variation of different classes of vials and far enough from the high temperature of the flames. A direct calibration procedure, using a reference vial, and a pyrometer to check the temperature range was derived. A long focus lens coupled with a bellow to put the system away from the flames was adopted. The algorithm implemented for the measurements and the machine temperature control is presented.

  16. Supervisando la seguridad vial en el Perú Supervising road safety in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Sagástegui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe algunos problemas en seguridad vial que la Defensoría del Pueblo del Perú, en su trabajo como ente supervisor de la administración pública ha detectado, entre esos problemas se mencionan a: la escasa y mala elaboración de estadísticas de accidentes de tránsito; la inconsistencia del Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y la irresponsabilidad de los gobiernos regionales y locales por su falta de aplicación del Plan Nacional de Seguridad Vial. Ante ello, la Defensoría del Pueblo sugiere que el Estado desarrolle un sistema estadístico riguroso, que fortalezca al Consejo Nacional de Seguridad Vial y que los diferentes sectores del Estado desarrollen el mencionado Plan Nacional.In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  17. Mixed cells in shell vials for detection of influenza viruses and enteroviruses from clinical specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪千力

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate shell vials of MHV,a combination of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells(MDCK),human epidermoid cancer cells(Hep-2) and African green monkey kidney cells(Vero), and conventional cell culture in detecting influenza viruses and enterovirus from

  18. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions.

  19. Aluminum elution and precipitation in glass vials: effect of pH and buffer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toru; Miyajima, Makoto; Wakiyama, Naoki; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-02-01

    Inorganic extractables from glass vials may cause particle formation in the drug solution. In this study, the ability of eluting Al ion from borosilicate glass vials, and tendencies of precipitation containing Al were investigated using various pHs of phosphate, citrate, acetate and histidine buffer. Through heating, all of the buffers showed that Si and Al were eluted from glass vials in ratios almost the same as the composition of borosilicate glass, and the amounts of Al and Si from various buffer solutions at pH 7 were in the following order: citrate > phosphate > acetate > histidine. In addition, during storage after heating, the Al concentration at certain pHs of phosphate and acetate buffer solution decreased, suggesting the formation of particles containing Al. In citrate buffer, Al did not decrease in spite of the high elution amount. Considering that the solubility profile of aluminum oxide and the Al eluting profile of borosilicate glass were different, it is speculated that Al ion may be forced to leach into the buffer solution according to Si elution on the surface of glass vials. When Al ions were added to the buffer solutions, phosphate, acetate and histidine buffer showed a decrease of Al concentration during storage at a neutral range of pHs, indicating the formation of particles containing Al. In conclusion, it is suggested that phosphate buffer solution has higher possibility of forming particles containing Al than other buffer solutions. PMID:24261406

  20. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenea Hailu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. Methods We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Results Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164% to means of 59% (range: 4-164%, 62% (range: 4-175%, and 67% (range: 5-192%, respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300% to means of 161% (range: 82-322%, 175% (range: 78-344%, and 198% (range: 88-402%, respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC. The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%. Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. Conclusions The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per

  1. Capacidad de transporte de sedimentos en cuencas con información escasa.

    OpenAIRE

    Posada García, Lilian; Montoya Jaramillo, Luis Javier

    2000-01-01

    Existe en la literatura un gran número de metodologías para estimar la capacidad de una corriente para transportar sedimentos y se necesitan suficientes registros simultáneos de caudal líquido y sólido para poder seleccionar el método de estimación más apropiado para una corriente determinada. Después de aplicar distintas metodologías a corrientes del departamento de Antioquia, en la zona Andina Colombiana, se desarrolla un nuevo método para el cálculo de la carga en suspensión y de la car...

  2. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  3. Análisis econométrico de la efectividad del Tercer Programa Europeo de Seguridad Vial (ERSAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Manzano, José I.; Castro Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier, 1975-

    2013-01-01

    El Libro Blanco Europeo publicado en 2001 (titulado “La hora de la verdad”), y su desarrollo en el Tercer Programa de Acción Europeo de Seguridad Vial (ERSAP) (2003-2010), representan claramente un punto de inflexión en la historia de la Política Europea Común de Seguridad Vial. Por primera vez, se incluían objetivos cuantitativos y medibles en términos de siniestralidad vial. Tras un análisis de los principales aspectos de esta política de la UE, se ha aplicado la metodología de Datos de Pan...

  4. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  5. Bahía de Cartagena (Colombia: distribución de sedimentos superficiales y ambientes sedimentarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Restrepo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la distribución espacial y las principales características texturales de 234 muestras de sedimentos superficiales de la bahía de Cartagena. Para caracterizar los ambientes de depósito en el fondo de la bahía se aplicaron tres funciones discriminantes para diferenciar entre: (i depósitos de playa y marino somero agitado, (ii depósitos fluviales y marino someros, y (iii depósitos fluviales influenciados por corrientes de turbidez. Los sedimentos predominantes fueron lodos medios (5,35 ± 1,2 φ, pobremente clasificados (σ = 1,63 ± 0,8, con notable asimetría (Sk = -0,052 ± 0.2 y curtosis (k de 0,84 ± 0,4. Se encontró dos tipos principales de depósitos recientes en la bahía de Cartagena: marino somero agitado, de dominio fluvial, y depósitos de corrientes de turbidez, de dominio fluvial. Los contenidos más bajos de arena (<5% se encontraron a lo largo de un eje latitudinal que va desde el prodelta del Canal del Dique hasta el extremo occidental de isla de Tierrabomba. Los contenidos de CaCO3 de los depósitos sedimentarios fueron menores al 10%. Los sedimentos calcáreos autógenos han sido cubiertos por sedimentos finos de origen terrígeno transportados por el Canal del Dique, el cual tiene un papel más activo y predominante en la sedimentación de la bahía de lo que se ha señalado previamente.

  6. Determination of geometry correction factors to different vials used to radiopharmaceutical activity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, Lilian T.; Correa, Eduardo L.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A., E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com, E-mail: educorrea1905@gmail.com, E-mail: andmppalbu@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to present the geometry correction factors and their respective uncertainties to P6 and 10R vials and 3 mL and 5 mL plastic syringes using the reference activity meters present at the Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos (LCI), IPEN the secondary standard system Capintec NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrator, with traceability to the National Physics Laboratory (NPL), England and the work standard Capintec CRC-15BT and the Capintec CRC-25R. The procedure was made using {sup 99m}Tc, which is responsible for about 80 % of the routine procedures in a nuclear medicine service. Variations of up to 40 % between different vials using the same radionuclide were found. (author)

  7. La educación vial. Una forma más de educar

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Verdugo, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Si educar es transmitir experiencias vividas para favorecer la convivencia social, esa labor se puede llevar a cabo en numerosos campos sociales, constituyendo el de la Seguridad Vial, uno de ellos. [EN] To speak of education is to speak of culture, of transmission of knowledge and health habits for coexistence but, the meaning that locks up this term goes beyond what in principle could seem: it includes different fields, particularly the one from Road Security which is about the norms t...

  8. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  9. Development of a standard gas generating vial comprised of a silicon oil-polystyrene/divinylbenzene composite sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, Jonathan J; Gómez-Ríos, German A; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a highly reproducible standard gas generating vial is proposed. The vial is comprised of a silicon diffusion pump oil spiked with an appropriate calibration compound, such as modified McReynolds probes (benzene, 2-pentanone, pyridine, 1-nitropropane, 1-pentanol, and n-octane), and then mixed with polystyrene/divinylbenzene (PS/DVB) particles. The concentrations of these compounds in gaseous headspace were found to substantially decrease in comparison to previously developed hydrocarbon pump oil based vials; hence, the amount of standard loaded onto SPME fibers was at most, half that of the previous vial design. Depletion for all compounds after 208 successive extractions was shown to be less than 3.5%. Smaller quantities of standards being used resulted in a vial that depleted slower while remaining statistically repeatable over a wider number of runs. Indeed, it was found that depletion could be largely predicted by using a mass balance theoretical model. This behavior allowed a further increase in the number of loadings that could be performed repeatedly. At a 95% level of confidence, the ANOVA test demonstrated that the prepared vials were statistically identical, with no significant intra- or inter-batch differences. In addition, it was found that vials stored under different conditions (e.g. under light exposure, room temperature, and within a refrigerator) were stable over 10 weeks. Silicon based vials proved to be ideal for performing instrument quality control and loading of internal standards onto fibers, both of which are of great importance when performing on-site analysis using portable GC-MS instrumentation and high throughput determinations in laboratory. PMID:26243704

  10. Seguridad Vial - BID: Una estrategia para la región de América Latina y el Caribe

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor Roa

    2012-01-01

    Presentación del Jefe de la División de Transporte del Banco, Nestor Roa, durante el principal evento regional de Seguridad Vial de América Latina y el Caribe, CISEV III que se realizó en Bogotá DC entre el 12 y el 14 de junio de 2012. El documento muestra el trabajo de la estrategia de Seguridad Vial del BID.

  11. Actinomycetes bioactivos de sedimento marino de la costa central del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo evaluamos la actividad antibacteriana y antifúngica de actinomycetes marinos sobre patógenos de origen clínico. Asimismo, fueron evaluadas la capacidad de producir enzimas extracelulares como carbohidrasas, lipasas y proteasas. Los Actinomycetes fueron aislados de sedimentos colectados entre setiembre a diciembre del 2005 de las Bahías de Ancón (Lima e Independencia (Ica de 34 y 100 m de profundidad. El aislamiento se realizó en Agar Caseína - Almidón (ACA y Agar Marino (AM con adición de Cicloheximide (10 μg/mL. Las evaluaciones antimicrobianas fueron realizadas frente a bacterias patógenas antibiótico-multirresistentes y hongos de origen clínico; en tanto, para evaluar su actividad multienzimática se utilizaron sustratos poliméricos diversos. Se aislaron un total de 62 actinomycetes, de los cuales 31 (50% mostraron actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus, 36 (59% frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa y 23 (37% a ambos patógenos. Las cepas de actinomycetes I-400A y M10-77 identificadas en cada caso como Streptomyces y Thermoactinomyces fueron las que exhibieron mayor actividad inhibitoria frente a P. aeruginosa y S. aureus respectivamente. Asimismo, 13 actinomycetes (20,97% mostraron actividad antifúngica frente a cultivos de Candida albicans cepa 1511 y 17 (27,42% frente a Candida albicans cepa 1511MIC; sin embargo, ningún actinomycete presentó actividad inhibitoria frente a Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus y Trichophyton mentagrophytes. La mayoría de los actinomycetes mostraron tener actividad multienzimática capaz de hidrolizar compuestos poliméricos como el tween-80 (96%, la gelatina (95%, almidón (93%, lecitina (88% y la caseína (74%. Extractos del compuesto activo obtenidos de la cepa M10-77 con etil acetato rindieron notable actividad inhibitoria contra S. aureus. Se concluye que el sedimento marino es fuente de Actinomycetes con gran capacidad de producir sustancias

  12. Mineralogía de arenas y limos en suelos, sedimentos fluviales y eólicos actuales del sector austral de la cuenca Chacoparanense: Regionalización y áreas de aporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Etchichury

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis mineralógicos de las fracciones arena fina y limo grueso de suelos y sedimentos actuales fluviales y eólicos de la pampa húmeda del norte de Santa Fe y parte de la Mesopotamia (Entre Ríos y Corrientes, permiten establecer dos zonas caracterizadas por sendas asociaciones mineralógicas genéticamente diferentes. En el área que comprende las provincias de Buenos Aires, noroeste de La Pampa, Córdoba, centro y sur de Santa Fe y sur de Entre Ríos, tanto los componentes pesados (hornblenda verde, basáltica, castaña, hipersteno, enstatita, augita, magnetita, hematita, ilmenita, leucoxeno, epidoto, zoicita como livianos (plagioclasas, litoclastos de volcanitas, vitroclastos, cuarzo, ortosa, tienen un origen volcánico piroclástico y derivan en gran parte de sedimentos pampeanos y postpampeanos a los que se añaden materiales propios de las volcanitas mesozoicas norpatagónicas, del basamento de Sierras Pampeanas y de las erupciones piroclásticas cuaternarias. En Corrientes y el norte de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos, la suite de minerales pesados (estaurolita, cianita, sillimanita, andalusita, hornblenda, epidoto, opacos refleja aporte metamórfico y la asociación de livianos (cuarzo mono y policristalino, ortosa, microclino, metamorfitas cuarzo-micáceas, arenitas cuarzosas, indica además contribución ígnea y sedimentaria procedente del cratón aflorante en Brasil y Uruguay y de las sucesiones sedimentarias superpuestas. La particular distribución de los materiales está condicionada a las diferentes direcciones de las redes de drenaje y a la acción de los vientos dominantes. La isopleta correspondiente al 30% de frecuencia del cuarzo marca el límite de las dos asociaciones mineralógicas.

  13. Agresividad vial en la población general Road-rage in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Fierro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la prevalencia y los factores sociodemográficos asociados con la agresividad vial en la población. Métodos: Se han realizado 2.500 entrevistas a la población de Castilla y León de entre 14 y 70 años de edad. Se evaluó la agresividad vial en el año previo a la realización de la encuesta utilizando un test de ocho preguntas. Resultados: El 31,1% refirió haber vivido alguna situación de agresividad vial en el último año, y el 26,8% en más de una ocasión. El 2,6% fueron agresores viales «graves». Entre los conductores, la probabilidad de experimentar agresividad vial aumenta a medida que aumentan los miles de kilómetros conducidos a la semana (odds ratio [OR]=1,52, es menor cuanto mayor es la edad del entrevistado (OR=0,975 y es mayor en los hombres (OR=1,287, en los que tienen estudios universitarios (OR=1,408 y en los que viven en localidades de más de 10.000 habitantes (OR=1,25. Conclusiones: Los datos del presente estudio muestran que la agresividad vial afecta a casi un tercio de la población general de Castilla y León, lo que justificaría la adopción de medidas para su prevención y reducción.Objective: To analyze the prevalence of road rage in the general population and the sociodemographic factors associated with this phenomenon. Methods: A total of 2,500 interviews were carried out in the population of Castile and Leon aged 14-70 years. Road rage was evaluated in the year prior to the survey using a test with eight questions. Results: One-third (31.1% of the interviewees reported they had experienced a situation involving road rage during the previous 12 months (26.8% on more than one occasion. Among these episodes, 2.6% involved "serious" aggressors. In drivers, the probability of experiencing road rage increased in line with the number of kilometers driven per week (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, decreased as the age of the driver increased (OR=0.975, and was highest in men (OR=1.287, university

  14. Procedimiento automatizado de auditoría de seguridad vial en carreteras

    OpenAIRE

    Mundo Balanzar, David Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Por lo general, antes del año 1960 se diseñaban y construían vías que no consideraban da debida protección del usuario, ni sus limitaciones físicas y psicológicas. Entre los años 1960 y 1970, se comenzó a construir y operar vías con una infraestructura y dispositivos viales capaces de mitigar la severidad y consecuencias de un accidente. Posteriormente, se comenzaron a construir y operar vías con mayores estándares de seguridad resaltando la necesidad de impedir, en lugar de mitigar, accident...

  15. Elaboración de un plan de movilidad y seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Villar de la Fuente, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    El trabajo consiste en la creación de un Plan de Movilidad para una empresa que integre el Plan de Seguridad Vial. Se trata de una empresa con varios centros industriales, red logística y red comercial que emplea a varios miles de trabajadores. El perímetro del estudio es el desplazamiento de las personas, ya sea traslados del domicilio al trabajo, circulación de vehículos dentro de los centros de trabajo o desplazamientos en misión. Se hace una selección de medidas preventivas formativas, té...

  16. Componentes descriptivos y explicativos de la accidentalidad vial en Colombia: Incidencia del factor humano

    OpenAIRE

    Ervyn H. Norza Céspedes; Elba Lucía Granados León; Sergio Alejandro Useche Hernández; Mauricio Romero Hernández; Jesica Moreno Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Problema: Se analizó la incidencia del factor humano en la accidentalidad vial en el territorio colombiano, y se identificó evidencia empírica para la formulación de política pública del tránsito. Metodología: El diseño es descriptivo-correlacional. Instrumentos: cuestionario de comportamiento para conductores y motociclistas (D.B.Q.) y encuesta tipo Likert. Muestra no probabilística intencional: 16.322 personas (8.631 conductores de automotores, 5.133 motociclistas y 2.558 peatones, pasajero...

  17. Hacia el desarrollo sostenible en la seguridad vial : el caso holandés.

    OpenAIRE

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    En esta ponencia, se hace un estudio general sobre la Seguridad Vial en los Países Bajos, mostrando la evolución del indice de accidentes. Se indican cuales son los objetivos fijados por el Gobierno neerlandés y la estrategia a seguir desde el punto de vista político. Aparece el concepto de "seguridad sostenible" y cual es el proceso, los costes y efectos de un sistema dotado de seguridad sostenible. El objetivo de la seguridad sostenible es la reducción drástica, por adelantado, de la probab...

  18. Percepción de la seguridad vial de la policía municipal

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo Parralejo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la investigación es averiguar como la policía percibe la seguridad vial en general y algunos aspectos de especial importancia relacionados con la misma, entre los que destacan los que se derivan de su propia actividad. Entre dicho aspectos generales a estudiar se encuentran: la percepción general del problema, la percepción acerca de los factores causantes, la conceptualización del accidente, la incidencia en distintos entornos, la incidencia de distintas medidas, ...

  19. Study and determination of the influence factors of the radiopharmaceutical vials dimensions used for actimeter calibration at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency and safety of the nuclear medicine practice depend, among others factors, of a quality control programme, mainly related to the use of the nuclide activity meters (activimeter). One of the most important sources of errors in the activimeter measurements is the thickness, size and volume of the vial that contains the radiopharmaceutical considering that a typical activimeter has its response dependent of the vial used. The objective of this work was to establish a quality control programme and the correction factors for the geometry of the vials used for distribution of radiopharmaceutical and activimeters calibration, considering that the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has a NPL-CRC Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator System, manufactured for the Southern Scientific plc, compound by an ionization chamber well type and a current measurement system, with traceability to National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and calibrated with a P6 vial type with different dimensions of the one used for the IPEN. The radiopharmaceutical produced by IPEN 67Ga, '131I, 201Tl and 99mTc, had been tested using the two different vials. The results shown a maximum variation of 22% for 201Tl, and the minimum variation was 2.98% for 131I. The correction factors must be incorporated in the routine calibration of the activimeters. (author)

  20. Evidencia geofísica del umbral de Trenque Lauquen en la extensión norte de la cuenca de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kostadinoff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La exploración geofísica del borde norte de la cuenca de Claromecó sugieren la existencia de importantes espesores de sedimentos paleozoicos. Estas secuencias sedimentarias se extienden en el área NW de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las cuencas de Claromecó y Chaco Paranense están divididas por un área semipositiva. Sin embargo un bajo con dirección NNO de 165 km de longitud, cubierto por sedimentos paleozoicos conecta ambas cuencas.

  1. Selección de bacterias con capacidad degradadora de hidrocarburos aisladas a partir de sedimentos del Caribe colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    Narváez-Florez, S.; Gómez, M. L.; Martínez, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    A partir de sedimentos del Caribe colombiano se realizaron 31 aislamientos bacterianos en medio mínimo de sales suplementado con hidrocarburos (ACPM o petróleo crudo) como única fuente de carbono. Las cepas aisladas se sometieron a pruebas de selección en diferentes concentraciones de hidrocarburos y se escogieron once de ellas tolerantes al crudo y ACPM en un ámbito del 1-8% v/v. Posteriormente, con las cepas seleccionadas, se conformó un cultivo bacteriano mixto y se evaluó su capacidad de ...

  2. Caracterización de la materia orgánica en suelos y sedimentos de ambientes estuarinos

    OpenAIRE

    Santín Nuño, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Los ambientes estuarinos, transicionales entre el medio acuático y terrestre, presentan unas características propias e irrepetibles además de cumplir un elevado número de funciones ecológicas y ambientales. Entre estas se puede destacar la de sus suelos y sedimentos como sumideros de carbono atmosférico. La elevada productividad de sus comunidades vegetales, en conjunción con condiciones geoquímicas que favorecen la lenta descomposición de la materia orgánica, hace que estos suelos y sediment...

  3. Sistemas de indicadores e índices de qualidade da água e sedimento em zonas costeiras

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Tomás Augusto Barros

    1996-01-01

    Os sistemas de indicadores e índices de qualidade ambiental constituem um dos métodos possíveis para análise, tratamento e transmissão de informação ambiental, de modo a tornar os dados científicos mais facilmente utilizáveis por decisores , técnicos, políticos ou pelo público em geral. Este trabalho teve como principais objectivos, por um lado, rever e disponibilizar um conjunto de metodologias associadas a indicadores e índices de qualidade da água e sedimento em zonas costeiras...

  4. Evaluación de efectos biológicos y biodisponibilidad de contaminantes en sedimentos del Río de la Plata y afluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Peluso, María Leticia

    2011-01-01

    Durante las últimas tres décadas se han utilizado numerosas estrategias orientadas a la evaluación, manejo y remediación de los sedimentos contaminados. La calidad de los mismos es un problema relevante y complejo cuando se deben introducir estrategias de protección de los sistemas acuáticos, o proyectar obras de dragado y disposición del refulado para mantener canales de navegación. Estas evaluaciones son complejas debido a la variabilidad que presentan los sedimentos en cuanto a sus caracte...

  5. Impact of vacuum-induced surface freezing on inter- and intra-vial heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Irene; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; De Beer, Thomas; Pisano, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This paper aimed to study the impact of freezing on both within-batch (inter-vial) and within-product (intra-vial) heterogeneity. This analysis has been carried out using two freezing protocols, the conventional shelf-ramped method and the Vacuum Induced Surface Freezing, and placebo formulations containing both crystallizing (mannitol) and amorphous (lactose and sucrose) excipients. The freezing conditions (i.e., the temperature of freezing, the temperature and time of the equilibration phase, and the filling volume) were found to have a dramatic impact on both the within-batch and the within-product homogeneity. Overall, we observed that the control of freezing can effectively minimize the variability in product characteristics, and moisture content, within the same batch. In addition to more uniform production, the control of freezing was found to be fundamental to achieve a more uniform product than that produced by the shelf-ramped freezing method. The influence of the freezing protocol on the crystallization process of mannitol was also investigated, showing that the temperature of freezing plays a key role in the formation of the mannitol polymorphs. PMID:27063591

  6. Elementos del impacto ambiental producido por los deslizamientos de taludes viales colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Beltrán Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las características orográficas; climáticas y geotécnices, junto con las condiciones impuestas por el tipo y el nivel de desarrollo en el territorio colombiano favorecen la ocurrencia de los deslizamientos. Durante las épocas de invierno se producen numerosos y a veces grandes movimiento en masa en los taludes viales causando notables pérdidas físicas y económicas. Para reducirlas se pueden mejorar los procedimientos seguidos durante el diseño, la interventorie, y la construcción. En este artículo se describen aquellos factores y condiciones que favorecen la ocurrencia de los movimientos en masa, se mencionan las características de estos últimos determinadas mediante un inventario reciente, se indican las deficiencias actuales más notorias qce se encuentran en el diseño y en la construcción de carreteras, y se incluyen informaciones sobre costos parciales de los daños ocasionados por  los derrumbes de los taludes viales. Este trabajo fue publicado en las memorias del lV Congreso Colombiano de Geotecnia, que se realizó en Bogotá, entre el 20 y 23 de agosto de 1991.

  7. Using Texture Analysis Technique to Assess the Freeze-Dried Cakes in Vials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Ellen V; Ermolina, Irina

    2016-07-01

    A freeze-dried (FD) cake should possess, among other properties, a sufficient dryness and strength to prevent cracking or powdering during transportation and storage. In this study, the application of a standard texture analysis (TA) technique to study the mechanical properties of the FD cakes directly in glass vials used for freeze-drying has been demonstrated. Examining the FD cakes in glass vials has many advantages as it allows studying the intact FD cakes minimizing the bias from texture distortion during samples preparation, and reducing the moisture uptake. A procedure allowing quantitative assessment of the strength, fracturability, and elastic properties of the FD cakes using TA has been developed. The results show that the TA method is sensitive to the variations in cake materials, storage conditions (temperature, excessive moisture), and cake quality. The results also show that TA can also be applied for optimization and improvement of the freeze-drying protocols and rapid disintegrating tablet formulation development. The simplicity of the TA technique and a number of different probes available on the market allow using the TA for the routine reliable and robust tests of FD solids providing valuable information on the strength and texture of the cakes. PMID:27290623

  8. Aplicación móvil para fomentar la seguridad vial en niños : (Plataforma IOS)

    OpenAIRE

    García Reyes, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    La enseñanza de la seguridad vial hoy en día es fundamental para concienciar y evitar posibles situaciones peligrosas. El cumplimiento de las normas de seguridad vial disminuiría este tipo de situaciones. El problema que resuelve este proyecto es la dificultad de enseñar ciertas normas básicas de seguridad vial a los niños. En este caso concreto se ha enfocado a los niños más pequeños, de una edad entre seis y diez años. Este problema junto con la importancia que está alcanzando el uso de las...

  9. Bases de Política Criminal y Protección Penal de la Seguridad Vial

    OpenAIRE

    Cardozo Pozo, Rodrigo Cristhian

    2010-01-01

    [ES] Esta tesis trata de alcanzar un punto medio entre la perspectiva general y la particular sobre los delitos relativos a la seguridad vial. Así, se encuentra referida al ámbito de la protección penal de la seguridad vial y no sólo de los delitos contra el mismo. Esto quiere dejarse claro, haciendo alusión a unas bases político criminales de la mencionada parcela penal, lo que entre otros motivos se fundamenta en la realidad latinoamericana. [EN] This thesis aims to achieve a balance bet...

  10. UN MÉTODO COMPUTACIONAL PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE RUTAS ÓPTIMAS EN SISTEMAS VIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO LUIS ANGEL RESTREPO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un método basado en técnicas formales que permite determinar las rutas óptimas en un sistema vial. Se muestra como partiendo de la representación de una malla vial utilizando teoría de grafos y posteriormente aplicando una extensión del algoritmo de Floyd-Warshall, es posible obtener los valores de recorrido y la sucesión de segmentos que componen las rutas mínimas entre la totalidad de los puntos de interés del sistema.

  11. Determinación de indicadores para la calidad de agua, sedimentos y suelos, marinos y costeros en puertos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero Rendón Luz A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Los puertos, debido al uso de los espacios costeros y como consecuencia de las actividades inherentes a su función, están alterando las condiciones naturales de la calidad de aguas, sedimentos y suelos. Las zonas portuarias generalmente compartidas con otro tipo de actividades como la pesca, la recreación, entre otras, son receptoras de descargas de los sistemas de tratamiento de agua residual de efluentes industriales, efluentes domésticos, o aguas de escorrentía, bien sea por emisiones puntuales o difusas. Esta es una propuesta de rediseño de las variables que han venido monitoreándose por mucho tiempo en los puertos colombianos, y está encaminada al establecimiento de una nueva y amplia oferta de variables que contienen información muy relevante para definir las características físicas, químicas y microbiológicas de los cuerpos de agua, sedimentos marinos y suelos a monitorear en zonas portuarias, con el fin de mejorar la gestión y disminuir los riesgos asociados a la calidad ambiental, generados por la actividad.

  12. Contenido de metales en sedimentos y en Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857, en bahía Mejillones del Sur, Chile

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    Marcos Guiñez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la concentración de Cu, Cd, Ni y Zn en sedimentos intermareales y Emérita analoga (Stimpson, 1857, en ocho sectores de la bahía de Mejillones del sur, Chile. Sólo el Zn presentó un cierto grado de contaminación en los sedimentos de la bahía con un índice de geoacumulación de 2,8. Al analizar el contenido de metales en E. analoga, se determinó que esta especie estaría bioacumulando algunos de los metales analizados pero en baja magnitud, a excepción del Zn con un factor de bioacumulación de 2,07. El dendrograma de similitud realizado con datos del índice de bioacumulación, relacionó los valores de este índice con la distribución espacial de las principales industrias y zonas urbanas. Esta concordancia permite establecer que E. analoga estaría respondiendo como un indicador de la salud ambiental para este sistema. Además, es importante destacar que esta bahía está experimentando los primeros indicios de una zona industrial moderadamente impactada. Por lo tanto, es necesario realizar mediciones constantes, que abarquen más de una matriz ambiental, para controlar el impacto antrópico en este ecosistema marino costero altamente productivo.

  13. Magnitud y frecuencia del transporte fluvial de sedimento en una cuenca mediterránea semihúmeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batalla, Ramón J.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the magnitude and frequency of the sediment transport in the Arbúcies drainage basin (Catalan Coastal Ranges. For this purpose, daily discharges for the period 1967-1992 and sediment samples (including dissolved, suspended and bedload obtained during 1991 and 1992 are taken into account Results indicate that dissolved load is more constant through time, while solid material transport is more dependent on flood events, especially those associated with bankfull discharges. Calculations show that sediment yield is dominated by events of high frequency and moderate magnitud associated with the bankfull discharge. Those events occur 2.2% of the time and carry 56% of the annual suspended sediment load and 31% of the annual bedload yield. Effective discharge for bedload transport in the Arbúcies river is, therefore, a relatively frequent flood event of identical magnitude to the bankfull (geomorphic dominant discharge.

    [es] Este trabajo examina la magnitud y la frecuencia del transporte de sedimento (material disuelto, sedimento en suspensión y carga de fondo en la cuenca de la riera de Arbúcies (Cordilleras Costeras Catalanas, a partir de los caudales diarios del periodo 1967-1992 y de las muestras de agua y sedimento obtenidas durante los años 1991 y 1992. Los resultados indican que el transporte en disolución es más uniforme en el tiempo que el transporte de material sólido, tanto en suspensión como de fondo. Los cálculos muestran que la carga sólida total depende sobre todo de crecidas frecuentes y de magnitud moderada, correspondientes al nivel de cauce lleno (bankfull. Cabe señalar, en este sentido, que los caudales bankfull suceden el 2,2% del tiempo y transportan el 56% del sedimento en suspensión y el 31% de la carga de fondo total anual. El caudal efectivo para el transporte de sedimento en este río es, por tanto, un suceso relativamente frecuente y de idéntica magnitud al caudal geomorfol

  14. Componentes descriptivos y explicativos de la accidentalidad vial en Colombia: Incidencia del factor humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervyn H. Norza Céspedes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Problema: Se analizó la incidencia del factor humano en la accidentalidad vial en el territorio colombiano, y se identificó evidencia empírica para la formulación de política pública del tránsito. Metodología: El diseño es descriptivo-correlacional. Instrumentos: cuestionario de comportamiento para conductores y motociclistas (D.B.Q. y encuesta tipo Likert. Muestra no probabilística intencional: 16.322 personas (8.631 conductores de automotores, 5.133 motociclistas y 2.558 peatones, pasajeros y acompañantes. Resultados: a conductores con nivel educativo superior inciden en menos accidentes; b peatones con menor nivel educativo inciden en mayores conductas riesgosas; c las mujeres tienen actitud positiva y perciben eficacia de campañas en prevencion; d estilos de conducción iracundo, ansioso, riesgoso y de alta velocidad cometen más infracciones y accidentes; e desobedecer señales de tránsito, la principal causa de accidentalidad; f agresividad, hostilidad y estrés en el tránsito son factores que aumentan la probabilidad de accidente; g campañas de prevención no están siendo captadas por la población más afectada. Conclusiones y recomendaciones: Los factores de accidentalidad vial guardan correspondencia con el Triángulo de Seguridad Vial establecido por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas -factor humano preponderante en la accidentalidad-. Lineamientos de política pública fundamentados en procesos educativos y corporativos tendientes a disminuir la accidentalidad por lo general no se concibe aplicada a la seguridad pública. Por ello, se presenta la inteligencia criminal como una disciplina que se ocupa de anticipar los riesgos criminales contra la seguridad pública. Esto permitiría disminuir la incertidumbre durante la toma de decisiones y calcular los daños contra la seguridad pública, que se pretende prevenir.

  15. Contribuição das fontes de sedimentos em uma bacia hidrográfica agrícola sob plantio direto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Tiecher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das principais fontes difusas de produção de sedimento pode aumentar a eficiência de utilização dos recursos públicos, investidos em estratégias de gestão em bacias hidrográficas, que visem mitigar a transferência de sedimentos aos cursos d'água. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as fontes de sedimentos numa bacia hidrográfica rural de cabeceira com predomínio de cultivos anuais sob plantio direto e com intensa e inadequada exploração dos recursos naturais, por meio da quantificação da contribuição relativa das estradas e das lavouras na produção global de sedimentos. A bacia hidrográfica está localizada no município de Júlio de Castilhos, Rio Grande do Sul. O período de estudo foi de maio de 2009 a abril de 2011. Para a identificação das fontes, foi utilizado o método fingerprinting, que compara os solos de diferentes fontes e os sedimentos que são encontrados em suspensão no canal de drenagem, usando elementos traçadores. O manejo inadequado do solo nas áreas de lavoura, a falta de planejamento das vias de acesso e a ausência de práticas de controle do escoamento superficial, que sejam compatíveis com a fragilidade condicionada pelos solos e pelo relevo da bacia hidrográfica, têm provocado o surgimento de processos erosivos acelerados com efeitos negativos ao agricultor e à sociedade. As estradas apresentam alta porcentagem de contribuição na transferência de sedimentos, mas a contribuição das áreas de lavoura aumenta em precipitações pluviais de alta magnitude. Isso evidencia que a magnitude dos eventos de chuva influencia a proporção de contribuição entre as fontes ao longo do ano na bacia hidrográfica, interferindo no processo de mobilização de sedimentos e nutrientes em direção à rede de drenagem.

  16. Single vial kit formulation for preparation of PET radiopharmaceutical: 68Ga-DOTATOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to establish a cost effective and facile method for preparation of clinical grade 68Ga-DOTATOC for PET imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. Kit for peptide conjugate, DOTATOC was formulated under sterile conditions. Radiolabeling with 68Ga eluted from novel 68Ge/68Ga BARC generator was optimized and complex was characterized by PC and HPLC. Consistency in 68Ga labeling using kit vials was achieved when tested up to three months. Pharmacokinetics of 68Ga-DOTATOC was studied in small animals. Fast clearance of activity via renal route as reported for 68Ga-DOTATOC peptide was observed. Clinical application of 68Ga-DOTATOC was also demonstrated. (author)

  17. Hacia un análisis sociológico de la siniestrabilidad vial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sánchez Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reivindica la importancia de una sociología de los transportes, un área esencial para nuestras sociedades que tradicionalmente las ciencias sociales no han atendido. Este vacío científico se ha trasladado a las investigaciones sobre la siniestrabilidad vial. En su lugar han imperado estudios sin verdadera base científica que, divulgados por los medios de comunicación, no permiten a la opinión pública visualizar la realidad del problema. Las instituciones de tráfico se limitan a establecer medidas recaudatorias y a responsabilizar a los conductores. Sin embargo, un análisis detallado de los datos y un cuestionamiento razonado de los planteamientos oficiales pueden desvelarnos las auténticas causas de los accidentes.

  18. Desarrollo y optimización de una metodología analítica para la determinación de sedimento en bebida de mesa derivada del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Juliana; Tello, Myriam; Ostos, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio encaminado a desarrollar y optimizar una metodología analítica que permita determinar la cantidad de sedimento que presenta una bebida derivada del cacao (chocolate de mesa), para ser aplicada como prueba rutinaria de control de calidad indicadora del proceso, con base en los principios de la sedimentación. Para la caracterización del sedimento, se hizo la distribución de tamaños de partícula, porcentaje de grasa y peso del sedimento en seco. El desarrollo...

  19. Stability of dacarbazine in amber glass vials and polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aatmani, Mohamed; Poujol, Sylvain; Astre, Cecile; Malosse, Françoise; Pinguet, Frederic

    2002-07-15

    The stability of dacarbazine in commercial glass vials and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags in various storage conditions and the emergence of 2-azahypoxanthine, a major degradation product possibly linked with some adverse effects, were studied. Triplicate samples of reconstituted (11 mg/mL) and diluted (1.40 mg/mL) dacarbazine admixtures were prepared and stored at 4 degrees C or at 25 degrees C in daylight, fluorescent light, or the dark. The effect of several light-protective measures (amber glass vials, aluminum foil wrapping, and opaque tubing) on dacarbazine stability in a simulated i.v. infusion system was also evaluated. Dacarbazine quantification and main degradation product determination were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as conservation of 90-105% of initial dacarbazine concentration without major variations in clarity, color, or pH and without precipitate formation. Reconstituted dacarbazine solutions were stable for 24 hours at room temperature and during light exposure and stable for at least 96 hours at 2-6 degrees C when stored in the dark. After dilution in PVC bags, stability time increased from 2 hours in daylight to 24 hours in fluorescent light and to 72 hours when covered with aluminum foil. After two hours of simulated infusion, dacarbazine remained stable. Diluted dacarbazine solutions stored at 2-6 degrees C were stable for at least 168 hours. The only degradation product found was 2-azahypoxanthine, which was detected in every sample. The storage and handling of dacarbazine should take into account both the loss of the drug and the production of its potentially toxic degradation product. Dacarbazine must be carefully protected from light, administered using opaque infusion tubing, and, if necessary, refrigerated before administration to reduce 2-azahypoxanthine formation. PMID:12132562

  20. Estudo mineralógico do sedimento de manguezal da baía de Camamu-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Maria Cordeiro de Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A baía de Camamu, importante pólo turístico, pesqueiro e mineiro, está localizada na Região Litoral Sul do Estado da Bahia. Esse corpo hídrico é bordejado por extensa floresta de manguezal e tem se tornado alvo de uma série de estudos geoambientais. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar parte dessas investigações, que corresponde a uma avaliação mineralógica nos sedimentos do manguezal estudado. O estudo semiquantitativo realizado mostrou que, nas estações próximas à zona de mineração, o sedimento é rico em quartzo, barita e argilas, além de pequeno percentual de pirita e jarosita. Nas demais estações, a mineralogia é composta predominantemente por quartzo e argilas, com percentuais variados de barita, pirita e gipsita em determinadas estações. Nos sedimentos de manguezal estudados, os minerais identificados parecem estar intimamente relacionados aos processos geológicos ocorrentes localmente: seja através de processos intempéricos da zona de alimentação ou processos antropogênicos com posterior transporte, seja através de modificações mineralógicas in situ provenientes das condições físico-químicas impostas ao ambiente.The Camamu Bay, an important fishing, mining and tourist site, is located at the South Coastal Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil. This large water body is surrounded by extensive mangrove forest and has been the object of many geo-environmental studies. The objective of this work is to present partial results of one of these studies, a mineralogical evaluation in the sediments of the Camamu Bay's mangrove. This semi-quantitative study showed that in the stations next the mining zone the sediment is rich in quartz, barite and clays, with small percentage of pyrite and jarosite. However, for the majority of the stations, the mineralogy is predominantly: quartz and clays, with a variety of percentages of barite, pyrite and crude gypsum in some stations. The results obtained in this work

  1. Ciliates (Protozoa from dried sediments of a temporary pond from Argentina Ciliados (Protozoa de sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Küppers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary ponds represent special environments that are inhabited by organisms adapted to changing environmental conditions. Ciliates are able to survive complete loss of water in these transient habitats through cyst formation. However, ciliates from the Neotropical region in general have been poorly studied with modern techniques. The main goal of this study is to describe the ciliates in dried sediments of a temporary pond from Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, through sampling efforts that were performed 2003-2005. Soil samples were obtained during drought phases and re wetted in laboratory to establish raw and enriched cultures. Ciliates were then studied both in vivo and after impregnation with protargol. In this study, we present 4 new records for Argentina (Gonostomum affine (Stein, 1859 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia bifaria (Stokes, 1887 Berger, 1999, Pleurotricha lanceolata (Ehrenberg, 1835 Stein, 1859, Meseres corlissi Petz and Foissner, 1992, 1 for South America (Blepharisma americanum (Suzuki, 1954 Hirshfield, Isquith and Bhandary, 1965, and 2 for the Neotropical Realm (Gonostomum strenuum (Engelmann, 1862 Sterki, 1878, Stylonychia lemnae Ammermann and Schlegel, 1983.Los cuerpos de agua temporarios son ambientes particulares que se encuentran habitados por organismos adaptados a condiciones fluctuantes. Los ciliados son capaces de sobrevivir a la pérdida completa de agua del ambiente gracias a la formación de estructuras de resistencia. Por otra parte, los ciliados de la región Neotropical han sido poco investigados con técnicas modernas. El objetivo de este estudio es referir los ciliados que se desarrollaron a partir de los sedimentos secos de una charca temporaria de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en la que se realizaron muestreos durante el período 2003-2005. Las muestras de suelo fueron obtenidas durante las fases de sequía y luego resuspendidas en el laboratorio para realizar cultivos naturales y enriquecidos. Los

  2. Solid Phase Microextraction On-Fiber Derivatization Using a Stable, Portable, and Reusable Pentafluorophenyl Hydrazine Standard Gas Generating Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Justen J; Grandy, Jonathan J; Gómez-Ríos, German A; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-07-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) on-fiber derivatization methods have facilitated the achievement of lower detection limits and targeted analysis of various substances that exhibit poor chromatographic behavior, thermal instability, or high reactivity while limiting the use of organic solvents. However, previously developed on-fiber derivatization methods have been hindered by poor loading reproducibility and standard lifetime due to derivatization reagent reactivity. In addition, this reactivity often results in these reagents demonstrating toxic effects, complicating handling and standard formulation. To address this, a reusable standard gas generating vial containing pentafluorophenyl hydrazine (PFPH) has been developed. With this development, SPME fibers can now be reproducibly loaded with derivatization reagent, from an easy to use and safe platform. Validation of the vial using C4-C9 linear aldehyde standards as target analytes demonstrated intrabatch vial reproducibility (2% relative standard deviation (RSD), n = 4), along with PFPH headspace stability over a period of 11 weeks, facilitating reduced reagent consumption due to standard longevity. In addition, reproducibility of the derivatization reaction was observed over 1 week (RSD 0.996, 10-200 ppb v/v). Finally, the PFPH-generating vial was applied to the monitoring of volatile aldehydes generated during meat spoilage, as well as an on-site application where the free and total concentration of formaldehyde was determined in car exhaust using a portable GC/MS. To the best of our knowledge, the standard gas generating vial proposed in this work is the first documented device for the long-term storage of reusable headspace standards for a reactive, toxic, and otherwise unstable derivatization reagent standard. PMID:27292013

  3. METHOD FOR MEASURING AIR-IMMISCIBLE LIQUID PARTITION COEFFICIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principal objective of this work was to measure nonaqueous phase liquid-air partition coefficients for various gas tracer compounds. Known amounts of trichloroethene (TCE) and tracer, as neat compounds, were introduced into glass vials and allowed to equilibrate. The TCE and ...

  4. Uso de imagens MODIS no monitoramento do fluxo de sedimentos no reservatório de Três Marias

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. T. Pinto; Paulo H. B. J. Menezes; Jean-Michel Martinez; Henrique L. Roig; Raúl A. E. Villar

    2014-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, monitorar o fluxo de entrada de sedimentos no braço do Rio Indaiá no reservatório de Três Marias, MG, com base em dados das imagens de satélites. Foram adquiridas séries temporais de 12 anos das imagens MODIS (Terra e Aqua), compostas de 8 dias. Estimativas de reflectância da superfície foram calculadas usando-se o algoritmo MOD3R. Dados hidrossedimentométricos da estação de monitoramento do Rio Indaiá foram integrados às análises para se entender a relação entre...

  5. Discriminación de sedimentos contaminados con jales mineros por medio de la forma de granos de cuarzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Miranda-Avilés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un método alterno al análisis geoquímico para identificar la existencia de jales mineros en sedimentos y/o suelos por medio del análisis digital de imagen y parámetros de forma de cristales de cuarzo. El método se aplicó a jales mineros, sedimentos naturales y antropogénicos del Distrito Minero de Guanajuato. El parámetro que mejor discriminó los 3 grupos de granos de cuarzo (jales, antropogénico y natural es la circularidad (C. La (C promedio de cuarzo natural es 0.73, mientras que los cuarzos de jales presentan un promedio de 0.64 y los cuarzos de origen antropogénico presentan una (C entre 0.66 a 0.67. La metodología empleada puede aplicarse en la identificación de antiguos depósitos de jales mineros que actualmente estén mezclados y/o cubiertos por la mancha urbana en antiguos distritos mineros, donde no se cuenta con referencias de su distribución. También en zonas de cultivo que contengan jales mezclados y que potencialmente aporten metales. Otra aplicación potencial puede ser en sondeos de suelos como complemento a la geoquímica, permitiendo la identificación de jales e interpolación en horizontes donde solo se cuente con pocas muestras geoquímicas.

  6. Criterios para elaboración de estudios viales en barrios de origen informal en proceso de legalización

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Pinzón, Rubby Stella

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es establecer criterios y proponer una metodología para la elaboración de estudios viales en barrios dé origen informal en proceso de legalización, dado que las intervenciones que se hacen sobre la estructura vial, como resultado de los estudios viales actuales, no están garantizando el derecho social a la movilidad de las personas. Para alcanzar dicho objetivo se propone el desarrollo de un modelo conceptual para análisis de la movilidad urbana en los barrios, el cual...

  7. Aplicación móvil para recordar normas de circulación y seguridad vial a conductores experimentados

    OpenAIRE

    Villadangos González, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    La seguridad vial consiste en la prevención para evitar accidentes de tráfico o minimizar los posibles efectos de los mismos, especialmente para la salud de las personas. A su vez también se refiere a cualquier tecnología o dispositivo empleado para dicho objetivo. Las normas reguladoras y la responsabilidad de las personas componen el principal punto de la seguridad vial. Uno de los principales problemas existentes en relación con la seguridad vial es que, con el tiempo, los conductores pued...

  8. Physical and chemical stability of Taxotere® (docetaxel) one-vial (20 mg/ml) infusion solution following refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, M.; Acott, S

    2010-01-01

    A one-vial formulation of the chemotherapy agent Taxotere® (docetaxel) is likely to be commercially available in some countries in 2010. Through control of two significant potential risk factors for crystallization—intervention into the infusion bag (by using a one-step technique) and temperature (by use of refrigerated storage)—it was postulated that the risk of precipitation would be reduced and the storage time of Taxotere® increased using the one-vial formulation versus the two-vial formu...

  9. ¡La calle también es mía! Los niños, las ciudades y la seguridad vial.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Calatayud Miñana, Constanza; Alamar Rocatí, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    El Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Tráfico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS) y Attitudes (programa social de Audi), tras la publicación del libro "Los niños, las ciudades y la seguridad vial: una visión a partir de la investigación.", se plantearon como actividad complementaria la realización de unas jornadas que cumplieran los siguientes objetivos: • Permitir avanzar en el conocimiento y la implementación de medidas que contribuyan a una mejora de la seguridad vial en el caso concreto...

  10. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  11. Predictores Psicosociales de Delitos contra la Seguridad Vial: Un Estudio con Internos de un Centro Penitenciario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Herraiz Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Penitenciario de Hombres de Barcelona ha habido un aumento creciente de ingresos por delitos contra la seguridad vial. El objetivo de esta investigación es obtener un perfil psicológico en una muestra de 115 internos, analizar cuáles son los predictores en la conducción agresiva, y finalmente contrastar la posible existencia de diferentes tipologías, en función de la ausencia o presencia de otros delitos, con o sin componentes agresivos. Los resultados muestran que las causas o estados que causan irritación, los antecedentes familiares de conducción agresiva y la presencia de trastornos psiquiátricos son predictores de la conducta agresiva en la conducción, así como la agresividad física es también un predictor de los accidentes. No hay diferencias en internos que también presentan otras tipologías delictivas.

  12. Comparison of a modified shell vial culture procedure with conventional mouse inoculation for rabies virus isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Angeles Ribas Antúnez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a neurotropic disease that is often lethal. The early diagnosis of rabies infection is important and requires methods that allow for the isolation of the virus from animals and humans. The present study compared a modified shell vial (MSV procedure using 24-well tissue culture plates with the mouse inoculation test (MIT, which is considered the gold standard for rabies virus isolation. Thirty brain samples (25 positive and 5 negative by the fluorescent antibody test obtained from different animal species at the National Institute of Hygiene Rafael Rangel in Caracas, Venezuela, were studied by the MIT and MSV assays. Nine samples (36% were positive at 24 h, 10 (40% were positive at 48 h and six (24% were positive at 72 h by the MSV assay. With the MIT assay, 76% were positive at six days post inoculation and 12% were positive at 12 and 18 days post inoculation. One sample that was negative according to the MSV assay was positive with MIT on the 12th day. The MSV procedure exhibited a sensitivity of 96.2%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value 80%. This procedure allowed for rapid rabies virus detection. MIT can be employed as an alternative method in laboratories without tissue culture facilities.

  13. Educación vial y cambio de actitudes : algunos resultados y líneas de futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Montané i Capdevila, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio pretende ofrecer una visión global de los principales programas de educación y formación vial, diseñados y aplicados por la Càtedra de Formació i Educació Viàries y por el equipo de investigación ERES’v (Equip de Recerca en Educació i Seguretat Viàries) en toda Cataluña, en el marco de la formación de los formadores viales y en el de los preconductores y conductores de diferentes etapas evolutivas y de diversos tipos de vehículos. Se exponen las aportaciones de diferentes modelos...

  14. A SIMPLE METHOD OF IN-VITRO CULTURE OF PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM IN SCREW-CAPPED VIALS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Edrissian Pharm

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary study carried out in a simple field laboratory in Bandar-Abbas, southern Iran, five isolates of P. falciparum collected from the patients was cultured in RPMI 1640 medium with human serum in the tightly closed screw capped vials without any devised system for adjustment of co2 and o2 mixture. The same isolates were also cultured, simultaneously, in Petri-dishes using Jensen-Trager candle, jar method. Although, the cultures could not be maintained more than 27 days, mostly due to unfavorable conditions existed in the laboratory, the longevity of parasites were more or less the same in both techniques. In this study the multiplication rates of parasites in the screw capped vials were higher than rates obtained in Petri dishes in candle jar method.

  15. Línea de base ambiental de agua y sedimento de wscorrentía superficialpara la quebrada Alipán, sierra de Velasco, La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto O Nievas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan resultados pertenecientes a una línea de base ambiental en aguas y sedimentos de escorrentía superficial, para un proyecto minero en incipiente etapa de exploración, en la sierra de Velasco, provincia de La Rioja. Se determina la calidad del agua siguiendo un diseño estratégico de muestreo para obtener una adecuada caracterización de la cuenca y para evaluar cambios en los sucesivos muestreos. A su vez, se analizan los contenidos en agua de uranio y radio por su importancia en un área con mineralización uranífera. Finalmente, se consideran las concentraciones químicas en sedimentos de escorrentía superficial y se evalúan los distintos aportes de los afluentes hacia el colector principal, la quebrada Alipán.

  16. Aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica provenientes de sedimentos del Humedal El Jaboque (Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Zapata Hernando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En el humedal el Jaboque (Engativá Bogotá, Colombia, se aislaron microorganismos lipolíticos provenientes de
    sedimentos, mediante la utilización de medios de cultivo selectivos (agar tributirina, agar aceite de girasol. Primero se evaluó la concentración del sustrato (aceite de girasol en la cual se encontraba el mayor número de morfotipos aislados, luego se comparó la eficiencia de los dos medios de cultivo de acuerdo a la cantidad de morfotipos aislados. Se evaluaron tres concentraciones diferentes de sustrato. Se aisló un total de 18 cepas pertenecientes a los géneros Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Streptomyces, Penicillium, Alternaria. Los medios evaluados constituyen alternativas sencillas de aislamiento de microorganismos con actividad lipolítica en sedimentos.

  17. Mineralogia y geoquimica de los sedimentos de algunas lagunas del N de la provincia de Málaga (S de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavente, J.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Similar compositional and genetic characteristics for the recently deposited sediments in some lakes and ponds of the north of the Málaga province have been observed. Nevertheless, it seems to exist some differences in their mineralogical and geochemical evolution as well as in the degree of alteration of the original sediment. The mineral alterations produced in these confined lacustrine basins, with pH higher than 8, are controlled by ionic exchange between water and sediment. According to the mineral alteration degree three stadiums of mineral evolution have been detected. In addition the mineralogical and geochemical evolution and the hydrochemical characteristic of the aqueous environment are related. The study has shown that some neoformation processes of Mgrich minerals also occur.Se han observado características composicionales y genéticas similares en los sedimentos más recientes de algunas lagunas del norte de la provincia de Málaga, si bien parecen existir diferencias en su evolución mineralógica y geoquímica y en el grado de alteración del sedimento original. Las alteraciones minerales producidas en estos medios lacustres confinados, con pH superior a 8, están controladas por los intercambios iónicos entre el agua y el sedimento. Según el grado de alteración mineral detectado se han observado tres estadios de evolución mineral para estos sedimentos. Igualmente, se observa una relación entre la evolución mineralógica y geoquímica y las características hidroquímicas del agua existente en el medio. El estudio ha mostrado indicios de neoformación de minerales ricos en Mg+2.

  18. ESTUDIO BIOGEOQUÍMICO DEL EMBALSE SUATA, VENEZUELA, DE ACUERDO AL CONTENIDO METÁLICO DE SUS SEDIMENTOS DE FONDO, AGUAS Y PECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Álvarez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio biogeoquímico mediante el análisis del contenido metálico en muestras de sedimentos de fondo, aguas y peces colectadas mensualmente durante un año. Los sedimentos se encontraron enriquecidos antrópicamente con COT, Zn y Cd, presentando un nivel de contaminación de moderado a fuerte, y según la fracción biodisponible, un riesgo muy alto de Zn y mediano de Ni, Cd, Cr y Co. Estas especies llegarían al embalse, principalmente, mediante la escorrentía superficial de desechos de industrias de producción animal ubicadas en los alrededores y aportes del Rio Aragua. Aunque la desorción de los metales desde los sedimentos es improbable dado el pH donde se encuentran (8-9 y la concentración de los metales en las aguas y peces fue menor que las máximas permitidas en las normativas, se encontraron indicios de bioacumulación de Hg y Ni en el hígado de los peces que sugieren mantener el monitoreo del embalse.

  19. Comparison of tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz effects on susceptible and resistant populations of Varroa destructor in a vial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Martin; Nesvorna, Marta; Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major pest of the western honeybee, Apis mellifera. The development of acaricide resistance in Varroa populations is a global issue. Discriminating concentrations of acaricides are widely used to detect pest resistance. Two methods, using either glass vials or paraffin capsules, are used to screen for Varroa resistance to various acaricides. We found the glass vial method to be useless for testing Varroa resistance to acaridices, so we developed a polypropylene vial bioassay. This method was tested on tau-fluvalinate-, acrinathrin-, and amitraz-resistant mite populations from three apiaries in Czechia. Acetone was used as a control and technical grade acaricide compounds diluted in acetone were applied to the polypropylene vials. The solutions were spread on the vial surface by rolling the vial, and were then evaporated. Freshly collected Varroa females were placed in the vials and the mortality of the exposed mites was measured after 24 h. The Varroa populations differed in mortality between the apiaries and the tested compounds. Mites from the Kyvalka site were resistant to acrinathrin, tau-fluvalinate, and amitraz, while mites from the Postrizin site were susceptible to all three acaricides. In Prelovice apiary, the mites were susceptible to acrinathrin and amitraz, but not to tau-fluvalinate. The calculated discriminating concentrations for tau-fluvalinate, acrinathrin, and amitraz were 0.66, 0.26 and 0.19 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that polyproplyne vial tests can be used to determine discriminating concentrations for the early detection of acaricide resistant Varroa. Finally, multiple-resistance in Kyvalka may indicate metabolic resistance. PMID:26910521

  20. Auditorías viales e intervenciones para prevenir atropellamientos, Cuernavaca, México, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Híjar M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Los atropellamientos son un problema de Salud Pública en México. Representan más del 40% de las muertes reportadas como lesiones causadas por el tránsito (lct. En zonas urbanas representan hasta el 60% de las lct. Objetivo: caracterizar y analizar algunas zonas donde se concentraban tanto las muertes como los lesionados por atropellamiento en Cuernavaca, México. Metodología: desde un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo se planearon y ejecutaron auditorías viales sobre las intersecciones que habían representado mayor riesgo de lesiones y muertes en peatones. En cada lugar se evaluó el aforo peatonal, vehicular, los ciclos semafóricos, las condiciones del medio ambiente físico y se tomaron archivos fotográficos. Resultados: se observó deficiencia de elementos del medio ambiente físico: señalamientos desgastados sobre y al costado de la vía, mala visibilidad por ramas de árboles, vehículos estacionados indebidamente, paradas no autorizadas de transporte público, no uso de puentes peatonales y ciclos semafóricos deficientes. Conclusión: las auditorías viales son herramientas procedentes y empleadas en la ingeniería del tránsito, poco usadas por los salubristas como técnicas para prevenir LCT, en especial atropellamientos. Permiten diseñar e implementar medidas de prevención primaria para disminuir los riesgos de lesión en los usuarios más vulnerables de la vía pública: los peatones. Abstract Pedestrian injuries are a public health problem in Mexico.Represent more than 40% of the deaths reported as road traffic injuries (rti. Likewise, they represent up to 60% of all RTIs in urban areas. Objective: To characterize and analyze the areas with a high incidence of fatal and non-fatal pedestrian injuries in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Methodology: a retrospective descriptive study in which street audits were conducted on the intersections with the highest risk of pedestrian fatality and injury. Pedestrian and vehicle equipment

  1. Variáveis mineralógicas preditoras de fontes de produção de sedimentos, em uma bacia hidrográfica do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Miguel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso da mineralogia como ferramenta para a avaliação das propriedades dos minerais que compõem o solo é extremamente importante para o entendimento das diferentes relações químicas e físicas que ocorrem nele. Essas propriedades/variáveis, na identificação das fontes de sedimentos em suspensão, podem ajudar a elucidar os fatores e processos que regem a transferência de sedimentos e poluentes dos sistemas terrestres para os sistemas aquáticos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar quantitativamente a mineralogia do solo das fontes e dos sedimentos em suspensão, em uma bacia hidrográfica, e identificar quais variáveis mineralógicas possuem propriedades traçadoras. Para a identificação das fontes, foi utilizado o método fingerprinting, que compara os solos de diferentes fontes e os sedimentos que são encontrados em suspensão no canal de drenagem, usando elementos traçadores. Os principais minerais que compõem o solo das fontes e do sedimento foram caulinita, minerais de camada 2:1 e hematita e goethita. Entre os óxidos, a hematita foi o que predominou entre as amostras. As variáveis mineralógicas, teor de caulinita e de goethita apresentaram capacidade discriminante e puderam ser usados como traçadores na identificação das fontes de produção de sedimentos e na estimativa da contribuição de cada uma das fontes, aumentando assim a capacidade preditiva do modelo. A maior contribuição na produção de sedimentos foi dos canais fluviais, seguidos pela malha e, por último, pelas estradas.

  2. Development and evaluation of a single vial cold kit for infection imaging: Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibiotics have been used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. They are used as specific infection-imaging agents because of their affinity to bind with bacteria. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is the most widely used infection-imaging agent. The aim of the present work is to increase the shelf life of an in house developed single vial kit for the preparation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Different methods were used to make the Ciprofloxacin kits. Kits were stored at a temperature of 4 deg. C under nitrogen atmosphere and evaluated for stability by serially estimating the labeling efficiency using instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) following reconstitution with Tc99m pertechnetate at regular intervals of time up to 90 days after their preparation. The data were subjected to Sigmaplotsoftware version 8.0 for shelf-life analysis. The kits were further evaluated for a number of standard quality control parameters. Kits containing sodium chloride-Ciprofloxacin pellets were found to have a shelf life of 7 months and constantly maintaining a labeling efficiency of 95% Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Biodistribution studies in balb/c mice showed significant levels in kidney, liver and intestine. Blood clearance studies showed a slow and biphasic clearance in rabbits. Gamma camera imaging of the rabbits bearing S.aureus infectious lesion confirmed the utility and specificity of the reconstituted kit in imaging infection. The final kit, which was recommended for clinical use was found to be stable for nine months with all its characteristics remaining unchanged from those of the freshly prepared Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin during the entire period of observation. (author)

  3. Análisis paleoambiental de sedimentos lateríticos del depósito Camarioca, Moa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En el yacimiento niquelífero Camarioca, Cuba Oriental, hay sedimentos lateríticos bien documentados, que contienen un registro paleontológico espacialmente distribuido. Tomando como base las entidades taxoregistráticas en el área, se hizo la reconstrucción paleoambiental del sistema deposicional. Se realizó el análisis de la diversidad de las asociaciones registradas, el estudio de las variaciones de los factores de estrés, las reconstrucciones paleobatimétrica y paleoecológica y la correlación taxonómica. La combinación de técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas de análisis de datos paleontológicos, arrojó resultados que evidencian el establecimiento en la región, durante el Mioceno–Plioceno, de un sistema deposicional de plataforma interna protegida con mayor energía de deposición hacia el sur, y profundidades que se incrementaron de 0-30 m al sur hasta los 100 m al norte.

  4. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  5. Estudio sobre el modelo de seguridad vial Vision Zero y su posible aplicación en carreteras de Catalunya

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Parrado, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo que se presenta a continuación analiza de una forma detallada el nuevo enfoque que desde diferentes países a nivel internacional se le ha otorgado a la seguridad vial durante los últimos 15 allos. Esta nueva manera de plantearse el problema existente se basa en el concepto Vis ion Zero desarrollado por las autoridades suecas y cuyo principal principio es, ante todo, asegurar la vida de los usuarios del sistema de transporte por carretera ante cualquier situación mientras ...

  6. Desarrollo de sistemas electroópticos para domótica y señalización vial

    OpenAIRE

    Manzanares Bolea, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es diseñar, implementar y verificar dos sistemas electroópticos para dos ámbitos de aplicación diferenciados: domótica y señalización vial sobre vehículos. El primero de ellos es un sistema basado en paneles PDLC (polymer-dispersed liquid crystals) que es capaz de controlar la transmisión óptica entre varios niveles, tanto de forma manual como de forma remota. Este sistema permite que la activación o desactivación de dichos niveles se pueda realizar in situ mediant...

  7. Estudio composicional de los sedimentos de la Gruta del Indio, Rincón del Atuel, departamento de San Rafael, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andreis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En los sedimentos que constituyen el relleno de la gruta del Indio, Rincón del Atuel, se reconocieron tres niveles formados por acción fluvial intermitente y cuya distribución horizontal está parcialmente perturbada por la caída de bloques de basalto desde el techo. Los porcentajes y distribución de los componentes orgánicos, constituidos por humus, carbón, fitolitos y colofanita, es muy variable y está regulada por la actividad del hombre y de los animales. Los componentes detríticos son los más abundantes y generalmente superan el 90%, con amplio predominio de los constituyentes livianos. Los litoclastos volcánicos, los vitroclastos y las plagioclasas cálcicas son las variedades más abundantes, acompañadas por escaso cuarzo mono y policristalino, feldespatos potásicos, fragmentos carbonáticos y minerales pesados. De acuerdo a las características de los clastos se puede inferir un aporte sedimentario local, representado por clastos volcánicos provenientes de derrumbes y su mezcla con materiales similares derivados de la erosión de los depósitos subyacentes y otro alóctono fluvial, a los que se suma el aporte piroclástico. El conjunto de sedimentos analizados puede ser incluido en el grupo de las paratufitas. La baja madurez mineralógica de los sedimentos sugiere condiciones climáticas frias y secas. Sin embargo en los niveles superficiales, la presencia de agregados micríticos originados por precipitación in situ de aguas bicarbonatadas, indica condiciones esporádicas de humedad, las que son corroboradas, al igual que las bajas temperaturas, por la presencia de fragmentos quebrados de gutolitas.

  8. Modelo y simulación de una intersección vial usando el software Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Puerto Hernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el modelo y la simulación de una intersección vial. Para modelar las dinámicas fue seleccionado el software Arena®, por su gran versatilidad y amplitud en herramientas a la hora de diseñar y modelar sistemas estocásticos. Las simulaciones en eventos discretos de la intersección validarán el modelo. Con el modelo obtenido se podrá realizar el cambio en la programación de los semáforos, la inclusión de paraderos en sitios específicos de las vías, y además la demostración de la relación entre la forma de conducción y estos problemas de movilidad. Se busca disminuir el tamaño de las colas que se generan, además de una reducción en los tiempos de recorridos de los usuarios en estos tramos y un mejoramiento notable en el funcionamiento vial en general de la ciudad.

  9. El impacto de las nuevas políticas de seguridad vial sobre la conducta de los conductores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tena-Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La evidencia empírica disponible señala de manera unánime que las nuevas políticas de tráfico y seguridad vial aplicadas en España desde 2004, y en particular la introducción del carné por puntos y la reforma del Código Penal, han tenido una fuerte incidencia positiva en la reducción de la siniestralidad. De dichos resultados se deriva que las nuevas políticas han tenido también un efecto positivo sobre la conducta de los conductores, de modo que ha sido esa mejora en la conducta al volante la que finalmente se ha traducido en una reducción de la siniestralidad. No obstante, hasta el momento, los investigadores han descuidado el análisis directo de los datos sobre cumplimiento. En el presente trabajo se analizan todos los datos disponibles que ofrecen información sobre el cumplimiento de la normativa de tráfico y seguridad vial.

  10. A Single In-Vial Dual Extraction Strategy for the Simultaneous Lipidomics and Proteomics Analysis of HDL and LDL Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzien, Joanna; Ciborowski, Michal; Armitage, Emily Grace; Jorge, Inmaculada; Camafeita, Emilio; Burillo, Elena; Martín-Ventura, Jose Luis; Rupérez, Francisco J; Vázquez, Jesús; Barbas, Coral

    2016-06-01

    A single in-vial dual extraction (IVDE) procedure for the subsequent analysis of lipids and proteins in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions derived from the same biological sample is presented. On the basis of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction, IVDE leads to the formation of three phases: a protein pellet at the bottom, an aqueous phase with polar compounds, and an ether phase with lipophilic compounds. After sample extraction, performed within a high-performance liquid chromatography vial insert, the ether phase was directly injected for lipid fingerprinting, while the protein pellet, after evaporation of the remaining sample, was used for proteomics analysis. Human HDL and LDL isolates were used to test the suitability of the IVDE methodology for lipid and protein analysis from a single sample in terms of data quality and matching composition to that of HDL and LDL. Subsequently, HDL and LDL fractions isolated from ApoE-KO and wild-type mice were used to validate the capacity of IVDE for revealing changes in lipid and protein abundance. Results indicate that IVDE can be successfully used for the subsequent analysis of lipids and proteins with the advantages of time saving, simplicity, and reduced sample amount. PMID:27117984

  11. Evaluación de la contaminación en sedimentos del área portuaria y zona costera de Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    María Cristina González-Lozano; Lía C. Méndez-Rodríguez; Diego G. López-Veneroni; Alfonso Vázquez-Botello

    2006-01-01

    Para evaluar la calidad de los sedimentos recientes del área portuaria y costera de Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, México, principal centro de abastecimiento de petróleo y productos refinados del litoral Pacífico mexicano, se caracterizaron los principales contaminantes indicativos de actividad petrolera: hidrocarburos aromáticos (HA), material orgánico extraíble (MOE) y metales pesados, así como su relación con la toxicidad y granulometría. El estudio se realizó en tres períodos climáticos: secas, llu...

  12. Radiografía de un margen continental utilizando campos potenciales y espesor de sedimentos: el Margen Atlántico Ibérico

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán-Morollón, Manuel; Martos, Y. M.; Martín-Davila, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Carbó, A.; Druet, M

    2015-01-01

    [ES] El presente estudio realiza una revisión del estado del conocimiento en el Margen Atlántico Ibérico atendiendo a las tres provincias en las que clásicamente se sub-divide éste: margen gallego, planicie abisal suribérica, y planicie abisal del Tagus, utilizando como fuente de información datos de campos potenciales e información derivada de espesor de sedimentos. Se estudian las características de su basamento, estableciendo límites para la extensión de la corteza continental,...

  13. Radiografía de un margen continental utilizando campos potenciales y espesor de sedimentos: el Margen Atlántico Ibérico

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán, M.; Martos, J.M.; Martín-Davila, J.; Muñoz Martín, Alfonso; Carbó Gorosabel, Andrés; Druet, María

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio realiza una revisión del estado del conocimiento en el Margen Atlántico Ibérico atendiendo a las tres provincias en las que clásicamente se sub-divide éste: margen gallego, planicie abisal suribérica, y planicie abisal del Tagus, utilizando como fuente de información datos de campos potenciales e información derivada de espesor de sedimentos. Se estudian las características de su basamento, estableciendo límites para la extensión de la corteza continental, y la amplitud de...

  14. Concentración de mercurio total y metilmercurio en sedimento y seston y seston de la bahía de Cartagena, Caribe colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    Cogua, Pilar; Campos Campos, Néstor Hernando; Duque, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    En Colombia, la bahía de Cartagena es uno de los ecosistemas costeros más influenciados por la contaminación con mercurio (Hg). Con el propósito de identificar el estado ambiental de la bahía de Cartagena, en este estudio se determinó metilmercurio (MeHg) y mercurio total (HgT) en sedimentos superficiales y seston, durante cinco muestreos (febrero, abril, junio, julio y octubre), en cinco estaciones (Zona Industrial, Frente al Dique, Centro, Boca Chica y Tierra Bomba), dentro de la bahí...

  15. Sedimentos eólicos de grano fino en la Bahía de San Sebastián, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, A.; Vilas, F.

    2001-01-01

    [ES] La Bahía de San Sebastián, Argentina, es un gran entrante costero en la costa atlántica macromareal de la Isla de Tierra del Fuego. Actualmente hay sedimentación costera activa en llanuras intermareales y playas de gravas. Los violentos vientos del oeste, que alcanzan los 155 km/h, reelaboran la parte superior de los sedimentos intermareales, desprenden agregados de arcillas y limos de tamaño arena gruesa y las acumulan en capas de depósitos eólicos con estratificación ...

  16. Distribución y fuentes de fitoesteroles en sedimentos costeros y de ríos del centro-sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Saavedra; Quiñones, Renato A.; José Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Los fitoesteroles son potenciales disruptores endocrinos. Se cuantificaron fitoesteroles en sedimentos de cuatro zonas costeras y dos ríos en el centro-sur de Chile. Se determinó la concentración de esteroles utilizando cromatografía de gas con espectrómetro de masa y las fuentes de materia orgánica sedimentaria se determinaron utilizando proporciones de esteroles y biomarcadores lipídicos. Las concentraciones de esteroles totales (0,03 a 10,4 μg g-1) se encuentran dentro del rango informado ...

  17. Distribución y fuentes de fitoesteroles en sedimentos costeros y de ríos del centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Saavedra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los fitoesteroles son potenciales disruptores endocrinos. Se cuantificaron fitoesteroles en sedimentos de cuatro zonas costeras y dos ríos en el centro-sur de Chile. Se determinó la concentración de esteroles utilizando cromatografía de gas con espectrómetro de masa y las fuentes de materia orgánica sedimentaria se determinaron utilizando proporciones de esteroles y biomarcadores lipídicos. Las concentraciones de esteroles totales (0,03 a 10,4 μg g-1 se encuentran dentro del rango informado para otros ecosistemas marinos y la concentración de β-sitosterol (0,01 a 2,01 μg g-1 fue menor que la previamente informada para el sistema de surgencia de Perú. Algunas estaciones costeras adyacentes a los ríos presentaron β-sitosterol de origen terrestre. Además se encontró una alta concentración de este compuesto en sedimentos de estaciones más oceánicas, confirmando que este esterol también puede ser producido por fitoplancton. Al considerar la concentración y presencia-ausencia de esteroles en sedimentos, no fue posible encontrar diferencias significativas entre las cuatro áreas costeras. Sin embargo, se obtuvo una clara diferencia entre las áreas costeras y los ríos, así como entre ambos ríos. Considerando todas las estaciones y utilizando diferentes biomarcadores del origen de la materia orgánica, se encontraron algunas áreas con clara influencia terrestre, donde se asume que la fuente de origen de los fitoesteroles (especialmente β-sitosterol podrían ser las plantas vasculares. El río BioBío y su desembocadura poseen una amplia diversidad de esteroles y lípidos, y altos niveles de colesterol y epicholestanol, los que estarían posiblemente relacionados a la presencia de efluentes domésticos provenientes de grandes ciudades. No se observaron claros patrones espaciales entre la ubicación de las industrias de celulosa y la concentración de β-sitosterol en sedimentos, excepto para una estación ubicada en el golfo de

  18. Simulación de la hidrodinámica marina en la región de Cartagena con aplicaciones al transporte de sedimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe Suárez, Diego Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Se realizaron simulaciones numéricas de la dinámica marina en la región de Cartagena entre los sectores conocidos como Galerazamba (Norte) y Bocachica (Sur) aplicadas al estudio del transporte de sedimentos -- El fenómeno de la erosión costera afecta negativamente el desarrollo de esta región tanto a nivel económico como social, debido a problemáticas relacionadas con la pérdida de tierras de importante utilidad para actividades de turismo y habitación humana, así como el deterioro de diferen...

  19. Disolución de sílice biogénica en sedimentos de lagos utilizados como bioindicadores de calidad del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes U. Ramírez S.; Pedro F. Zárate del V.; Mario E. García G.; Odila De laTorre V.; Isabel Israde A.; Ángel R. Meulenert Peña

    2007-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar que la disolución de sílice amorfa de origen biogénico (diatomeas y fitolitos) es un bioindicador de calidad del agua de lagos, validándose con la determinación de parámetros físico-químicos. La determinación de diatomeas y fitolitos se realizó sobre núcleos de sedimentos del Lago Chapala, México. Las diatomeas y fitolitos fueron separados, depositados en laminillas y observados con microscopía de luz polarizada y electrónica de barrido. En forma paralel...

  20. Foraminiferos en los sedimentos superficiales del sistema lagunar de Cispatá y la interacción Río Sinú-Mar Caribe Colombiano.

    OpenAIRE

    BERNAL FRANCO, GLADYS; Ruiz Ochoa, Mauricio Andrés; Piedrahita, María Teresa; Restrepo, Evanaam

    2008-01-01

    El sistema lagunar de Cispatá es una importante zona de manglar en el Caribe colombiano. Se formó durante la evolución del delta del río Sinú y su dinámica depende del río y el mar. Se hizo un estudio de los foraminíferos bentónicos en los sedimentos superficiales como bioindicadores de la interacción fluviomarina. Se estableció la abundancia de foraminíferos y las asociaciones de especies de la epifauna. Se identificaron 82 especies. Las más abundantes fueron Trochammina inflata, Arenoparrel...

  1. Sedimentos eólicos de grano fino en la Bahía de San Sebastian, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Arche, Alfredo; Vilas Martín, Federico

    2001-01-01

    La Bahía de San Sebastián, Argentina, es un gran entrante costero en la costa atlántica macromareal de la Isla de Tierra del Fuego. Actualmente hay sedimentación costera activa en llanuras intermareales y playas de gravas. Los violentos vientos del oeste, que alcanzan los 155 km/h, reelaboran la parte superior de los sedimentos intermareales, desprenden agregados de arcillas y limos de tamaño arena gruesa y las acumulan en capas de depósitos eólicos con estratificación cruza...

  2. Texturas, argilominerales y metales en sedimentos de fondo de arroyos de la franja costera sur del Río de la Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Manassero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron sedimentos de fondo extraídos en posiciones distales de los arroyos El Pescado, Cañada Arregui, Buriñigo, Juan Blanco, El Destino, Samborombón y Salado, estos dos últimos ubicados en la región más abierta del estuario del río de la Plata. Para la caracterización granulométrica (tamizado y pipeteo, mineralogía de arcillas (difracción rayos X, contenido de materia orgánica (digestión ácida en caliente, valoración titulométrica y concentración de metales (espectrometría AA, se emplearon métodos estandarizados de laboratorio. La mayoría de los sedimentos fueron clasificados como limos arcillosos y arcillas limosas, sin embargo en el río Salado y los arroyos El Pescado y El Destino los sedimentos de fondo son más arenosos. La composición mineralógica de las arcillas indica que los sedimentos de los arroyos cuentan con una importante proporción de esmectita y caolinita, aunque manteniéndose una predominancia illítica. Significativamente, mayor proporción de caolinita está presente en los ríos Samborombón y Salado, evidenciando una importante influencia estuárica. El hierro y el manganeso son los metales mayoritarios con mayor variabilidad entre cursos. Los humedales costeros y zonas deprimidas de la costa del estuario favorecen la retención de estos dos elementos. Las altas variaciones de los contenidos reflejan diferencias fisicoquímicas en los ambientes depositacionales. El orden de abundancia del resto de los metales analizados es Zn>Pb=Cu>Cr> Ni>Cd, con concentraciones más elevadas en los de la vertiente sur del estuario, manteniendo un comportamiento similar al de los mayoritarios.

  3. Desarrollo y aplicación de metodologías mediante la simulación de las condiciones digestivas de peces para la evaluación de la biodisponibilidad de metales en sedimentos marinos

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Icart, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Se conocen gran cantidad de métodos de digestión de sedimentos que permiten evaluar la biodisponibilidad de los metales presentes en los mismos, sin embargo, son pocos los trabajos encontrados que evalúen los metales biodisponibles en el entorno gastrointestinal de los peces. Es por ello que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue desarrollar y aplicar una metodología que permitiera evaluar con mayor exactitud la fracción del contenido total de metales presentes en los sedimentos acuáticos que p...

  4. Efecto de la carga orgánica y de nutrientes y su biorremediación en sedimentos de ecosistemas acuáticos con distintas características ecológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Murueta Figueroa, Lourdes Nayeli

    2014-01-01

    En la presente tesis se seleccionaron como sistemas modelo de estudio dos ecosistemas acuáticos con características ecológicas muy distintas aunque con una problemática ambiental en común: la acumulación de materia orgánica en sus sedimentos (en distinto grado) como consecuencia de la actividad humana. En ambos casos se abordó el estudio tanto del efecto de la adición externa de nutrientes como de la desorción de estos desde sus sedimentos. Posteriormente se evaluó la eficacia de diferentes t...

  5. Selección de alternativas de inversión en la construcción de obras viales en la ciudad de México

    OpenAIRE

    X. Palomas-Molina; L. Álvarez-Icaza

    2010-01-01

    Se propone un método sistemático con el que se analiza un conjunto de nodos viales de la ciudad de México con altos índices de ocupación para decidir sobre la posible realización de algunos tipos de obras viales en los mismos. El método permite obtener, a través del análisis estadístico de información y de la programación entera, las mejores opciones para invertir en la construcción de estas obras viales bajo un escenario de recursos limitados. La decisión se toma por un lado, con base en los...

  6. Evidencia geofísica del umbral de Trenque Lauquen en la extensión norte de la cuenca de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires Geophysical evidence of the Trenque Lauquen High in the northern extension of the Claromecó Basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kostadinoff

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La exploración geofísica del borde norte de la cuenca de Claromecó sugieren la existencia de importantes espesores de sedimentos paleozoicos. Estas secuencias sedimentarias se extienden en el área NW de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las cuencas de Claromecó y Chaco Paranense están divididas por un área semipositiva. Sin embargo un bajo con dirección NNO de 165 km de longitud, cubierto por sedimentos paleozoicos conecta ambas cuencas.The geophysical survey of the northern border of Claromecó basin suggests the existence of Paleozoic sequences with important thickness. Such sequences extend along the NW area of Buenos Aires province. The Claromecó and Chaco Paranense Basins are divided by a semi positive area. A NNW-trending through, 165 km long, filled with Paleozoic sediments connects important thickness of both basins.

  7. Análisis de la seguridad vial española: un modelo integrado para la evaluación de los principales factores de influencia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Izquierdo, Francisco; Bernardos Rodríguez, Eva; Arenas Ramírez, Blanca; Gómez Méndez, Álvaro; Paez Ayuso, Francisco Javier

    2008-01-01

    Durante décadas, los investigadores han intentado identificar los factores más importantes que afectan a la seguridad vial, tratando además, de medir el grado de tal efecto. Este interés se ha acentuado de forma considerable en los últimos años, lo que se ha visto reflejando en el planteamiento de las nuevas políticas estratégicas, con la fijación de objetivos numéricos. Para poder analizar de forma rigurosa el efecto de los factores que influyen sobre la seguridad vial, y poder utilizar dic...

  8. Ilícito penal e ilícito administrativo en materia de tráfico y seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Alastuey Dobón, Carmen; Escuchuri Aisa, Estrella

    2011-01-01

    Dado que la seguridad vial es objeto de protección tanto por parte del Derecho administrativo sancionador como por parte del Derecho penal, confluyen en la regulación de la materia ambos sectores del ordenamiento jurídico. El objeto del presente trabajo es llevar a cabo una aproximación a la forma en que se han delimitado por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia los ilícitos penales y administrativos en materia de tráfico y seguridad vial, así como exponer ciertas disfunciones que s...

  9. Influência do tamanho do frasco de tuberculina nos resultados da prova tuberculínica Influence of vial size on the results of the tuberculin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ruffino-Netto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A solução de tuberculina é armazenada em frascos de diferentes tamanhos. Sua adsorção ao frasco pode influenciar o resultado da prova tuberculínica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do tamanho do frasco de armazenamento da tuberculina nos resultados obtidos na prova tuberculínica. MÉTODO: Sessenta e três pacientes internados com diagnóstico de tuberculose ativa foram submetidos a duas provas tuberculínicas simultâneas, em ambos os antebraços. A técnica usada foi a de Mantoux e consistiu na aplicação de 0,1 ml de tuberculina armazenada em frascos de 5 ml ou de 1,5 ml, no antebraço direito e no antebraço esquerdo, de forma aleatória. A leitura da induração foi efetuada de forma cega por um único leitor treinado previamente. As leituras com diferenças de até 2 mm foram consideradas resultados concordantes. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um pacientes não tiveram induração e foram excluídos da análise. Entre os 42 pacientes restantes, a média dos diâmetros das indurações obtidas nas provas com tuberculina armazenada nos frascos grandes foi maior do que as obtidas com a armazenada em frascos pequenos. A concordância entre as leituras foi obtida em 40,5% delas (17/42, e a diferença foi negativa (frasco grande menor que frasco pequeno em 16,7% (7/42 e positiva em 42,9% delas (18/42. CONCLUSÃO: O tamanho do frasco de armazenamento da tuberculina pode influenciar o resultado da prova tuberculínica. A adsorção da tuberculina à parede do frasco pode explicar o fenômeno. Os autores alertam para o impacto dessas variações nos estudos epidemiológicos e operacionais.BACKGROUND: Tuberculin purified protein derivative is stored in vials of various sizes. Its adsorption to the vial can influence the results of tuberculin tests. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of vial size on the results obtained in tuberculin tests. METHODS: Sixty-four inpatients with active tuberculosis were submitted to two simultaneous tuberculin tests

  10. El impacto de las nuevas políticas de seguridad vial sobre la conducta de los conductores

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Tena-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    La evidencia empírica disponible señala de manera unánime que las nuevas políticas de tráfico y seguridad vial aplicadas en España desde 2004, y en particular la introducción del carné por puntos y la reforma del Código Penal, han tenido una fuerte incidencia positiva en la reducción de la siniestralidad. De dichos resultados se deriva que las nuevas políticas han tenido también un efecto positivo sobre la conducta de los conductores, de modo que ha sido esa mejora en la conducta al volante l...

  11. Effect of bevacizumab, which remain after withdrawal of the first dose/s from a single-use vial on diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Bevacizumab which remain in the single use vial after first dose/s is safe and effective for treatment of DME. These results are useful for poor countries. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 159-163

  12. Delincuencia vial y reincidencia: un análisis de su prevalencia y concurrencia con la delincuencia común en la provincia de Alicante

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista Ortuño, Rebeca; Miró Llinares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    La transgresión de las normas penales de tráfico sigue siendo actualmente un fenómeno frecuente y peligroso para la seguridad vial, que requiere de su abordaje científico para delimitar los factores asociados al mismo. Partiendo de evidencias científ

  13. Efectos en tiempo de viaje y seguridad vial generados por la ampliación y modernización de la carretera Saltillo-Zacatecas

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ DE JESÚS SALAZAR CANTÚ; JOSÉ POLENDO GARZA; CARLOS GUIDO LÓPEZ DE ARKOS MARTÍNEZ; JORGE AURELIO IBARRA SALAZAR

    2012-01-01

    Mediante el uso de un contrafactual, (Gertler et al. 2011), se estiman los efectos en tiempo de viaje y seguridad vial, propiciados por la ampliación y modernización de la carretera Saltillo-Zacatecas. El escenario más probable arroja tasas de retorno social entre 4.6% y 5.48%.

  14. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was appli...

  15. Risk of Injection-Site Abscess among Infants Receiving a Preservative-Free, Two-Dose Vial Formulation of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deron C Burton

    Full Text Available There is a theoretical risk of adverse events following immunization with a preservative-free, 2-dose vial formulation of 10-valent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10. We set out to measure this risk. Four population-based surveillance sites in Kenya (total annual birth cohort of 11,500 infants were used to conduct a 2-year post-introduction vaccine safety study of PCV10. Injection-site abscesses occurring within 7 days following vaccine administration were clinically diagnosed in all study sites (passive facility-based surveillance and, also, detected by caregiver-reported symptoms of swelling plus discharge in two sites (active household-based surveillance. Abscess risk was expressed as the number of abscesses per 100,000 injections and was compared for the second vs first vial dose of PCV10 and for PCV10 vs pentavalent vaccine (comparator. A total of 58,288 PCV10 injections were recorded, including 24,054 and 19,702 identified as first and second vial doses, respectively (14,532 unknown vial dose. The risk ratio for abscess following injection with the second (41 per 100,000 vs first (33 per 100,000 vial dose of PCV10 was 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-4.06. The comparator vaccine was changed from a 2-dose to 10-dose presentation midway through the study. The matched odds ratios for abscess following PCV10 were 1.00 (95% CI 0.12-8.56 and 0.27 (95% CI 0.14-0.54 when compared to the 2-dose and 10-dose pentavalent vaccine presentations, respectively. In Kenya immunization with PCV10 was not associated with an increased risk of injection site abscess, providing confidence that the vaccine may be safely used in Africa. The relatively higher risk of abscess following the 10-dose presentation of pentavalent vaccine merits further study.

  16. Extensión noroccidental de la cuenca paleozoica de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Alvarez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available El área de estudio se encuentra ubicada en el sector norte y oriental de las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron 700 observaciones geofísicas de gravedad y magnetismo calculándose las anomalías de esos campos potenciales con el fin de elaborar mapas gravimétricos a escala 1: 200.000 de las hojas Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí y Coronel Suárez. Se modelaron las anomalías de Bouguer por medio de prismas de densidad conocida. Para conocer el desarrollo de los sedimentos en profundidad se realizaron dos perfiles gravimétricos según las direcciones E-O y NE-SO. De esa forma, se pudo dimensionar la cuenca paleozoica que tiene 6.000 metros de espesor de sedimentos y una extensión de 5.200 kilómetros cuadrados. Su geometría en el sector oeste de la cuenca de Claromecó es de forma alargada en dirección NO con un ancho aproximado de 48 km y una longitud de 145 km. Se observan anomalías magnéticas con expresiones de poca magnitud, indicando la presencia de sedimentos en profundidad con moderado contenido de minerales magnéticos. La existencia de disparos de sísmica de refracción realizados por YPF y el DYMAS en los alrededores de Carhué indican con precisión los espesores de los sedimentos terciarios y por lo tanto el techo de las formaciones sedimentarias paleozoicas.

  17. Bacterial diversity in the sediments of a temperate artificial lake, Rapel reservoir Diversidad bacteriana en sedimentos de un lago artificial temperado, embalse Rapel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DORADOR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapel reservoir is an eutrophic system in Chile that has undergone a series of anthropogenic impacts in recent decades. To provide a better understanding of the processes occurring in the reservoir, we examined bacterial composition from surface sediments using traditional microbiology techniques and molecular biology tools. Our results showed significant temporal variation in the physical and chemical composition of the water column, but no depth-related differences during the study period. To detect temporal changes in bacterial composition, cultivable heterotrophic bacteria, heterotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria were extracted from the surface sediments and their concentration measured. Microbial diversity in sediments was represented by closest relatives of eight different bacterial phyla. The most frequently recovered phylotypes in the clone library of 16S rDNA were related to sulfate-reducing bacteria belong to the Deltaproteobacteria groupEl embalse Rapel es un sistema eutrófico en Chile que ha experimentado diversos impactos antropogénicos en las últimas décadas. Para conocer mejor los posibles procesos que ocurren en el embalse, la composición bacteriana fue estudiada en la zona superficial de los sedimentos utilizando técnicas microbiológicas tradicionales y herramientas de biología molecular. Nuestros resultados mostraron variación temporal significativa en la composición física y química del agua, no encontrándose diferencias de las variables medidas entre superficie y fondo en la columna de agua durante el período de estudio. Para detectar cambios temporales en la concentración y composición bacteriana, se midieron bacterias heterótrofas, heterótrofas oxidantes de fierro y bacterias reductoras de sulfato extraídas de la superficie de los sedimentos. La diversidad bacteriana en los sedimentos estuvo representada por 8 diferentes Phyla del dominio Bacteria. Los filotipos m

  18. Resíduos de pesticidas em sedimento de fundo de rio na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Juliana Possavatz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O rio Cuiabá é um importante tributário do rio Paraguai, cuja bacia é de grande importância por agasalhar o Pantanal, a maior área úmida do planeta. A base econômica da bacia hidrográfica do rio Cuiabá é a produção agrícola e pecuária que, para manter elevada produtividade, requer grandes quantidades de insumos agrícolas como os pesticidas que, podem atingir diversos ambientes devido aos processos de dispersão que ocorrem após sua introdução no ambiente. Os sedimentos desempenham importante papel para a caracterização da poluição de rios devido a seu potencial de acumulação de poluentes. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a contaminação por pesticidas usados nas lavouras plantadas na bacia do rio Cuiabá, MT. Para tanto, amostras de sedimento de fundo foram coletadas mensalmente de agosto de 2011 a julho de 2012. Para a determinação dos pesticidas atrazina, cipermetrina, clorpirifós, endossulfam (α, β e seu metabólito endossulfam sulfato, lambda-cialotrina, malationa, metolacloro, metribuzim, parationa metílica, permetrina e trifuralina no sedimento utilizou-se método multirresíduo que consiste na extração sólido-líquido por agitação mecânica seguida de purificação por extração líquido-líquido e identificação e quantificação por cromatografia a gás acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Resíduos de pesticidas foram identificados em amostras coletadas em agosto e setembro de 2011 e janeiro, fevereiro, abril e julho de 2012, em concentrações variando de 5,7 a 79,3 µg kg-1 . Embora a frequência de detecção tenha sido baixa, esses resultados indicam que há potencial de transporte de pesticidas usados na bacia do rio Cuiabá e seus tributários atingindo o Pantanal.

  19. Conseqüências de diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo sobre a contaminação do solo, sedimentos e água por metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. V. Núñez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos determinar a influência de diferentes métodos de preparo do solo sobre as perdas por erosão de metais pesados e avaliar a contaminação dos sedimentos e da água do córrego principal da microbacia de Caetés, município de Paty do Alferes (RJ. A avaliação foi realizada durante os meses de dezembro de 1996 a março de 1997, no ciclo de cultivo do pepino (Cucumis sativus L . Foram utilizadas parcelas do tipo Wischmeier, de tamanho de 22,0 x 4,0 m. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: (a aração com trator morro abaixo e queimado (MAQ; (b aração com trator morro abaixo não queimado com restos de vegetação natural entre as linhas (MANQ; (c aração com tração animal em nível, faixas de capim-colonião a cada 7,0 m (AA, e (d cultivo mínimo, com preparo de covas em nível (CM. Avaliaram-se também os teores desses metais nos sedimentos de fundo e na água do córrego principal que drena a microbacia de Caetés. As perdas mais elevadas de metais pesados por erosão foram verificadas no tratamento MAQ, típico da região. Os sedimentos e a água do córrego da microbacia de Caetés mostraram incrementos nos teores totais de Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn e Mn de acordo com a posição de coleta na área. A água coletada no córrego e no açude apresentou concentrações de Cd, Mn e Pb acima dos padrões máximos estabelecidos para água potável. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitem concluir que o uso intensivo de agroquímicos e as elevadas perdas de solo por erosão podem acarretar sérios riscos de contaminação da água do córrego da microbacia que é utilizada pelos animais e para irrigação.

  20. Air monitoring in radioiodine therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Radioiodine therapy wards, in general the radiation exposure due to air borne activity from patients administered with 925MBq-7.4GBq (25-200mCi) of 131I has to be kept under regulatory limits. The purpose of conducting an air monitoring in our setup was to assess air borne activity levels. If the levels are high then it may lead to increased exposure to the occupational workers and patient's attendants. A total of 22.2GBq (600 mCi) 131I is administered every week to our patients in the isolation ward. After administered of 131I in the dose administration room, patients occupy their respective beds. The isolation beds are provided with attached toilet facility. Six air samples were collected from various regions (high dose room, low dose room, dose administration room, special room, corridor and entrance) in the vacuumized vials (9 ml) using 16 G needle at the breathing zone level. One control sample was also collected from the area with no possible 131I air-contamination. The vials were then counted in the pre-calibrated NaI well counter (known efficiency). The maximum air borne radioiodine concentration was found to be 1.999x10-6 ?Ci/cm3 in the high dose room (which keeps on decreasing with time, being maximum on second day and zero on third and subsequent days). We measured the thyroid counts of the staff and patient's attendants, routinely. The estimated thyroid activity never showed any significant increase in the thyroid uptake of the staff and patient's attendants. In our setup, air monitoring is strictly followed and performed periodically. We conclude that air monitoring program is only one element of the comprehensive radiation protection program and should be a made mandatory practice. (author)

  1. Lake Chapala, Mexico: lead distribution in water, sediment and bacteria; Escenarios de la distribucion de plomo en agua, sedimentos y bacterias del lago de Chapala, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Anne M. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Villa-Navia, Adriana [Interventor Ambiental de Occidental de Colombia, Inc. (Colombia); Afferden, Manfred van [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-04-15

    To evaluate the distribution of lead in the natural resources of lake Chapala, the adsorption of this metal in bacteria was analyzed and, through published data and the application of a chemical equilibrium model, the risk associated with the consumption of fish and water was estimated. Adsorption experiments of lead in three bacterial strains and simulations of the distribution of lead in the water-sediment-bacteria system indicate that the distribution of lead in the lake depends on variations of water quality such as suspended solids, lead and biomass concentrations. Considering only the lead contained in the bottom sediments, the simulations suggest that concentrations do not exceed the limits nor the criteria for use and protection of water, sediments, and biota. Considering an additional source of lead that locally increases the concentration by a factor of ten, the amount of lead in water and sediments may exceed these limits. The bioaccumulation of lead in lake Chapala was evaluated through calculation of bioconcentration and biomagnification factors, using simulated and published data on lead in fish (Ayla Jay y Ford, 2001). The results indicate that lead may be concentrated 721 and 6,195 times in bacteria and fish, respectively. Furthermore, bioaccumulation of lead in the lake may occur mainly as bioconcentration in fish rather than biomagnification in the food chain. [Spanish] Para evaluar la distribucion de plomo en los recursos naturales en el lago de Chapala se analizo la adsorcion de este metal en bacterias y, mediante datos publicados en la literatura y modelacion numerica, se estimo el riesgo asociado al consumo de peces y agua. Experimentos de adsorcion en tres cepas de bacterias y simulaciones de la distribucion en un sistema agua-sedimentos-bacterias indican que la distribucion del plomo en el lago depende de variaciones en calidad del agua tales como solidos suspendidos totales, plomo total y biomasa. Considerando unicamente el plomo contenido

  2. Sediment morphology and distribution in a restored riparian forest Morfologia e distribuição dos sedimentos numa zona ripária reflorestada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Momoli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sediment distribution patterns of riparian zones reflect the deposition dynamics and the type of deposition event. The purpose of this study is to characterize the morphology and distribution of sediments deposited in a restored riparian forest that were transported from adjacent areas cropped with sugar-cane. In order to study the deposition processes in a riparian forest located in the county of Iracemápolis state of São Paulo, Brazil, soil samples were collected on a transect for micromorphological as well as particle size distribution analyses, using Folk & Ward statistical parameters. Soil samples were dispersed with NaOH + sodium hexametaphosphate and water. The dispersion in water was made to simulate field transport conditions. Particle size distributions together with field and laboratory morphological analyses showed an irregular and non-uniform sediment deposition. This deposition process suggests the occurrence of high intensity erosive events that produce high amount of sediments and runoff characterized by a turbulent flow. The land use change in the riparian area marks the change in the preferential deposition location, which when sugar-cane dominated, corresponded to the alluvial plain and, after the restoration and development of the riparian forest, was dislocated 27 m upslope within the first few meters from the border of the forest.O padrão de distribuição de sedimentos na zona ripária reflete a dinâmica da deposição e os prováveis processos ocorridos. Para inferir sobre os processos de deposição ocorridos, amostras de solo foram coletadas numa transeção para a realização de análises micromorfológicas e, também análises granulométricas apoiadas na interpretação estatística dos parâmetros de Folk & Ward (1957. As amostras de solo foram dispersas em NaOH + Hexametafosfato de Sódio e também em água, para simular as condições de transporte de sedimentos no campo. Os resultados obtidos através da an

  3. Efecto del manejo integral de la cuenca del río Texcoco, sobre la producción de agua y sedimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Adame Martínez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En la cuenca del río Texcoco se realizó un manejo integral, con los propósitos de rehabilitar las zonas erosionadas y reducir la magnitud de los escurrimientos superficiales y sedimentos, a través de la construcción de terrazas de banco, presas de control de azolves y reforestación. Los objetivos fueron analizar la variación del uso del suelo y la vegetación, y evaluar el impacto de las obras de rehabilitación del suelo, en las variables hidrológicas, antes y después del manejo. Para ello, se realzó un análisis estadístico de datos anuales. Los resultados indican una significativa disminución de las variables cercana a 80% y la prueba t de Student indicó diferencias significativas entre las medias de cada variable.

  4. Estudio fenotípico comparativo de consorcios microbianos con actividad quitinolítica de sedimentos marinos y rizósfera

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Alvarado; Lidia Flores; Ana María Guerrero; Zuleyka Vicente; Ruth García

    2014-01-01

    Se colectaron 4 muestras de sedimentos tanto del fondo como de la orilla de la playa «Marbella», Callao y 4 muestras de tierra agrícola a nivel de rizósfera obtenidas de un viñedo de la localidad de «Grocio Prado» en la Provincia de Chincha, Ica. Se determinó la densidad poblacional de microorganismos heterotróficos con actividad quitinolítica presentes en estos ambientes, y se describió sus principales características fenotípicas. Para la cuantificación de las poblaciones se empleó el método...

  5. Estudio fenotípico comparativo de consorcios microbianos con actividad quitinolítica de sedimentos marinos y rizósfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Alvarado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se colectaron 4 muestras de sedimentos tanto del fondo como de la orilla de la playa «Marbella», Callao y 4 muestras de tierra agrícola a nivel de rizósfera obtenidas de un viñedo de la localidad de «Grocio Prado» en la Provincia de Chincha, Ica. Se determinó la densidad poblacional de microorganismos heterotróficos con actividad quitinolítica presentes en estos ambientes, y se describió sus principales características fenotípicas. Para la cuantificación de las poblaciones se empleó el método del Número Más Probable (NMP. Los tubos con crecimiento positivo fueron sembrados en placas con Agar Quitina Granulada y Agar Quitina Coloidal que fueron incubadas a temperatura ambiental hasta por dos semanas. Con las colonias desarrolladas se realizaron las pruebas de Oxidación/Fermentación de Glucosa, Oxidasa, Catalasa, motilidad, presencia de flagelo, capacidad tintoreal al GRAM, producción de esporas y actividad quitinolítica semicuantitativa. Se elaboraron fenogramas con el programa NTSYS v.1,7. La mayor densidad de bacterias quitinolíticas fue encontrada en la rizósfera alcanzando niveles ³1,6 x 105 en tanto que en sedimentos marinos la densidad osciló entre 2,2 x 102 a 1,6 x 104 NMP/g. Luego del análisis de agrupamiento de los fenotipos mostrados por los consorcios estudiados, se encontró que presentaban características distintivas, exhibiendo ambas una gran diversidad fenotípica.

  6. SEDIMENTOS CLÁSTICOS EM SISTEMAS DE CAVERNAS E SUAS CONTRIBUIÇÕES EM ESTUDOS GEOMORFOLÓGICOS: UMA REVISÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Verassani Laureano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentos detríticos depositados em sistemas de caverna são relativamente bem protegidos dos processos intempéricos superficiais e, em diversos casos, susceptíveis ao emprego de técnicas de datação. Constituem, pois, objetos de investigação em estudos geomorfológicos e paleoambientais. O artigo apresenta uma revisão de literatura sobre sedimentos clásticos em cavernas: fácies, proveniência e estratigrafia. As fácies sedimentares encontradas na bibliografia consultada são apresentadas conforme sua deposição na zona vadosa, na zona de oscilação do nível d’água e na zona freática. Os principais métodos geocronológicos aplicados a este tipo de depósito (14C, U-Th, Paleomagnetismo e Isótopos Cosmogênicos são brevemente apresentados no sentido de ressaltar suas potencialidades e limitações em estudos geomorfológicos. São ainda apresentadas as principais contribuições da análise do registro sedimentar cavernícola no âmbito da obtenção de idades para cavernas, da espeleogênese ou do desenvolvimento da porosidade secundária do aqüífero cárstico, da quantificação de taxas erosivas e do balizamento cronológico de evolução de relevos.

  7. PRODUÇÃO DE SEDIMENTOS EM BACIA HIDROGRÁFICA DE PEQUENA ORDEM: USO DE MODELOS MATEMÁTICOS, BACIA DO RIBEIRÃO MARINGÁ, PARANÁ - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Luiz dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A bacia hidrográfica do ribeirão Maringá, está localizada no norte do município homônimo, no estado do Paraná. O uso do solo na bacia é intenso e diversificado, sendo ocupado por parte da malha urbana, por intenso uso agrícola e por fragmentos de vegetação natural. Em razão disso, cresce a importância de se reconhecer a dinâmica erosiva da bacia promovida por causas naturais ou antrópicas. Para tal, foram testados dois modelos matemáticos, buscando-se verificar qual deles se adaptaria melhor à realidade da bacia, a fim de ser usado como um instrumento de predição e gestão ambiental. Mediante a aplicação do modelo de produção de sedimento proposto por Kirkby (1976 e da Equação Universal de Perda de Solos trabalhados em ambiente digital produziram-se estimativas sobre a dinâmica ambiental da área. Os resultados da produção de sedimentos apresentaram uma pequena variabilidade devido às características pedológicas. A Equação Universal de Perda de Solo demonstrou espacialmente um cenário com maior variabilidade de perda de solos e parece se adequar melhor à realidade da área quando comparados os seus resultados com as medidas tomadas em campo.

  8. "La seguridad vial en la autopista México - Guadalajara" Maravatío - Límite de estados Michoacán/Jalisco del km 165+000 al km 397+000

    OpenAIRE

    López Nava, Jóse Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Es un gran reto de la sociedad mexicana aumentar la seguridad vial en las carreteras, actualmente los costos que se derivan de la frecuencia y severidad de los accidentes que ocurren en la red federal del país, representan un grave problema desde el punto de vista social y de salud pública. La seguridad vial destaca, que los accidentes viales y sus consecuencias como son muertos, lesionados y daños materiales, pueden disminuir mediante una inversión adecuada y creciente para generar mejores ...

  9. Nivel y cambio de la mortalidad vial en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y México, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Escanés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estimar el efecto de las muertes por atropellos y colisiones de tránsito en la esperanza de vida en Argentina, Chile, Colombia y México, entre 2000 y 2011. Se calcularon los años de esperanza de vida perdidos (AEVP para los trienios 2000-2002 y 2009-2011. Los resultados indican que los decesos ocurridos por el tránsito representaron entre el 1% y el 4% del total para cada país. En el primer trienio, el mayor nivel de mortalidad ocurrió en Colombia (AEVP=0,96, mientras que el más bajo se registró en Argentina (AEVP=0,59. A excepción de este último país, hacia el segundo trienio, se redujo el impacto de estos fallecimientos sobre la esperanza de vida. El principal cambio tuvo lugar en Colombia que pasó a 0,72 AEVP. Se concluye que las muertes asociadas con el tránsito impactan de manera negativa en los sistemas de salud, las víctimas, el sector productivo y la sociedad en general. Desde esta perspectiva, la situación vial representa un problema de salud pública que requiere la intervención multisectorial en el diseño de políticas de alcance nacional y regional.

  10. La valoración monetaria de los costes humanos de la siniestralidad vial en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Martínez Pérez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Los análisis coste-beneficio en el ámbito de la seguridad vial han de computar la totalidad de los costes, y dentro de ellos ocupan un lugar clave los costes humanos. En esta nota se da cuenta de dos estudios promovidos por la Dirección General de Tráfico orientados a la obtención de valores oficiales para España de los costes asociados a las víctimas mortales y no mortales de los accidentes de tráfico. Mediante la combinación del enfoque de la valoración contingente con la técnica de la lotería estándar (modificada, y con muestras amplias (n1 = 2020, n2 = 2000 representativas de la población española, se estimó en 1,4 millones de euros el valor monetario de prevenir un fallecido por accidente de tráfico. Para las lesiones graves y leves, los valores estimados fueron de 219.000 y 6100 euros, respectivamente. Las cifras obtenidas tienen un orden de magnitud similar al de los países de nuestro entorno.

  11. Métodos para la mejora de la seguridad de las carreteras en Europa. Auditorías de seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    Pardillo Mayora, José M.

    2008-01-01

    El Programa de acción europeo de seguridad vial 2003-2010 tiene como objetivo adoptar las medidas necesarias para conseguir que el número de víctimas mortales en accidentes de circulación en los países de la Unión Europea sea inferior a 25.000 en 2010. En lo que se refiere a las actuaciones sobre la infraestructura, los métodos de actuación que se proponen para las distintas fases de desarrollo de la red viaria son: la evaluación del impacto de seguridad vial en la etapa de planificación; la ...

  12. Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial Title: Guia BID de apoio a projetos de segurança rodoviária

    OpenAIRE

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID)

    2012-01-01

    Para fortalecer la asistencia técnica a los países de la región, el BID comisionó en 2010 la elaboración de una guía interactiva que apoye a los responsables de implementar programas de seguridad vial en el desarrollo y la planificación de estrategias y proyectos específicos. La "Guía BID de apoyo a proyectos de seguridad vial" es el primer producto de ayuda técnica en línea que incorpora un planteamiento integral, cuya consulta facilita la identificación de deficiencias y la aplicación de so...

  13. Comparison of the Binax NOW Flu A Enzyme Immunochromatographic Assay and R-Mix Shell Vial Culture for the 2003-2004 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The Binax NOW Flu A enzyme immunochromatographic assay was compared to viral culture with R-Mix shell vials for 455 nasal-wash or nasal-aspirate specimens. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the assay were 64.9%, 98.4%, 89.3%, and 93.2%, respectively. However, the assay sensitivity decreased significantly with increasing patient age. PMID:16333112

  14. Analysis of the reaction products from micro-vial pyrolysis of the mixture glucose/proline and of a tobacco leaf extract:Search for Amadori intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Kazuhisa; David, Frank; Tienpont, Bart; Sandra, Koen; Ochiai, Nobuo; Tamura, Hirotoshi; Sandra, Pat

    2015-11-27

    Micro-vial pyrolysis (PyroVial) was used to study the production of compounds important for the aroma of heat-treated natural products such as tobacco. Firstly, a mixture of glucose and proline was pyrolyzed as model, as this sugar and amino acid are also abundant in tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tobacum L.). The pyrolysate was analyzed using headspace-GC–MS, liquid injection GC–MS and LC–MS. Next, micro-vial pyrolysis in combination with LC–MS was applied to tobacco leaf extract. Using MS deconvolution, molecular feature extraction and differential analysis it was possible to identify Amadori intermediates of the Maillard reaction in the tobacco leaf extract. The intermediate disappeared as was the case for 1-deoxy-1-prolino-β-d-fructose or the concentration decreased in the pyrolysate compared to the original extract such as for the 1-deoxy-1-[2-(3-pyridyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-β-d-fructose isomers indicating that Amadori intermediates are important precursors for aroma compound formation. PMID:26602543

  15. Avaliação do efeito da urbanização na produção de sedimentos da bacia do rio Jacarecica/AL mediante uso de modelo hidrossedimentológico distribuído

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuellson Lopes Cabral

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A urbanização sem planejamento ao longo da bacia do rio Jacarecica, em Maceió, AL, causa grandes impactos ambientais. A substituição de áreas vegetadas por áreas urbanizadas agrava esses impactos. No entanto, o potencial efeito dessas modificações na produção de sedimentos é desconhecido. Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se mudanças da produção de sedimentos na bacia do rio Jacarecica, no ano de 2010, em razão da alteração de parte da cobertura do solo por urbanização, por meio de modelagem matemática. Os resultados evidenciaram que o mês com maior produção produziu mais de 120 t/ha/mês, perfazendo o total de 131 t, correspondente a uma área de 24,5 km² da área total da bacia, revelando que grande parte da bacia é realmente susceptível ao processo de erosão. Este trabalho apresenta que a aplicação do modelo KINEROS2 é viável e o seu acoplamento ao SIG é de grande valia para identificação e análise das principais áreas de produção de sedimentos na bacia deste rio, podendo ser considerado ferramenta promissora para simulação da produção de sedimentos em bacias hidrográficas do nordeste brasileiro.

  16. Detección del virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa (IPNV en sedimentos de agua dulce Detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV in freshwater sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Labraña

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la necrosis pancreática infecciosa, virus IPN, es una preocupación constante para la industria de la salmonicultura. El agua es el vehículo más importante para la transmisión horizontal del virus, por lo tanto, los sedimentos próximos a las instalaciones de una piscicultura pueden convertirse en reservorios del virus. En este trabajo se presenta un método simple y práctico destinado a cuantificar virus en sedimentos de áreas en las cuales se cultivan salmones. El virus se extrae con una solución de pirofosfato sódico y se titula en células CHSE-214 mediante el método de los focos fluorescentes (FF. Los resultados mostraron que el virus puede permanecer activo durante semanas en los sedimentos y que, además, el virus puede detectarse en sedimentos obtenidos de ambientes con una historia previa de brotes de necrosis pancreática infecciosa.Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV is a pathogen of great concern in salmon aquaculture producing high mortalities in fry. Water is the most important vehicle for horizontal transmission of the virus; therefore, sediments close to aquaculture facilities could become enriched reservoirs of the virus. We developed a simple and reliable method aimed at quantifying IPNV from sediments in salmon culture areas. IPNV is extracted in a sodium pyrophosphate solution and titrated in CHSE-214 cells through the fluorescent focus (FF method. Results showed that IPNV can remain active in fresh water sediments for weeks and that the virus can be detected in environments with a previous history of IPNV outbreaks.

  17. S, Zn, Cr, Cu and Fe changes during fluvial sediments oxidation Transformaciones del S, Zn, Cr, Cu y Fe en sedimentos fluviales durante el proceso de secado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pía Di Nanno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of dredged sediments which have been disposed on land is highly dependent on redox shifts. The aim of the present work was to assess changes in sulphur, metal speciation (Zn, Fe, Cr y Cu and acidity caused by a polluted sediment oxidation event. Sediments were dessicated under controlled conditions and sulphide compounds (acid volatile sulphides-AVS- and sulphate, pH and neutralization potential were measured through time during 36 days. Zinc, Cu, Cr and Fe speciation (BCR metal sequential extraction procedure were measured at the beginning of the experiment and at day 22. An acid-base equilibrium method based on the BCR procedure was employed to assess the sediment acidification risk. Some of the re-suspension experiments were inoculated with an Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain to assess biological catalysis on sulphide oxidation. Acid-base equilibrium results indicated the sediment sample had a significant acidification potential. Oxidation increased sulphate levels (56 to 2300 mg S kg-¹ in the desiccation experiment with a temporal evolution adjusted by a logistic model, and a 2100 to 3000 mg SO4 -² L-¹ increase for the resuspension experiments. Sulphide oxidation rates varied between 0 to 3.1.10-9 mg O2 kg-¹ s-¹ for the drying sediment. Zinc changes could be explained partially by ZnS conversion to ZnSO4 during oxidation. Iron reduction could be attributed to an increase in Fe oxides crystallinity. Acid-base equilibrium for the sample indicated it was a potentially acid-generating material. Zinc increased its bioavailability during drying and was the only metal that appeared in significant amounts in solution during re-suspension. Land-filling with dredged sediments could present increased metals bioavailability problems despite having an important and effective neutralization potential.La evaluación de los riesgos de acidificación por deposición de sedimentos dragados en superficie es muy dependiente de los

  18. TRANSPORTE E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE SEDIMENTOS DE FUNDO NO RIO PIRANHAS EM UMA SEÇÃO DE CONTROLE PRÓXIMO À SEDE DO MUNICÍPIO DE POMBAL-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diêgo Lima Crispim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O Rio Piranhas-Açu constitui um dos principais eixos de drenagem natural da bacia do Piranhas Açu, no nordeste do Brasil. Este rio de domínio federal, uma vez que nasce no município de Bonito de Santa Fé, no Estado da Paraíba, e segue seu curso natural pelo Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, desaguando no Oceano Atlântico, na costa Potiguar. A fim de caracterizar os sedimentos e mensurar seu transporte pelo Rio Piranhas, a partir de suas características geométricas e de material do leito amostrado, realizou-se análise granulométrica e calculou-se o transporte no leito através de fórmula empírica. A equação utilizada foi a de Meyer-Peter & Müller (transporte no leito. A equação de Meyer-Peter & Müller produziu resultados que aparentemente seguem a variação da granulometria dos sedimentos do leito do rio. Equações para a estimativa do transporte de sedimentos no rio podem não ter uma precisão adequada devido a problemas na sua calha fluvial.

  19. Evaluación de metales pesados en los sedimentos superficiales del río Pirro Evaluation of heavy metals in superficial sediments of Pirro river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Herrera Núñez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los metales pesados tienen una importante fuente en las actividades de origen antropogénico y constituyen un peligro para la biota acuática y el ser humano y un factor de deterioro de la calidad hídrica y ambiental. Los sedimentos ribereños, uno de los principales reservorios de estos elementos, actúan como fuentes secundarias de contaminación de los cuerpos de agua, por lo que resulta importante evaluar la concentración de metales como una herramienta que permite rastrear el origen de los contaminantes en el medio y predecir los impactos que pueden producir en los ecosistemas acuáticos. En el presente trabajo se analizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica la concentración de Cd, Ag, Se, Sn, Ni, Cr, Cu, B, Zn, Hg, Ba, Pb, Mn, As y Al en los sedimentos superficiales del sector medio del río Pirro (Heredia, Costa Rica. Las concentraciones de estos elementos fueron muy elevadas para la mayoría de las sustancias analizadas en todos los puntos de muestreo seleccionados. Su distribución no fue homogénea, ni presentó un patrón geográfico marcadamente definido, pudiéndose encontrar altos niveles distribuidos a lo largo del transecto estudiado.Anthropogenic activities are important sources of heavy metals, which are dangerous for the aquatic biota and the human being and a factor of environmental and water quality deterioration. The sediments, one of the main reservoirs of these elements, act as secondary resources of contamination of the rivers; this is why it is important to evaluate the concentration of metals, as a tool that allows to track the origin of the contaminants in the environment and to predict their impact on the aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, the concentration of Cd, Ag, Se, Sn, Ni, Cr, Cu, B, Zn, Hg, Ba, Pb, Mn, As and Al was determined in the superficial sediments of the medium sector of Pirro River (Heredia, Costa Rica by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations of these

  20. Metales traza en sedimentos de la Bahía de Cayo Moa (Cuba. Una evaluación de la contaminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosbanis M. Cervantes-Guerra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se evalúan los niveles de cuatro elementos traza: arsénico (As, cobre (Cu, plomo (Pb y zinc (Zn en sedimentos superficiales de la bahía de Cayo Moa, en la cual la actividad humana ha incidido desde mediados del pasado siglo, paralelamente al desarrollo de una de las regiones mineras más importante de Cuba. Para evaluar el grado de contaminación de los sedimentos se utilizaron tres métodos fundamentales: la comparación con otros ecosistemas marinos, la determinación del nivel de enriquecimiento metálico mediante el cálculo del Factor de Contaminación, y la interpretación de los datos obtenidos con base en criterios de calidad. El rango de concentraciones varió entre 7-153 µgg-1 para As, 18-175 µgg-1 para Cu, 5-62 µgg-1 para Pb y de 46-527 µgg-1 para el Zn. La distribución espacial de las concentraciones mostró valores altos en toda la bahía y zonas aledañas, con variaciones según el elemento analizado; los mayores niveles de As se encontraron en las desembocaduras de los ríos Moa y Cayo Guam. El Cu, Pb y Zn están en mayor proporción en el interior de la bahía, específicamente en el punto P5, aunque en los puntos ubicados en el sur de Cayo Moa Grande los valores de estos contaminantes fueron también elevados. Los resultados muestran una elevada concentración de As, Cu, Pb y Zn; los niveles de contaminación revelados en este estudio permiten clasificar algunos puntos analizados como altamente contaminados o con un potencial de riesgo biológico alto.

  1. Evaluación preliminar de depósitos de estériles y sedimentos provenientes de la actividad carbonífera en Río Turbio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucia Caballero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de décadas de actividad carbonífera en la cuenca de Río Turbio ubicada al sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz en la República Argentina, se ha generado una serie de pasivos ambientales entre los cuales se encuentran los depósitos de material estéril denominados escombreras, las piletas de lodos y los sedimentos del curso de agua receptor de efluentes, el arroyo San José. La presencia de estos pasivos, ha ocasionado en distintas partes del mundo complicaciones debido a la naturaleza ácida de las escorrentías que afectan directamente fuentes de agua, superficiales y subterráneas, localizadas en la vecindad de dichos depósitos. El problema se produce cuando dicha acidez no puede ser neutralizada, lo cual ocasiona la generación de lixiviados de metales pesados en las escombreras o redisolución de los que se encuentran depositados como sedimentos en los cursos superficiales. Por tal motivo en este trabajo se realiza una evaluación preliminar del contenido metálico de los depósitos de estériles y de los sedimentos del arroyo San José y de la capacidad de generación ácida de los primeros. Se pretende con ello obtener una información básica que permita un diseño experimental científico para caracterizar dichos depósitos y evaluar el impacto que están produciendo. Como conclusión se pudo corroborar la hipótesis inicial de existencia de contenido metálico en escombreras y sedimentos y un potencial neto de generación ácida de las primeras. Además se determinó la necesidad de investigar el origen de altos contenidos metálicos en sedimentos de zonas alejadas de la producción.

  2. Adherencia y seguridad vial

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; GOYAT, Y

    2006-01-01

    The first part of this article provides an assessment of acquired knowledge and important studies on the relationship between accidents and skid resistance. A second part deals with the potential of skid resistance a decisive factor in the number and severity of accidents in the wet in certain situations. It presents an overview of present knowledge regarding the "real" adherence potential for road users with respect to pavement wearing course attributes Rules for the adaptation of skid resis...

  3. MONITORAMENTO DE SEDIMENTOS E REJEITOS DA USINA DE FERRO CARAJÁS ATRAVÉS DO SISTEMA DE GEOBARRAGEM (ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de dar suporte atividades diárias de controle e para auxiliar a tomada de decisões na operação das barragens das minas de ferro da CVRD, Carajás-PA, foi desenvolvido, em parceria com a empresa Geoexplore Consultoria e Serviços, um sistema de Gestão de Barragens baseado em geotecnologias. O GeoBarragem foi concebido para atuar na coleta de dados de campo, no armazenamento dos dados relacionados à gestão das barragens, na análise e integração espacial e na simulação do preenchimento das barragens. É composto por um coletor de dados através de Handheld, um Sistema Gerenciador de Banco de Dados, um software para integração e análise espacial de dados e um simulador de preenchimento de barragens. Palavras chave: Monitoramento; Sedimentos e rejeitos; Geobarragem Minas de Ferro de Carajás.

  4. Simplicity, safety, and acceptability of insulin pen use versus the conventional vial/syringe device in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Khreis, Noura A; Kabbara, Wissam K

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the simplicity, safety, patients’ preference, and convenience of the administration of insulin using the pen device versus the conventional vial/syringe in patients with diabetes. Methods This observational study was conducted in multiple community pharmacies in Lebanon. The investigators interviewed patients with diabetes using an insulin pen or conventional vial/syringe. A total of 74 questionnaires were filled over a period of 6 months. Answers were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Excel spreadsheet. t-test, logistic regression analysis, and correlation analysis were used in order to analyze the results. Results A higher percentage of patients from the insulin pen users group (95.2%) found the method easy to use as compared to only 46.7% of the insulin conventional users group (P 0.001, relative risk [RR]: 2.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.178–3.535). Moreover, 61.9% and 26.7% of pen users and conventional users, respectively, could read the scale easily (P 0.037, RR 2.321, 95% CI: 0.940–5.731), while 85.7% of pen users found it more convenient shifting to pen and 86.7% of the conventional users would want to shift to pen if it had the same cost. Pain perception was statistically different between the groups. A much higher percentage (76.2%) of pen users showed no pain during injection compared to only 26.7% of conventional users (P 0.003, RR 2.857, 95% CI: 1.194–6.838). Conclusion The insulin pen was significantly much easier to use and less painful than the conventional vial/syringe. Proper education on the methods of administration/storage and disposal of needles/syringes is needed in both groups. PMID:25848231

  5. Total rock dissolution using ammonium bifluoride (NH4HF2) in screw-top Teflon vials: a new development in open-vessel digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Chen, Haihong; Gao, Shan; Gaschnig, Richard M

    2012-12-18

    Complete sample digestion is a prerequisite for achieving reproducible and accurate analytical results for geological samples. Open-vessel acid digestions successfully dissolve mafic samples, but this method cannot achieve complete dissolution of felsic samples, because of the presence of refractory minerals such as zircon. In this study, an efficient and simplified digestion technique using the solid compound NH(4)HF(2) in a screw-top vial has been developed for multielement analysis of different types of rock samples. NH(4)HF(2) has a higher boiling point (239.5 °C) than conventional acids such as HF, HNO(3) and HCl, which allows for an elevated digestion temperature in open vessels, enabling the decomposition of refractory phases. Similar to HF, HNO(3) and HCl, ultrapure NH(4)HF(2) can be produced using a conventional PFA sub-boiling (heating and cooling) purification system. A digestion time of 2-3 h for 200 mg NH(4)HF(2) in a Savillex Teflon vial at 230 °C is sufficient to digest 50 mg of the felsic rock GSP-2, which is ~6 times faster than using conventional closed-vessel acid digestion at 190 °C (high-pressure PTFE digestion bomb). The price of a Savillex Teflon vial is far less than the price of a high-pressure PTFE digestion bomb (consisting of a PTFE inner vessel and an outer stainless steel pressure jacket). Moreover, the NH(4)HF(2)-open-vessel acid digestion is not hampered by the formation of insoluble fluorides. We have successfully applied the NH(4)HF(2)-open-vessel acid digestion to the digestion of a series of international geological reference materials, including mafic to felsic igneous rocks and shales. This method provides an effective, simple, economical, and comparatively safe dissolution method that combines the advantages of both the open- and closed-vessel digestion methods.

  6. Cambios en las concesiones viales en Uruguay: un análisis basado en la teoría de subastas

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    Andrés Pereyra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el impacto de la privatización de un concesionario vial de propiedad estatal sobre el valor de las inversiones futuras, considerando que el gobierno puede manejar la asimetría de información con el concesionario. Mediante un modelo basado en la teoría de subastas se estima el impacto, para el gobierno, de privatizar al concesionario sin modificar el contrato vigente. Si se decidiera privatizar al concesionario, se requerían modificaciones significativas en el contrato, especialmente si no hay cambios institucionales que mejoren la capacidad de supervisión y control del gobierno.

  7. Evolución de la seguridad vial en medio urbano como disciplina y como factor del diseño tipológico de la calle

    OpenAIRE

    Espelt Lleonart, Pere; León-Salas Tirado, David

    2009-01-01

    Frente al enfoque convencional de la seguridad vial centrado en la accidentalidad y las medidas físicas puntuales propias de un modelo de carretera, emerge otro registro técnico y metodológico específicamente urbano que resulta del enfoque integral propio de la evolución de la acción local. Bajo ese enfoque algunos países han adoptado medidas urbanísticas extensivas de gestión y reordenación del espacio viario como solución estructural de la adaptación del comportamiento de todos los usuarios...

  8. Conducción y sustancias psicoactivas (alcohol, drogas y medicamentos): de la magnitud del problema a la intervención en seguridad vial.

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Lorenzo, María Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Con la investigación realizada para el presente trabajo se analizan diferentes aspectos del “factor humano” relacionados con la conducción, como son, el consumo de sustancias por parte de los conductores (alcohol, drogas ilegales y medicamentos) y la agresividad vial (Road rage). Respecto al consumo, se ha analizado la prevalencia de sustancias en conductores y además, en el caso del alcohol y el THC, se ha analizado su relación con la prevalencia de signos de deterioro, dependiendo de la con...

  9. ITS para la mejora de la seguridad vial: aplicaciones más viables y eficientes en gestión de carreteras

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Villar Cruz, Pablo; Casquero, Enrique; Domínguez, Alonso; Hervás, Ignacio; Huerta, Jaime; Leal, Jesús; Llamas Rubio, Roberto; Llorenç, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Los Sistemas Inteligentes de Transporte (ITS) presentan un enorme potencial como medidas eficientes para la mejora de la seguridad vial. En este artículo se recoge cómo los ITS pueden contribuir a reducir la siniestralidad o a paliar sus consecuencias y se destacan las alternativas concretas que los expertos en gestión de carreteras consideran más viables y efectivas, dando un enfoque práctico para su implantación en carreteras. En este artículo se destaca además la necesidad de reforzar la p...

  10. Los niños, las ciudades y la seguridad vial: Una visión a partir de la investigación.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Calatayud Miñana, Constanza; Alamar Rocatí, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Son muchos los criterios que intervienen en una adecuada planificación de una ciudad, pero uno de los más importantes que se tiene, o se debería tener en cuenta actualmente, tiene que ver con facilitar la movilidad y con incrementar la seguridad vial de los ciudadanos. El entorno urbano es un entorno educador, y conceptos tales como las ciudades educadoras, son del todo acertados. Los niños no aprenden de las ciudades únicamente por su oferta educativa y cultural, los niños aprenden en las...

  11. Pipette vial dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of benzoylurea insecticide in fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Miyi; Shen, Ganni; Wu, Xiaoling; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

    2016-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and efficient method of using a pipette vial to perform dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector for the preconcentration and analysis of four benzoylurea insecticides in fruit juice. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as an extractant, and a snipped pipette was used as an experimental vial to simplify the procedure of collecting and separating solidified extractant. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Plackett-Burman design and one-factor-at-a-time method. Under the optimal conditions in the water model, the limits of detection for analytes varied from 0.03 to 0.28 μg/L, and the enrichment factors ranged from 147 to 206. Linearity was achieved for diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in a range of 0.5-500 μg/L, for hexaflumuron in a range of 1-500 μg/L, and for triflumuron in a range of 5-500 μg/L. The correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9994 with recoveries of 91.4-110.9%. Finally, the developed technique was successfully applied to fruit juice samples with acceptable results. The relative standard deviations of the analytes at two spiking levels (50 and 200 μg/L) varied between 0.2 and 4.5%. PMID:26526571

  12. Pipette vial dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of benzoylurea insecticide in fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Miyi; Shen, Ganni; Wu, Xiaoling; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

    2016-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and efficient method of using a pipette vial to perform dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector for the preconcentration and analysis of four benzoylurea insecticides in fruit juice. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as an extractant, and a snipped pipette was used as an experimental vial to simplify the procedure of collecting and separating solidified extractant. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Plackett-Burman design and one-factor-at-a-time method. Under the optimal conditions in the water model, the limits of detection for analytes varied from 0.03 to 0.28 μg/L, and the enrichment factors ranged from 147 to 206. Linearity was achieved for diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in a range of 0.5-500 μg/L, for hexaflumuron in a range of 1-500 μg/L, and for triflumuron in a range of 5-500 μg/L. The correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9994 with recoveries of 91.4-110.9%. Finally, the developed technique was successfully applied to fruit juice samples with acceptable results. The relative standard deviations of the analytes at two spiking levels (50 and 200 μg/L) varied between 0.2 and 4.5%.

  13. Single vial freeze-dried TRODAT-1 kit: Preparation and demonstration of clinical efficacy of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single vial freeze-dried kit formulation for preparation of three patients' dose of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 has been developed for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Kits were evaluated to ascertain the purity, stability and batch to batch variations. Preclinical evaluation was carried out in laboratory animals and clinical imaging was performed in human patients with PD. The labeling yield and purity of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 was >90%. Swiss mice showed retention of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 in the mid brain region. Clinical studies showed decreased striatal uptake with increasing severity of PD. - Highlights: • A single vial freeze-dried kit formulation for preparation of three patient doses of [99mTc] TRODAT-1 at the hospital radiopharmacy has been developed for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). • The kits were sterile, pyrogen free and stable over a period of 6 months. • The labeling yield and purity of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 was >90%. • Clinical studies showed decreased striatal uptake with increasing severity of PD as compared to healthy volunteers. • Large aging Indian population will be benefited due to availability of these kits, the data will be useful for better understanding of PD in general

  14. Aplicación de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica para la gestión de la malla vial de la ciudad de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Zapata Duque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El estado de la malla vial depende fundamentalmente de factores tales como el tráfico, características estructurales y funcionales del pavimento y condiciones climatológicas locales, y su mantenimiento tiene importantes implicaciones espaciales. Este documento describe el proceso de implementación del sistema de gestión de pavimentos de la ciudad de Medellín, desarrollado en una plataforma SIG. El sistema está soportado en una geodatabase corporativa de inventario y diagnóstico, el cual alimenta un software de modelación del deterioro del pavimento y arroja recomendaciones de intervención en cada segmento vial. Este sistema sirve como apoyo a las autoridades encargadas a la toma de decisiones, con el fin de realizar la planeación del mantenimiento de la malla vial, optimizar los recursos disponibles y ofrecer un mejor servicio a la comunidad.

  15. Biopolímeros, Carbono e Enxofre Totais Associados à Atividade Bacteriana dos Sedimentos Superficiais do Delta do Paraíba do Sul, RJ-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacia de drenagem do Rio Paraíba do Sul localiza-se ao longo do eixo Rio de Janeiro-São Paulo, de grande densidade demográfica e intensa industrialização. Este trabalho objetivou analisar quali-quantitativamente a matéria orgânica (biopolímeros, carbono orgânico total e enxofre e o estado metabólico bacteriano nos sedimentos superficiais estuarino-deltaicos do Rio Paraíba do Sul, relacionando-os a distribuição granulométrica. Em média, 65,5% dos sedimentos foi classificado como arenoso e empobrecidos em carbono e enxofre, cujas concentrações médias foram 0,71% e 0,04%, respectivamente. A razão elementar C:S indica que o ambiente é predominantemente oxidante, coerente com a forte influência fluvial no estuário desse rio de médio porte. Os biopolímeros carboidratos (média de 2075,93 μg C/g, proteínas (média de 25,70 μg C/g e lipídeos (média de 363,10 μg C/g também apresentaram concentrações inferiores a outros ambientes. Em função dessas baixas concentrações, pôde-se classificar o ambiente como sendo meso-oligotrófico. A razão CARBOIDRATO:COT identificou o impacto de atividades antrópicas, mais especificamente o aporte de efluentes domésticos ao longo de todo o seu curso e da indústria açucareira fortemente presente no seu baixo curso. A comunidade bacteriana, responsável pela hidrólise da matéria orgânica, é predominantemente anaeróbia e anaeróbia facultativa, implicando em perda de nitrogênio para a atmosfera (desnitrificação e produção de sulfetos (sulfato-redução e os baixos valores da razão PROTEINA:CARBOIDRATO refletem essa perda de nitrogênio (presente nos compostos protéicos considerando a ocorrência de bactérias desnitrificantes. Os valores encontrados de carbono bacteriano são elevados (3,29 μg C/g que também, provavelmente, são devidos aos impactos descritos.

  16. DEGRADACIÓN DEL ALDRÍN POR Bacillus licheniformis, AISLADO DEL AGUA Y SEDIMENTO DE LA CIENAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Díaz Granados José Gregorio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de apoyar la utilización de los microorganismos como alternativa para la degradación de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes, se aisló la bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, a partir de muestras de sedimento y agua del complejo lagunar de la Ciénaga Grande de santa Marta (CGSM, Caribe colombiano; capaz de tolerar y degradar en condiciones aerobias el plaguicida organoclorado aldrín. Se realizó un bioensayo en el que se expuso al B. licheniformis a una concentración de 60ng/L de aldrín, durante un período de 30 días se evaluó la capacidad degradadora de la bacteria sobre el organoclorado. La identificación y aislamiento de B. licheniformis, se realizó a través de caracterización macroscópica y microscópica y pruebas bioquímicas (sistema BBL Crystal y la determinación de las concentraciones de aldrín con la técnica de cromatografía de gases. Los resultaron mostraron que B. licheniformis posee capacidad degradadora de un 24% del aldrín y que los factores como la exposición a la luz solar y la volatilización influyen considerablemente en la degradación del organoclorado con una reducción adicional de 31%.

  17. Gênese e Morfologia de Estruturas Sedimentares Induzidas por Atividade Microbiana (MISS em Sedimentos da Lagoa Vermelha (Região dos Lagos – Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena da Fonseca Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available dimentos. O desconhecimento dos critérios que permitem a identificação dessas estruturas no registro geológico dificulta seu amplo reconhecimento, sendo por vezes confundidas com estruturas físicas de deposição e erosão. Historicamente, a Lagoa Vermelha é reconhecida por estudos biológicos, mineralógicos, geoquímicos e isotópicos, relacionados a estromatólitos e esteiras microbianas. Contudo, as estruturas sedimentares induzidas por atividade microbiana nunca foram objeto de estudo. Dessa forma, o presente estudo objetiva a análise e caracterização das MISS que ocorrem nos sedimentos da Lagoa Vermelha, reconhecendo os principais fatores biossedimentológicos envolvidos em sua gênese. Foi possível a distinção de onze estruturas resultantes dos processos de crescimento microbial (estrutura de nivelamento laminada, bioestabilização (gretas de dessecamento; mat curls; mat chips, metabolismo da esteira (biolaminito; estromatólito; estromatólito biscuit; nódulo trombolítico, binding, baffling e trapping e estruturas resultantes de mais de uma atividade microbial interagindo com a dinâmica sedimentar (wrinkles; estrutura de descolamento; petees. Análises petrográficas permitiram o reconhecimento dessas estruturas em microescala e de outras feições organossedimentares associadas à atividade microbial. Os resultados gerados permitem a melhor compreensão da interação entre processos microbiais e fatores ambientais atuantes na formação de estruturas sedimentares induzidas por micro-organismos, bem como, auxiliam seu reconhecimento no registro geológico em sucessões continentais e marinhas.

  18. Sedimentos arcillosos en un suelo del valle inferior del río Colorado (Argentina Clay sediments in a soil of the lower Colorado river valley (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Peinemann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la presencia de capas sedimentarias ricas en minerales de arcilla en un subsuelo del valle inferior del río Colorado por su importancia para el régimen hídrico de suelos bajo riego. Difractogramas de rayos X efectuados sobre la fracción arcilla fina de estos sedimentos revelaron que está compuesta por smectitas con muy buena cristalización. La caracterización fisicoquímica del perfil de suelo mostró que el fuerte incremento de minerales de arcilla en el subsuelo estuvo vinculado con un aumento de pH y PSI y en consecuencia una marcada disminución en la conductividad hidráulica, motivo por el cual la eventual presencia de estas capas sedimentarias debe ser muy tenida en cuenta en la programación de las prácticas de riego para evitar el posible deterioro de los suelos.The presence of sedimentary clay layers in subsoils of the lower Colorado river valley are described due to their impact on the water balance of soils under irrigation. X-ray difractograms of the fine clay fraction of these sediments show that they are composed of smectites with a very good crystallization. The physicochemical characterization of the soil profile indicates that the abrupt increase of clay minerals was associated with high pH and ESP values as well as a sharp decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, the presence of sedimentary clay layers in soils has to be considered when planning irrigation practices to avoid soil degradation.

  19. Análise fenotípica e genotípica de bactérias heterotróficas e fixadoras de nitrogênio em sedimento na bacia do Rio Cuiabá-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Viana da Cunha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Os sedimentos apresentam-se como um sistema complexo, que são afetados por parâmetros geológicos, hidrodinâmicos, químicos e biológicos, caracterizado por uma interação entre o ambiente sedimentar de cada região. O presente estudo consistiu em caracterizar a diversidade de bactérias heterotróficas totais e fixadores de nitrogênio em sedimentos do rio Cuiabá utilizando técnicas convencionais de microbiologia e de biologia molecular. As amostras de sedimento foram coletadas com periodicidade bimestral, em quatro pontos sendo estes: Cuiabazinho, Passagem da Conceição, Ribeirão dos Cocais e Barão de Melgaço. As amostras foram processadas através de diluições seriadas (10-2 a 10-7 em solução salina 0,85%. Em seguida cultivadas em placa de Petri através da técnica de Spreed Plate, em meio de cultivo Trypic Soy Agar (TSA para bactérias heterotróficas totais e para bactérias nitrificantes foram utilizados meios seletivos (NFB, JMV e Meio 79 incubadas a 35°C. Posteriormente as estirpes bacterianas foram reisoladas em Agar Nutriente (AN a fim de obter cultura pura para análise morfotintorial de Gram. Este teste permitiu verificar que dos 202 isolados bacterianos, 59% eram bastonetes positivos, sendo que, a maior quantificação bacteriana obtida foi no meio de cultivo TSA, comparado aos outros meios de cultura. O perfil da comunidade bacteriana apresentou na sua maioria bactérias da família Bacillaceae com 28%, sendo que as mesmas foram utilizadas para a análise molecular por Box-PCR, que apresentou uma riqueza de espécies. Esses resultados indicam a importância de pesquisas sobre diversidade microbiana de sedimentos no Estado de Mato Grosso que utilizam técnicas moleculares.

  20. Disposição continental de sedimentos de dragagem em solos tropicais: avaliação do risco ecológico de metais baseada em bioensaios com organismos aquáticos e edáficos

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Cesar; Juan Colonese; Edison Bidone; Zuleica Castilhos; Silvia Egler; Helena Polivanov

    2015-01-01

    A ecotoxicidade associada à disposição continental de sedimentos de dragagem (oriundo da Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro) em latossolos e chernossolos foi estudada através de bioensaios agudos com o cladócero Daphnia similis e o oligoqueta Eisenia andrei; e de bioensaios crônicos com a alga doce Pseudokirchneriella subcaptata. Os teores de metais no dragado estavam acima dos preconizados pela legislação brasileira para disposição de materiais dragados. Os bioensaios empregados sugerem nívei...

  1. Foraminíferos en los sedimentos superficiales del sistema lagunar de cispatá y la interacción río sinú-mar caribe colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Gladys; Ruiz-Ochoa, Mauricio A.; Piedrahita, María Teresa; Restrepo, Evanaam

    2009-01-01

    El sistema lagunar de Cispatá es una importante zona de manglar en el Caribe colombiano. Se formó durante la evolución del delta del río Sinú y su dinámica depende del río y el mar. Se hizo un estudio de los foraminíferos bentónicos en los sedimentos superficiales como bioindicadores de la interacción fluviomarina. Se estableció la abundancia de foraminíferos y las asociaciones de especies de la epifauna. Se identificaron 82 especies. Las más abundantes fueron Trochammina inflata, Arenoparrel...

  2. Mineralogía de arenas y limos en suelos, sedimentos fluviales y eólicos actuales del sector austral de la cuenca Chacoparanense: Regionalización y áreas de aporte Sands and clay mineralogy in soils, fluvial and eolian Present sediments in the southern sector of the Chacoparanense basin: Different regions and source areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Etchichury

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Análisis mineralógicos de las fracciones arena fina y limo grueso de suelos y sedimentos actuales fluviales y eólicos de la pampa húmeda del norte de Santa Fe y parte de la Mesopotamia (Entre Ríos y Corrientes, permiten establecer dos zonas caracterizadas por sendas asociaciones mineralógicas genéticamente diferentes. En el área que comprende las provincias de Buenos Aires, noroeste de La Pampa, Córdoba, centro y sur de Santa Fe y sur de Entre Ríos, tanto los componentes pesados (hornblenda verde, basáltica, castaña, hipersteno, enstatita, augita, magnetita, hematita, ilmenita, leucoxeno, epidoto, zoicita como livianos (plagioclasas, litoclastos de volcanitas, vitroclastos, cuarzo, ortosa, tienen un origen volcánico piroclástico y derivan en gran parte de sedimentos pampeanos y postpampeanos a los que se añaden materiales propios de las volcanitas mesozoicas norpatagónicas, del basamento de Sierras Pampeanas y de las erupciones piroclásticas cuaternarias. En Corrientes y el norte de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos, la suite de minerales pesados (estaurolita, cianita, sillimanita, andalusita, hornblenda, epidoto, opacos refleja aporte metamórfico y la asociación de livianos (cuarzo mono y policristalino, ortosa, microclino, metamorfitas cuarzo-micáceas, arenitas cuarzosas, indica además contribución ígnea y sedimentaria procedente del cratón aflorante en Brasil y Uruguay y de las sucesiones sedimentarias superpuestas. La particular distribución de los materiales está condicionada a las diferentes direcciones de las redes de drenaje y a la acción de los vientos dominantes. La isopleta correspondiente al 30% de frecuencia del cuarzo marca el límite de las dos asociaciones mineralógicas.Mineralogical analysis based on fine sand and coarse silt fraction from soils and fluvial and aeolian recent sediments of the Pampa Húmeda (Wet Pampas and the northen region of Santa Fe province and part of the Mesopotamia (Entre Ríos and

  3. Conocimiento de las normas de tráfico en función de la edad y de la importancia para la seguridad vial / Knowledge of Traffic Rules According to the Age and the Importance for Road Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Vargas; Cándida Castro; Francisco Javier Martos; Humberto Manuel Trujillo

    2012-01-01

    Un déficit en la memoria producido por la edad puede influir en el conocimiento de la normativa de tráfico. El presente estudio analiza las diferencias en el conocimiento de la normativa en función de la edad e importancia para la seguridad vial. Participaron 300 personas (18-75 años). Se elaboró un cuestionario de conocimiento sobre normativa de tráfico, según la importancia que desempeñan para la seguridad vial (poco importantes, importantes y muy importantes). En general, el conocimiento d...

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  5. Heavy metals in geochemical sediment fractions of the border region between Baja California, Mexico, and California, USA; Metales pesados en fracciones geoquimicas de sedimentos de la region fronteriza de Baja California, Mexico, y California, EUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Celaya, Julio A; Gutierrez-Galindo, Efrain A; Flores-Munoz, Gilberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, B.C., (Mexico)

    1997-03-01

    water in the coastal zone are being transported outside the region. [Spanish] En este estudio se evalua la concentracion de los metales pesados Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn y Fe en las diferentes fracciones geoquimicas del sedimento, como una medida para conocer el impacto de las descargas de agua residuales sobre los sedimentos costeros de la region. Para este proposito, durante un crucero oceanografico realizado en abril de 1992 (ECOBAC IV), se recolectaron 20 muestras de sedimento superficial en la plataforma costera de la region fronteriza de Baja California (Mexico) y California (EUA). Las muestras de sedimento se sometieron a un procedimiento de extraccion secuencial, disenado para obtener las fracciones geoquimicas operacionalmente definidas como: intercambiable (F1), carbonatos (F2), oxihidroxidos de Fe y Mn (F3), materia organica/sulfuros (F4) y residual o litogenica (F5). La especiacion operacional de los metales indica que las principales fases que acumulan metales en el sedimento son la matriz detrital o litogenica, los oxihidroxidos de Fe y Mn y la materia organica/sulfuros, en este orden. La distribucion espacial de los metales pesados en la fase reactiva (definida como la suma de F1-F4) presento, en general, una tendencia a aumentar en concentracion en sedimentos alejados de la costa. Los metales pesados en la fase reactiva aparentemente son controlados por la concentracion de hierro reactivo en los sedimentos, con excepcion del Pb, el Cd y la Ag. Esto sugiere que estos ultimos elementos son controlados por otros procesos, tales como el material particulado de origen biogenico. En contraste, la distribucion espacial de los metales pesados en la fase detrital presento un comportamiento inverso, esto es, las mayores concentraciones de metales se encuentran cercanas a la costa frente a la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de Punta Bandera, Baja California. Las concentraciones promedio de metales totales (suma de F1-F5) fueron de 7.6, 40, 21, 68

  6. Diseño de un plan estratégico de seguridad vial departamental (Modelo piloto para el departamento de Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Cerquera Escobar Julio Andrés Pabón Cachope Ricardo Andrés Fajardo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sintetiza  una  serie  de  consideraciones  que  sirvencomo marco  de  referencia  para  definir  un  plan  deacción en seguridad vial, cuyo desarrollo y ejecuciónestán  encaminados  a  reducir  los  accidentes  en  lasvías del departamento de Boyacá, y que sirve comomodelo guía para cualquier otra región del país. Losresultados  que  se  presentan  fueron  obtenidos  en  eldesarrollo  del  proyecto  de  grado  en  Ingeniería  deTransporte  y  Vías  t itulado  “Diseño  del  PlanEstratégico de Seguridad Vial para el departamentode Boyacá”;  además,  se  consideran  varios  tópicosplanteados en documentos que sobre Seguridad Vialha  desarrollado  el  Grupo  de  Invest igación  yDesarrollo en Operación del Tránsito, GIDOT. Esteproyecto  se  adelantó  como  un  direccionamiento  alPlan  de  Desarrollo  del  departamento,   en  lo

  7. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Lijun [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Sapozhnikova, Yelena [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.Lehotay@ars.usda.gov [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g⁻¹ spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix.

  8. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. - Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g−1 spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix

  9. Método "fingerprinting" para identificação de fontes de sedimentos em bacia hidrográfica rural Fingerprinting method for identification of sediment sources in a rural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean P. G. Minella

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se refere a um estudo de identificação de fontes de sedimentos, realizado em uma bacia rural localizada em uma região montanhosa, no sul do Brasil. A bacia representa um ecossistema típico de exploração agrícola, realizado por pequenos agricultores que cultivam fumo em áreas marginais, com conseqüências severas aos recursos naturais. A identificação das fontes de sedimentos, baseada na análise dos sedimentos transportados em suspensão, possibilita avaliar as áreas que contribuem para a sua produção e fazer inferências sobre o potencial poluidor desses sedimentos. A metodologia utilizada foi a técnica "fingerprinting", através da qual foram exploradas as principais limitações da metodologia e as potencialidades na identificação das fontes de sedimentos. A classificação possibilitou a identificação da contribuição relativa das fontes, considerando-se preponderantes as lavouras e as estradas. Os resultados mostraram que a contribuição das duas fontes foi variável no tempo e a proporção relativa da contribuição de cada fonte variou de acordo com o manejo e a cobertura do solo que ocorreu nas lavouras e das obras de manutenção realizadas nas estradas. A contribuição das fontes mostrou que as lavouras e as estradas contribuíram com 64 e 36%, respectivamente.In this study, the fingerprinting method was used to identify sediment sources in a small rural watershed located in a mountainous region in southern Brazil. This watershed represents a typical agricultural ecosystem, in which smallhold farmers cultivate tobacco in marginal areas, with severe consequences to the natural resources. The identification of sediment sources, based on analysis of sediments transported in suspension, enables an evaluation of which areas are truly contributing to sediment production and, therefore, to make inferences about the polluting potential of these sediments. The study considered the main limitations of this

  10. Carbono orgánico y características texturales de los sedimentos del sistema costero lagunar Carretas-Pereyra, Chiapas Organic carbon and textural characteristics of sediments within the Carretas-Pereyra coastal lagoons system, Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G. Calva Benítez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó la distribución estacional y espacial de los sedimentos superficiales y el contenido de carbono orgánico (CO en ellos, en el sistema lagunar Carretas-Pereyra durante el período de 1998 a 2003. La determinación del CO en sedimentos se llevó a cabo con el método de Gaudette et al. (1974 y la composición del sedimento se evaluó con el análisis de tamizado en húmedo y de pipeteo (Folk, 1974. No se determinaron diferencias significativas de CO en los sedimentos entre las estaciones de secas y lluvias. La distribución espacial de CO a través de las lagunas mostró que los porcentajes mayores estuvieron en las estaciones 1 (Buena Vista, 3 y 4 (Carretas mientras que en la 6 (Boca, con influencia marina fue menor. La distribución de la textura del sedimento fue heterogénea entre años, épocas climáticas y estaciones en las lagunas, siendo la estación 6 la única conformada prioritariamente por arenas. Se identificaron 3 zonas de acuerdo a su granulometría. Las arcillas se incrementaron hacía adentro del sistema lagunar (con excepción de la E-9 y el contenido de CO decreció en dirección hacía el mar. La hojarasca fue un componente importante en la fracción gruesa de febrero (1998 y de septiembre (2001. La tormenta torrencial "Javier" (TTJ (septiembre, 1998 tuvo como consecuencia un decremento en la proporción de arenas, incremento en la de arcillas y disminución del CO en casi todo el sistema lagunar. El área de la Boca se redujo en profundidad, prácticamente a la mitad. Quedó manifiesta la influencia de los dragados realizados desde 1999.In this study were analyzed the seasonal and spatial distribution of surficial sediments and their organic carbon (OC content from Carretas-Pereyra coastal lagoon between 1997 to 2003 period. Total organic carbon determination was based on method of Gaudette et al. (1974 and sediment composition was measured by pipette analysis (Folk, 1974. There was differences

  11. Analytical procedure for the in-vial derivatization-extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids in methanolic and aqueous plant extracts followed by gas chromatography with mass selective detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiamegos, Y.C.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Stalikas, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    An in-vial simple method for the combined derivatization and extraction of phenolic acids and flavonoids from plant extracts and their direct determination with GC-MS, is described. The method is taking advantage of the beneficial potentials of phase transfer catalysis (PTC). Catalysts in soluble an

  12. Rotina computacional e equação simplificada para modelar o transporte de sedimentos num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico Computational routine and simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar E. Cerquetani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram desenvolver rotina computacional para a solução da equação de Yalin e do diagrama de Shields e avaliar uma equação simplificada para modelar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico que possa ser utilizada no Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, assim como em outros modelos de predição da erosão do solo. A capacidade de transporte de sedimento para o fluxo superficial foi representada como função-potência da tensão cisalhante, a qual revelou ser aproximação da equação de Yalin. Essa equação simplificada pôde ser aplicada em resultados experimentais oriundos de topografia complexa. A equação simplificada demonstrou acuracidade em relação à equação de Yalin, quando calibrada utilizando-se da tensão média cisalhante. Testes de validação com dados independentes demonstraram que a equação simplificada foi eficiente para estimar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento.The objectives of the present work were to develop a computational routine to solve Yalin equation and Shield diagram and to evaluate a simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox that could be used in the Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, as well as other soil erosion models. Sediment transport capacity for shallow overland flow was represented as a power function of the hydraulic shear stress and which showed to be an approximation to the Yalin equation for sediment transport capacity. The simplified equation for sediment transport could be applied to experimental data from a complex topography. The simplified equation accurately approximated the Yalin equation when calibrated using the mean hydraulic shear stress. Validation tests using independent data showed that the simplified equation had a good performance in predicting sediment transport capacity.

  13. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  14. Tasas de acreción y características de los sedimentos actuales en el parque nacional Las Tablas de Daimiel (Ciudad Real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizcayno Muñoz, C.

    2000-12-01

    los meses de otoño e invierno, cuando son mayores los aportes procedentes de la descomposición de los macrófitos emergentes. Los sedimentos acumulados presentan un alto contenido en materia mineral autóctona (3157 %. La mayor parte de la materia orgánica depositada se genera dentro del humedal (4565 % y procede principalmente de la vegetación emergente. La materia mineral autóctona puede proceder de una rápida mineralización de los restos orgánicos depositados y/o de la precipitación endógena de calcita, que se presenta como la fase mineral más abundante. Una simulación de la evolución sedimentaria del humedal indica su posible desaparición, de continuar las condiciones actuales, en los próximos 100 años.

  15. Resultados paleoceanográficos deducidos a partir del contenido en diatomeas de los sedimentos siliceos miocenos («moronitas» en la Cuenca del Guadalquivir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López García, Mª J.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available During a part of the Miocene (Langhian middle-middle Tortonian diatom bearing sediments, named «moronitas», were deposited in the Guadalquivir Basin. This sedimentation was the result of a highly productive coastal upwelling regime in the area. At this time, the oceanic circulation in the «nord-betic strait» was under stuarine conditions and the nutrients carne from deep Atlantic currents. The intensity of the circulation of deep water in oceans is usually related to global climatic changes. Coastal upwelling is not an effective process to bring up nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface. A complex hidrological process must occur to bring up deep water firstly to intermediate leveIs and then the nutrients may be upwelled from subsurface waters. It is necessary to take into account local factors related to the basin morphology and the changes that it has gone through in arder to place the ancient upwelling centers in the basin. The percentajes of the most common species (Crucidenticula nicobarica + Crucidenticula punctata, Denticulopsis hustedtii, Thalassionema nitzschioides, Thalassionema nitzschioides var. parva, Thalassiothrix longissima + Thalassionema bacillaris and the biosilicic global content of the rocks has made possible the recognition of a change in the temperature of superficial waters and upwelling intensity in time. The interpretation of the A..P.C. graphics gives a paleoecological significance to the A.P.C. first two factors. In this way different productivity situations in response to different locations and intensity of the ancient upwelling centers in time have been identified.Durante una parte del Mioceno (Langhiense medio-Tortoniense medio tuvo lugar en actual Cuenca del Guadalquivir la formación de sedimentos con diatomeas («moronitas». Esta sedimentación fue consecuencia de la formación de un área de alta productividad biogénica ocasionada por corrientes ascensionales costeras (coastal upwelling. La

  16. Depósitos de flujos gravitacionales subácueos de sedimentos en el flanco activo de la Cuenca Neuquina durante el Cretácico Temprano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Spalletti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En particular, la geometría del sustrato marino en el sector oeste de la Cuenca Neuquina durante el Jurásico Superior y el Cretácico Inferior es virtualmente desconocida, ya que la mayor parte del registro sedimentario ha sido removida durante el ascenso tectónico de la cadena andina durante el Cretácico Tardío y el Cenozoico. En este trabajo se describen sucesiones del Berriasiano - Valanginiano temprano conformadas por depósitos de flujos gravitacionales de sedimentos que afloran en el sector occidental de la faja plegada y corrida de la cuenca Neuquina (Rahueco y Huncal. Las mismas proveen nuevas claves para reconstruir la configuración de la cubeta marina (Mar Neuquino durante el proceso de emplazamiento y emergencia del arco magmático andino. El sistema de Rahueco es una sucesión de 90 m de espesor ubicada por encima de las lutitas y margas anóxicas típicas de la Formación Vaca Muerta y la discordancia intra-valanginiana. Comprende a un conjunto de fangolitas masivas entre las que intercalan siete cuerpos de areniscas turbidíticas con diseño de superposición granocreciente, en las que se definen direcciones de transporte orientadas hacia el este y norte. El sistema de Huncal es una sucesión de entre 15 y 25 m de espesor compuesta por turbiditas arenosas que se emplaza dentro de una espesa sucesión de lutitas y margas anóxicas. Este intervalo turbidítico aparece involucrado en un horizonte de desmoronamiento, acompañado por zonas de cizalla de ángulo bajo a moderado, que muestra una persistente orientación de la estructura de deformación sinsedimentaria hacia el este. El registro de flujos gravitacionales submarinos procedentes del oeste y sudoeste permite sugerir el desarrollo de una zona con alto gradiente hacia el margen occidental del Mar Neuquino. Dicha configuración de talud difiere sustancialmente de la que existiera hacia los márgenes austral y oriental para los mismos tiempos, y que se caracterizara por una

  17. Estudos preliminares de populações de náiades nos sectores terminais dos rios Tua e Sabor (bacia do Douro): análise do habitat e da qualidade da água e sedimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Varandas, S.; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Hinzmann, M.; Cortes, R.; Machado, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    O exíguo conhecimento das condições ecológicas presentes nos rios Tua e Sabor, que permitem a existência de populações viáveis das náiades Unio delphinus (anteriormente designado por Unio cf. pictorum), Anodonta anatina e Potomida littoralis, é condição básica para a monitorização destes ecossistemas. Neste sentido, no Verão de 2009 foram feitos estudos preliminares de caracterização do habitat e microhabitat usado pelas espécies de náiades bem como análises à qualidade da água e sedimentos. ...

  18. Mineralogia e química dos sedimentos de fundo do médio e baixo Madeira e de seus principais tributários: Amazonas - Brasil Mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments of the middle and lower Madeira River and its main tributaries: Amazonas - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mireide Andrade Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a variação composicional e mineralógica dos sedimentos de fundo transportados pelos grandes rios da Amazônia, com nascentes nos Andes provenientes de rochas cratônicas. O estudo foi realizado com base em análises granulométricas, mineralógicas e químicas, incluindo isótopos de Pb, no rio Madeira e seus tributários. O conjunto de dados mostra que os sedimentos de fundo do rio Madeira são granulométrica, mineralógica e quimicamente distintos de seus principais tributários. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são mais arenosos; têm maior quantidade de quartzo; menor conteúdo de Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, Na2O, PF, TiO2, P2O5, MnO e elementos-traço; e a maturidade aumenta de montante para jusante. Dentre os sedimentos dos tributários, os rios Machado e secundariamente o rio Marmelos são os que mais se aproximam da composição dos sedimentos do rio Madeira, enquanto que o Jamari com sedimentos com maior proporção de TiO2, Zr, Y, Nb, Ga, Hf, U, Ta e ETR, é o mais distinto. Apesar do ambiente de intenso intemperismo e erosão, em condições tropicais úmidas, a que estão submetidas as rochas drenadas pela bacia do rio Madeira, os valores das razões Th/Co, Th/Pb, Th/Yb, Al/Pb, Zr/Co e a composição isotópica de Pb indicam fontes distintas para os sedimentos de fundo estudados. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são provenientes, principalmente, de rochas máficas, enquanto que os sedimentos de seus tributários têm como fonte essencialmente rochas félsicas.This study reports the granulometric, mineralogic and chemical analyses, including Pb isotope, carried out on the bottom sediments of the Madeira River, whose headwaters are in the Andes Mountain, and its tributaries that come from the cratonic region, in order to investigate the compositional variation of the sediments transported by the major rivers of the Amazon. The analytical data show that the bottom sediments of the Madeira River have

  19. Evaluación ecotoxicológica de sedimentos en una zona del Río Uruguay, con puntos finales indicadores de toxicidad aguda, sub-letal, crónica, reproductiva y teratogénica

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    Diana Míguez Carames

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la toxicidad de los sedimentos de una zona del Río Uruguay, aplicando una batería de bioensayos. Las muestras provinieron de: una zona de influencia de descargas domésticas y efluentes de una planta de celulosa (Fray Bentos, una ciudad turística aguas abajo (Las Cañas y otra aguas arriba (Nuevo Berlín, sin influencia directa de dichos vertidos. Los bioensayos aplicados en elutriados fueron: de toxicidad con Photobacterium leiognathi, de reproducción con Ceriodaphnia dubia, de teratogenicidad y letalidad con Pimephales promelas y el ensayo sub-letal en sedimento completo con Hyalella curvispina. Para evaluar la biodisponibilidad y las rutas de toxicidad, se midió el fraccionamiento del 2,4,5-triclorofenol, con resultados: 63% disuelto, 27% adsorbido sobre partículas y el resto sedimentado.Se observó toxicidad por orgánicos y metales con P. leioghnati para todos los sitios. La frecuencia de malformaciones vertebralesde P. promelas fue de 3.3% en Fray Bentos, pero C. dubia sólo mostró efectos en Nuevo Berlín y Las Cañas. Los efectos con H. curvispina se evidenciaron en todas las muestras. Las rutas de toxicidad incluirían la ingestión de contaminantes disueltos y particulados asociados a arcillas y limo. El vínculo causa-efecto para la toxicidad se continuará investigando.

  20. Rotiferos y otros invertebrados en sedimentos arqueológicos de la Colección del Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

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    Fugassa, Martín H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las poblaciones humanas antiguas es complejo y requiere de un enfoque interdisciplinario. La arqueología argentina está promoviendo el desarrollo de nuevas líneas de evidencias que incluyen espacios muy activos de interacción con la biología. Numerosos estudios biológicos se efectúan sobre los depósitos sedimentarios asociados al contexto arqueológico. Los sedimentos asociados a los restos humanos constituyen un recurso de información poco explorado y en general, escasamente contemplado en el diseño previo de la excavación. El presente trabajo aborda el examen de sedimentos de forámenes sacrales de esqueletos humanos pertenecientes al Museo Regional Monseñor Fagnano, Tierra del Fuego, una clase de material arqueológico poco estudiado. La recuperación de rotíferos, artrópodos y parásitos justifica el esfuerzo de muestreo sobre materiales sin asignación temporal y con escasa referencia espacial. Se puede concluir que el estudio de microfósiles presentes en este tipo de depósito permite maximizar la información obtenida del registro bioarqueológico debido a que albergan valiosa información paleoambiental, bioantropológica y tafonómica. Así, el estudio exhaustivo y no destructivo de las muestras arqueológicas resulta un punto crucial en la estrategia de investigación.

  1. Cocolitóforos en sedimentos marinos frente a la entrada occidental del Estrecho de Magallanes (53°S revelan cambios en la productividad durante los últimos 30.000 años

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    Gloria E Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un nuevo registro de producción exportada de cocolitóforos (cocolitos durante los últimos 30.000 años, basado en el estudio de un testigo de sedimento marino obtenido frente a la entrada occidental del Estrecho de Magallanes (testigo MD07-3128; 53°S, 75°W. Este testigo reveló la presencia de una asociación compuesta por trece taxones de cocolitóforos dominada por Gephyrocapsa "small" (representando en promedio >80% de la asociación total y acompañada, en menor proporción (1-10%, por dos morfotipos de Emiliania huxleyi, Coccolithus pelagicus y Calcidiscus leptoporus. La concentración de cocolitos se correlacionó positivamente con el contenido de CaCO3 (P 30% y la abundancia de cocolitos (~10(9 cocolitos g-1 sedimento seco coincidieron con periodos relativamente cálidos (e.g., el Holoceno. Se hallaron marcadas diferencias al comparar estos datos con el registro de cocolitos de Saavedra-Pellitero et al. (2011 para el sitio ODP 1233 a los 41°S: en el sitio ODP 1233 la producción de cocolitóforos fue máxima durante el Último Máximo Glacial en respuesta a la advección hacia el norte de las aguas ricas en macronutrientes de la corriente Circumpolar Antártica. En contraste, el sitio MD07-3128 experimentó al mismo tiempo una baja en productividad de cocolitóforos probablemente relacionada al efecto negativo ejercido por un alto aporte de material terrígeno y agua de deshielo proveniente del gran casquete de hielo patagónico.

  2. Metabolomic method: UPLC-q-ToF polar and non-polar metabolites in the healthy rat cerebellum using an in-vial dual extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amera A Ebshiana

    Full Text Available Unbiased metabolomic analysis of biological samples is a powerful and increasingly commonly utilised tool, especially for the analysis of bio-fluids to identify candidate biomarkers. To date however only a small number of metabolomic studies have been applied to studying the metabolite composition of tissue samples, this is due, in part to a number of technical challenges including scarcity of material and difficulty in extracting metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for maximising the biological information obtained from small tissue samples by optimising sample preparation, LC-MS analysis and metabolite identification. Here we describe an in-vial dual extraction (IVDE method, with reversed phase and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC which reproducibly measured over 4,000 metabolite features from as little as 3mg of brain tissue. The aqueous phase was analysed in positive and negative modes following HILIC separation in which 2,838 metabolite features were consistently measured including amino acids, sugars and purine bases. The non-aqueous phase was also analysed in positive and negative modes following reversed phase separation gradients respectively from which 1,183 metabolite features were consistently measured representing metabolites such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids and triacylglycerides. The described metabolomics method includes a database for 200 metabolites, retention time, mass and relative intensity, and presents the basal metabolite composition for brain tissue in the healthy rat cerebellum.

  3. Diseño de un plan estratégico de seguridad vial departamental (Modelo piloto para el departamento de Boyacá)

    OpenAIRE

    Flor Ángela Cerquera Escobar Julio Andrés Pabón Cachope Ricardo Andrés Fajardo

    2010-01-01

    Sintetiza  una  serie  de  consideraciones  que  sirvencomo marco  de  referencia  para  definir  un  plan  deacción en seguridad vial, cuyo desarrollo y ejecuciónestán  encaminados  a  reducir  los  accidentes  en  lasvías del departamento de Boyacá, y que sirve comomodelo guía para cualquier otra región del país. Losresultados  que  se  presentan  fueron  obtenidos  en  eldesarrollo  del  proyecto  de  grado  en  Ingeniería  deTransporte  y  Vías  t itulado  “Diseño  del  PlanEstratégico de...

  4. In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

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    Maria Celeiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.

  5. Los concursos entre delitos contra la seguridad vial y delitos de resultado lesivo tras las últimas reformas penales: estudio del artículo 382 del código penal

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón García, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en el estudio del artículo 382 del Código Penal español, que regula los concursos entre los delitos contra la seguridad vial y los delitos de homicidio o lesiones que tienen su origen en aquéllos. Este precepto fue objeto de una importante reforma mediante la Ley Orgánica 15/2007, de 30 de noviembre, de modificación del Código Penal en materia de delitos contra la seguridad vial, y, si bien su redacción no se ha alterado en la reforma operada por la Ley Orgánica 5/2010,...

  6. Conocimiento de las normas de tráfico en función de la edad y de la importancia para la seguridad vial / Knowledge of Traffic Rules According to the Age and the Importance for Road Safety

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    Cristina Vargas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Un déficit en la memoria producido por la edad puede influir en el conocimiento de la normativa de tráfico. El presente estudio analiza las diferencias en el conocimiento de la normativa en función de la edad e importancia para la seguridad vial. Participaron 300 personas (18-75 años. Se elaboró un cuestionario de conocimiento sobre normativa de tráfico, según la importancia que desempeñan para la seguridad vial (poco importantes, importantes y muy importantes. En general, el conocimiento de los conductores sobre la normativa de tráfico fue pobre. Contrario a lo esperado, el rendimiento de los conductores mayores no siempre fue inferior al de los otros grupos de edad, presentando mejores resultados en preguntas poco importantes y muy importantes.

  7. 电针联合脑活素注射液治疗面神经炎后遗症的疗效分析%Effective analysis of treating sequelae of facial paralysis by EA plus cerebrolysin vial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧铿

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察电针联合脑活素注射液治疗面神经炎后遗症的临床疗效.方法:将我院针灸科住院及门诊90例面神经炎后遗症患者随机分为联合治疗组(A组)、电针组(B组)及脑活素注射液组(C组),每组30例.观察周期为2个月,评价三组患者治疗前后的疗效.结果:A组疗效明显高于B组和C组,经统计学处理,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:电针联合脑活素注射液能明显改善面神经炎后遗症的临床症状.%Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of acusector combined with cerebrolysin vial of curing facial neuritis sequela. Methods:Ninety patients with facial neuritis sequela were randomly assigned into 3 groups: A group is Combination therapy group (acusector combined with cerebrolysin vial), B group is acusector group, and C group is cerebrolysin vial group. After 2 mouths,evaluation of the efficacy of the three groups before and after the treatment. Results:The effect of A group was significantly higher than that of B group and C group,by statistically, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Acusector combined with cerebrolysin vial can obviously improve the clinical symptoms of the facial neuritis sequela.

  8. Influencia del sistema vial en la conformación de la jerarquía urbana y municipal de la subregión Barlovento. Estado Miranda. Venezuela

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    Pedro Delfín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las vías de comunicación son la estrategia integradora y conectora entre las actividades y la población asentada en centros poblados. La red vial y su expresión espacial son consideradas como factores estructurantes del espacio geográfico, y como tales contribuyen a fortalecer los procesos de transformación y cambios en la estructura y dinámica espacial. La autopista de oriente Antonio José de Sucre en su paso por la subregión de Barlovento se convertirá en una modalidad vial que impactará las actuales condiciones de transporte en cuanto a conectividad, accesibilidad y cambios en el patrón de crecimiento del sistema de centros poblados de la depresión Barloventeña. El objetivo de esta investigación es establecer las variaciones en la jerarquía urbana de la subregión de Barlovento a causa de la disposición de la malla vial troncal y expresa.

  9. Densidade de drenagem da bacia incremental do reservatório de Porto Primavera, rio Paraná (SP/MS: perspectiva de sua adoção como indicador de produção de sedimentos das bacias hidrográficas.

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    Antônio Manoel dos Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de pesquisa sobre a densidade de drenagem da bacia hidrográfica incremental do reservatório de Porto Primavera, rio Paraná (SP/MS. As conclusões obtidas destacam aos métodos adotados e à caracterização da bacia, sob a ótica da produção de sedimentos. Os métodos contemplaram a medida dos comprimentos das linhas de drenagem por área considerada (km/km e a contagem do número de confluências 2(nc/km em cartas topográficas de diferentes escalas. A caracterização da bacia evidenciou as áreas e as sub-bacias com maior tendência potencial de produção de sedimentos segundo o fator densidade de drenagem.

  10. Aproximación a las comunidades de carófitos que existieron en la Albufera de Valencia a partir del estudio de las oósporas del sedimento

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    Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Charophyte oospores and their features (size, shape, colour, outer wall ornamentation, etc. are able to persist in seed banks of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, these characteristics can be used for taxonomic species identification, thereby providing knowledge about the specific composition of the charophyte community in a habitat that currently lacks, or has greatly altered, submerged vegetation. Several years ago, l’Albufera de València lost the charophyte meadows that covered the lake bottom in the past, which had never been studied in detail. Several sediment cores were extracted from the lagoon at three sites and the oospores and gyrogonites were isolated and characterized. The oospore/gyrogonite densities in the sediment layers were estimated. Ten different taxa have been identified: six belonging to genus Chara [Ch. vulgaris, Ch. Hispida var. major, Ch. fragilis (Ch. globularis, Ch. Hispida var. baltica, Ch. aspera, Ch. tomentosa]; one Nitella species (N. hyalina, two Tolypella species (T. glomerata and T. hispanica and one Lamprothamnium species (L. papulosum. The latter, which indicates the period when water salinity was high in the lagoon, was found in the deepest sediment layers. An increase in the oospore abundance and diversity was observed in line with sediment depth. This indicates, on the one hand, that the lagoon went through different ecological stages (with important changes in salinity, mainly and, on the other hand, the eutrophication process that the lagoon has been undergoing for at least the last 45 years, has progressively affected the abundance and diversity of the charophyte community.

    Las oósporas de carófitos y sus características (tamaño, forma, color, ornamentación de la pared, etc. pueden persistir en los bancos de semillas del sedimento de ecosistemas acuáticos, y pueden ser utilizadas para identificar los diferentes táxones y obtener de este modo una

  11. Geochemical composition of surface sediments near Isla de Sacrificios coral reef ecosystem, Veracruz, Mexico Composición geoquímica de sedimentos superficiales alrededor del ecosistema arrecifal de Isla de Sacrificios, Veracruz, México

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    Leticia Rosales-Hoz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three surface sediment samples were collected in the area surrounding the Isla de Sacrificios located in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. The temporal impact of natural discharges in the area was evaluated through the study of the textural and chemical characteristics of the sediments that surround the Veracruz Reef System. The particle size during the three sampled seasons was associated with the prevailing energy conditions. The degree of influence of terrigenous sediments was evaluated through the content of Al2O3, SiO2, Na2O and K2O, which is higher in October (2004 compared to June (2004 and/or February (2005 due to the rainy season. It was observed that gravel, CaO and CO3 were significant variables grouped in Factor 1 that suggested that gravel-sized fractions are produced by the abrasion of the reef in February (2005 and being correlated with other variables in June (2004. Another groupings were among SiO2, CaO, K2O, CO3, for October (2004 which suggested dilution of carbonates due to the terrigenous input. In addition, the factor analysis showed that grain size and heavy minerals represented by TiO2, MnO, MgO and Fe2O3 have a major importance in February (2005 associated with fluvial discharges. The factor analysis showed that the sedimentological and geochemical characteristics of the sediments varied throughout the different seasons. A correlation among Al2O3 and Na2O, P2O5, y Fe2O3 and organic carbon in the three sampling seasons suggested that these chemical components have a terrigenous source.Se estudiaron veintitrés muestras de sedimento superficial, colectadas en los alrededores de la Isla de Sacrificios, ubicada al suroeste del Golfo de México. El impacto temporal de las descargas naturales fue evaluado a través de las características texturales y químicas de los sedimentos que rodean al SAV. El tamaño de partículas de los sedimentos en las tres estaciones del año estuvo en función con las condiciones de energ

  12. Development of a Single Vial Kit Solution for Radiolabeling of 68Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 and Its Performance in Prostate Cancer Patients

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    Thomas Ebenhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA, a type II glycoprotein, is highly expressed in almost all prostate cancers. By playing such a universal role in the disease, PSMA provides a target for diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT. The PSMA-targeting ligand Glu-NH-CO-NH-Lys-(Ahx-HBED-CC (DKFZ-PSMA-11 has superior imaging properties and allows for highly-specific complexation of the generator-based radioisotope Gallium-68 (68Ga. However, only module-based radiolabeling procedures are currently available. This study intended to develop a single vial kit solution to radiolabel buffered DKFZ-PSMA-11 with 68Ga. A 68Ge/68Ga-generator was utilized to yield 68GaCl3 and major aspects of the kit development were assessed, such as radiolabeling performance, quality assurance, and stability. The final product was injected into patients with prostate cancer for PET/CT imaging and the kit performance was evaluated on the basis of the expected biodistribution, lesion detection, and dose optimization. Kits containing 5 nmol DKFZ-PSMA-11 showed rapid, quantitative 68Ga-complexation and all quality measurements met the release criteria for human application. The increased precursor content did not compromise the ability of 68Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 PET/CT to detect primary prostate cancer and its advanced lymphatic- and metastatic lesions. The 68Ga-DKFZ-PSMA-11 kit is a robust, ready-to-use diagnostic agent in prostate cancer with high diagnostic performance.

  13. Clinical and Analytical Evaluation of a Single-Vial Stool Collection Device with Formalin-Free Fixative for Improved Processing and Comprehensive Detection of Gastrointestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Brianne A; Jensen, Ryan; Arias, Nora; Heffron, Michael; Gubler, Elyse; Case, Kristin; Gowans, Jason; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2015-08-01

    Microscopic examination of feces is a standard laboratory method for diagnosing gastrointestinal parasite infections. In North America, the ovum and parasite (O&P) examination is typically performed using stool that is chemically fixed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and formalin, after which the stool is concentrated by filtration to enhance sensitivity. Mini Parasep solvent-free (SF) tubes allow collection and concentration within a single collection vial. The goal of the study was to determine whether consolidated processing and concentration with the Parasep tubes using an alcohol-based fixative (Alcorfix) provide O&P examinations equivalent to or better than those done by processing of PVA-formalin-fixed stool using a SpinCon concentration device. Parasep tubes revealed filtration performance equivalent to that of the SpinCon concentration device using PVA-formalin-fixed stool containing protozoa. Specimens cocollected in Parasep tubes containing PVA-formalin and Alcorfix revealed comparable morphology and staining for various protozoa. Alcorfix effectively fixed live Cryptosporidium and microsporidia such that morphology and staining were conserved for modified acid-fast and modified trichrome stains. A work flow analysis revealed significant time savings for batches of 10 or 30 O&P specimens in tubes with Alcorfix compared to the amount of time that it took to analyze the same number of specimens in tubes with PVA-formalin. The direct hands-on time savings with Mini Parasep tubes were 17 min and 41 s and 32 min and 1 s for batches of 10 and 30 specimens, respectively. Parasep tubes containing Alcorfix provide significant work flow advantages to laboratories that process medium to high volumes of O&P specimens by streamlining processing and converting to a single tube. These improvements in work flow, reduction of the amount of formalin used in the laboratory, and equivalent microscopy results are attractive advancements in O&P testing for North American

  14. Effect of air polishing on the fluoride release of (resin-modified) glass ionomer cements and of a polyacid-modified composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost-Brinkmann, P G

    1998-06-01

    Eight different conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers as well as a polyacid-modified composite were air polished and their fluoride release was determined in comparison to untreated controls. The air polishing was done with two different devices at medium and maximum setting for powder and water. Ninety discs of 1.5 mm thickness and 7.0 mm diameter were produced from each cement. These discs were stored in 5 ml deionized water at 37 degrees C. After 1 day and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, the specimens were transferred into new vials with fresh deionized water. From the 4th week onward, the specimens (except for the untreated controls) were air polished on half of their upper and lower surfaces for 2 s each before being put into a new vial. After 20 weeks the fluoride released during the previous 4 weeks was determined with a fluoride ion-sensitive electrode. With the exception of Ketac-Cem, all cements released significantly more fluoride ions after air polishing, irrespective of the devices' settings. The differences in the amount of fluoride released among the investigated materials were greater than the changes in fluoride release patterns caused by air polishing. Air polishing increased the fluoride release by 20-60% in most of the materials investigated. PMID:15490782

  15. Magnetismo ambiental en un paleosuelo desarrollado en la Formación Luján (Luján, provincia de Buenos Aires: Comparación con otras áreas de la provincia; consideraciones paleoclimáticas

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    M. J. Orgeira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio de magnetismo ambiental en sedimentos postpampeanos, principalmente fluviales, asignados a la Formación Lujan (localidad tipo, Luján, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La informacion surgida de las muestras recolectadas sugieren un fenómeno de disolución de los minerales ferromagnéticos detríticos durante el proceso edáfico. De la comparación de los resultados magnéticos obtenidos en paleosuelos y suelo holocenos labrados en "sedimentos postpampeanos" eólicos y fluviales (Fm. Luján y La Postrera, surge que existe una señal magnética característica en todos ellos. Asimismo, esta señal es consistente con la obtenida en sedimentos loéssicos pampeanos asignados a la Fm. Buenos Aires. El fenómeno de disolución de minerales ferrimagnéticos detríticos es generalizado en el área chacopampeana. Sin embargo, este proceso puede asociarse a ulterior génesis de una fracción superparamagnética (SP, la que podría indicar una estación con importante deficiencia hídrica durante el evento climático. Por último, también se ha observado la asociación del fenómeno de disolución a la génesis de una fracción mineralógica de alta coercitividad, análogos a los encontrados en paleosuelos formados en loess pampeano .

  16. Análisis de fuentes y toxicidad equivalente de sedimentos contaminados con PAHs en el estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina Sources analysis and equivalent toxicity assessment of PAHs impacted sediments in Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina

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    Andrés H. Arias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio exhaustivo de sedimentos del estuario de Bahía Blanca (Argentina para determinar su impacto por Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos (PAHs. Los sedimentos fueron procesados siguiendo protocolos de la Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, USA y analizados por Cromatografía Gaseosa-Espectrometría de Masas, hallándose un rango de concentraciones total, desde 103 a más de 2,000 ng.g-1 p.s. (p.s.= peso seco; Total PAHs = sumatoria de 17 PAHs, una concentración media de 527 ± 114 ng.g-1 y una mediana de 507 ng.g-1. Se demostró la existencia de un nivel dinámico de contaminación por PAHs, definido por valores bajos a moderados que incluyeron zonas puntuales con altos niveles. El análisis de origen mediante el uso de índices moleculares determinó un predominio de deposiciones pirolíticas sobre las de origen petrogénico, siendo dominantes las emisiones provenientes de la quema de biomasa durante los meses más cálidos. La calidad ecotoxicológica de los sedimentos se abordó utilizando el enfoque de niveles guía, hallándose para la mayoría de los sitios muestreados una predicción de efectos adversos infrecuentes sobre la biota adyacente, con sitios puntuales para los cuales se predijo la aparición frecuente de efectos. Utilizando el concepto de equivalentes de Benzo-a-pireno se calculó su carga total, la cual se halló en ocasiones por sobre los valores indicados en diversas regulaciones internacionales. Finalmente se evaluó la dosis carcinogénica aportada por los 7 PAHs carcinogénicos y su perfil de concentraciones se contrastó estadísticamente con otros sitios costeros del mundo utilizando análisis de grupos jerarquizados.This paper presents a comprehensive survey of PAHs in coastal sediments of Bahia Blanca, Argentina and provides useful information of their levels of concentration, sources, ecotoxicological assessment and carcinogenic PAHs profile of local emissions. Sediments were analyzed

  17. Distribuição de mercúrio total em sedimentos da plataforma continental Amazônica: Brasil Distribution of total mercury in sediments from Amazon continental shelf: Brazil

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    Gilmar W. Siqueira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido na Plataforma Continental do Amazonas (PCA com o objetivo de determinar os níveis de Hg total no sedimento de fundo, e assim contribuir como matriz ambiental indicadora para o plano geral de gerenciamento costeiro na região norte do Brasil. Foram amostrados 20 pontos entre maio e junho dos anos de 1999 a 2002, 2005 e 2007. Os resultados indicam não haver evidências de atividades antrópicas relacionadas à contaminação de mercúrio na região. Os teores encontrados variaram entre 0,047 e 0,166 mg kg-1 com média 0,085±0,026 mg kg-1, estando dentro do intervalo de "background" referido para os rios amazônicos não contaminados, que é de 0,05 a 0,28 mg kg-1. As concentrações de Hg no sedimento, especialmente no sedimento lamoso, mostraram uma estreita dependência com os teores de argila (material fino e matéria orgânica, corroborando mecanismos geoquímicos importantes na dinâmica do metal. A maior adsorção do mercúrio pode estar associada ao aumento dos teores de compostos (óxidos e hidróxidos de ferro, alumínio, manganês e os minerais primários e secundários formadores das rochas da bacia de drenagem amazônica.This study was developed at the Amazon Continental Shelf aims to determine the levels of total mercury in the sediment bottom, and them to contribute as environmental matrix for the general plan of coastal monitoring in the North Region of the Brazil. Twenty sampling sites between May and June from 1999 to 2002, 2005 and 2007 were analyzed. The results indicate there is not evidence of anthropic activities associated to the contamination by mercury in the region. The levels of total mercury founded range between 0.047 and 0.166 mg kg-1 with average of 0.085±0,026 mg kg-1. The results are inside of the background interval determined to not contaminated or not polluted Amazon Rivers, which the interval ranges from 0.05 to 0.28 mg kg-1. The mercury concentrations in the sediment bottom

  18. Suspended sediment entrainment estimation in unsteady turbulent flows by means of a stochastic meted; Computo de la incorporacion de sedimento en suspension en flujos turbulentos no permanentes utilizando un enfoque estocastico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Jose Fernando; Garcia, Marcelo Horacio [Universidad de Illinois (United States); Admiraal, David Mark [Universidad de Nebraska en Lincoln (United States)

    2001-06-01

    In order to compute the total amount and vertical distribution of suspended sediment, a reference concentration near the bed or entrainment function is needed, and considerable research effort has been dedicated to obtain such formulae. Several entrainment functions are available in the literature, but all of them have been developed for steady, uniform flow conditions. The ability of such relationships to predict entrainment rates in unsteady flows has not been demonstrated, nor has there been any attempt to develop a general formulation that work for both steady and unsteady flow conditions. The traditional approach relates the entrainment of sediment to the wall shear stress associated with skin friction in a deterministic way, providing only a relation between mean values. An alternative is to consider both the shear stress and the entrainment as stochastic turbulent quantities and to express them in terms of their probability density functions (PDFs). In this way, statistics of the entrainment can be obtained from measured shear stress PDFs, either in steady or unsteady situations, since the effect of unsteadiness is embedded in the PDF. This new methodology was used to estimate sediment entrainment produced by the passage of vessels in the Mississippi River and the Illinois River. Using a low order cumulant expansion to describe the PDF of the shear stress and a generalized version of Garcia and Parker's entrainment relationship, an expression for the average of the entrainment as a function of the average, variance, skewness of the shear stress distribution was obtained. Predictions compared favourably with values reported in the literature. [Spanish] Para calcular la cantidad total y distribucion vertical de sedimento en suspension es preciso conocer una concentracion de referencia cerca del lecho o funcion de incorporacion, para lo cual se ha hecho un considerable esfuerzo por obtener dichas formulas. Existen varias funciones de incorporacion en la

  19. ANÁLISE MORFOMÉTRICA EM BACIAS HIDROGRÁFICAS FLUVIAIS COMO INDICADORES DE PROCESSOS EROSIVOS E APORTE DE SEDIMENTOS NO ENTORNO DO RESERVATÓRIO DA USINA HIDRELÉTRICA (UHE CORUMBÁ IV

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    Wagner Santos de Almeida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados obtidos com a análise morfométrica fluvial, em seus aspectos linear, espacial e hipsométrico, de algumas das bacias hidrográficas contribuintes ao reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica (UHE Corumbá IV, no Município de Luziânia (GO. O objetivo da pesquisa foi a realização de análise de parâmetros morfométricos fluviais, como subsídio para verificação da propensão de ocorrência de processos erosivos e de aporte de sedimentos em bacias hidrográficas no entorno do reservatório da Usina Hidrelétrica (UHE Corumbá IV.  Foram utilizadas imagens dos sensores remotos orbital e suborbital, como imagem do satélite Quick-Bird e ortofotos obtidas antes do alagamento do reservatório da usina hidrelétrica (UHE Corumbá IV, bem como modelos numéricos de terreno (MNT, com dados de mapa topográfico e de interferometria de radar da missão Shutlle Radar Topografic Mission (SRTM-NASA, além da base cartográfica digital e de mapa geológico na escala de 1:250.000. Foram utilizados algoritmos de geoprocessamento inseridos em sistemas de informações geográficas, o sistema ArcGis e o sistema Spring. A aplicação desses algoritmos resultou na obtenção de indicadores morfométricos lineares, espaciais e hipsométricos das bacias estudadas que permitiram indicar as áreas mais propensas à ocorrência de processos erosivos e de aporte de sedimentos, que são potencializados por interferências antrópicas no uso do seu solo, principalmente pela remoção da cobertura vegetal, que podem vir a reduzir a vida útil do reservatório da UHE em questão.

  20. Estructura comunitaria de diatomeas presentes en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos de Chile central Diatoms community structure in superficial sediments of eight Andean lakes of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INGRID E ALVIAL

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizó la estructura comunitaria de diatomeas depositadas en los sedimentos superficiales de ocho lagos andinos chilenos ubicados entre los 32°49' y 38°48' S. Se encontró un total de 99 taxa de diatomeas, distribuidos en 48 géneros. Del total de taxa, 74 fueron identificados a nivel de especie siendo todos ellos cosmopolitas a excepción de Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis y Pinnularia acidicola, entre otras, que están descritos solo para el Hemisferio Sur. Por otro lado, las muestras analizadas presentaron distinta composición florística de diatomeas. De esta manera, en los ensambles diatomológicos depositados en los sedimentos de las lagunas de altura Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño y Negra ubicadas sobre los 2.860 m del nivel del mar, abundaron especies bentónicas, típicas de aguas oligotróficas y acidas como Achnanthidium exiguum, Achnanthidium minutissimum, Encyonema minutum, Pinnularia acidicola y Planothidium lanceolatum. En los ensambles diatomológicos de los lagos Galletué, Icalma y Laja, ubicados bajo los 1.360 m del nivel del mar, abundaron diatomeas planctónicas, características de aguas alcalinas y mesotróficas como Asterionella formosa, Aulacoseira distans, Aulacoseira granulata, Cyclotella stelligera y Rhopalodia gibbaIn this research the taxonomic structure of diatoms in sediments of high mountain lakes was studied. These lakes are located in Chile between 32°49' and 38°48' S in the Andean Cordillera. A total of 99 diatom taxa distributed in 48 genera were identified and all this taxa are cosmopolitan excepting a Eunotia andinofrequens, Gomphonema punae, Pinnularia araucanensis and Pinnularia acidicola, which are know only for the Southern Hemisphere. The assemblages of diatoms were different in the studied lakes. So the high mountain lakes Ocho, Huifa, Ensueño and Negra, dominated benthic diatoms which are typical of oligotrophic and acid waters as Achnanthidium

  1. Disposição continental de sedimentos de dragagem em solos tropicais: avaliação do risco ecológico de metais baseada em bioensaios com organismos aquáticos e edáficos

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    Ricardo Cesar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A ecotoxicidade associada à disposição continental de sedimentos de dragagem (oriundo da Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro em latossolos e chernossolos foi estudada através de bioensaios agudos com o cladócero Daphnia similis e o oligoqueta Eisenia andrei; e de bioensaios crônicos com a alga doce Pseudokirchneriella subcaptata. Os teores de metais no dragado estavam acima dos preconizados pela legislação brasileira para disposição de materiais dragados. Os bioensaios empregados sugerem níveis maiores de toxicidade para as misturas de latossolo:dragado, em comparação aos tratamentos de chernossolo:dragado. No caso do chernossolo, a abundância de argilominerais 2:1, associada à alta fertilidade, parece ser capaz de reduzir a ecotoxicidade potencial. Em latossolo, mesmo as menores dosagens de aplicação de sedimento (3,33 e 6,66% foram capazes de provocar efeitos adversos significativos aos microcrustáceos e às algas. Em misturas de chernossolo, efeitos significativos foram observados somente para doses de 6,58 e 13,16% para microcrustáceos e algas, respectivamente. Tais dados indicaram a ocorrência potencial de risco ecotoxicológico para as comunidades aquáticas vizinhas em cenários em que solos misturados com materiais dragados pudessem ser lixiviados e soluções tóxicas atingissem sistemas fluviais vizinhos. O ensaio agudo de papel de contato com E. andrei também acusou a ocorrência potencial de efeitos adversos sobre a fauna edáfica, a partir das doses de 13,12 e 19,74% em latossolo e chernossolo, respectivamente. O emprego do referido ensaio parece ser extremamente promissor no monitoramento da ecotoxicidade potencial de solos impactados pela disposição de resíduos sólidos e/ou contaminados por metais.

  2. The role of sediment on the energy availability for fishes in the upper Paraná river floodplain=O papel do sedimento na disponibilidade de energia para peixes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Michiyo Takeda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify potential sources of organic matter in sediment, using stable isotopes of carbon (13C and nitrogen (15N. Sediment samples were gathered from the margin and in center of three subsystems: Ivinheima, Paraná and Baia, in August/2001. The samples were fractionated granulometrically and separated by size ( 70 µm, prepared and sent to CENA / USP, for identifying the isotopes proportions. Significant differences were detected in the isotopic ratios of the sediment only between sampling stations. The Baía channel presented the lowest 13C values, while the highest ones were recorded in Paraná river. At this last, 15N values were negative (-14.41‰. We did not verify significant difference in isotopic composition between the particle sizes of sediment, and between the sampling points. The main sources of carbon for the sediment were C3 macrophytes, periphyton and particulate organic carbon (POC.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as fontes potenciais de matéria orgânica do sedimento, utilizando isótopos estáveis de carbono (13C e nitrogênio (15N. Foram coletadas amostras de sedimento das margens e do centro de três subsistemas: Ivinheima, Paraná e Baía, em agosto/2001. As amostras foram fracionadas granulometricamente e 70 µm, e enviadas ao CENA/USP para identificação das proporções dos isótopos. Foram verificadas diferenças significativas nas razões isotópicas do sedimento apenas entre as estações de coleta. O canal Baía, exibiu s baixos valores de 13C, enquanto altos valores foram registrados no rio Paraná. Nesta última estação, os valores de 15N foram negativos (-14.41‰. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na composição isotópica entre os tamanhos de partículas do sedimento e nem entre os pontos de coleta. As principais fontes de carbono para o sedimento foram as macrófitas C3, perifíton e carbono orgânico particulado (COP.

  3. Medición de microdeformaciones en losas viales usando sensores de redes de Braggen fibras ópticas Microdeformation measurement of concrete roadway slabs using fiber Bragg gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Vélez Hoyos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un método no invasivo para la medición de microdeformaciones en estructuras de concreto usando sensores de redes de Bragg en fibras ópticas adheridos a su superficie. Se realizan mediciones en losas viales de concreto bajo una carga estática de 10 kN, encontrándose una relación aproximada de 2 : 1 entre la deformación registrada por los sensores y los valores arrojados por una simulación computacional con el método de elementos finitos. Se propone el uso de estos sensores para el monitoreo estructural de losas en una malla vial con sensores distribuidos y multiplexados por longitud de onda. Este es el primer reporte en Colombia de medición de deformación de losas viales usando sensores de fibra óptica.This work shows a non–invasive method for micro–deformation measurements of concrete structures using Bragg grating sensors in optical fibers adhered to the surface. Measurements on roadway slabs under a 10 kN static load are made, finding an approximated ratio of 2 : 1 between the deformation registered by the sensors and the values from a computational simulation with the finite element method. We propose the use of these sensors for slab structural monitoring in a road network employing distributed and wavelength multiplexed sensors. This is a first report in Colombia of roadway slabs microdeformation measurement using fiber optic sensors.

  4. Visión criminológica de los delitos contra la seguridad vial en España/Criminological vision of crimes against security road in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Carreras Espallardo

    2011-01-01

    Es el delincuente vial aquel quien se ha escapado del ojo clínico del criminólogo. La discusión al respecto es importante ya que implica una criminalidad mayor en potencia y diversos factores sociales que interactúan entre sí. En contraparte se presenta la víctima la cual debe ser consideraba para el tratamiento adecuado ante un evento traumático. El presente trabajo muestra la aportación que el criminólogo hace desde la realidad española y de los resultados y las experiencias que se han teni...

  5. La integración del factor humano en el ámbito técnico de la gestión de las carreteras y la seguridad vial: Un enfoque investigativo

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Pla, Mónica Laura

    2016-01-01

    La tesis titulada “LA INTEGRACIÓN DEL FACTOR HUMANO EN EL ÁMBITO TÉCNICO DE LA GESTIÓN DE LAS CARRETERAS Y LA SEGURIDAD VIAL: UN ENFOQUE INVESTIGATIVO” tiene por objeto realizar una primera aproximación a la integración del factor humano en el ámbito técnico de la seguridad y gestión de la carretera. La investigación tiene un alcance novedoso. Y constituye un ejemplo de la necesaria aproximación y complementariedad entre disciplinas interrelacionadas unidas en un camino común el de la segurid...

  6. La nueva política criminal de la seguridad vial. Reflexiones a propósito de la LO 15/2007, de 30 de noviembre, y del Proyecto de Reforma del Código Penal

    OpenAIRE

    García Albero, Ramón

    2007-01-01

    La reforma de los delitos contra la seguridad en el tráfico operada por LO 15/2007, de 30 de noviembre, constituye la expresión de un programa político-criminal de más amplio alcance, presente en el Proyecto de Reforma del Código Penal de 2007. En este trabajo se exponen las causas de la emergencia del nuevo derecho penal de la seguridad vial a la luz del paradi gma explicativo que ofrece el derecho penal postmoderno del riesgo -sometido aquí a necesarios ajustes- y se ofrece un anál...

  7. Justicia restaurativa y delitos sin víctima determinada: los círculos restaurativos como herramienta de resolución de conflictos en el ámbito de la Seguridad Vial

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Pamplona, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo sobre la disciplina de la Resolución Alternativa de Conflictos se abordarán temas relacionados con la Justicia Restaurativa y el Derecho Penal, ahondando en aquellas situaciones conflictivas en las que existe conducta delictiva pero no existen víctimas determinadas. En especial, la investigación acerca de los delitos sin víctima determinada va dirigida hacia el ámbito de la Seguridad Vial, concretamente hacia aquellas situaciones donde existe delito de conducción temeraria (ar...

  8. Intervención estatal, desempeño empresario y ámbitos privilegiados de acumulación. El caso del sector vial durante la última dictadura militar, Argentina (1976-1981

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    LUCAS DANIEL IRAMAIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas destinadas a las obras públicas viales en la Argentina durante el lapso 1976-1981, constituyen ejemplos, paradójicos, de la creciente participación económica del Estado, en el marco de un proceso político-institucional signado por un discurso fuertemente liberal y contrario a la expansión de la actividad estatal. En ese sentido, los objetivos de este trabajo son caracterizar los rasgos más significativos de la intervención económica estatal en relación a la construcción de obras públicas viales durante el lapso 1976-1981 y analizar bajo ese mismo período el desempeño económico de las principales empresas intervinientes en el mercado vial. La consecución de estos dos propósitos, a su vez, permitirá establecer si durante esos años se generaron las condiciones propicias para la configuración de un ámbito privilegiado de acumulación (Castellani, 2006, en torno a las obras viales. Abstract The policies oriented to public road-building works during 1976-1981 in Argentina, constitute paradoxical examples of the increasing economic participation of the Estate, within the framework of a political and institutional process signed by a strong liberal speech, opposed to the expansion of Estate activity. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize the most significant aspects of the estate economic intervention in relation to public road-building works from 1976 to 1981 and to analyze the economic performance of the main companies participating in the road-market during that period. At the same time, the completion of these goals will allow to establish whether a configuration of a privileged accumulation space (Castellani, 2006 around road-works took place during those years.

  9. Visión criminológica de los delitos contra la seguridad vial en España/Criminological vision of crimes against security road in Spain

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    Juan Antonio Carreras Espallardo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Es el delincuente vial aquel quien se ha escapado del ojo clínico del criminólogo. La discusión al respecto es importante ya que implica una criminalidad mayor en potencia y diversos factores sociales que interactúan entre sí. En contraparte se presenta la víctima la cual debe ser consideraba para el tratamiento adecuado ante un evento traumático. El presente trabajo muestra la aportación que el criminólogo hace desde la realidad española y de los resultados y las experiencias que se han tenido al respecto.

  10. Vulnerabilidad sísmica de los pasos elevados y puentes que forman parte de la red vial del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito : Adaptación y aplicación de la metodología HAZUS®99

    OpenAIRE

    Atiaga, Galo; Demoraes, Florent

    2003-01-01

    En este informe se evalúa la vulnerabilidad estructural de los pasos elevados y puentes que forman parte de la red vial del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito frente a la amenaza sísmica. A fines del estudio se realizó una adaptación al contexto ecuatoriano de la metodología HAZUS®99 diseñada en Estados Unidos, ajustando la que se había implementado en el marco de un estudio anterior (Atiaga y Demoraes, 2002, hal-01283044). Se presenta también los parámetros de construcción levantadas en las 90 ...

  11. The use of multivariate analysis to link sediment contamination and toxicity data to establish sediment quality guidelines: an example in the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain); El uso del analisis multivariante en la union de datos de toxicidad y contaminacion para establecer guias de calidad de sedimento: Un ejemplo en la Bahia de Cadiz (Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Valls, T. Angel; Forja, Jesus M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz, (Spain); Gomez-Parra, Abelardo [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucia, CSIC, Puerto Real, Cadiz, (Spain)

    1998-03-01

    which biological effects have been shown to be minimal (mg kg{sup -}1 dry sediment), are: Hg, 0.25; Ag, 0.78; Pb, 66.80; Cr, 101.2; LAS, 2.6. [Spanish] Para evaluar la calidad de los sedimentos marinos en el Golfo de Cadiz, los datos provenientes de concentraciones quimicas y respuestas de toxicidad en sedimentos fueron unidos usando el analisis ultivariante. Las muestras de sedimentos fueron recogidas sinopticamente en siete estaciones de dos ecosistemas litorales en el Golfo de Cadiz (cinco en la Bahia de Cadiz y dos en las marismas del rio Barbate) y fueron sujetas a seis tests de toxicidad de forma independiente y replicada, asi como a analisis quimicos. Los efectos toxicos en los sedimentos se chequearon utilizando tres fases operativas del sedimento: sedimento bruto, utilizando el anfipodo Microdeutopus gryllotalpa (10 d estatico: supervivencia) y la almeja de estuario Ruditapes philippinarum (48 h estatico: enterramiento); extracto de sedimento, utilizando larvas del bivalvo de estuario Crassostrea angulata (48 h estatico: supervivencia) y del pez marino Sparus aurata (48 h estatico: supervivencia); y agua intersticial, utilizando poblaciones del rotifero de estuario Brachionus plicatilis (7 d estatico: decaimiento de la poblacion) y de la bacteria marina Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox ). Para evaluar los niveles de contaminacion se determinaron las concentraciones en los sedimentos de carbono organico, 14 metales traza (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ag, Hg, As, Sn, V, Ni, Co y Cr) y el detergente alquibencenosulfonato lineal (LAS). Los resultados de los ensayos de toxicidad se compararon mediante relaciones de respuesta entre las diferentes estaciones, demostrando una concordancia general entre los valores de toxicidad determinados en todos los tests, excepto en el caso de la toxicidad en el agua intersticial (principalmente debido a mezclas de metales traza toxicas). Los datos obtenidos en los ensayos quimicos y de toxicidad se ensamblaron utilizando tecnicas

  12. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  13. Research and Application of Vaccine Vial Monitor in Abroad%疫苗有效性监测卡的研发及国外使用概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平; 曹玲生; 曹雷; 王华庆

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine Vial Monitor ( VVM) was an achievement of cooperation of World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children Emergency Fund(UNICEF)and Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. VVM was the only tool for monitoring vaccine temperature at all times in the process of storage, distribution and practice of vaccination. Since its introduction in 1996 with oral polio vaccine, the VVM had contributed to the success of overcoming access problems in areas with weak or no cold-chain infrastructure and reduction of vaccine wastage. WHO and UNICEF called all self-procuring Member States to include the VVM among the minimum requirements for vaccine purchase agreements.%疫苗有效性监测卡(Vaccine Vial Monitor,VVM)是世界卫生组织(WHO)、联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)、美国适宜卫生科技组织长期合作的研发成果.VVM是目前唯一能够从存储、运输到接种阶段,全程监测疫苗温度的工具.1996年,VVM被首次使用在口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗.它解决了冷链设备不足地区的疫苗监测问题,同时减少了疫苗的浪费.WHO和UNICEF号召所有成员国采购使用VVM的疫苗.

  14. Magnetismo ambiental en un paleosuelo desarrollado en la Formación Luján (Luján, provincia de Buenos Aires: Comparación con otras áreas de la provincia; consideraciones paleoclimáticas Environmental magnetism of a paleosoil in the Lujan Formation (Luján, Buenos Aires Province: comparison with other areas in the province and palaeoclimatic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Orgeira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio de magnetismo ambiental en sedimentos postpampeanos, principalmente fluviales, asignados a la Formación Lujan (localidad tipo, Luján, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La informacion surgida de las muestras recolectadas sugieren un fenómeno de disolución de los minerales ferromagnéticos detríticos durante el proceso edáfico. De la comparación de los resultados magnéticos obtenidos en paleosuelos y suelo holocenos labrados en "sedimentos postpampeanos" eólicos y fluviales (Fm. Luján y La Postrera, surge que existe una señal magnética característica en todos ellos. Asimismo, esta señal es consistente con la obtenida en sedimentos loéssicos pampeanos asignados a la Fm. Buenos Aires. El fenómeno de disolución de minerales ferrimagnéticos detríticos es generalizado en el área chacopampeana. Sin embargo, este proceso puede asociarse a ulterior génesis de una fracción superparamagnética (SP, la que podría indicar una estación con importante deficiencia hídrica durante el evento climático. Por último, también se ha observado la asociación del fenómeno de disolución a la génesis de una fracción mineralógica de alta coercitividad, análogos a los encontrados en paleosuelos formados en loess pampeano .An environmental magnetic study of mainly fluvial "postpampean sediments" assigned to the Lujan Formation (Luján, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina was carried out. The results obtained suggest a depletion of detrital ferromagnetic minerals during the pedogenetic processes. A characteristic magnetic signal can be distinguished in Holocene paleosols and soils of both eolian and fluvial "post-Pampean sediments" (Fm. Luján and Fm. La Postrera. This signal is analogous to that determined in loessic Pampean sediments assigned to the Buenos Aires Formation. It is inferred that the depletion of detrital ferromagnetic minerals is a general process in the Chacopampean area. This process may be associated

  15. Efectividad de las intervenciones de seguridad vial basadas en la evidencia: una revisión de la literatura Evidence-based effectiveness of road safety interventions: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Novoa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Únicamente se deberían implementar las intervenciones de seguridad vial con evidencia científica de su efectividad. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en resumir la evidencia disponible sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones de seguridad vial para reducir las colisiones, las lesiones y las muertes de tráfico. Metodología: Se incluyeron todas aquellas revisiones de la literatura publicadas en una revista científica que evaluaran la efectividad de una o más intervenciones de seguridad vial, y cuyas medidas de resultado fueran colisiones, lesiones o muertes de tráfico. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda exhaustiva en bases de datos de la literatura científica. Las intervenciones se clasificaron según su evidencia de efectividad para reducir las lesiones de tráfico (intervenciones efectivas, insuficiente evidencia de efectividad, intervenciones no efectivas siguiendo la estructura de la matriz de Haddon. Resultados: Se incluyeron 54 revisiones. Se hallaron intervenciones efectivas antes, durante y después de la colisión, y para todos los factores: a el individuo: el permiso de conducir gradual (reducción del 31% de las lesiones de tráfico; b el vehículo: control electrónico de estabilidad (2 a 41%; c las infraestructuras: pacificación del tráfico (0 a 20%, y d el entorno social: radares (7 a 30%. Algunas intervenciones no son efectivas, en especial la educación vial, y otras requieren mayor investigación. Conclusión: Las intervenciones más efectivas son aquellas que reducen o eliminan el riesgo y que no dependen del cambio de comportamiento de los usuarios ni de sus conocimientos sobre seguridad vial. Aquellas intervenciones basadas exclusivamente en la educación no son efectivas para reducir las lesiones de tráfico.Introduction: Only road safety interventions with scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness should be implemented. The objective of this study was to identify and summarize the available

  16. Inestabilidad de laderas e infraestructura vial: análisis de susceptibilidad en la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Galindo Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En México y diversas partes del mundo los desastres asociados a la inestabilidad de laderas generan impactos negativos en el ámbito socio-económico y ambiental. Además de las pérdidas de vida, y el daño a la cubierta vegetal, las afectaciones a las viviendas y la infraestructura son frecuentes; en los últimos años, la destrucción y deterioro en la infraestructura vial ha sido de particular importancia. Entre las diferentes áreas del país que de manera recurrente suelen ser afectadas por inestabilidad de laderas, se encuentra la Sierra Norte del estado de Puebla. Pérdidas humanas y económicas directas e indirectas, resultado de la ocurrencia de procesos de remoción en masa (PRM desencadenados principalmente por lluvias intensas, en comunidades vulnerables expuestas de esta región, han tenido lugar desde hace algunas décadas. El impacto en la infraestructura ha cobrado gran relevancia, especialmente desde 1999, razón por la cual este estudio se centró en el análisis de la susceptibilidad a procesos de remoción de masa en las principales carreteras de la región de la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla. Dicho análisis involucró la elaboración de un inventario de PRM, así como de la cartografía temática empleada como insumo para la aplicación del análisis multicriterio y pesos de evidencia. Se obtuvieron dos mapas de susceptibilidad de la región de interés, y los resultados fueron analizados a través de un índice de recurrencia de PRM. Finalmente, se efectuó el análisis espacial de la susceptibilidad a PRM de varios tramos carreteros de la Sierra Nororiental, con base en el análisis de proximidad y de superposición. El inventario de PRM generado se integró por 166 procesos de remoción en masa y 40 zonas potencialmente inestables. Las áreas de muy alta susceptibilidad corresponden a zonas con un relieve muy accidentado, mientras que las regiones planas coinciden con zonas de muy baja susceptibilidad. La variación de

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  18. Tratamiento y repercusión en medios de comunicación de la información sobre seguridad vial de las entidades privadas españolas (2002-2012). El caso paradigmático del programa Attitudes de Audi España

    OpenAIRE

    Rabal Rodríguez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    En el año 2002, la siniestralidad vial en España registró 5.347 muertos. En el año 2012 fue de 1.903 muertos. Así pues, en ese periodo, la siniestralidad vial en España se ha reducido de forma muy considerable. Los espectaculares resultados conseguidos han sido consecuencia de la suma de diferentes factores: nueva legislación, implementación de políticas de educación y seguridad vial, concienciación de las administraciones y de la sociedad civil, nuevo régimen de sanciones , implicación d...

  19. El papel de la membrana corioalantoídea en la retención de contaminantes organoclorados (plaguicidas) y su relación con otras variables ambientales: sedimentos y plasma de tortuga marina golfina (Lepidochelys olivacea) de Baja California Sur, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Rosales Ledezma; Orlando Lugo Lugo; Tania Zenteno Zavín; Lia Celina Méndez Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Se ha sugerido que las tortugas al consumir sus alimentos, como algas, sargazo y vegetación marina pueden ingerir agua y sedimentos contaminados por compuestos órganoclorados (OCs). También se considera que la exposición a los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs) por parte de las tortugas marinas es de manera directa y la transferencia de estos contaminantes se daría desde la madre hacia los huevos y posiblemente perturbar el nacimiento de las crías. La acumulación de los OCs en los huevos de aves y...

  20. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la preservación de escamas de peces y las variaciones en las condiciones redox en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile, este trabajo presenta recuentos de escamas de peces y concentraciones normalizadas de elementos redox sensibles (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al en ocho testigos de sedimento recolectados en la zona de minimo oxígeno frente a Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, bahía de Mejillones: 23° S y Concepción: 36° S. En el norte de Chile (Iquique y Mejillones predominan las escamas de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y de peces de la familia Myctophidae (media = 90 y 120 escamas 1.000 cm-3, respectivamente mientras que en Chile centro-sur (Concepción son más abundantes las escamas de jurel (Trachurus murphy; media = 140 escamas 1.000 cm-3. La abundancia de escamas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi y de sardina (Sardinops sagax es aproximadamente un orden de magnitud más baja que la de anchoveta o jurel. En general, los valores más altos y los rangos más amplios de variación en las razones Mo/Al, S/Al y Fe/Al se encuentran en Mejillones (Mo/Al ~0,8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0,2-4,6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0,3-0,7 g g-1 seguidos por Iquique (Mo/Al -0,2-1,8; S/Al 0,2-0,7, Fe/Al 0,5-0,8, mientras que Concepción revela valores más bajos y poco variables (Mo/Al ~0,07, S/Al ~0,15 y Fe/Al ~0,5. La razón Mo/Al, utilizada como indicador de paleo-oxigenación, permite inferir condiciones reductoras relativamente más intensas en los sedimentos de la Bahía de Mejillones e Iquique que en Concepción. En las tres localidades de muestreo se evidencia una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la abundancia de escamas de anchoveta y el logaritmo de la razón Mo/Al (r²= 0,46; P 1 mg g-1.The relationship between fish scale preservation and variations in the sediment redox conditions on Chile's continental shelf are evaluated herein through fish scale counts and normalized concentrations of redox sensitive elements

  1. Extensión noroccidental de la cuenca paleozoica de Claromecó, provincia de Buenos Aires Northwestern extension of the Claromecó Paleozoic Basin, province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Alvarez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El área de estudio se encuentra ubicada en el sector norte y oriental de las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Se realizaron 700 observaciones geofísicas de gravedad y magnetismo calculándose las anomalías de esos campos potenciales con el fin de elaborar mapas gravimétricos a escala 1: 200.000 de las hojas Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí y Coronel Suárez. Se modelaron las anomalías de Bouguer por medio de prismas de densidad conocida. Para conocer el desarrollo de los sedimentos en profundidad se realizaron dos perfiles gravimétricos según las direcciones E-O y NE-SO. De esa forma, se pudo dimensionar la cuenca paleozoica que tiene 6.000 metros de espesor de sedimentos y una extensión de 5.200 kilómetros cuadrados. Su geometría en el sector oeste de la cuenca de Claromecó es de forma alargada en dirección NO con un ancho aproximado de 48 km y una longitud de 145 km. Se observan anomalías magnéticas con expresiones de poca magnitud, indicando la presencia de sedimentos en profundidad con moderado contenido de minerales magnéticos. La existencia de disparos de sísmica de refracción realizados por YPF y el DYMAS en los alrededores de Carhué indican con precisión los espesores de los sedimentos terciarios y por lo tanto el techo de las formaciones sedimentarias paleozoicas.The study area extends to the north and western of Sierras Australes. It has been surveyed 700 stations for gravimetry and magnetometry and the calculated anomalies were positioned in the Tornquist, Pigüé, Guaminí and Coronel Suárez map sheets. The survey was done at 1: 200,000 scale. Gravimetric sections were made in W-E and SW-NE directions in order to get an estimation of the sediment thickness. Based on these date the extension of the Paleozoic was determined. The thickness reaches up to 6,000 m and 5,200 square kilometers. The Claromecó basin extends to the NW in the western side by 145 km with a width of 48 km. The observed magnetic

  2. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  3. Diseño y validación de escalas para medir la actitud adolescente hacia: sexualidad, sustancias adictivas y seguridad vial: ¿Se relacionan con los comportamientos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lima-Serrano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento. Validar escalas para evaluar la actitud adolescente hacia la sexualidad (EAS, las sustancias adictivas (EASA y la seguridad vial (EASV, y examinar sus relaciones con comportamientos en dichas áreas. Material y métodos. Se diseñaron las escalas mediante revisión bibliográfica, se validó su contenido mediante panel Delphi on-line con 18 expertos y pretest con 21 alumnos de cuarto de educación secundaria obligatoria en Sevilla. Éstas se administraron junto a preguntas sobre comportamientos a otros 188 alumnos para determinar su validez de constructo (análisis factorial exploratorio, fiabilidad (Alfa de Cronbach y su correlación con las variables: edad, género, inicio de relaciones sexuales, consumo de sustancias y prácticas viales. Resultados. La escala EAS-10 obtuvo un α=0,73, EASA-12 de α=0,80, y EASV-12 de α=0,79. Mostraron evidencias de unidimensionalidad en el análisis factorial, a pesos r>0,30 en el primer factor, que explicaba una proporción importante de varianza, b varianza total explicada por factores principales mayor al 50%. Se encontraron correlaciones entre EASA-12 y experimentación con tabaco (r=-0,43, p<0,001 y alcohol (r=-0,30, p<0,001, edad de inicio al alcohol (r=0,32, p=0,003, edad de la primera borrachera (r=0,31, p=0,003, y consumo de sustancias (r=-0,55, p<0,001, y entre EASV-12 y practicas viales seguras (r=0,41, p<0,001, experimentación con tabaco (r=-0,23, p=0,003 y alcohol (r=-0,22, p=0,003, edad de la primera borrachera (r=0,22, p=0,003, y consumo de sustancias (r=-0,27, p=0,014. Conclusiones. Las escalas demostraron validez y fiabilidad. Pueden ser utilizadas para valorar la actitud de adolescentes españoles hacia estas áreas, determinar su papel mediador en la adopción de comportamientos y diseñar y evaluar programas de salud.

  4. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  5. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  6. Determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sedimento e sólidos em suspensão de corpos aquáticos por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com gerador de vapor a frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. F. Vieira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de mercúrio metálico nos processos de extração do ouro libera toneladas de mercúrio ao meio ambiente, provocando um aumento considerável nas concentrações presentes. Com a finalidade de prevenir a exposição humana a concentrações excessivas, o que poderá resultar em graves episódios de intoxicação mercurial, bem como avaliar a possibilidade de sedimentos tornarem-se fontes potenciais de contaminação para os seres vivos, é de fundamental importância a monitorização do mercúrio em diversos compartimentos ambientais. Efetuou-se a padronização de uma metodologia analítica para determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sólidos em suspensão e sedimentos de corpos aquáticos para monitorização ambiental do xenobiótico. Posteriormente, foram analisadas amostras oriundas de regiões garimpeiras, com vistas a avaliar o desempenho do método em amostras reais e efetuar levantamento preliminar sobre a contaminação mercurial na área de estudo.

  7. Determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sedimento e sólidos em suspensão de corpos aquáticos por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com gerador de vapor a frio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira José L. F.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de mercúrio metálico nos processos de extração do ouro libera toneladas de mercúrio ao meio ambiente, provocando um aumento considerável nas concentrações presentes. Com a finalidade de prevenir a exposição humana a concentrações excessivas, o que poderá resultar em graves episódios de intoxicação mercurial, bem como avaliar a possibilidade de sedimentos tornarem-se fontes potenciais de contaminação para os seres vivos, é de fundamental importância a monitorização do mercúrio em diversos compartimentos ambientais. Efetuou-se a padronização de uma metodologia analítica para determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sólidos em suspensão e sedimentos de corpos aquáticos para monitorização ambiental do xenobiótico. Posteriormente, foram analisadas amostras oriundas de regiões garimpeiras, com vistas a avaliar o desempenho do método em amostras reais e efetuar levantamento preliminar sobre a contaminação mercurial na área de estudo.

  8. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil Micro-poluentes orgânicos em sedimentos fluviais no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Machado Torres

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90 % of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant.Este artigo pretende contribuir para o conhecimento sobre a concentração e destino de diferentes tipos de micro-poluentes num sistema fluvial tropical de uma região brasileira altamente industrializada. Os dados apresentados foram obtidos ao longo de três anos, como parte de um projeto de pesquisa internacional envolvendo instituições brasileiras e holandesas. As amostras de sedimentos foram obtidas da bacia hidrográfica Paraíba do Sul/Guandu, a mais importante hidrovia no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, onde 90% da população depende dessa água para uso doméstico. Após extração com solventes não-polares num dispositivo sohxlet quente, e limpeza utilizando colunas cromatográficas, foram analisadas três classes de micro-poluentes orgânicos: inseticidas

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  10. From Buenos Aires to Santa Fe: Darwin's observations and modern knowledge De Buenos Aires a Santa Fe: observaciones de Darwin y conocimiento actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Iriondo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During his historical voyage around the world, Darwin raided deeply in the South American interior, travelling over 600 kilometers from Buenos Aires to the north along the Río Paraná. During that journey, he crossed a vast plain characterized by aeolian sediments, something unfamiliar to a European naturalist. However, Darwin's acute observation powers and precise descriptions are noteworthy. After more than 170 years since his visit, modern geological knowledge identifies several sectors in the Buenos Aires-Santa Fe region. One of them (the Tertiary at La Bajada he described admirably and others such as the Paraná flood plain were brilliantly abstracted in only two sentences. In short, Darwin traversed a first sector (Buenos Aires-Rosario characterized by aeolian and paludal Early Pleistocene sediments. From Rosario to Santa Fe the plain is formed by Late Pleistocene aeolian and fluvial units. At La Bajada (presently Paraná city lies exposed the marine Miocene and in SW Entre Ríos is a reconstructed loess-paleosol sequence generated at the Early/Middle Pleistocene transition. The Paraná flood plain and the littoral complex at the mouth (practically not observed by Darwin underwent rather complex Holocene episodes.Durante su histórico viaje alrededor del mundo, Charles Darwin incursionó profundamente en el interior de Sudamérica recorriendo más de 600 kilómetros hacia el norte de Buenos Aires a lo largo del río Paraná. Durante ese viaje, él recorrió una gran planicie caracterizada por sedimentos principalmente eólicos, un caso poco familiar para un naturalista europeo. Sin embargo, sobresale su gran capacidad de observación y precisión en sus descripciones. Después de más de 170 años de la visita de Darwin, el conocimiento geológico moderno ha identificado varios sectores en la región Buenos Aires-Santa Fe, uno de los cuales (el Terciario de La Bajada él describió admirablemente y otros, como la llanura aluvial del Paran

  11. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  12. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  13. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  14. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  15. Hidráulica do escoamento e transporte de sedimentos em sulcos em solo franco-argilo-arenoso Flow hydraulics and sediment transport in rills of a sandy clay loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramon Barros Cantalice

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A erosão em sulcos caracteriza-se pelo escoamento superficial concentrado de uma lâmina d'água com tensão de cisalhamento suficiente para desagregar o solo, que deforma o sulco e altera as características hidráulicas do escoamento responsável pela dinâmica de formação dos sulcos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar as condições hidráulicas do escoamento em sulcos de erosão, que podem fornecer subsídios importantes às relações de erosão, e determinar as taxas de desagregação do solo, a erodibilidade do solo e a tensão crítica de cisalhamento, além de quantificar o transporte de sedimentos em sulcos por meio de expressões baseadas em variáveis hidráulicas. Para tanto, sulcos foram pré-formados em um solo de textura franco-argilo-arenosa, num campo com declive médio de 0,067 m m-1, e submetidos à aplicação de chuva simulada com intensidade de 74 mm h-1, durante 80 min, tendo sido aplicados nos sulcos, nos últimos 20 min, fluxos extras de escoamento superficial de 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 L min-1. Os resultados mostraram que o regime de escoamento nos sulcos caracterizou-se como sendo de transição subcrítico a turbulento subcrítico. As taxas de desagregação do solo obtidas foram lineares às tensões de cisalhamento desenvolvidas, para uma erodibilidade em sulcos (Kr de 0,0024 kg N-1 s-1 e uma tensão crítica de cisalhamento (tauc de 2,75 Pa. Duas funções baseadas na potência do escoamento foram ajustadas para estimar o transporte de sedimentos nos sulcos de erosão, as quais explicaram 53 % da variação experimental, refletindo não só a dificuldade de ajuste de modelos de estimativa do transporte sólido às lâminas de escoamento pouco espessas que ocorrem nas áreas de cultivo agrícola, mas também a diversidade física e mineralógica das partículas e dos agregados do solo estudado.Rill erosion is characterized by concentrated surface water flow, with enough shear stress and detachment

  16. Aquatic macrophytes drive sediment stoichiometry and the suspended particulate organic carbon composition of a tropical coastal lagoon Macrófitas aquáticas determinam a estequiometria do sedimento e a composição do carbono orgânico particulado em suspensão de uma lagoa costeira tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Cardoso Marinho

    2010-06-01

    role in the composition of suspended POC, thus representing an important coupling between compartments in this lagoon.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar: (1 a influência das macrófitas aquáticas Typha domingensis Pers., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult. (emergentes e Potamogeton stenostachys K. Schum. (submersa, sobre a estequiometria do sedimento e (2 a contribuição desta comunidade para a composição do carbono orgânico de diferentes compartimentos de uma lagoa costeira tropical, Lagoa de Cabiúnas (Macaé, RJ; MÉTODOS: Perfis de sedimento de 10 cm, fracionados de 2 em 2 cm foram coletados nas regiões litorânea e limnética para análises de nutrientes (C, N e P. Na região litorânea, o sedimento foi coletado em três estações: bancos de T. domingensis, E. interstincta e P. stenostachys. Para avaliação da ciclagem do C na lagoa Cabiúnas foi determinada a assinatura δ13C de diversos compartimentos da lagoa (zoo e fitoplancton, macrófitas aquáticas e material dissolvido e suspenso na água e da restinga (vegetação terrestre; RESULTADOS: As concentrações de C e N na região colonizada por E. interstincta e T. domingensis foram significativamente maiores que na região limnética. Em relação à concentração de fósforo, o sedimento colonizado pela macrófita T. domingensis apresentou valor significativamente maior que a região limnética e a região colonizada por P. stenostachys. Quanto às razões molares, a região litorânea apresentou elevadas razões C:P, principalmente nos bancos colonizados por E. interstincta e P. stenostachys. As razões N:P também foram maiores na região litorânea. As análises isotópicas (δ13C mostraram que o carbono orgânico particulado na coluna d'água tem origem principalmente nos tecidos das macrófitas aquáticas; CONCLUSÕES: As macrófitas aquáticas emersas contribuem de maneira significativa para o enriquecimento de nutrientes do sedimento da lagoa Cabiúnas. O detrito das

  17. Assessing the potential toxicity of marine sediments found in petroleum industry areas: A new approach based on responses of postlarval shrimp; Evaluacion del potencial de toxicidad de sedimentos marinos en areas de la industria petrolera: Un nuevo metodo basado en respuestas de postlarvas de camarones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, A.J.A.; Nascimento, I.A.; Pereira, S.A.; Lopes, M.B.N.L.; Martins, L.K.P. [Laboratorio de Bio Marinha e Biomonitoramento IBIO-UFBA, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador (Brazil); Fillmann, G [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, West Hoe, PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-15

    impacted and relatively unperturbed environments, but also to separate the different degrees of impact among areas subjected to petroleum industry activities in the coastal environment. [Spanish] Se evaluo la toxicidad de sedimentos del area del noreste de la Bahia de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil, para evaluar el impacto ambiental inducido por 50 anos de actividad industrial petrolera (Petrobras). Se recolectaron muestras de sedimento durante un ano, con intervalos de tres meses, en cuatro sitios relacionados con areas de extraccion (Ilha das Fontes, estacion 4), transporte (Ilhas de Madre de Deus y Pati, estaciones 2 y 3) y refinacion del petroleo (RELAM, estacion 1). Dos estaciones de referencia (5 y 6) se localizaron fuera del area de influencia del petroleo, al sur de la bahia. Se llevaron a cabo bioensayos estaticos por 96 h, usando postlarvas (PL) de Lytopenaeus vannamei con 7 a 8 dias de desarrollo. El ensayo fue realizado en contenedores con 200 g de sedimento superficial (1 cm de profundidad) y 2 L de agua (agua de mar filtrada, 28 ppm de salinidad, 27 {+-} C y DO bajo saturacion). Se alimentaron 15 PL en los contenedores diariamente con 60 nauplios de Artemia salina. Se monitorearon parametros quimicos. La mortalidad y la ganancia en peso seco fueron tomadas como parametros de validacion (end point). Los datos de mortalidad obtenidos de los sedimentos de las estaciones de Petrobras no mostraron diferencias significativas, en comparacion con las estaciones de referencia; sin embargo, la ganancia en peso seco mostro diferencias significativas entre estaciones. El valor maximo se alcanzo en la estacion 1 (refineria RELAM). Las estaciones 2 y 3 de las areas de transporte de petroleo no mostraron diferencias significativas. Para evaluar la sensibilidad de la prueba del sedimento para detectar contaminacion por la industria petrolera, los datos de toxicidad fueron considerados en terminos de niveles de hidrocarburos analizados en dichos sedimentos en las areas de

  18. Relações de aporte de sedimento e implicação de sua utilização no pagamento por serviço ambiental em bacias hidrográfias Relations of sediment delivery underlying payments for environmental services in catchment areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marinho Leite Chaves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em razão de sua simplicidade, a relação de aporte de sedimento (RAS, dada pela razão entre a produção de sedimento no exutório e a erosão total na bacia, é comumente usada no estudo e na determinação da produção de sedimentos em bacias hidrográficas. Como há uma série de complexidades ligando a produção de sedimentos (Y e a erosão a montante (E na bacia, foram desenvolvidas distintas equações de RAS. Programas de pagamento por serviço ambiental relativos ao abatimento de sedimentação, como o Produtor de Água, frequentemente requerem a estimativa da redução da produção de sedimentos nas bacias hidrográficas, em função de implantação do controle de erosão a montante. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram calcular a RAS da bacia do ribeirão Pipiripau (DF, usando oito equações existentes na literatura, e estimar a provável redução em Y, em função de uma redução de 50 % da erosão na bacia, bem como avaliar as eventuais dificuldades em sua aplicação. Os valores de RAS obtidos variaram entre 0,12 e 0,52, com média de 0,24 e desvio-padrão de 0,14. Duas das equações apresentaram alta sensibilidade às variáveis, indicando que haveria significativo potencial de propagação de erro se elas fossem usadas. Partindo-se de uma redução de erosão de 50 % na bacia (117.500 t ano-1, a redução no aporte de sedimento usando as RAS das oito equações variou de 14 a 61 mil t ano-1. Essa significativa variação em Y indica considerável incerteza na estimativa de serviços ambientais relativos à redução de aporte de sedimento, em programas de controle de erosão.Because of its simplicity, the sediment delivery ratio (SDR, based on the ratio of the sediment yield (Y and the gross erosion (E in the basin, is widely used to estimate sediment production in watersheds. Since Y and E are complexly linked, several SDR equations were developed. Financial compensation programs resulting from sedimentation

  19. Medanos relícticos intrapampeanos en Daireaux y Centinela del Mar, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Isla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Los sedimentos denominados informalmente "pampeanos" son reconocidos como un paquete de limos y limos arenosos depositados desde el Plioceno superior hasta el Pleistoceno superior, con dos intercalaciones marinas hacia el este, reconocidas fundamentalmente por acumulaciones de valvas marinas: el Interensenadense, y el Belgranense. En el oeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires una extensa área ha sido denominada Mar de arena. En canales próximos a Daireaux y en acantilados marinos de Centinela del Mar, se describieron depósitos arenosos con estratificación diagonal de mesoescala que prueban la presencia de campos de arena por debajo de los depósitos limosos. Las edades del Pleistoceno superior han sido confirmadas por las asociaciones de vertebrados recuperados. En Centinela del Mar, la edad de estos médanos transversales que conformaban una barrera litoral ha sido también confirmada por su vinculación con el máximo nivel del mar alcanzado durante el interglacial Sangamon (Pleistoceno superior, 120.000 años AP.

  20. Las cuencas del extremo noroeste de la provincia deBuenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gregori

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El basamento cristalino de la zona noroeste de laprovincia de Buenos Aires ha sido estudiado con métodos gravimétricos,magnéticos y sísmicos. Como resultado de esta investigación se han determinadolas ubicaciones y espesores sedimentarios de las cuencas de Rosario, Lincoln y Laboulaye.El área se halla cubierta por sedimentos mesozoicos y cenozoicos. Varias deestas cuencas han mostrado que, además de estas rocas, poseen importantesespesores de edad paleozoica y rocas básicas equivalentes a la Formación Serra Geral.Las anomalías de Bouguer positivas, ubicadas en la zona de Carlos Tejedor, secorresponde con un alto de basamento que delimita las cuencas mencionadasanteriormente. De acuerdo a los resultados geofísicos logrados, estas rocaspodrían asimilarse al Cratón del Río de La Plata dada su similitud con rocas deTandil. De acuerdo a las observaciones realizadas, la cuenca de Claromecó seconecta con las cuencas de Laboulaye y Rosario a través del umbral de TrenqueLauquen, una suposición que data de años atrás, finalmente confirmada en estetrabajo.

  1. Simulação da produção de sedimentos para a microbacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão dos Marins (SP Sediment yield simulation for the watershed Ribeirão dos Marins, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Machado

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O modelo SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool foi aplicado para simular a carga de sedimentos produzida pela microbacia hidrográfica do Ribeirão dos Marins, em Piracicaba (SP, no biênio 1999/2000. A aplicação do modelo requer a entrada dos dados na forma espacializada que foi feita com o auxílio de uma interface entre o modelo e um Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG's. A microbacia foi discretizada em sub-bacias para determinar os parâmetros de entrada no modelo. Os resultados obtidos na simulação da produção de sedimentos foram comparados aos dados observados em um posto hidrossedimentométrico, localizado no terço superior da microbacia, utilizando o Coeficiente de Eficiência de Nash e Sutcliffe (COE e o desvio dos dados simulados em relação aos observados (Dv. Para as condições específicas da microbacia do Ribeirão dos Marins, os resultados obtidos na simulação da produção de sedimentos pelo modelo, após a calibração, foram de 0,83, para o COE, e de -3,2 %, para o Dv, indicando um bom ajuste dos dados simulados comparados aos dados observados.The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model was applied to simulate the sediment yield in the watershed Ribeirão dos Marins, in Piracicaba, Brazil, for the biennial period of 1999/2000. The application of this model requires georeferenced input data, provided by an interface between the model and a Geographic Information System (GIS. The watershed was divided into sub-basins, and parameters were separately determined for each area. The simulated sediment yields were compared to the observed data of a gauge station located in the upper third of the watershed, using the Nash and Sutcliffe Coefficient (COE and the deviation between simulated and measured data (Dv. After calibration the simulation results of the sediment yield showed a COE of 0,83 and a Dv of -3,2%, indicating that the simulated and observed data tally basically.

  2. Identificação das áreas potenciais de produção de sedimentos com o modelo AGNPS e técnicas de SIG em uma microbacia hidrográfica Identification of the potential areas of sediment production with the AGNPS model and GIS techniques in a micro-basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rausch Souto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O planejamento de uso do solo em bacias hidrográficas deveria ter, como base, a identificação de áreas agrícolas suscetíveis aos processos erosivos, visto que a avaliação de sistemas integrados de manejo de solo e culturas em microbacias é campo ideal para esta investigação, uma vez que a qualidade final das águas dos rios é o reflexo das atividades ali desenvolvidas. Objetivou-se determinar áreas potenciais de poluição não pontual e avaliar práticas conservacionistas de solo, empregando-se o modelo matemático AGNPS, associado a técnicas de SIG. O estudo foi conduzido na microbacia hidrográfica córrego Água Grande e Ribeirão Pensamento, no município de Mamborê, PR, sobre as reais condições de produção agrícola. A estimativa da produção de sedimentos foi realizada através de simulações para diferentes cenários de uso do solo, referindo-se a distintos eventos de precipitação em uma seqüência de quatro anos agrícolas. Foram identificadas as causas de produção de sedimentos e as áreas potenciais, verificando-se que a modificação das técnicas de cultivo reduziu a produção de sedimentos.Planning soil use in watersheds should be supported by the identification of agricultural areas susceptible to erosion. The evaluation of integrated systems of soil and crop management is a proper subject for this investigation since the final water quality of rivers is a reflection of the activities developed in the micro-basin. The objective of this study was to determine potential sources of nonpoint pollution and to evaluate soil conservation practices through the AGNPS model associated with GIS techniques. The study location was the Água Grande and Pensamento micro-basin in Mamborê, Paraná State, under real agricultural production. The sediment production estimation was accomplished through simulations for different scenarios of soil use and different precipitation events in a sequence of four agricultural years

  3. Una mirada al tránsito de la comuna 3 de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires : Diagnóstico y producción del Plan Integral para Peatones Solidarios y Conductores Responsables

    OpenAIRE

    Contartessi, Mariana; Forniciti, Florencia; Gonzalo, Diego; Pinto, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    A partir del análisis de la situación del tránsito en la Comuna 3 de la Capital Federal, el trabajo concluye con las propuestas para la elaboración y posterior presentación al Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires del Plan de Desarrollo Comunal de Seguridad Vial para Peatones Solidarios y Conductores Responsables. En la primera parte, los dos primeros capítulos desarrollan los paquetes conceptuales a través de los cuales se analizó la temática y culminan con el trabajo de campo sobre...

  4. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  5. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, emum sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parceladaem duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliadosnas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at08:00 and

  6. Seleção de modelos para o traçado de curvas granulométricas de sedimentos em suspensão em rios Selection of models for adjusting particle size distribution curves of suspended sediments in river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. F. W. Lima

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da distribuição granulométrica dos sedimentos em suspensão em cursos d'água é fundamental para a realização de estudos hidrossedimentológicos. As técnicas geralmente utilizadas para a avaliação da distribuição granulométrica de amostras de sedimentos resultam em valores pontuais, dependendo de posterior interpolação para o traçado da curva granulométrica e para a obtenção de diâmetros característicos específicos. A transformação de valores pontuais em funções contínuas pode ser realizada por meio de modelos matemáticos; entretanto, são poucos os estudos desenvolvidos com a finalidade de determinar o melhor modelo para o ajuste de curvas granulométricas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a seleção de modelos para o traçado de curvas granulométricas de sedimentos em suspensão em rios; utilizando-se 30 amostras contendo de 8 a 10 pontos medidos, testaram-se 14 diferentes modelos. A comparação entre os modelos foi baseada na diferença da soma do quadrado dos erros entre os valores observados e os ajustados, cujos resultados indicaram que os modelos Haverkamp & Parlange (1986 e Skaggs et al. (2001, ambos com 3 parâmetros de ajuste, são os melhores para o traçado das curvas granulométricas de amostras de sedimentos em suspensão em rios.The knowledge about particle-size distribution of suspended sediments in river is fundamental for some hydro-sedimentological studies. In general, the techniques used to determine the particle-size distribution of a sample results in pointwise values, demanding a subsequent interpolation to fit the complete particle-size distribution curve and to obtain specific characteristic diameters values. The transformation of discrete points into continuous functions can be made by mathematical models. However, few studies have been developed with the purpose of determining the best model for fitting particle-size distribution curves. The objective of this paper was to select

  7. Changes of sub-fossil chironomid assemblages associated with volcanic sediment deposition in an Andean lake (38°S, Chile Cambios en las asociaciones sub-fósiles de quironómidos, producto de la depositación de sedimentos volcánicos en un lago andino (38°S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO ARANEDA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages and sedimentological parameters (grain size, organic content, mineralogy of a short sediment core from Lake Galletué (38°41' S, 71°17' W were analysed. The sedimentary record includes one volcanic ash (tephra layer, which has a completely different composition than the host sediment in terms of organic content, grain size, and mineralogy. According to the geochronology (210Pb and 137Cs, this ash layer corresponds to the eruption of Llaima Volcano in 1956-1957. The tephra deposition had an impact on chironomid assemblages producing, among other changes, an increase in Parakiefferiella and a decrease in Ablabesmyia, although no noticeable change was detected in the diversity index. When compared with other studies, our results also show an impact in terms of the presence of chironomid head capsules within the tephra. The presence of these head capsules could result from the effects of percolation, since the coarse grain size of the tephra particles provides large interstitial spaces. The recovery in the abundances of some taxa after the tephra input, suggests the lake is probably restoring the conditions prevailing before the tephra fallSe analizan las asociaciones de restos sub-fósiles de quironómidos y los parámetros sedimentológicos de un núcleo sedimentario del lago Galletué (38°41' S, 71°17' O. Es evidente en este núcleo la presencia de un estrato de sedimentos volcánicos (tefra de una composición distinta en el contenido deµmateria orgánica, en el tamaño de partícula y en la mineralogía, respecto de los sedimentos del lago. De acuerdo a la geocronología isotópica (210Pb y 137Cs, los sedimentos de esta tefra podrían corresponder a la erupción del volcán Llaima de 1956-1957. Por otra parte la depositación de esta tefra también provocó un cambio en las asociaciones de quironómidos, siendo evidente el aumento de Parakiefferiella y la disminución de Ablabesmyia dentro del estrato de tefra. Si

  8. Chemical and microbiological characterization of mangrove sediments after a large oil-spill in Guanabara Bay - RJ - Brazil Caracterização química e microbiológica de sedimentos de manguezal após um grande derramamento de óleo na Baia de Guanabara, RJ, Brasil

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    Maria do Carmo Maciel-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen months after a 1,3 million L oil spill into Guanabara Bay, analyses of mangrove sediments showed that the three sites closest to the spill remain highly polluted (>10 µg-g-1 polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A fourth site was less polluted, from which most hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated.Dezessete meses após um derramamento de 1,3 milhões de litros de óleo na Baía de Guanabara, análises de sedimento do manguezal mostraram que os três pontos de amostragem mais próximos do local do acidente permanecem altamente poluídos (>10 µg-g-1 hidrocarbonetos poliaromáticos. Do quarto ponto de amostragem, o menos poluído, foi isolada a maioria das bactérias degradadoras de hidrocarbonetos.

  9. Determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sedimento e sólidos em suspensão de corpos aquáticos por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com gerador de vapor a frio

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira José L. F.; Passarelli Miriam M.

    1996-01-01

    O emprego de mercúrio metálico nos processos de extração do ouro libera toneladas de mercúrio ao meio ambiente, provocando um aumento considerável nas concentrações presentes. Com a finalidade de prevenir a exposição humana a concentrações excessivas, o que poderá resultar em graves episódios de intoxicação mercurial, bem como avaliar a possibilidade de sedimentos tornarem-se fontes potenciais de contaminação para os seres vivos, é de fundamental importância a monitorização do mercúrio em div...

  10. EXPORTACIÓN DE SEDIMENTOS DESDE CUENCAS HIDROGRÁFICAS DE LA VERTIENTE ORIENTAL DEL GOLFO DE URABÁ: INFLUENCIAS CLIMÁTICAS Y ANTRÓPICAS SEDIMENT EXPORTS FROM THE EASTERN BASIN IN THE GULF OF URABA: CLIMATIC AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Arroyave-Rincón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizaron series de tiempo mensuales de precipitación (mm, caudal (m³/s y exportación de sedimentos (kton/día en cuencas de la vertiente oriental del golfo de Urabá. Se analizó la dinámica de la exportación de sedimentos, la relación caudal-exportación y caudal-precipitación. Se infirió el papel de fenómenos atmosféricos estacionales y multianuales (El Niño-Oscilación Sureña, ENOS, y factores antrópicos. Se encontraron variabilidades intra-anuales significativas (ANOVA: pThis article reports on a time-series analysis of monthly precipitation (mm, river discharge (m³/s and sediment export (kton/day in Urabá Gulf. We analyzed the dynamics of sediment exports relative to river discharge, and the dynamics of this latter variable relative to precipitation. We inferred the role of seasonal and multi-annual atmospheric drivers, and anthropogenic factors. We found significant intra-annual variability (ANOVA: p<0.001 consistent with the movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. The Pearson correlation between variables showed direct and significant relationships (p<0.001. The ENSO did not influence precipitation. Using aerial-photographs, we analyzed anthropogenic factors in the municipalities of Apartadó (1961-2005 and Chigorodó (1961-2007, finding up to a 90% forest-cover loss. Using double-mass graphs, it was observed an increase in slope steepness (during mid 90’s, consistent with an increase in sediment export rate relative to discharge, thus suggesting that there was a significant effect of human factors, such as deforestation.

  11. Qualidade da água e do sedimento de fundo de alguns córregos do município de Castelo, Estado do Espírito Santo = Water and bottom sediment quality of some streams of Castelo city, Espírito Santo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanásio Alves do Amaral

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2 3 . No município de Castelo existem corpos hídricos em áreas agrossilvipastoris, utilizados para irrigação de lavouras, dessedentação animal e consumo humano. Objetivou-se, com esse estudo, avaliar a qualidade da água e do sedimento de fundo de oito córregos do município de Castelo, com base em variáveis físico-químicas. A temperatura, o oxigênio dissolvido (OD e o pH da água foram medidos por meio de sonda. As amostras de sedimento de fundo foram coletadas com uma pá de ponta chata, com volume de 2,565 dm³ e, depois de secas, foram homogeneizadas e encaminhadas para o laboratório, onde foram determinados o pH, os teores de fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, alumínio, ferro, cobre, zinco, manganês, boro, sódio, carbono e matéria orgânica, a acidez potencial, a capacidade de troca catiônica, a soma de bases trocáveis e os índices de saturação de bases, de alumínio e de sódio. Verificou-se que o OD está abaixo do limite recomendado pelo CONAMA, na maioria dos pontos amostrados, mas o pH está dentro dos limites recomendados. No sedimento de fundo, os teores de ferro são altos, o que é uma característica dos solos da região. Com exceção do ferro e do manganês, os teores de minerais são baixos ou médios, na maioria dos pontos. A porcentagem de matéria orgânica é menor que 10% do peso seco, caracterizando o sedimento de fundo como mineral, em todos os pontos. O alto teor de areia indica pouca afinidade dos metais pelo sedimento de fundo. Essa condição, associada à acidez do sedimento de fundo, favorece a liberação dos minerais para a coluna de água, constatando-se o risco de contaminação ambiental. = In Castelo city, there are water bodies in agroforestry areas, used for irrigating crops, watering animals and human consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the water and bottom sediment quality of eight streams in Castelo city, based on physico-chemical variables. Temperature, dissolved oxygen

  12. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  13. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  14. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  15. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  16. Características texturales y petrofacies de depósitos neógenos, Bancalari, provincia de Buenos Aires Textural and petrofacies characteristics of the Neogene deposits of Bancalari, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.R. Tofalo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian el sector cuspidal de la Formación Puelches y los sedimentos pampeanos y postpampeanos, especialmente el intervalo designado como preensenadense, a fin de definir sus características texturales y petrofacies y determinar su evolución paleoambiental y paleoclimática. Se utilizaron muestras de cuatro perforaciones realizadas en la localidad bonaerense de Bancalari, las que permitieron diferenciar seis grupos texturales, (I a VI y dos petrofacies (A y B. Los grupos I a III representan subambientes fluviales genéticamente vinculados, incluyendo típicos niveles arenosos de la Formación Puelches (I, gradualmente cubiertos por sedimentos depositados en lagunas (II-III, formadas en planicies de inundación de muy baja pendiente, con buen drenaje y bajo condiciones oxidantes. Los grupos II y III se asignan al preensenadense. Los tres grupos basales presentan petrofacies A (Qt:F:L = 43:49:8, procedente de rocas sedimentarias derivadas de basamento, con suite pesada igneo metamórfica, escasa hornblenda y smectita predominando sobre illita. Los tres grupos cuspidales fueron depositados en distintos ambientes. El IV es loéssico y se asigna a la Formación Ensenada. El V representa depósitos de charcos de agua poco profundos en la planicie de inundación y corresponde al Miembro Río Salado de la Formación Luján, acumulado bajo condiciones climáticas templadas y húmedas. Los sedimentos limo arcillosos que constituyen el grupo VI, representan el avance del mar y se atribuyen a los designados como querandino. Los tres grupos cuspidales presentan petrofacies B (12:56:32, procedente del arco magmático andino, con neto predominio de plagioclasa, contribución de volcaniclastos y vitroclastos, con asociación pesada dominada por hornblenda e illita predominando sobre smectita.Samples obtained from four wells located at Bancalari, Buenos Aires Province, have been analysed in order to define textural parameters, petrofacies

  17. El empleo de medios informáticos en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la asignatura Obras / Viales The teaching training process in the area of construction supported by information computing technology (ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo muestra los resultados de una investigación realizada con el objetivo de perfeccionar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la asignatura Obras Viales de la carrera pedagógica de Construcción a través del empleo de los medios informáticos. Se emplearon diferentes métodos de investigación, entre los que se resaltan: la revisión de documentos de la especialidad y de investigaciones nacionales e internacionales, las entrevistas y encuestas dirigidas a estudiantes y profesores y la observación a clases, a partir de los cuales se logró conformar un diagnóstico inicial y la caracterización del desarrollo histórico de la carrera y del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la asignatura. Se ofrece una estrategia metodológica, compuesta por tres fases: diagnóstico, programación-implementación y evaluación, y los medios informáticos, representados fundamentalmente por un material docente, un material de estudio complementario sobre una temática, una multimedia y objetos de aprendizaje. The paper shows the results of a research carried out with the aim of improving the teaching training process in the area of construction by using information-computing technology (ICT support. The general framework was completed by examining documents from the Ministry of Education as well as research project reports. Interviews and surveys to students and teachers and lesson supervising were used for collecting data, related to the state of art and the main trends in the training of teachers of construction. The findings include a procedural strategy having three phases, diagnosis, planning, implementing and evaluating and its corresponding information technology support.

  18. Los depositos de yeso intrasedimentario del arroyo El Siasgo, partidos de Monte y General Paz, provincia de Buenos Aires

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    N. V. Dangavs

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El arroyo El Siasgo es un afluente del río Salado, situado en la región NE de la provincia de Buenos Aires. En su cuenca inferior, su curso recorta una gran depresión, remanente de una antigua cuenca de deflación colmatada, donde se desarrollaron, desde el Pleistoceno superior, diversos ambientes sedimentarios, principalmente acuáticos. Actualmente, se desarrolla, en esta depresión, un ambiente léntico temporario de 2.750 ha, dividido en dos cuerpos mediante un estrechamiento de la cubeta de 2 km de largo y 0,7 km de ancho. Al norte del estrechamiento se sitúa el cuerpo menor, denominado "La Cañada" y hacia el sur el mayor o "laguna del Siasgo". En los sedimentos clásticos hospedantes de este paleoambiente léntico múltiple aparece una importante acumulación de yeso intrasedimentario en distintos niveles estratigráficos (Formaciones Lobos, Luján y La Postrera I, cristalizado principalmente en tamaño arena, con diversidad de hábitos, texturas, fábricas y estructuras. Los sedimentos hospedantes del yeso son esencialmente fangos, cuya textura original se encuentra modificada por la presencia del mineral epigénico en fangos y limos arenosos e incluso en arenas fangosas. Este depósito yesífero abarca una superficie de 25,6 km², con un espesor medio de 2,15 m en el subambiente "del Siasgo" y de 0,91 m en "La Cañada". El volumen de sedimentos con yeso alcanza a 48 hm³ y la ley mineral mínima es 53,5% en la "laguna del Siasgo", con un total de 53.623.000 de toneladas de yeso impuro, mientras que en "La Cañada, con una ley media de 20,1 %, solamente alcanza a 1.361.000 toneladas de yeso impuro. Cabe señalar, que la baja ley del mineral en "La Cañada" descarta su aprovechamiento como recurso económico, mientras que el yeso presente en el subambiente "del Siasgo" es de alta potencialidad para su explotación, incluso en su valor mínimo. Estos yesos son el producto de la interacción de aguas superficiales y subterr

  19. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  20. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  1. Efeitos das variações sazonais do clima tropical úmido sobre as águas e sedimentos de manguezais do estuário do rio Marapanim, costa nordeste do Estado do Pará Effects of seasonal variations' on the mangroves' waters and sediments of the Marapanim estuary, northeast coast of Para State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Berrêdo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o impacto das variações climáticas, de curta duração, sobre os ecossistemas de manguezais amazônicos, foi estudada a costa nordeste do Pará entre as coordenadas: 00º 32' 30" S / 00º 52' 30" S e 47º 28' 45" W / 47º 45' 00" W. Foram amostrados os sedimentos, águas superficiais e intersticiais com medidas de salinidade, potencial hidrogeniônico (pH, potencial de oxi-redução (Eh e determinações mineralógicas por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na água foram determinados o conteúdo de sulfetos dissolvidos, sulfato e cloreto, além da alcalinidade, sílica, ortofosfato, sódio, potássio, cálcio e magnésio, em meses chuvosos e de estiagem, sob marés de sizígia e quadratura. As variações sazonais do cloreto nas águas intersticiais mostram concentrações mais elevadas na estiagem que no período chuvoso, enquanto em superfície são mais elevadas nas marés de quadratura (período chuvoso e de sizígia (período de estiagem. Os sulfetos dissolvidos foram encontrados em quantidades detectáveis somente a partir da profundidade de 10 cm o que indica exposição dos sedimentos aos fluxos advectivos de oxigênio atmosférico. Os teores de ferro dissolvido aumentam entre 0-10 cm e o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH tende à neutralidade. A saturação das águas intersticiais na estiagem é indicada pelos minerais evaporíticos: gipso e halita. As variações pluviométricas são responsáveis por graduais mudanças nos teores de nutrientes e nas propriedades físico-químicas (pH, Eh e salinidade das águas superficiais e intersticiais, no controle do equilíbrio salino das águas costeiras, na salinização e dessalinização dos sedimentos e na distribuição da vegetação de mangue no estuário. A exposição prolongada dos sedimentos na estiagem e as características morfológicas contribuem decisivamente para a oxidação total ou parcial dos sedimentos em superfície, o que modifica

  2. Nitrogen sediment fluxes in an upwelling system off central Chile (Concepción Bay and adjacent shelf during the 1997-1998 El Niño Flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos, en un sistema de surgencia de Chile central (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente durante El Niño 1997-1998

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    PRAXEDES MUÑOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Two stations representing coastal and shelf environments (bay of Concepción and adjacent shelf, respectively were sampled in order to assess benthic nitrogen fluxes. During the study period anomalously high oxygen bottom waters conditions were observed, coinciding with the 1997-1998 El Niño event. From both sites, intact sediment cores were collected for incubation experiments to directly estimate total ammonium fluxes. Pore-water chemistry was also assessed to estimate diffusive fluxes of nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-. The NH4+ flux from incubation experiments ranged from 0.55 to 2.18 mmol m-2 day-1 in the inner bay and from 1.84 to 2.14 mmol m-2 day-1 on the shelf. NO3- diffusive fluxes to the sediments were observed in the bay in March (-17 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1and on the shelf in November (-2.7 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1, associated with the lowest NH4+ diffusive fluxes and coincident with a stronger gradient of Eh in the first centimeters of the sediments. Besides, total NH4+ fluxes lower than in normal periods were observed, suggesting the influence of less reducing conditions, consequence in turn of the lower fluxes of particulated organic material and higher dissolved oxygen in the bottom waters. These conditions were probably imposed by the El Niño event. On the other hand, and relative to previous reports, an increase of irrigation coefficients (DI was estimated. Thus, the flux extension of other nitrogen compounds could have acquired relevance in relation to NH4+ fluxes during the study periodSe analizaron los flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos en dos áreas representativas de condiciones costeras y de plataforma (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente, respectivamente. Durante el período de muestreo las aguas de fondo presentaron un anómalamente alto contenido de oxígeno disuelto, coincidente con el evento El Niño 1997-1998. De ambos sitios, se incubaron testigos de sedimento intactos para

  3. Concentración de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y sedimentos de una playa artificial, en la bahía San Jorge 23°S, norte de Chile Heavy metals concentration (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, in biota and sediments of an artificial beach, in San Jorge bay 23°S, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el contenido de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y el sedimento de una playa artificial (Paraíso y una playa natural (El Lenguado, ubicadas en la bahía San Jorge, norte de Chile. Los resultados fueron utilizados para comparar ambos sistemas, el grado de cumplimiento de la normativa ambiental nacional e internacional, y el efecto de la construcción de la playa artificial sobre el nivel de contaminación por metales existentes históricamente en esa zona. En cada playa se ubicaron estaciones equidistantes que abarcaron desde el intermareal hasta el submareal de las cuales fueron extraídos los organismos. Se tomaron muestras de sedimento en cada playa y se determinaron las pendientes con el método de Emery. El análisis granulométrico evidenció el predominio de arena media en playa El Lenguado, y arena media y fina en playa Paraíso. El contenido de materia orgánica fue mayor en El Lenguado. En playa Paraíso se determinaron cinco phylum/superclase agrupados en 19 taxa, mientras que en El Lenguado se encontraron cuatro phylum/superclase agrupados en cc taxa. El contenido de metales en sedimentos y en la mayoría de organismos presentó valores mayores en playa Paraíso. Estos resultados, junto a las normas de calidad chilenas y norteamericanas, sugieren un evidente deterioro en la calidad ambiental de playa Paraíso lo que se demostró por un incremento en las concentraciones de estos metales desde su construcción, los que sobrepasan los límites establecidos por ambas normas.It was evaluated the heavy metal content (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb in biota and sediment of an artificial beach (Paraíso and a natural beach (El Lenguado, both located in San Jorge bay, northern Chile. The results were used to compare both systems, the degree of fulfillment of national and international environmental regulations, and the effect of the construction of the artificial beach on the level of metal contamination historically existing in

  4. Palinomorfos de fungos e criptógamas em sedimentos quaternários de duas matas com Araucária, Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Palynomorphs of fungi and cryptogams in Quaternary sediments from two Araucaria forests, Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pólen, esporos e demais palinomorfos preservados em sedimentos são material de referência básico em estudos paleoambientais. A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo apresentar a taxonomia de palinomorfos correspondentes a fungos e criptógamas contidos em sedimentos do interior de duas matas com Araucária do Planalto leste do Rio Grande do Sul e, assim, fornecer subsídios para reconstituições paleoambientais na região. A análise envolveu amostras de dois perfis sedimentares holocênicos de São Francisco de Paula (perfil 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; perfil 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, coletados com o Amostrador de Hiller. O processamento químico das amostras seguiu o método padrão, com HCl, HF, KOH, acetólise e montagem das lâminas em gelatina-glicerinada. A análise foi realizada em microscopia óptica. São apresentados palinomorfos de oito fungos, seis algas, cinco briófitos e 19 pteridófitos. A descrição de cada material é acompanhada de ilustrações e, sempre que possível, de dados ecológicos do organismo de origem. A grande quantidade de palinomorfos distintos, bem preservados nos sedimentos, mostra a potencialidade deste material em oferecer informações ambientais relevantes, junto com grãos de pólen, no estudo da gênese e expansão da mata com Araucária.Pollen, spores and other palynomorphs preserved in sediments are basic reference material for palaeoenvironmental studies. The aim of this research is to present the taxonomy of fungal and cryptogamic palynomorphs contained in sediments from two Araucaria forests on the Eastern Plateau of Rio Grande do Sul, thus contributing to palaeoenvironmental reconstitution in the region. The analysis involved samples from two Holocene sedimentary profiles from São Francisco de Paula (profile 1, Alpes de São Francisco, 132 cm; profile 2, Banhado Amarelo, 101 cm, collected with a Hiller Sampler. Chemical processing of the samples followed standard methodology, using

  5. Efeito da variabilidade da precipitação pluvial e do uso e manejo do solo sobre o escoamento superficial e o aporte de sedimento de uma bacia hidrográfica do Distrito Federal Effect of rainfall variability and land use on runoff and sediment in the Pipiripau river basin, in the Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Marinho Leite Chaves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variabilidade da precipitação sobre o escoamento direto e sobre o aporte de sedimento na bacia do rio Pipiripau (A = 235 km², no Distrito Federal. Cinco anos típicos da série de precipitação foram selecionados: o ano mais úmido, o ano mais seco, o ano médio e dois anos que representaram os desvios-padrão da série (médio-seco e médio-úmido. Depois de o modelo ser calibrado com dados diários de chuva e vazão da bacia, simulações foram realizadas para cada evento chuvoso de cada um dos cinco anos selecionados da série, e o escoamento direto e o aporte de sedimento da bacia foram calculados com a MUSLE em três diferentes cenários de uso e manejo do solo: o cenário atual, onde predomina o preparo convencional do solo (PC nas áreas de agricultura da bacia; o passado recente, em que predominava o Cerrado nativo (CER; e o cenário de plantio direto (PD, nas áreas de agricultura da bacia. Apesar de as vazões médias anuais observadas terem apresentado relação linear com os volumes de precipitação pluvial anual, em todos os cenários, o escoamento direto e o aporte de sedimento apresentaram aumento exponencial com o aumento da precipitação pluvial anual, sendo esse mais pronunciado na condição de preparo convencional (PC do que nos outros cenários estudados (CER e PD. O aumento observado pode ser explicado pela não-linearidade do modelo MUSLE ao volume de precipitação e ao volume de escoamento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the rainfall variability on the runoff and sediment amount in the Pipiripau river basin (A = 235 km², in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. To represent the climatic variability of the historic precipitation series, 5 years were selected: the moistest, the driest, an average, and 2 years representing the standard deviations from the series (half-wet and half-dry. After the calibration of the model with basin rainfall and

  6. Textura, materia orgánica y composición química elemental (C y N de sedimentos marinos superficiales de la zona Puerto Montt a Boca del Guafo (Norpatagonia chilena Grain size, total organic matter, organic carbon, inorganic carbon and organic nitrogen in surface marine sediments from Puerto Montt to Boca del Guafo (Chilean North Patagonia

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    Nelson Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución horizontal de la textura, concentración de materia orgánica, carbono orgánico e inorgánico y nitrógeno orgánico, del sedimento en muestras superficiales, recolectadas entre Puerto Montt y Boca del Guafo, durante los cruceros CIMAR 10 Fiordos (2004, CIMAR 11 Fiordos (2005 y CIMAR 12 Fiordos (2006. La distribución superficial de las características químicas permitió identificar dos zonas: una norte, entre Puerto Montt y el grupo de islas Desertores-Apiao-Quehui-Lemuy con concentraciones, que en general fueron altas (MOT > 5%, C-org > 1,6%, C-inorg >0,4% y N-org > 0,2%, y una sur, entre dicho grupo de islas y la Boca del Guafo con concentraciones, en general, bajas (MOT 7,5%, C-org >2,4%, C-inorg >0,4% y N-org >0,2%. La textura de las muestras marinas fue arenosa y limo-arcillosa, siendo la presencia de grava escasa e inferior al 4% en algunas muestras. El sedimento terrígeno del borde de los ríos fue preferentemente arenoso. La procedencia del sedimento (marino versus terrígeno se infirió sobre la base de los valores de la relación C:N. Este resultó ser, mayoritariamente de origen marino, con la excepción de los fiordos continentales en que la componente terrígena fue importante.The horizontal distribution of the organic matter, organic and inorganic carbon, organic nitrogen content, and surface sediment texture was determined between Puerto Montt and Boca del Guafo using samples collected during the cruises CIMAR 10 Fiordos (2004, CIMAR 11 Fiordos (2005 and CIMAR 12 Fiordos (2006. Two zones were identified: the northern zone (from Puerto Montt to the Desertores-Apiao-Quehui-Lemuy island group had mostly high concentrations (TOM >5%; C-org >1.6%; C-inorg >0.4% and N-org > 0.2% the southern zone (from the same island group to Boca del Guafo had mostly low concentrations (TOM 7.5%, C-org > 2.4%, C-inorg > 0.4% and N-org > 0.2%. The texture of the marine sediments was mostly sand and silt + clay

  7. Estudio composicional de los sedimentos de la Gruta del Indio, Rincón del Atuel, departamento de San Rafael, Mendoza Compositional study of the sediments from the Gruta del Indio, Rincón del Atuel, county of San Rafael, Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andreis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available En los sedimentos que constituyen el relleno de la gruta del Indio, Rincón del Atuel, se reconocieron tres niveles formados por acción fluvial intermitente y cuya distribución horizontal está parcialmente perturbada por la caída de bloques de basalto desde el techo. Los porcentajes y distribución de los componentes orgánicos, constituidos por humus, carbón, fitolitos y colofanita, es muy variable y está regulada por la actividad del hombre y de los animales. Los componentes detríticos son los más abundantes y generalmente superan el 90%, con amplio predominio de los constituyentes livianos. Los litoclastos volcánicos, los vitroclastos y las plagioclasas cálcicas son las variedades más abundantes, acompañadas por escaso cuarzo mono y policristalino, feldespatos potásicos, fragmentos carbonáticos y minerales pesados. De acuerdo a las características de los clastos se puede inferir un aporte sedimentario local, representado por clastos volcánicos provenientes de derrumbes y su mezcla con materiales similares derivados de la erosión de los depósitos subyacentes y otro alóctono fluvial, a los que se suma el aporte piroclástico. El conjunto de sedimentos analizados puede ser incluido en el grupo de las paratufitas. La baja madurez mineralógica de los sedimentos sugiere condiciones climáticas frias y secas. Sin embargo en los niveles superficiales, la presencia de agregados micríticos originados por precipitación in situ de aguas bicarbonatadas, indica condiciones esporádicas de humedad, las que son corroboradas, al igual que las bajas temperaturas, por la presencia de fragmentos quebrados de gutolitas.The infilling of the shelter is composed of three levels, all of them generated during intermittent fluvial action. The horizontal distribution of the infilling is sometimes disrupted by basaltic crumble from the roof of the shelter. The distribution of organic components is quite variable and it is controlled by the human and

  8. Assessment of the toxicity of sediment and seawater polluted by the Prestige fuel spill using bioassays with clams (Venerupis pullastra, Tappes decussatus and Venerupis rhomboideus) and the microalga Skeletonema costatum; Evaluacion de la toxicidad de sedimento y agua de mar contaminados por el vertido de fuel del Prestige, mediante el uso de bioensayos con las almejas Venerupis pullastra, Tappes decussatus y Venerupis rhomboideus y la microalga Skeletonema costatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino-Balsa, J.C.; Perez, P.; Estevez-Blanco, P.; Saco-Alvarez, L.; Fernandez, E.; Beiras, R. [Laboratorio de Ecologia Marina LEM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2003-03-15

    In this study we present the early monitoring of the pollution caused by the accident of the Prestige tanker off the Galician coast. To evaluate the toxicity of sediment and water exposed to fuel, three kinds of bioassays were carried out using juvenile clams, clam embryos and microalgae. Firstly, the burrowing behavior of Venerupis pullastra and Tappes decussatus in the sediment collected from two beaches of similar characteristics but different pollution conditions, was studied over 24 h. No significant differences were observed between the two sediments. Secondly, embryogenesis success of Venerupis rhomboideus was recorded after incubation in seawater and elutriates obtained from affected areas. In this case, fuel-polluted seawater showed a marked inhibition of embryogenesis, while sediment elutriates showed moderate toxicity. Parallel bioassays with the diatom Skeletonema costatum were carried out using sediment elutriates and filtered seawater from the sampling sites. The response variable measured was the maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ({phi}{sub p}o) using a Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometer (FRRF). In the first sampling, significant differences were found in the response of S. costatum cultured in the elutriates as compared to the control after 5 h exposure. The results corresponding to the second sampling showed statistically significant lower values of {phi}{sub p}o in the culture incubated in M2 water as compared with the control, indicating that the water-accommodated fraction of fuel at this site was the most toxic. [Spanish] En este estudio presentamos los primeros resultados obtenidos del control de la contaminacion producida por el accidente del petrolero Prestige en la costa de Galicia. Para evaluar la toxicidad del agua y el sedimento expuestos al fuel, se realizaron tres tipos de bioensayos: usando almejas juveniles, embriones de almeja y una microalga. En los primeros, se evaluo el comportamiento de enterramiento de Venerupis pullastra y

  9. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  10. Túnel de Sumapaz y su estructura vial

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo se centrará en resaltar los aspectos relevantes de los estudios,constructivos y operarios del Túnel Sumapaz, que son pieza clave para la comunicación entre la capital de la República con Buenaventura. El objetivo del artículo es dar a entender al lector metodología en cuanto a parámetros utilizados en la construcción de la infraestructura, los obstáculos que se presentaron, los parámetros de seguridad, las características tanto del terreno, de la zona del túnel y algunas recomen...

  11. Asignación sistemática y paleocomunidades inferidas a partir del estudio fitolítico de sedimentos cuaternarios de Entre Ríos, Argentina Systematic assignation and paleocommunities inferred by a phytolite study of quaternary sediments from Entre Ríos, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Erra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de los fitolitos es una de las disciplinas paleobotánicas utilizadas para la reconstrucción de ecosistemas pasados ya que proporcionan un registro preciso de una parte de la vegetación, en áreas concretas y en un momento determinado. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia de estos análisis se estudió la composición y variabilidad fitolítica de los sedimentos loéssicos cuaternarios de la Formación Tezanos Pinto en el sudoeste de la provincia de Entre Ríos. Los datos de base obtenidos permitieron caracterizar la paleocomunidad existente al momento de depositación de los sedimentos loéssicos. Las formas encontradas corresponden tanto a microfitolitos como a macrofitolitos, siendo del tipo bilobados y polilobados (asignables a gramíneas de la subfamilia Panicoideae, tipo saddle (subfamilia Chloridoideae y tipo cónico o rondel (subfamilia Pooideae. También fueron hallados fitolitos provenientes de pelos, aguijones y ganchos, de células buliformes y de células largas (todos tipos celulares de origen epidérmico de gramíneas sin capacidad diagnóstica para diferenciar subfamilias, y otros producidos por taxones no graminoides (esféricos equinados provenientes de la familia Arecaceae.Phytolith analysis is one of the paleobotanic disciplines used for the reconstruction of past ecosystems, because they provide a precise record of part of the vegetation for a specific time and place. In this context, the composition and variability of phytoliths in Quaternary loessic sediments from the Tezanos Pinto Formation in southwestern Entre Ríos province was studied. The data obtained allowed characterizing the paleocommunity that existed at the time when the loessic sediments were deposited. The found forms correspond to microphytoliths and to macrophytoliths, being of the bilobate and polylobate type (described for Poaceae subfamily Panicoideae, saddle type (subfamily Chloridoideae and conical or rondel type (subfamily Pooideae. Also

  12. Palinomorfos e partículas de carvões nos sedimentos holocênicos na região do alto rio Paraná e sua aplicação nas reconstruções paleoambientais e paleoclimáticas = Palynomorphs and charcoal particles in Holocene sediments of the upper Paraná river area: paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Medeanik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as amostras de dois perfis num horizonte de paleossolo da planície de inundação do rio Paraná, sendo processada uma datação pelo método 14C na profundidade de 1,95 m, atingindo idade de 1.700 ± 70 anos AP. Foram avaliados pólen e esporos de plantas terrestres juntamente com as partículas de carvão. Dois estágios, no desenvolvimento paleoambiental, foram estabelecidos com respeito ao desenvolvimento da vegetação. Um estágio mais antigo é caracterizado pela distribuição limitada das florestas ripárias e predomínio de campo nas condições de clima mais seco. Quantidade notável de partículas de carvão encontradas nas amostras deste estágio sugere ocorrência de queimadas locais ou regionais durante um clima seco. No estágio mais novo, a expansão das ripárias emresposta ao aumento das precipitações atmosféricas ocorreu. Pólen de plantas cultivadas, daninhas e invasoras, encontrado nos sedimentos, indica o desenvolvimento da agricultura neste estágio. Maior freqüência de partículas de carvão em mesmos sedimentos provavelmenteindique ocorrência de queimadas locais associadas ao desmatamento da região. The samples from two profiles of flood plain deposits of the Paraná River were studied. One sample at the depth of 1.95 m was dated by 14C as 1,700 ± 70 yr BP. Palynological data and charcoal particles were obtained from fluvial sediments and paleosoil. Two principal stages in paleoenvironmental development were established. The early stage is characterized by the limited distribution of riparian forests and predominance of mesophyllous grassland under a condition of relatively dry climate. The deposition of charcoal particles in such predominant quantity was the result of local or regional burns.During the more recent stage, a natural enlargement of riparian forests occurred in conjunction with an increase in rainfall. Land use of that region may be confirmed by relatively frequent presence of

  13. Medición de la concentración de sedimentos en suspensión mediante dispositivos ópticos y acústicos: aplicación en sistemas tropicales (Delta del río Mira, Colombia Measurement of suspended sediment concentration using optical and acoustic devices: application in tropical systems (Mira River Delta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Restrepo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, la utilización de dispositivos ópticos (e.g. Optical Backscatter Sensor, OBS y acústicos (e.g. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler-ADCP ha permitido monitorear con mayor resolución la variabilidad temporal y espacial de la concentración de sedimentos en suspensión (CSS en ambientes costeros y estuarinos. Sin embargo, la aplicación de estas técnicas en ambientes tropicales ha tenido un desarrollo incipiente. En el presente trabajo se implementó un procedimiento de calibración para un dispositivo OBS-3A, tomando como patrón de calibración sedimento seco y desagregado de la zona de estudio. Además, se presentan las correcciones a las que se debe someter la señal de respuesta del ADCP, debido a la dispersión geométrica, la atenuación del sonido por el agua y las partículas en suspensión, para que sea útil en la estimación de CSS. El ADCP y el OBS-3A se utilizaron para realizar mediciones de CSS en el sistema deltaico del río Mira (isla del Morro y desembocadura principal, ubicado sobre la costa del Pacífico colombiano, un ambiente costero tropical donde algunos factores oceanográficos y estuarinos son determinantes en la señal de respuesta de los equipos.In recent years, the use of optical (Optical Backscatter Sensor, OBS and acoustic (Acoustic Current Doppler Profiler, ADCP instruments has allowed monitoring the temporal and spatial variation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC in coastal and estuarine environments with greater resolution. However, the development of the application of those techniques in tropical environments is incipient. For this study, an OBS-3A calibration procedure was implemented, taking dry and desegregated sediment from the study zone as a calibrating pattern. Moreover, we present the corrections required for the ADCP signal to be useful in the estimation of SSC due to geometrical spreading, the attenuation of sound by water, and the particles in suspension. The ADCP

  14. Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio em sedimentos e material particulado no rio Acre, estado do Acre, Brasil Mercury concentration assessment in botton sediments and suspended solids from Acre river, in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fernando Silva Mascarenhas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos teores de mercúrio em sistemas aquáticos sem influência direta de fontes antropogênicas conhecidas não tem sido conduzida com freqüência na região Amazônica. Visando contribuir para esclarecer a ocorrência de valores elevados de Hg em peixes consumidos pela população de Rio Branco - AC, o Instituto Evandro Chagas - IEC, realizou um estudo para quantificar os teores de Hg em sedimentos de fundo e material particulado no rio Acre e alguns afluentes, além da caracterização físico-química das águas entre as cidades de Brasiléia e Assis Brasil. As amostras de sedimentos foram peneiradas na fração Mercury levels assessment in aquatic systems areas without influences of antropogenic sources have not been well studied in the Amazon region. For the identification of the origin of high values of Hg in fish consumed by population of Rio Branco City - AC, the Evandro Chagas Institute - IEC, studied the mercury levels in sediments, suspended solids and studied also the physical-chemical characterization of waters, in the Acre river and also some in afluents, between Brasiléia and Assis Brasil cities. Bottom sediments samples were sieved to <250 mesh fraction after drying. The suspended solid was obtained by precipitation with Al2SO4. About 250 mg of the material was submitted the acid digestion and the determinations of Hg were made by Could Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The physical-chemical parameters pH, electric conductivity, temperature and dissolved total solids, were studied in the field, by potenciometric methods. The Hg levels in bottom sediments range 0,018 and 0,184 mug g-1, mean of 0,054 ± 0,034 mug g-1, while the suspended solids varied between 0,067 and 0,220 mug g-1, average of 0,098 ± 0,037 mug g-1. The waters were slightly acid with pH varying among 5,80 - 6,95 and conductivity electric 151,60 - 1.151,00 muS cm-1. The mercury levels in the analyzed materials was below of standard levels for

  15. Cyanophyceae Epipélicas de la Marisma "El Cangrejal" en el estuario de Bahía Blanca (Buenos Aires, Argentina Epipelic Cyanophyceae of the salt marsh «El Cangrejal» in the estuary of Bahía Blanca (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Da Rodda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la marisma de las planicies de marea limo-arcillosas del estuario de Bahía Blanca (Buenos Aires se ubica "El cangrejal", una asociación de Sarcocornia perennis y Chasmagnathus granulata. En la interfase sedimento-agua se forman matas microbianas constituidas principalmente por cianofíceas y diatomeas. Se estudiaron las Cyanophyceae epipélicas presentes en dichas matas, identificándose veintitres taxa correspondientes a los Órdenes Chroococcales (1 y Hormogonales (22. Las especies halladas son nuevas citas para el área en estudio, a excepción de Microcoleus chthonoplastes y Oscillatoria limosa. Symploca hydnoides f. minor se cita por primera vez para Argentina.«El Cangrejal», an association of Sarcocornia perennis and Chasmagnathus granulata is situated in the salt marsh of slime-clay tide plains of the estuary of Bahía Blanca (Buenos Aires. In the sediment-water interface microbial mats are mainly constituted by cyanophytes and diatoms. This is a study of the epipelics Cyanophyceae presents in these mats, identifying twenty three taxa corresponding to the Orders Chroococcales (1 and Hormogonales (22. The species are new mention for the study area, an exception are Microcoleus chthonoplastes and Oscillatoria limosa. Symploca hydnoides f. minor is a new record for Argentina.

  16. La "capacidad vial" del plan regulador chileno, ¿es lo suficientemente buena para dar forma a un entorno edificado sostenible?/ The "road capacity" of the chilean master plan is it good enough for shaping a sustainable built environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas Jirón, Luz Alicia

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The "road capacity" of the Chilean Master Plan is a tool developed to measure the capacity of streets in terms of supporting the size of vehicle flow. This tool considers topics such as land use, population density and street width. The purpose of this technique is to incorporate it to the Master Plan, as a town planning instrument, so as to cope with traffic forecasting and congestion. However, the technique does not embrace any sustainability concept, this is due to a disregard of any district ´s social or environmental needs. Therefore a sustainable urban development would doubtfully be reached. It is argued that some other approaches are required for shaping a sustainable built environment in which it is understood that the streets are a public space for people rather than a platform for moving vehicles only. This means, to promote accessibility as well as mobility. In this paper the author reviews borrowed concepts such as "carrying capacity" and "environmental capacity" from bioregionalist and ecological disciplines using a case study in outskirts of Santiago´s metro area./La "capacidad vial" del Plan Regulador chileno es una herramienta desarrollada para medir la capacidad de las calles en términos de apoyar el tamaño del flujo de vehículos. Esta herramienta considera temas como el uso de la tierra, la densidad de población y ancho de la calle. El propósito de esta técnica es su incorporación al Plan Maestro, como un instrumento de planificación de la ciudad, con el fin de hacer frente a la previsión del tráfico y la congestión. Sin embargo, la técnica no incluye ningún concepto de sostenibilidad. Por lo tanto un desarrollo urbano sostenible dudosamente sería alcanzado. Se argumenta que algunos otros enfoques son necesarios para dar forma a un medio ambiente sostenible integrado, en el que se entiende que las calles son un espacio público para las personas en lugar de una plataforma para mover los vehículos solamente

  17. Apoyo a la integración urbana y regional de la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: una aproximación desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Castillo García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Support for urban and regional integration of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil: an aproach from a binational and sustainable perspectiveThe objective of this paper is to show a concrete experience of territorial management of the frontier zone of the Axis Road N° 1 Piura–Guayaquil formed by Zarumilla Province (Perú and Huaquillas and Arenillas Cantons (Ecuador, from a binational and sustainable perspective, having as regional framework the Region of Tumbes (Perú and El Oro Province (Ecuador. In this study area there are social inequities, such as scarce educational opportunities, insufficient youngsters’ training and health access. Thus, the university education supply is short, which gives way to youngsters’ emigration to Tumbes, Machala and other cities when they want to get a university education. Health services are also insufficient in terms of infrastructure, equipment, human resources, and quality of the services offered, which justifies a territorial management.El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una experiencia concreta de ordenamiento territorialde la zona fronteriza del Eje Vial N° 1 Piura – Guayaquil, conformada por la provincia de Zarumilla (Perú y los cantones de Huaquillas y Arenillas (Ecuador, desde una perspectiva binacional y sostenible; considerando como marco regional a la región Tumbes (Perú, y a la provincia de El Oro (Ecuador. En esta área de estudio se presentan situaciones de inequidad social como escasas  oportunidades de educación, de formación de jóvenes y de acceso a la salud. Así, la oferta de oportunidades de educación universitaria es restringida, lo que motiva que los jóvenes con aspiraciones de lograr una formación universitaria se trasladen a las ciudades de Tumbes, Machala y otras para satisfacer sus anhelos. Los servicios de salud se ofrecen de manera insuficiente, en términos de infraestructura, equipamiento, recursos humanos y calidad en la

  18. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other...

  19. Airing It Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzemeyer, Ted

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how proper maintenance can help schools eliminate sources contributing to poor air quality. Maintaining heating and air conditioning units, investigating bacterial breeding grounds, fixing leaking boilers, and adhering to ventilation codes and standards are discussed. (GR)

  20. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  1. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals...

  2. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  3. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  4. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  5. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution ... is known as sick building syndrome. Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. Most people feel ...

  6. Indoor Air Quality Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin Union Free School District, NY.

    This manual identifies ways to improve a school's indoor air quality (IAQ) and discusses practical actions that can be carried out by school staff in managing air quality. The manual includes discussions of the many sources contributing to school indoor air pollution and the preventive planning for each including renovation and repair work,…

  7. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  8. Air Travel Health Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Air Travel Health Tips Air Travel Health Tips How can I improve plane travel? Most people don't have any problems when ... and dosages of all of your medicines. The air in airplanes is dry, so drink nonalcoholic, decaffeinated ...

  9. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  10. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...... higher than what can be achieved today with the commonly used total volume air distribution principles....

  11. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ɛ model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  12. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  13. Aquatic invertebrate's distribution in a freshwater coastal lagoon of southern Brazil in relation to water and sediment characteristics Distribuição de invertebrados aquáticos em uma lagoa costeira de água doce ao sul do Brasil em relação às características de água e sedimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Kleba Lisboa

    2011-06-01

    objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência das características da água e sedimento na abundância, diversidade e riqueza da comunidade de invertebrados bentônicos na lagoa do Peri, uma lagoa costeira de água doce localizada em Santa Catarina. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 60 coletas para análise de invertebrados, e 45 para sedimento entre abril, maio e junho de 2009, em 5 diferentes pontos da lagoa com draga Eckman-Birge. Variáveis físicas e químicas da água também foram medidas. A influência dos fatores ambientais na comunidade foi medida através de uma Análise de Correspondência Canônica (CCA, e foram feitas regressões lineares para as principais correlações; RESULTADOS: Um total de 5,535 espécimes foram coletados, identificados em 18 táxons. Tanaidacea foi o mais abundante representando 54% da abundância relativa, seguido de Diptera (23% e Ostracoda (17%. A família mais rica em gêneros foi Chironomidae (6 táxons. Os resultados da CCA revelaram correlação positiva entre Chaoborus e Stenocypris com a profundidade local, e negativa entre Odonata, Gastropoda, Cytheridella e Coleoptera com grãos finos, assim como entre Tanaidacea, Lopescladius, Annelida e Nematoda com a quantidade de matéria orgânica (MO no sedimento e profundidade local. Regressões lineares demonstraram uma relação inversa de Tanaidacea em resposta a MO (y = 0.6 - 0.62.MO e areia grossa (y = 0.6 - 0.6.are assim como de Lopescladius em relação a MO (y = 0.37 - 0.41.MO e areia grossa (y = 0.37 - 0.46.are. O fato da lagoa do Peri não ter influência do mar e ter Tanaidacea como táxon mais abundante, um grupo não esperado em ambientes de água doce, lhe confere destaque entre demais lagoas costeiras do Brasil. Através deste estudo concluímos que as características de sedimento e profundidade local foram mais importantes que variáveis da água na determinação da estrutura da comunidade de invertebradoss bentônicos na lagoa do Peri, que variou de acordo com caracter

  14. Sedimentos laminados de la Bahía Mejillones como registro de cambios temporales en la productividad fitoplanctónica de los últimos ~ 200 años Temporal changes in phytoplankton productivity over the last ~ 200 years recorded from Mejillones Bay laminated sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGALY CANIUPÁN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de reconstruir los cambios temporales de la productividad fitoplanctónica durante el pasado reciente, se han analizado los contenidos de carbono orgánico total, ópalo biogénico, "chlorins" y alquenonas en un testigo de sedimentos laminados recuperado de la Bahía Mejillones. Adicionalmente, los parámetros físicos medidos (contenido de agua, densidad seca, susceptibilidad magnética, rayos-X y escala de grises contribuyeron a la caracterización de los sedimentos. El testigo recuperado con un sacatestigo de caja (Testigo 3; 23°03' S, 70°27' W; 80 m de profundidad de la columna de agua registró una tasa de sedimentación de 0,18 cm año-1 (basada en mediciones de 210Pb. La extrapolación de esta tasa de sedimentación a la base del testigo da cuenta de una edad de ~223 años. Los sedimentos se caracterizaron por presentar una sucesión de láminas claras y oscuras de grosor milimétrico, que se diferencian tanto en sus propiedades físicas como en la composición. Así las láminas oscuras, de mayor densidad y menor contenido de agua, representarían períodos de mayor productividad fitoplanctónica mientras que las láminas claras, de menor densidad y mayor contenido de agua, reflejarían períodos de menor productividad, concordando con estudios previos. La buena preservación de las láminas, lajiusencia de estructuras asociadas a procesos de bioperturbación, y los altos valores del δ15N sedimentario ( = 11,37 %¿ sugieren que los niveles de oxígeno en el agua de fondo de la bahía han permanecido bajos durante el período de dos siglos de depositación de los sedimentos reportados aquí. Nuestro registro se divide en dos grandes intervalos de productividad: un intervalo de menor productividad fitoplanctónica, antes de AD 1820, asociado a condiciones relativamente más cálidas en al área de surgencia, y otro de mayor productividad y altamente variable, a partir de AD 1877, relacionado con condiciones relativamente

  15. Caracterização da qualidade de água e sedimento relacionados com a ocorrência de plantas aquáticas em cinco reservatórios da bacia do rio Tietê Caracterization of water quality and sediment related to the occurrence of aquatic plants in five Tietê waterhed reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Cavenaghi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte integrante de um projeto de pesquisa que tem por objetivo o desenvolvimento de programas de manejo integrado de plantas aquáticas em cinco reservatórios da bacia do rio Tietê, usados na produção de energia elétrica. A ocorrência de plantas aquáticas foi correlacionada com a qualidade da água e do sedimento. Amostragens de água e sedimento e levantamento de plantas foram realizados em junho de 2001 (estação seca, outubro/novembro de 2001 (início da estação chuvosa e fevereiro/março de 2002 (final da estação chuvosa. Amostras de água foram utilizadas para estimar a transmissão ou extinção de luz em comprimentos de onda de 190 a 900 nm para colunas de água de 1 m de profundidade. Para melhor entendimento e registro (em fotos digitais dos problemas com formação de bancos de sedimento e plantas aquáticas, todos os reservatórios foram sobrevoados, usando um helicóptero, nos dias 4 e 5 de junho de 2001. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a ocorrência de plantas submersas, destacando-se Egeria densa e Egeria najas, foi a mais dependente da transparência da água e transmissão de luz. A maior turbidez e sólidos suspensos contidos e a menor transmissão de luz alteram a freqüência de plantas submersas. Os reservatórios de Promissão e Nova Avanhandava foram os mais infestados com plantas submersas. A ocorrência de plantas marginais e flutuantes é muito dependente da formação de bancos de sedimentos. Os reservatórios de Barra Bonita, Bariri e Ibitinga foram os mais infestados com plantas marginais e flutuantes. A concentração de fósforo e nitrogênio, a turbidez e os sólidos suspensos foram reduzidos com o deslocamento ao longo da seqüência de reservatórios no rio Tietê (Barra Bonita => Bariri => Ibitinga => Promissão => Nova Avanhandava.This research is part of a project aiming to develop aquatic plant integrated management programs in five reservoirs of the Tietê watershed (S

  16. Intestinal parasite analysis in organic sediments collected from a 16th-century Belgian archeological site Análise de parasitos intestinais em sedimentos orgânicos coletados de sítio arqueológico belga do século XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.Este artigo discute os achados de ovos de parasitos em vestígios orgânicos de estruturas medievais do século XVI, escavados no solo, encontrados em Walraversijde, vilarejo atualmente denominado Raversijde, litoral norte da Bélgica. Nestas estruturas encontraram-se numerosos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides e Trichuris trichiura, ambos parasitos humanos. Neste trabalho, o diagnóstico dos parasitos serviu para identificar a origem humana do sedimento e as estruturas medievais como latrinas. Encontraram-se outros ovos de parasito identificado como Capillaria sp. e larvas de nematódeos. Embora não tenha sido possível calcular cargas parasitárias, a quantidade de ovos de helmintos intestinais, parasitos de humanos, sugere condições precárias de higiene e altos níveis de infecção.

  17. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen;

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  18. Équidos y Gonfoterios del Pleistoceno tardío de San Pedro, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammal fossil remains from San Pedro (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina are very poorly known. In this paper, best preserved specimens of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae are described. They come from “Campo Spósito” quarry near San Pedro city. The quarry was referred to Lujanian Age, Biozone of Equus (Amerhippus neogeus. We conducted a comparative study with other South American horse and gomphothere remains, mainly from Argentina and Brazil, allow their identification as Equus (Amerhippus neogeus, Hippidion principale and Stegomastodon cf. S. platensis. Two absolute dates were obtained by the method of OSL: 37626±4198 y 41554±3756 years BP. Based on this data and correlation with other localities we referred this bed to oxygen isotopic stage 3.

    Los mamíferos fósiles de la localidad de San Pedro (provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina son escasamente conocidos. En este artículo se describen ejemplares mejor conservados de Equidae y Gomphotheriidae. Estos restos provienen del yacimiento “Campo Spósito”, ubicado en las proximidades de la ciudad de San Pedro. Los sedimentos portadores son referibles al Piso/Edad Lujanense, Biozona de Equus (Amerhippus neogeus. Se realizó un estudio comparativo con caballos y gonfoterios de Argentina y Brasil para identificar los siguientes taxa: Hippidion principale, Equus (Amerhippus neogeus y Stegomastodon cf. S. platensis. Se obtuvieron dos dataciones por Luminiscencia Ópticamente Estimulada para la secuencias estratigráfica de: 37626±4198 y 41554±3756 años AP, respectivamente. Estos datos sitúan el yacimiento en el Pleistoceno Superior (estadio 3 del oxígeno isotópico.

  19. Evolución geológica-geomorfológica de la cuenca del río Areco, NE de la provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fucks

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuenca del río Areco integra la red de drenaje de la Pampa Ondulada, NE de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Los procesos geomórficos marinos, fluvio-lacustres y eólicos actuaron sobre los sedimentos loéssicos y loessoides de la Formación Pampeano (Pleistoceno dejando, con diferentes grados de desarrollo, el registro sedimentario del Pleistoceno tardío y Holoceno a lo largo de toda la cuenca. En estos depósitos se han reconocido, al menos, dos episodios pedogenéticos. Edades 14C sobre MO de estos paleosuelos arrojaron valores de 7.000 ± 240 y 1.940 ± 80 años AP en San Antonio de Areco y 2.320 ± 90 y 2.000 ± 90 años AP en Puente Castex, para dos importantes estabilizaciones del paisaje, separadas en esta última localidad por un breve episodio de sedimentación. La cuenca inferior en la cañada Honda, fue ocupada por la ingresión durante MIS 1 (Formación Campana, dejando un amplio paleoestuario limitado por acantilados. El retroceso de la línea de costa y la conti-nentalización del ambiente permitió la formación de un suelo datado en 3.070 ± 90 años 14C AP cubierto por sedimentos aluviales. Los sedimentos litorales son en general de baja energía, asociados a tres litofacies diferentes, cuyas edades fluctúan entre los 4.270 ± 70 años 14C AP en esta cuenca y 6.000 ± 80 14C años AP, 6.370 ± 90 años 14C AP, 3.640 ± 70 años 14C AP, 5.630 ± 100 años 14C AP y 5.420 ± 110 años 14C AP, en cuencas aledañas. La ingresión durante MIS 5e también entró por el río Areco evidenciando ya la existencia de esta depresión. El límite externo de esta cuenca lo constituye el delta del Paraná cuya progradación ha dejado expuesto morfologías y depósitos de ambientes fluviales, observándose que el contacto entre ambas unidades morfológicas (delta y paleoestuario está determinado por los cursos de agua, que con cambio bruscos de dirección, acompañan el sentido de avance del complejo deltaico.

  20. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  1. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  2. Indonesia's Clean Air Program

    OpenAIRE

    Budy P. Resosudarmo

    2002-01-01

    Unprecedented industrial development in Indonesia during the last two decades, accompanied by a growing population, has increased the amount of environmental damage. One of the most important environmental problems is that the level of air pollution in several large cities has become alarming, particularly in the last few years. This high pollution level has stimulated the government to develop a national clean air program designed to control the quantity of pollutants in the air. However, th...

  3. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  4. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  5. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  6. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  7. Applications Using AIRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S. E.; Pagano, T. S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Olsen, E. T.; Teixeira, J.; Licata, S. J.; Hall, J. R.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on NASA's Aqua spacecraft has been returning daily global observations of Earth's atmospheric constituents and properties since 2002. With a 12-year data record and daily, global observations in near real-time, AIRS data can play a role in applications that fall under many of the NASA Applied Sciences focus areas. For vector-borne disease, research is underway using AIRS near surface retrievals to assess outbreak risk, mosquito incubation periods and epidemic potential for dengue fever, malaria, and West Nile virus. For drought applications, AIRS temperature and humidity data are being used in the development of new drought indicators and improvement in the understanding of drought development. For volcanic hazards, new algorithms using AIRS data are in development to improve the reporting of sulfur dioxide concentration, the burden and height of volcanic ash and dust, all of which pose a safety threat to aircraft. In addition, anomaly maps of many of AIRS standard products are being produced to help highlight "hot spots" and illustrate trends. To distribute it's applications imagery, AIRS is leveraging existing NASA data frameworks and organizations to facilitate archiving, distribution and participation in the BEDI. This poster will communicate the status of the applications effort for the AIRS Project and provide examples of new maps designed to best communicate the AIRS data.

  8. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  9. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  10. Energy and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is one of a series of handbooks designed to provide nontechnical readers with a general understanding of the interaction between energy development and environmental media and to provide a rudimentary data base from which estimates of potential future impacts can be made. This handbook describes the air quality impacts of energy development and summarizes the major federal legislation which regulates the potential air quality impacts of energy facilities and can thus influence the locations and timing of energy development. In addition, this report describes and presents the data which can be used as the basis for measurement, and in some cases, prediction of the potential conflicts between energy development and achieving and maintaining clean air. Energy utilization is the largest emission source of man-made air pollutants. Choices in energy resource development and utilization generate varying emissions or discharges into the atmosphere, the emissions are affected by the assimilative character of the atmosphere, and the resultant air pollutant concentrations have biological and aesthetic effects. This handbook describes the interrelationships of energy-related air emissions under various methods of pollution control, the assimilative character of the air medium, and the effects of air pollution. The media book is divided into three major sections: topics of concern relating to the media and energy development, descriptions of how to use available data to quantify and examine energy/environmental impacts, and the data

  11. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  12. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  13. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  14. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  15. International Air Services

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 12 December 1997 the Treasurer referred international air services arrangements to the Industry Commission for inquiry and report within nine months. The Commission was asked to report on the arrangements for negotiating entitlements under air services agreements and the process of allocating capacity entitlements to Australian carriers.

  16. Air pollution and air cleaning equipment in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Evdokimova, Ekaterina

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this thesis work is air pollution and air cleaners in building. Clean air has big significance for human health because different pollutions can cause allergy and disease. The quality of indoor air affects health and effective working. The aim of this thesis is to present methods and devices for cleaning the air.

  17. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  18. WATER AND SEDIMENT TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF THE JABURU RESERVOIR (CEARÁ-BR IN THE SEMI-ARID REGION = AVALIAÇÃO DA TOXIDADE DA ÁGUA E SEDIMENTO DO AÇUDE JABURU (CEARÁ-BR NA REGIÃO DO SEMI-ÁRIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Viana de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    testes de toxicidade aguda na água e sedimento, utilizando os organismos Daphnia magna, a alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata e sementes de alface (Lactuca sativa. Foi também realizado o teste crônico na água com Daphnia magna. Foram analisados três pontos em três diferentes profundidades para verificar efeito da estratificação, nos períodos de seca e cheia. Toxicidade aguda da água não foi detectada em nenhum dos pontos amostrados. No teste de toxicidade crônica, foi detectada toxicidade nos dois períodos, seca e cheia, sendo mais pronunciado no primeiro. No sedimento, houve toxicidade aguda somente no período de seca para D. magna, enquanto para os outros organismos não houve toxicidade. Os resultados demonstraram que o Açude Jaburu ainda não se encontra severamente impactado, porém os testes de toxicidade crônica mostram que pode estar sofrendo poluição por compostos químicos em baixas concentrações e poderá causar dano em longo prazo. Propõe-se um melhor gerenciamento ambiental desse recurso, visando mitigar os impactos ambientais negativos nesse ecossistema.

  19. Evaluation of the Gravataí River sediment quality (Rio Grande do Sul- Brazil using Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820 as the test-organism for toxicity assays Avaliação da qualidade dos sedimentos do rio Gravataí (Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil a partir de testes de toxicidade utilizando Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820 como organismo-teste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Lucheta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Persistent pollutants released to riverbeds return to the trophic system, damaging living organisms thereof. Ecotoxicological assays express the effect of environmental interactions with organisms found there. Assays were performed with microcrustacean Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820 in sediment samples, from the headwaters to the mouth, in order to evaluate the Gravataí River quality; METHODS: Bottom sediment was used to evaluate the responses of cladocerans to environmental changes in 15 samples collected between Jan./06 and May/09. The microcrustaceans were submitted to stress for 21 days from birth (2-26 hours old. Duncan Test, percentage survival, reproduction and Spearman Correlation were used to evaluate the quality of the sites; RESULTS: Duncan Test showed a significant difference (p OBJETIVO: Poluentes persistentes lançados no leito dos rios retornam ao sistema trófico danificando os organismos que o integram. Os ensaios ecotoxicológicos expressam o efeito das interações ambientais com os organismos ali presentes. Visando avaliar a qualidade do rio Gravataí foram realizados ensaios com o microcrustáceo Daphnia magna (Straus, 1820, em amostras do sedimento, da nascente até a foz; MÉTODOS: Sedimento de fundo foi utilizado na avaliação das respostas dos cladóceros às alterações ambientais de 15 amostras coletadas entre Jan./06 e Maio/09. Os microcrustáceos foram colocados em situação de estresse durante 21 dias desde o início de suas vidas (2-26 horas. O Teste de Duncan, percentual de sobrevivência, reprodução e Correlação de Spearman foram utilizados para avaliar a qualidade dos locais; RESULTADOS: O Teste de Duncan mostrou diferença significativa (p < 0,05 na reprodução em 14 das 15 amostragens, sendo a ação crônica mais constante (88% que a aguda (23%. Somente em algumas ocasiões foram observadas alterações na sobrevivência e na reprodução relacionadas à estação climática ou regime de chuvas. Os

  20. Inferencia de las condiciones ambientales de la playa "Pilón de azúcar" (Guajira, Colombia, a partir del conjunto de foraminíferos en una muestra de sedimento Environmental Conditions of Pilón de Azúcar Beach (Guajira, Colombia, InferedFrom the Foraminifers Population of a Sediment Simple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Moreno Martha Lucía

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los foraminíferos son organismos que por sus requerimientos ambientales específicos son utilizados como bioindicadores de ambientes marinos. En este estudio se evaluó una muestra de sedimento proveniente de la playa “Pilón de Azúcar”, Guajira, Colombia, para deducir algunas condiciones físico-químicas del ambiente litoral a partir del conjunto de foraminíferos encontrado en ella. Se identificaron 100 in-dividuos pertenecientes a 29 especies, 19 géneros, 14 familias, 8 superfamilias y 3subórdenes: Rotaliina, Miliolina y Textularina. Las especies mejor representadas fueron: Ammonia beccari, forma sobrina, le sigue Discorbis rosea, Quinqueloculina sp, Amphisteginasp. y por último Cibicides antilleanus. En relación con la naturaleza del caparazón, 69fueron calcáreo-hialinos, 27 calcáreo-aporcelanado y 4 individuos tenían una conchilla aglutinada. Esto indica que los organismos predominantes tienen concentraciones de carbonato de calcio altas, salinidad normal y un pH no muy bajo para la formación de sus conchillas. Los organismos registrados corresponden en 98% a ambientes bentónicos de plataforma continental marina o de la zona de transición, que general-mente habitan en sedimentos bioclásticos. La presencia de foraminíferos fósiles (7%, muestra un litoral en proceso erosivo activo, que a su vez impide la acumulación de materia orgánica. Con estos resultados se sugiere que esta playa tiene un ambiente diverso, altamente erosivo y con las condiciones normales de un ambiente marino abierto caribeño.Foraminifers are organisms, which due to their specific environmental requirements, are used as bio-indicators of marine environments. In this study we evaluated a sample of sediment from the “Pilón de Azúcar” beach (Guajira, Colombia, in order to deduce the physico-chemical conditions of such coastal environment, based on the group of 14 foraminifers found in it. We detect one hundred individuals belonging to 29 species

  1. 复方丹参注射液联合脑蛋白水解物治疗新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病%Clinical Observation on Compound Danshen and Cerebrolysin Vial Combination Therapy in Treating Cases of Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemie Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀峰

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨复方丹参与脑蛋白水解物联合应用治疗新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病(HIE)的疗效.方法 将90例新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病患儿随机分为两组,对照组45例采用常规三项支持疗法和对症治疗,治疗组45例在对照组的治疗基础上加用复方丹参注射液与脑蛋白水解物注射液联合应用.结果 治疗组总有效率为95.56%;对照组为77.78%,两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 复方丹参注射液与脑蛋白水解物注射液联合应用治疗HIE疗效显著.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of compound Danshen and Cerebrolysin Vial combination therapy in treating cases of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(HIE).Methods 90 cases of neonatal HIE hospitalized form May 2005 to September 2006 were randomly separated into an experiment group and a control group.On the basis of conventional trigeminal supporting treatment,the experiment group was treated with additional compound Danshen and Cerebrolysin Vial combination therapy.At the end of therapeutic courses,overall effective rate was evaluated.Results The overall effective rate of the experiment group was 95.56%,comparing with a 77.78% overall effective rate in the control group.The overall effective rate of the experiment group was significantly different from the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions Compound Danshen and Cerebrolysin Vial combination therapy was significantly effective in treating neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.This therapy is recommendable in daily clinical treatment of HIE.

  2. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  3. 20th century fluctuations in the abundance of siliceous microorganisms preserved in the sediments of the Puyuhuapi Channel (44° S, Chile Fluctuaciones en la abundancia de microorganismos silíceos preservados en los sedimentos del canal Puyuhuapi (44° S, Chile, durante el siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENA REBOLLEDO

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a 100-year reconstruction of siliceous export production from sediments of the Puyuhuapi Channel (44° S, 70° W in the Chilean fjords. We use accumulation rates and concentrations of diatoms and silicoflagellates, organic carbon (Corg and biogenic opal (SiOPAL as proxies of export production, and fluctuations in the contribution of freshwater diatoms as proxies of rainfall in the hinterland and river runoff. Box core sediments collected at two sites within the Puyuhuapi Channel were analyzed: Station 35 (at the head of the fjord; 56 m water depth and Station 40 (in the middle of the Channel; 270 m water depth. Surface sedimentation rates were 0.75 cm yr-1 at Station 35 and 0.25 cm yr-1 at Station 40. SiOPAL content averaged ~ 4 % at both sites. Diatom accumulation rates as well as the contribution of freshwater diatoms were higher at the head of the fjord (1.59 10(10 valves m-2 yr-1 and 22 %, respectively than in its middle (1.08 10(10 valves m_2 yr_1 and 14 %, respectively. Diatom abundances were two orders of magnitude higher than silicoflagellate contribution at both sites. In general, diatoms typical of high nutrient environments characterize the Puyuhuapi Channel sediments: at both sites, spores of the genus Chaetoceros dominated the diatom assemblage (> 40 % of total diatoms; spores of Chaetoceros radicans/cinctus, Ch. constrictus/vanheurcki, Ch. debilis and Ch. diadema. Downcore analysis reveals an overall increase in the production of siliceous microorganisms from the late 19th century to the early 1980s, and then a decrease until the late-1990s. We associate a decrease in freshwater diatom contribution since the mid-1970s which we associate with a concomitant decline in rainfall in the Chilean fjords. We suggest that this decline is related to the global atmospheric and oceanic warming of the past ~ 25 yearsSe presenta una reconstrucción de 100 años de la productividad silícea exportada en sedimentos del canal Puyuhuapi

  4. Transporte de arena en médanos litorales activos y colgados del sudeste de Buenos Aires Sand transport in active and hunged coastal dunes of southeastern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Bértola

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El transporte de arena por el viento es la principal fuente de suministro de sedimentos para la existencia de médanos litorales en playas arenosas, así como un importante componente en los cálculos de balance sedimentario entre la playa (la fuente y el médano (el destino. Para evaluar esto, se analizaron médanos del sudeste de la Provincia de Buenos Aires mediante un novedoso método de muestreo, que permite percibir diferencias en la dinámica y textura de la arena que conforman el perfil de velocidad, diferencias debido a su génesis y características. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar si había diferencias apreciables cuantificables en las características de médanos costeros colgados en acantilados de Mar del Plata y en médanos frontales, de costas abiertas al sur de la misma zona, en el arroyo de La Ballenera. Se observó que las arenas de médanos frontales son más gruesas que las de los médanos colgados, debido a las zonas de aporte y emplazamiento topográfico. Los mayores volúmenes de arena transportados son por la cara de barlovento y cresta. El perfil del arroyo La Ballenera se halla más influenciado por el efecto marino que el médano colgado, donde predomina la acción eólica. Se observó que cuando la velocidad del viento se duplica, el volumen transportado es 5 veces mayor, lo mismo que el t o. El coeficiente de arrastre fue prácticamente despreciable a 2,6 m. La metodología empleada para entrampar el sedimento resultó ser aceptable como una fase inicial para el monitoreo de la dinámica de sectores costeros dominados por el viento.The sand transport by wind is the main sediment source of supply of silts for the presence of coast dunes in sandy beaches, as well as an important component in the calculations of sedimentary balance among the beach (the source and the dune (the destination. To evaluate this action, dunes of the southeast of Buenos Aires Province were analyzed by means of a new sampling method that

  5. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  6. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  7. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...... this kind of collectors. The modified simulation program has been used for the determination of the surplus in performance which solar heating systems with this type of solar collectors for combined preheating of ventilation air and domestic hot water will have. The simulation program and the efficiency...

  8. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  9. Olefin metathesis in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takeji

    The reduction of intake of outdoor air volume in air conditioned buildings, adopted as the strategy for saving energy, has caused sick building syndrome abroad. Such symptoms of sick building as headache, stimuli of eye and nose and lethargy, appears to result from cigarette smoke, folmaldehyde and volatile organic carbons. On the other hand, in airtight residences not only carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides from domestic burning appliances but also allergens of mite, fungi, pollen and house dust, have become a subject of discussion. Moreover, asbestos and radon of carcinogen now attract a great deal of attention. Those indoor air pollutants are discussed.

  11. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  12. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  13. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  14. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  15. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... Indoor Air Quality An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality IAQ & Health Causes of IAQ Problems Identifying IAQ ...

  16. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  17. Air Quality Guide for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Air Quality Guide for Ozone Ground-level ozone is one of our nation’s most common air pollutants. Use the chart below to help reduce ...

  18. Concurso para el Proyecto de Construcción de la Variante CV-190 a su paso por el municipio de Figueroles (provincia de Castellón). Alternativa Norte. Análisis del tráfico y de la seguridad vial.

    OpenAIRE

    HIGÓN GARCÍA, FERNANDO

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This TFG analyzes traffic and road safety of a new road on the CV-190 at Figueroles (Castellón) [CAT] Aquest TFG analitza el trànsit i la seguretat viaria d'una nova variant a la CV-190 al seu pas per Figueroles (Castelló) [ES] Este TFG analiza el tráfico y la seguridad vial de una nueva variante en la CV-190 a su paso por Figueroles (Castellón) Higón García, F. (2015). Concurso para el Proyecto de Construcción de la Variante CV-190 a su paso por el municipio de Figueroles (prov...

  19. Transportation and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors research. - Modeling & Inventories - Testing & Measuring Emissions - Clean Automotive Technologies - Emission Factors Research This page is maintained by EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) . For more: About Us | Get E-mail ...

  20. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  1. Criteria Air Emissions Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Emissions Trends site provides national trends of criteria pollutant and precursor emissions data based on the the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) from...

  2. Upswing for hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, Stephanie

    2010-07-01

    Optimism reigns in the air collector sector. The market is characterised by high growth rates and numerous new entrants: reason enough to present the sector on its own world map for the first time. (orig.)

  3. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  4. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  5. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. Among the more important indoor contaminants associated with health or irritation effects are passive tobacco smoke, radon decay products, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, asbestos fibers, microorganisms and aeroallergens. Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. An overall strategy should be developed to investigate indoor exposures, health effects, control options, and public policy alternatives

  6. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising energy prices, among other factors, have generated an incentive to reduce ventilation rates and thereby reduce the cost of heating and cooling buildings. Reduced ventilation in buildings may significantly increase exposure to indoor air pollution and perhaps have adverse effects on occupant health and comfort. Preliminary findings suggest that reduced ventilation may adversely affect indoor air quality unless appropriate control strategies are undertaken. The strategies used to control indoor air pollution depend on the specific pollutant or class of pollutants encountered, and differ somewhat depending on whether the application is to an existing building or a new building under design and construction. Whenever possible, the first course of action is prevention or reduction of pollutant emissions at the source. In most buildings, control measures involve a combination of prevention, removal, and suppression. Common sources of indoor air pollution in buildings, the specific pollutants emitted by each source, the potential health effects, and possible control techniques are discussed

  7. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  8. Hot Air Engines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of...

  9. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l......EA sponsored research "Air Flow Pattern within Buildings" is used for comparisons in some parts of the paper because various types of experiments and many countries are involved....

  10. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  11. Air gun test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a facility that is potentially useful in providing data for models to predict the effects of nuclear explosions on cities. IIT Research Institute has a large air gun facility capable of launching heavy items of a wide variety of geometries to velocities ranging from about 80 fps to 1100 fps. The facility and its capabilities are described, and city model problem areas capable of investigation using the air gun are presented

  12. Propiedades magnéticas de diferentes suelos del partido de La Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bartel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reporta el análisis de parámetros magnéticos obtenidos en dos suelos, un Argiudol y un Ocracualf, de la Estación Experimental Julio Hirschorn, partido de La Plata, Buenos Aires. Ambos suelos se desarrollan sobre el mismo material parental, sedimentos loéssicos, pero se ubican en diferentes posiciones topográficas y presentan diferentes condiciones de drenaje. Los principales parámetros analizados son: susceptibilidad específica (c, susceptibilidad dependiente de la frecuencia (cdf, magnetización remanente isotérmica (MRI, magnetización remanente anhistérica (MRA, coercitividad de la remanencia (Bcr y coeficiente S. Los parámetros magnéticos (c, MRI y MRA indican un aumento de la concentración de minerales ferrimagnéticos hacia la base de los perfiles en ambos suelos, siendo la intensidad de los mismos notablemente menor en el Ocracualf. La cdf, si bien no supera el 5%, muestra un evidente aumento en los horizontes Bt de ambos suelos. El Bcr y el factor S indican presencia predominante de minerales magnéticos de tipo magnetita en ambos perfiles, aunque en el Ocracualf se observa una probable contribución de minerales antiferromagnéticos (hematita-goethita en los horizontes superficiales. El descenso de la señal de c hacia los horizontes superficiales de los perfiles, ligado al descenso de MRI y MRA, se interpreta como consecuencia de la disolución de los óxidos de hierro detríticos. Este proceso es, en esta área, más intenso en condiciones de suelos mal drenados.

  13. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  14. Clean air Hamilton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarry, B.E. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The industrial City of Hamilton is located on Lake Ontario, downwind from the Ohio Valley. The Hamilton Air Quality Initiative (HAQI) was divided in several phases, one of which is Clean Air Hamilton. This most recent phase was described in this presentation. Two major goals of this phase were: to ensure that the City of Hamilton has the best air quality of any major urban area in Ontario, and to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent compared to the levels in 1990. There were five main objectives to this initiative, namely: (1) the identification of priority air quality issues, (2) achieving an understanding of air quality issues, (3) the identification of sources, the evaluation of impacts and the recommendation of solutions, (4) the assessment of human health, and (5) the identification of further research. The reduction of air quality impacts is progressing through the support provided to the Drive Clean Program, the discouragement of vehicle idling, the support to car pooling initiatives, and the promotion of green vehicles. The implementation of pollution control technologies is taking place on the industrial side, as well as the development of plans to reduce steel industry emissions, the development of energy conservation measures and the promotion of green building practices. Efforts are being deployed over fleet greening partnerships, community tree planting program, an international air conference, an electronic information network linking the United States and the communities of Southern Ontario, a road dust study, a truck emissions research project, the assessment of human health impacts, and finally methods for the monitoring of local improvements. figs.

  15. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  16. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air pollution after being a neglected subject for a number of years, is attracting attention recently because it is a side effect of energy crisis. About 50% of world's 6 billion population, mostly in developing countries, depend on biomass and coal in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy because of poverty. These materials are burnt in simple stoves with incomplete combustion and infants, children and women are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution for a considerable period, approximately between 2-4 hours daily. Current worldwide trade in wood fuel is over US $7 billion and about 2 million people are employed full time in production and marketing it. One of the most annoying and common indoor pollutant in both, developing and developed countries, is cigarette smoke. Children in gas-equipped homes had higher incidences of respiratory disease. Babies' DNA can be damaged even before they are born if their mothers breathe polluted air. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for 4% of the global burden of the disease. Only a few indoor pollutants have been studied in detail. Indoor air pollution is a major health threat on which further research is needed to define the extent of the problem more precisely and to determine solutions by the policy-makers instead of neglecting it because sufferers mostly belong to Third World countries. (author)

  17. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  18. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  19. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  20. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  1. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force....

  2. Los depositos de yeso intrasedimentario del arroyo El Siasgo, partidos de Monte y General Paz, provincia de Buenos Aires Intrasedimentary gypsum deposits of El Siasgo Creek, Monte and General Paz districts, Buenos Aires Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Dangavs

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El arroyo El Siasgo es un afluente del río Salado, situado en la región NE de la provincia de Buenos Aires. En su cuenca inferior, su curso recorta una gran depresión, remanente de una antigua cuenca de deflación colmatada, donde se desarrollaron, desde el Pleistoceno superior, diversos ambientes sedimentarios, principalmente acuáticos. Actualmente, se desarrolla, en esta depresión, un ambiente léntico temporario de 2.750 ha, dividido en dos cuerpos mediante un estrechamiento de la cubeta de 2 km de largo y 0,7 km de ancho. Al norte del estrechamiento se sitúa el cuerpo menor, denominado "La Cañada" y hacia el sur el mayor o "laguna del Siasgo". En los sedimentos clásticos hospedantes de este paleoambiente léntico múltiple aparece una importante acumulación de yeso intrasedimentario en distintos niveles estratigráficos (Formaciones Lobos, Luján y La Postrera I, cristalizado principalmente en tamaño arena, con diversidad de hábitos, texturas, fábricas y estructuras. Los sedimentos hospedantes del yeso son esencialmente fangos, cuya textura original se encuentra modificada por la presencia del mineral epigénico en fangos y limos arenosos e incluso en arenas fangosas. Este depósito yesífero abarca una superficie de 25,6 km², con un espesor medio de 2,15 m en el subambiente "del Siasgo" y de 0,91 m en "La Cañada". El volumen de sedimentos con yeso alcanza a 48 hm³ y la ley mineral mínima es 53,5% en la "laguna del Siasgo", con un total de 53.623.000 de toneladas de yeso impuro, mientras que en "La Cañada, con una ley media de 20,1 %, solamente alcanza a 1.361.000 toneladas de yeso impuro. Cabe señalar, que la baja ley del mineral en "La Cañada" descarta su aprovechamiento como recurso económico, mientras que el yeso presente en el subambiente "del Siasgo" es de alta potencialidad para su explotación, incluso en su valor mínimo. Estos yesos son el producto de la interacción de aguas superficiales y subterr

  3. Determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sedimento e sólidos em suspensão de corpos aquáticos por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com gerador de vapor a frio Determination of total mercury in water, sediments and solids in suspension in aquatic systems by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. F. Vieira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de mercúrio metálico nos processos de extração do ouro libera toneladas de mercúrio ao meio ambiente, provocando um aumento considerável nas concentrações presentes. Com a finalidade de prevenir a exposição humana a concentrações excessivas, o que poderá resultar em graves episódios de intoxicação mercurial, bem como avaliar a possibilidade de sedimentos tornarem-se fontes potenciais de contaminação para os seres vivos, é de fundamental importância a monitorização do mercúrio em diversos compartimentos ambientais. Efetuou-se a padronização de uma metodologia analítica para determinação de mercúrio total em amostras de água, sólidos em suspensão e sedimentos de corpos aquáticos para monitorização ambiental do xenobiótico. Posteriormente, foram analisadas amostras oriundas de regiões garimpeiras, com vistas a avaliar o desempenho do método em amostras reais e efetuar levantamento preliminar sobre a contaminação mercurial na área de estudo.The use of metallic mercury in the extraction and concentration of gold causes the discarding of tons of this metal in the environment, leading to a considerable increase in the natural levels of the same and the contamination of the surrounding areas. Thus it is extremely important to monitor the presence of this metal in various sectors of the environment with a view aiming to previnting human exposure to excessive concentrations which can result in serious episodes of mercury poisoning. It is also important to estimate the possibility of river sediments becoming potential sources of contamination of human beings. The determination of total mercury was undertaken by using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. River waters, as well as sediments and suspended solids were used as samples for the standardization of the analytical procedure. Later on, this method was tested on samples originating in gold mining areas for the purpose of assessing its validity.

  4. Mixed cells in shell vials for detection of influenza viruses and enteroviruses from clinical specimens%混合细胞瓶对临床标本中流行性感冒病毒和肠道病毒的分离检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪千力; 熊海燕; 申惠国; 居丽雯; 蒋露芳; 蔡韵; 姜庆五

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较犬肾细胞系(MDCK)、人喉表皮癌细胞(Hep-2)和非洲绿猴肾细胞(Vero)制备的MHV混合细胞与相应单一敏感细胞株对流行性感冒(流感)病毒、肠道病毒的分离结果.方法 流感样患者咽拭子标本接种MHV混合细胞和MDCK细胞,手足口病患儿咽拭子或粪标本接种MHV混合细胞和Vero细胞,观察病毒致细胞病变效应(CPE),采用多重反转录-聚合酶链反应(mRT-PCR)检测甲、乙型流感病毒和肠道病毒.结果 MDCK和Vero细胞的CPE较MHV混合细胞明显.138份流感病毒接种MHV混合细胞,分离出34株流感病毒,分离率为24.6%;MDCK细胞分离出流感病毒39株,分离率为28.3%.MHV混合细胞与MDCK细胞流感病毒分离率比较,差异无统计学意义(x2=1.92,P>0.05).32株肠道病毒接种MHV混合细胞,分离出肠道病毒9株,分离率为28.1%;Vero细胞分离出12株肠道病毒,分离率为37.5%.MHV混合细胞与Vero细胞肠道病毒分离率比较,差异无统计学意义(x2 =3.00,P>0.05).结论 MHV混合细胞CPE不如单一细胞易于观察;MHV混合细胞适用于生物性突发公共卫生事件中,可分离培养临床标本中甲型、乙型流感病毒和表现为呼吸道症状的肠道病毒.%Objective To evaluate shell vials of MHV,a combination of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK),human epidermoid cancer cells (Hep-2) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero),and conventional cell culture in detecting influenza viruses and enterovirus from fresh clinical specimens.Methods Specimens from patients with influenza-like illness and children with hand-foot-mouth disease were inoculated with both shell vials of MHV and MDCK/Vero.Then cytopathological effect (CPE) was examined daily.Influenza viruses and enteroviruses were detected by multiple reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR).Results CPE of MDCK/Vero cells were stronger than the shell vials of MHV.The isolation rate of influenza virus by MHV was

  5. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  6. The cold air machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagcl, Barls [TUV Rheinland Hong Kong Ltd., Emperor International Square, 10/F, 7 Wang Tai Road, Kowloon Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on the human behaviour in regards of air-conditioning usage in indoor environment. A mid-sized, carpet floored office (600 sqm) with 120 employees in Hong Kong was chosen as the experiment field due to two reasons. The first reason is that the office buildings in Hong Kong are the coldest office buildings worldwide. And the building where the office is located doesn't provide a central air-conditioning system, which means that the human behaviour is very crucial to save energy in such offices. The second reason is that the largest portion of electricity consumption in Hong Kong belongs to the air-conditioning systems in buildings (25% of total electricity consumption in Hong Kong). Development and usage of energy efficient technologies are no doubt very crucial in emission reduction and environmental protection. But, the best energy efficient equipment is not much worth and waste of money if the behaviour of the persons using that equipment does not change. In this study we searched for the reasons behind the persistent behaviour of wrongly using the air conditioning systems and making Hong Kong probably the city with the largest energy consumption for cooling per square meter.

  7. The cold air machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Bağcı

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the human behaviour in regards of air-conditioning usage in indoor environment. A mid-sized, carpet floored office (600 sqm with 120 employees in Hong Kong was chosen as the experiment field due to two reasons. The first reason is that the office buildings in Hong Kong are the coldest office buildings worldwide. And the building where the office is located doesn’t provide a central air-conditioning system, which means that the human behaviour is very crucial to save energy in such offices. The second reason is that the largest portion of electricity consumption in Hong Kong belongs to the air-conditioning systems in buildings (25% of total electricity consumption in Hong Kong. Development and usage of energy efficient technologies are no doubt very crucial in emission reduction and environmental protection. But, the best energy efficient equipment is not much worth and waste of money if the behaviour of the persons using that equipment does not change. In this study we searched for the reasons behind the persistent behaviour of wrongly using the air conditioning systems and making Hong Kong probably the city with the largest energy consumption for cooling per square meter.

  8. Images in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  9. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  11. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU...

  12. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  13. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  14. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  15. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  16. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  17. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  18. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  19. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  20. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  1. Utilização de medicamentos parenterais em frascos-ampola em uma unidade pediátrica de um hospital universitário Uso de medicamentos parenterales en frascos-ampolla en un servicio pediátrica de un hospital universitario Utilization of parenteral drugs in vials at a pediatric unit of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Padovani de Souza

    2008-12-01

    ón de directrices sobre tratamiento endovenoso son instrumentos esenciales para optimizar la utilización del medicamento parenteral.This observational study aimed to determine the frequency of utilization of vials containing parenteral medications in a pediatric unit, and to identify nursing team actions related to their preparation and administration. Data were collected from prescription forms and by checking these drugs in the refrigerator and stocks at the unit. Vials were prescribed to 30.8% of patients. Aspects such as: reconstitution, storage, temperature and drug label were observed. Only 6.8% of the drugs had all the information researched in order to evaluate the process of preparation and administration. The correct identification of vials is important for the safe use of medication. Training programs for the healthcare team and the adoption of intravenous therapy guidelines are essential tools to optimize the utilization of parenteral medication.

  2. Paleolimnología de la Laguna Cerrillo del medio, Monte, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauris V. Dangavs

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron el medio físico del ambiente, la fisiografía, el sistema geomorfológico de la región, las características hidrológicas y el origen de la cubeta lagunar. La geología superficial está definida por diez unidades estratigráficas (siete litoestratigráficas y tres pedoestratigráficas. La más antigua es la Formación Ensenada del Pleistoceno medio, que constituye el sustrato regional, donde se excavó la cubeta lagunar. Encima se dispone la Formación Buenos Aires del Pleistoceno tardío, en cuya parte cuspidal se sitúa un Geosuelo Sin Nombre. Las siguientes cuatro unidades corresponden a depósitos eólicos de dunas de arcilla y loéssicos de la Formación La Postrera I, II, III y IV, de edades dispares, que abarcan desde el Pleistoceno tardío al Holoceno tardío-tardío. La Formación La Postrera II y III poseen los Geosuelos Puesto Callejón Viejo y Puesto Berrondo respectivamente. En las playas afloran depósitos aluviales, que incrementan su espesor en el lecho lagunar. En los sedimentos colmatantes se reconocieron seis depósitos, cinco representan a ambientes acuáticos: Formación Luján, Miembros La Chumbiada, Lobos y Río Salado, del Pleistoceno tardío al Holoceno temprano a medio; formación subaluvial del Holoceno tardío y la actual formación aluvial. El sexto es un depósito eólico de duna de arcilla intracuencal del Pleistoceno tardío. El conjunto de los depósitos suprayacentes a la Formación Ensenada supera los 64 ka, representados por cinco episodios de clima seco que abarcan desde el loess Bonaerense hasta la pequeña edad de hielo (IS4, IS2, D3-L3, D2-L2, D1-L1 y cinco húmedos (IS3, S3, IS1, S1 y el actual.

  3. Mineralogia e geoquímica dos perfis sobre sedimentos neógenos e quaternários da bacia do Solimões na região de Coari - AM Mineralogy and geochemistry of neogene and quaternary sediment profiles from the Solimões basin in the region of Coari, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Coimbra Horbe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do intemperismo das rochas é uma ferramenta indispensável para entender a evoluç��o paleoambiental do Cenozóico na Amazônia. Com esse objetivo foram estudados seis perfis intempéricos desenvolvidos a partir da Formação Solimões e um perfil do Quaternário da várzea do rio Solimões, no centro-leste do estado do Amazonas. As informações obtidas permitiram determinar o grau de evolução intempérica na região, além das suas características estruturais, mineralógicas e químicas. Os perfis desenvolvidos sobre a Formação Solimões são constituídos, de baixo para cima, pelos horizontes saprolítico (C, mosqueado (B e solo (A, enquanto o perfil sobre a sedimentação quaternária é estruturado nos horizontes saprolito (C e solo (A. São argilo-arenosos a areno-argilosos, cinzentos, amarelados, avermelhados e esbranquiçados e compõem-se de quartzo, caulinita, muscovita, illita e esmectita. Segundo as suas características os perfis são divididos em dois grupos: 1 perfis 2, 3, 4 e 5: são areno-argilosos, tem altos teores de SiO2, Hg e Zr e estão associados unicamente à Formação Solimões; 2 perfis 1, 6 e 7: são pelíticos, têm maiores conteúdos em esmectita, illita, muscovita, Al2O3, álcalis e elementos-traço, especialmente de Ba, Co, Li, Ni, Sr, V, Y e Zn, e agrupam parte dos perfis sobre a Formação Solimões e o sedimento quaternário. A semelhança geoquímica entre este último e parte dos perfis sobre a Formação Solimões sugere que esta pode ser a fonte pelo menos de parte do material depositado na várzea. O conjunto das características demonstra que os horizontes dentro de cada perfil são muito semelhantes entre si e, portanto, pouco evoluídos, apesar do clima atual quente e chuvoso da região de Coari (2300 mm.ano-1 promover intensa lixiviação. Conseqüentemente, por serem derivados dos sedimentos mais jovens da Bacia do Solimões, e, portanto sob ação recente do intemperismo, pode

  4. Bioassay using Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 to evaluate the sediment of Caí River (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Bioensaios utilizando Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 na avaliação do sedimento do rio Caí (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Regina Terra

    2010-12-01

    more detailed definition of the course characteristics and the most fragile sites in the region.OBJETIVO: O rio Caí integra a Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Guaíba que é utilizado para o abastecimento público de água da capital do Rio Grande do Sul; MÉTODOS: Entre Mar./05 e Jun./09 foram amostrados quatro locais deste rio para avaliação da toxicidade do sedimento entre as regiões média e superior, utilizando Daphnia magna, em testes de 21 dias. A qualidade foi descrita a partir da sobrevivência e reprodução, observadas em 440 organismos-teste, desde o início de suas vidas (2-26 horas. Para tanto foram calculadas a porcentagem de sobrevivência, média reprodutiva e reprodução total. Visando comparar estatisticamente a reprodução entre os locais e a variação deste parâmetro no tempo, foram utilizados Teste de Duncan e Correlação de Spearman. Também foram considerados os parâmetros bacteriológicos, físicos e químicos em amostras de água realizadas no período de estudo; RESULTADOS: Foi observada toxicidade aguda em 18% das amostras e toxicidade crônica em 95%, indicando agressores ambientais em pequenas doses. Mortalidade e reprodução nem sempre seguiram a mesma tendência, ficando evidente a maior sensibilidade da atividade reprodutiva frente a contaminantes. O Teste de Duncan mostrou até quatro agrupamentos nos locais Ca070, Ca092 e Ca245, indicando variação na reprodução. Não foi observado padrão de distribuição para precipitação pluviométrica mensal nem correlação entre sobrevivência, reprodução e precipitação pluviométrica; CONCLUSÕES: Foi confirmada a presença de xenobióticos em baixas concentrações através de análises físicas, químicas, bacteriológicas e de metais em amostras de água, além de pequena ação na sobrevivência e constante alteração na atividade reprodutiva nos organismos expostos às amostras de sedimento. Ensaios de longa duração são mais apropriados para avaliar amostras ambientais

  5. The influence of xenobiotics in river sediment on the reproduction and survival of Daphnia magna, 1820, Straus Influência de xenobióticos no sedimento de rio sobre a reprodução e a sobrevivência de Daphnia magna, 1820, Straus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Pereira Gonçalves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The Taquari River, a tributary of Guaíba Lake, is a major economic and environmental source for Rio Grande do Sul, a state located in the far south of Brazil; METHODS: This study evaluated the interference of sediment from this river in the reproduction and survival of 320 microcrustaceans (80 organisms per site of the Daphnia magna species. Four sites between the middle course and the river mouth were monitored using eight samples from each site, between June/06 and April/10. Mortality higher than 20% suggested the acute action of the sample on the daphniids, while low reproduction indicated the presence of chronic toxicity. Sometimes an effect on survival was noted, but the number of individuals generated was always low. Semi-static chronic assays (21 day were developed in 50 mL beakers using sediment and M4 culture medium at a ratio of 1:4 (v:v. Each beakers received a microcrustacean born from lots presenting LC50-24 hours = 0.98 mg K2Cr2O7 ± 0.04 mg totaling ten replicas per sample. The assays were developed under controlled light (16 hours light/day and temperature (20 ºC ± 2 ºC conditions; RESULTS: Duncan test showed a variation in reproduction (p OBJETIVO: O rio Taquari, tributário do Lago Guaíba, constitui importante fonte econômica e ambiental para o Rio Grande do Sul, estado localizado no extremo sul do Brasil; MÉTODOS: O presente estudo avaliou a interferência do sedimento deste rio na reprodução e na sobrevivência de 320 microcrustáceos (80 organismos por local da espécie Daphnia magna. Foram monitorados quatro locais entre o curso médio e a foz do rio, utilizando oito amostras de cada local, entre junho/06 e abril/10. Mortalidade superior a 20% sugeriu ação aguda da amostra sobre os daphniids, enquanto a baixa reprodução indicou presença de toxicidade crônica. Eventualmente foi observado efeito na sobrevivência, porém a pequena geração de indivíduos foi constante. Ensaios crônicos (21 dias semi

  6. Properties of air and combustion products of fuel with air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poferl, D. J.; Svehla, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Thermodynamic and transport properties have been calculated for air, the combustion products of natural gas and air, and combustion products of ASTM-A-1 jet fuel and air. Properties calculated include: ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, Prandtl number, and enthalpy.

  7. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  8. Children who received PCV-10 vaccine from a two-dose vial without preservative are not more likely to develop injection site abscess compared with those who received pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine: a longitudinal multi-site study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemane Berhane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single dose pneumonia ten-valent vaccine has been widely used and is highly efficacious against selected strains Streptococcus pneumonia. A two-dose vial without preservative is being introduced in developing countries to reduce the cost of the vaccine. In routine settings improper immunization practice could result in microbial contamination leading to adverse events following immunization. OBJECTIVE: To monitor adverse events following immunization recommended for routine administration during infancy by comparing the rate of injection-site abscess between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and children who received the Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine. METHODS: A longitudinal population-based multi-site observational study was conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The study was conducted in four existing Health and Demographic Surveillance sites run by public universities of Abraminch, Haramaya, Gondar and Mekelle. Adverse events following Immunization were monitored by trained data collectors. Children were identified at the time of vaccination and followed at home at 48 hour and 7 day following immunization. Incidence of abscess and relative risk with the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated to examine the risk difference in the comparison groups. RESULTS: A total of 55, 268 PCV and 37, 480 Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib vaccinations were observed. A total of 19 adverse events following immunization, 10 abscesses and 9 deaths, were observed during the one year study period. The risk of developing abscess was not statistically different between children who received PCV-10 vaccine and those received Pentavalent (RR = 2.7, 95% CI 0.576-12.770, and between children who received the first aliquot of PCV and those received the second aliquot of PCV (RR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.485-6.091. CONCLUSION: No significant increase in the risk of injection site abscess was observed between the injection sites of PCV

  9. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  10. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  11. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  12. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  13. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more announcements Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can ... Partners Kids Movies NAQ Conferences NOAA Older Adults Ozone Particle Pollution (PM2.5, PM10) Publications Publicaciones (En ...

  14. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  15. Air Facility System (AFS) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Facility System (AFS) widget allows users to enter a specific location and retrieve facilities in the area of interest for stationary sources of air...

  16. State of the Air 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Social Media What's the State of Your Air ? Home > 2015 > States States State List FAQ Understanding ... Environment: Act Locally What You Can Do Healthy Air News Facebook Twitter Google Plus Instagram © American Lung ...

  17. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  18. Urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  19. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  20. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  1. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  2. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  3. EFECTOS DEL URBANISMO PRIVADO EN HUMEDALES DE LA CUENCA BAJA DEL RÍO LUJÁN. GRAN BUENOS AIRES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Pintos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tierras inundables pertenecientes a la baja cuenca del río Luján - periféricas en el contexto del Aglomerado Gran Buenos Aires (AGBA - se han visto transmutadas abruptamente durante las últimas décadas. Donde hace poco tiempo atrás se alternaban áreas urbanizadas dispersas, huertas adaptadas a esas condiciones físico naturales, recreos sindicales, emprendimientos forestales y, en especial, grandes extensiones de tierras vacantes (en su mayoría bajo dominio privado y sin un uso productivo definido, surgieron de entre los fangos de esas tierras inundables urbanizaciones cerradas, marinas, lagos, canales, complejos de oficinas corporativas, hoteles de lujo, centros comerciales, nuevos accesos viales, entre otros «artefactos de la globalización». Este trabajo, busca "marcar" y llamar la atención sobre la fase de evolución de los procesos globalizadores, en los que la economía de mercado ha consolidado el avance de las urbanizaciones cerradas sobre rellenos en áreas inundables, cuyo proceso parece no encontrar solución en el marco de desarrollo actual en la Argentina.

  4. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  5. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  6. Shock-swallowing air sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J.; Sakamoto, G. M.; Webb, L. D.; Couch, L. M.

    1979-01-01

    An air-data probe allows air to flow through it so that supersonic and hypersonic shock waves form behind pressure measuring orifices and tube instead of directly on them. Measured pressures are close to those in free-flowing air and are used to determine mach numbers of flying aircraft.

  7. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  8. Magnetoestratigrafía en una sucesión de loess/paleosuelos del Pleistoceno en Marcos Paz, provincia de Buenos Aires Magnetoestratigraphy in a Pleistocene loess-paleosoil sequence in Marcos Paz, Buenos Aires Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Bidegain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentos del Cenozoico tardío expuestos en una cantera en las cercanías de la localidad de Marcos Paz, provincia de Buenos Aires, son estudiados desde el punto de vista estratigráfico y paleomagnético. La totalidad de la sucesión, a excepción del suelo actual, es de edad pleistocena y esta integrada por limos arcillosos algo arenosos y arenas finas. A partir del análisis de registros depositacionales y de las modificaciones postdepositacionales (paleosuelos se determinaron 11 unidades estratigráficas. Las unidades 1, 2 y 3 del tramo superior corresponden a Brunhes ( 0,78 Ma. La Magnetozona Matuyama contiene subzonas de polaridad normal que fueron asignadas a las Subcronozonas Jaramillo (0,99 Ma y Olduvai (1,9 Ma. En la base del perfil geológico (U10-U11, se determinaron niveles de polaridad reversa que se asignaron a Matuyama inferior (> 1,9 Ma. Los valores más elevados de susceptibilidad volumétrica corresponden a los materiales parentales menos pedogenizados (400 x 10-5 y los más bajos a los horizontes gley (20-30 x 10-5 Si. A partir de estos registros, se confirma la existencia de un modelo magnetoclimático de fuertes vientos atenuado por pedogénesis y meteorización, establecido en trabajos anteriores.Late Cenozoic sediments exposed in a quarry in the locality of Marcos Paz (Buenos Aires province are studied from a stratigraphic and paleomagnetic point of view. The whole sequence, with the exception of the recent soil, belongs to the Pleistocene and is integrated by clayey silts, partly sandy and also by a layer of fine sand. Eleven different depositional/postdepositional units, numbered from unit 1 to 11 downwards, were determined. The units 1, 2 and 3 at the upper part of the geological section should be assigned to Brunhes ( 0.78 Ma. Matuyama Magnetozone includes some subzones of normal polarity that should be assigned to the Subchron Jaramillo (0.99 Ma and to the Subchron Olduvai (1.9 Ma. The reverse polarity levels

  9. Procesos de formación del registro arqueológico en el sitio Cortaderas (partido de San Cayetano, provincia de Buenos Aires Fotmation processes of the archaeological record at cortaderas site (San Cayetano district, Buenos Aires province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Massigoge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los primeros resultados del estudio de los procesos de formación del sitio Cortaderas (partido de San Cayetano, provincia de Buenos Aires, especialmente aquellos vinculados a la formación del conjunto faunístico recuperado en la unidad sedimentaria II y en la sección superior de la unidad III. La unidad II se corresponde con sedimentos vinculados a una antigua planicie de inundación y está ubicada temporalmente en el Holoceno tardío. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es identificar los procesos culturales y naturales que participaron en la formación del conjunto faunístico para comenzar a discutir su historia tafonómica. Los análisis arqueofaunísticos apoyan la explotación de recursos animales en el sitio, principalmente guanaco (Lama guanicoe y secundariamente venado de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus. Aunque se recuperó gran número de placas de armadillos y restos asignados a otros taxa, no hay evidencias seguras de su aprovechamiento. El conjunto faunístico presenta un alto grado de fragmentación. Las raíces y los animales cavadores parecen ser los principales agentes naturales responsables de esta característica. Otro factor que puede haber contribuido al alto grado de fragmentación es el procesamiento antrópico.This article presents the preliminary results of the study of the formation processes at Cortaderas site (San Cayetano District, Buenos Aires Province, specifically those processes related to the formation of the faunal assemblage recovered in the geological unit II and in the upper section of unit III. Unit II is composed of sediments related to an ancient floodplain, and a radiocarbon date from a fragmented bone places the unit within the late Holocene period. The main objective of this work is to identify the cultural and natural processes that participated in the formation of the faunal assemblage. The zooarchaeological analysis supports the anthropic utilization of

  10. Nuevos registros de Hippidion (Mammalia, Perissodactyla en el Pleistoceno tardío de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado, José Luis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two new skulls referred to Hippidion principale (Lund and vaRíous elements of the appendicular skeleton referred to H. devillei from two classic localities from Buenos Aires province: the Salado and Quequén Grande Rivers. For taxonomic identification of the appendicular remains was performed a multivariate analysis that included the metacarpals and phalanges described and several remains recorded in various locations in Argentina and Brazil. For the determination of the skulls was made a comparative study with other skulls from different localities. These data increasing the record of Hippidion in South America and provide new evidence about the chronological distribution of two species of Hippidion. One radiometric data was obtained by the method of AMS dating to the skull from Salado River (MHM-P54 about a 14C age 14120 ± 50 BP. In general, bearing sediments at both localities are referable to the Lujanian Age and the Biozone of Equus (Amerhippus neogeus.En este estudio se describen dos nuevos cráneos referidos a Hippidion principale (Lund y varios elementos del esqueleto apendicular referidos a H. devillei procedentes de dos localidades clásicas de la provincia de Buenos Aires, las márgenes de los ríos Salado y Quequén Grande. Para la identificación taxonómica de los restos apendiculares, se realizó un análisis multivariante en el que se incluyeron los metacarpianos y falanges descritos y los registrados en varias localidades de Argentina y Brasil. Para la determinación de los cráneos se realizó un estudio comparativo con otros cráneos de diversas localidades. Estos hallazgos incrementan el registro de Hippidion en América del Sur y aportan nuevas evidencias sobre la cronología de sus especies en Argentina. Se realizó una datación por AMS para el ejemplar de Río Salado (MHM-P54 que ha suministrado una edad 14C 14120 ± 50 BP. En general, los sedimentos portadores en ambas localidades son referibles a

  11. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  12. Adobe AIR for Android -sovelluskehitys

    OpenAIRE

    Palovuori, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään sovelluskehitystä Android-laitteille Adoben AIR for Android -tekniikkaa hyväksi käyttäen. Tavoitteena on esitellä sovelluskehityksen periaatteita Adoben Flash-tekniikkaan pohjautuvan AIR for Android -teknologian kannalta. Työ on tehty Yleisradio Oy:n toimeksiantona ja toimii johdatuksena AIR-sovelluksen kehittämiseen AIR for Android -teknologialla. Työssä esitellään yleisesti rikkaat internet-sovellukset ja käydään tarkemmin läpi Adoben AIR-teknologia sek...

  13. Relações entre tamanho de sedimentos erodidos, velocidade da enxurrada, rugosidade superficial criada pelo preparo e tamanho de agregados em solo submetido a diferentes manejos Relationships between size of eroded sediments, runoff velocity, surface roughness created by tillage, and size of aggregates in a soil submmited to different managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bochi da Silva Volk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores determinam a seletividade do processo de erosão hídrica pluvial no que se refere ao tamanho dos sedimentos transportados na enxurrada. Dentre eles, destacam-se a intensidade da chuva e da enxurrada a ela associada, a textura e o grau de consolidação da camada superficial do solo, a forma em que a erosão ocorre (entre sulcos, sulco ou voçoroca, a cobertura do solo por resíduos culturais, o microrrelevo do terreno ou a rugosidade superficial resultante do seu preparo e o tamanho e a estabilidade dos agregados do solo. Considerando isso, realizou-se este trabalho com o propósito de estabelecer relações quantitativas entre o índice D50 da distribuição de tamanho dos sedimentos erodidos, a velocidade da enxurrada, o índice IR da rugosidade superficial do solo criada pelo preparo e o diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP dos agregados do solo, em solo submetido a diferentes formas de manejo. O estudo foi desenvolvido em campo, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul (RS, aplicando-se chuva simulada sobre um Argissolo Vermelho com textura francoargiloarenosa na camada superficial e declividade média de 0,115 m m-1. Esse solo havia sido submetido ao uso agrícola de diferentes modos (cultivos contínuo e interrompido, com diferentes sequências culturais (gramíneas e leguminosas de inverno e verão, implantadas em fileira, usando a técnica de semeadura direta, durante 7,5 anos (partindo da condição original de campo nativo. Efetuaram-se sete testes de erosão na pesquisa, cada um deles na intensidade constante de chuva de 63,5 mm h-1 e com duração de 1,5 h, usando o simulador de chuva de braços rotativos e parcelas experimentais com dimensões de 3,5 x 11,0 m cada uma. Os referidos testes de erosão foram realizados nas seguintes condições físicas de superfície do solo: (a solo não-mobilizado, com completa e nenhuma cobertura por res

  14. Análisis de la sensibilización de los jóvenes ante la seguridad vial. Bases para la elaboración de un programa. [Analysis of road safety awareness in young people. Bases for the development of a road safety programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Reina Ferrández

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to establish the foundations for a traffic accident prevention programme, based on a study of specific circumstances. To this end, we analysed awareness of road safety measure use in young people according to three variables; whether they had any experience of an accident; if so, how serious the accident was, and how close the kinship relation was to the person who had the accident. The findings did not confirm our expectations, but showed that awareness is not clearly related to any of these three variables, except where either a brother or sister was involved in the accident and when the accident was not serious. Con nuestra investigación pretendemos aproximar las bases para el diseño de un programa de prevención de accidentes, a partir del estudio de una realidad concreta. Para ello hemos analizado la sensibilización hacia el uso de medidas de seguridad vial en adolescentes en función de tres variables: la vivencia o no de un accidente, la gravedad del mismo y el grado de parentesco. Los resultados obtenidos, en contra de lo esperado, constatan que la sensibilización no está relacionada inequívocamente con ellas, a excepción de los hermanos en cuanto al grado de parentesco y leve en cuanto a la gravedad.

  15. AIR VELOCITY SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘本琛

    1992-01-01

    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  16. Ag-Air Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  17. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134 Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio Aurélio Morais Freire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, em um sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parcelada em duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliados nas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at 08

  18. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V

    2008-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas et.al about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas et.al might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas et.al are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  19. Community structure of the macroinfauna in the sediments below an intertidal mussel bed (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe of southern Chile Estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna en los sedimentos bajo un banco intermareal de bivalvos (Mytilus chilensis (Hupe en el sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN DUARTE

    2006-09-01

    poliquetos fue significativamente más alta en los sedimentos fuera del banco de bivalvos (estaciones tres, cuatro y cinco, en tanto que la contribución porcentual de los oligoquetos fue significativamente más alta en los sedimentos muestreados dentro del banco (estaciones uno y dos. No se registraron diferencias significativas en la contribución porcentual de los crustáceos peracáridos entre las distintas estaciones de muestreo. Los resultados gráficos del análisis de escalamiento multidimensional no métrico, mostraron que el ensamble de la macroinfauna de las estaciones localizadas dentro del banco de bivalvos difirió de aquellas localizadas fuera del mismo. Los resultados de los análisis de SIMPER y ANOSIM mostraron que la composición de la macroinfauna de las estaciones uno y dos fue significativamente disimilar (61-54 % a la de las estaciones ubicadas fuera del banco, cuyas composiciones faunísticas fueron similares. Los resultados gráficos del análisis de escalamiento multidimensional no métrico basado en las características sedimentológicas, mostraron que la mayoría de las réplicas de la estaciones uno y dos se separaron del resto de estaciones (i.e. aquellas localizadas fuera del banco. Los resultados del ANDEVA mostraron diferencias significativas para todas las variables sedimentológicas, excepto para el porcentaje de grava y tamaño medio de la partícula, observándose las diferencias más marcadas en la estación 1 (más bajos contenidos de arena y más altos contenidos de fango, agregados biogénicos y materia orgánica total. Los resultados de la rutina BIO-ENV, mostraron que el mejor ajuste entre la composición taxonómica de la macroinfauna y una variable sedimentológica, se alcanzó con el porcentaje de arena y fango. Se concluye, que los bancos de bivalvos de fondos sedimentarios del sur de Chile influyen significativamente sobre las características sedimentológicas y la estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna, debido

  20. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  1. Comparison of indoor air and outdoor air contaminant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pykhova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Since most people spend their time indoors, there has been increased interest in air pollution concen-trations. Number of very small liquid and solid particles suspended in the air is depending on different factors. But how should be decreased particle number? The field of this work is particulate matter concentration in the indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were carried out in number concentration. The Indoor-Outdoor correlation was de-termined in order to investigate normative parti...

  2. Sights from the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartara, P.

    2009-04-01

    The first aerial shots were taken by aerostat balloon during the second half of the nineteen century for military purpose and subsequently utilized for civilian, archaeological and town planning uses (Roman Forum 1900, Pompei 1910, Venezia 1913, etc.). Sights from the air have given the most objective representation of the landscape and traces progressively left by human activities. After the First World War the use of airplanes for photogrammetric shots suitable to create cartography (territorial map making) has permitted to realize a good basic documentation; successively it has been increased by aerial reconnaissance during the Second World War. Aerial shots by RAF, USAF and Luftwaffe brought to the establishment of rich aerial photograph Archives, particularly in Europe, which have had a very low utilization for the historical restoration of landscape. From the fifties, aerial documentation becomes systematic for different scale analysis and territorial planning. The use of satellite imagery and multispectral bands integrates the historical and recent aerial photographs; the former is particularly helpful for cartography updating, for large scale environmental analysis, for study and research of territories with not available air photographs or lacking in aerial shots. The amount and density of archaeological buried evidences, unknown at the most, is very substantial in Italy and in the whole Mediterranean area; here air-photo interpretation is being applied at advanced levels, but not systematically, since several decades. Some archaeological research teams, working for the knowledge of territorial cultural heritage, utilize historical and recent aerial photographs intensively (aerial photographs previous the II WW, just before the intensive and extensive use of mechanical means to till the land, preserve a large amount of traces or cropmarks of buried evidences; recent shots taken on different conditions of climate and crops, allow to see and read important

  3. Air climate health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'France Nature Environnement Ile de France' publishes, on occasion of the COP 21, a special paper about the air pollution in the Paris region, greenhouse gases and their influence on the environment. This document has been written in close cooperation with professionals and civil associations. Elected representatives from local and regional authorities also speak about their experiences. The first part emphasizes the urgency to accelerate preventive and corrective measures since the air pollution, after slightly decreasing in the 2000's, remains stable. Our work is a science based analysis of essential parameters and details the impact of local pollution and greenhouse gases on the climate. It is based on the GIEC 2013 and 2015 reports, as well as the work of National meteorology in association with the Climate agency of Paris. The threshold of not exceeding an average temperature of +2 deg. C in 2100 is almost reached. If consumption of fossil energies does not heavily decline in the next 10 years, the earth's thermal machine will enter, for several centuries, into an uncontrollable cycle which could endanger life on earth with average temperatures exceeding 4 to 6 deg. C above the current level. The second part reveals the impact of air pollution on the health of the Paris region's population, especially on women who are the most affected by respiratory diseases: obstructive pulmonary bronchitis and asthma. Four departments are particularly affected: Paris, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. Even though we do not have the formal causal proof between gas concentration and disease, analysis of similar situations worldwide eliminate any doubts about the reality of the relationship. The third part proposes solutions which can be implemented by local government, companies, but also civil associations and citizens in order to quickly decrease greenhouse gas production. Solutions range from energy sobriety to change in travel

  4. Air ions and aerosol science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, Hannes

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4-1.8 nm.

  5. Air ions and aerosol science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammet, H. [Department of Environmental Physics, Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia (Estonia) 2400

    1996-03-01

    Collaboration between Gas Discharge and Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Electricity, and Aerosol Science is a factor of success in the research of air ions. The concept of air ion as of any carrier of electrical current through the air is inherent to Atmospheric Electricity under which a considerable statistical information about the air ion mobility spectrum is collected. A new model of air ion size-mobility correlation has been developed proceeding from Aerosol Science and joining the methods of neighboring research fields. The predicted temperature variation of the mobility disagrees with the commonly used Langevin rule for the reduction of air ion mobilities to the standard conditions. Concurrent errors are too big to be neglected in applications. The critical diameter distinguishing cluster ions and charged aerosol particles has been estimated to be 1.4{endash}1.8 nm. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry...

  8. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  9. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  10. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  11. Photochemical air pollution syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamming, W.J.; MacBeth, W.C.; Chass, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    There are two distinct pollution problems in the Los Angeles Basin - one in winter, the other most frequently in summer and fall. In winter the concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and black filterable aerosols are higher than in summer, but the secondary pollutants such as ozone and photochemical oxidants are not as high. The photochemical air pollution syndrome is due to a pattern set by previous smog attacks. This pattern is due to low wind speeds, low inversion heights, a trajectory to carry the pollution and sufficient sunlight to photodissociate the nitrogen dioxide formed and to form nitric oxide and atomic oxygen. The results are high levels of oxidant or ozone and large quantities of particles. 5 references, 9 figures, 7 tables.

  12. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  13. metropolitana en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pírez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a description of some concrete processes that made up the transformations in the metropolitan configuration and functioning in Buenos Aires in the 1990s during the 20th Century. We are referring to components related to the impact of processes at the macro level (national and international pertaining to restructuring and globalisation. We aim to understand the “forces” that mediate between the global and the local arenas, identifying the actors and the relationships behind metropolitan changes as well as searching for the meaning that the city acquires and which is understood as “privatisation”. In the first section of the paper, this concept is made explicit.

  14. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  15. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  16. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  17. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  18. Fundamentals of air pollution. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubel, R.W.; Fox, D.L.; Turner, D.B.; Stern, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    This book presents an overview of air pollution. In Part I, the history of air pollution and the basic concepts involved with air pollution such as sources, scales, definitions are covered. Part II describes how airborne pollutants damage materials, vegetation, animals, and humans. Six fundamental aspects of air pollution are included in the text: The Elements of Air Pollution; The Effects of Air Pollution; Measurement and Monitoring of Air Pollution; Meterology of Air Pollution; regulatory Control of Air Pollution; and Engineering Control of Air Pollution.

  19. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  20. Avaliação de risco ambiental por contaminação metálica e material orgânico em sedimentos da bacia do Rio Aurá, Região Metropolitana de Belém - PA Evaluation of environmental risk by metallic contamination and organic compounds in sediments of the Aurá River basin, Belém, Pará - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar W. Siqueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do Rio Aurá está situada na região metropolitana de Belém, entre os municípios de Belém e Ananindeua, onde a taxa populacional tem aumentado sem qualquer medida de controle social ou ambiental. A região é intensamente explorada, sendo que os principais problemas ambientais são o desmatamento, erosão, inundação, poluição e contaminação das águas, especialmente por metais pesados e compostos orgânicos. O comportamento geoquímico dos elementos Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni e Cu e os teores de compostos orgânicos foram avaliados em 30 pontos de amostragem no período entre 2008 e 2010 nos sedimentos fluviais. O aterro sanitário não controlado localizado nas proximidades da bacia do Rio Aurá é responsável, em parte, pela contaminação dos sedimentos. O estresse ambiental é resultado das atividades antrópicas locais, que contribuem no transporte de material clástico contendo metais para o rio. As variáveis estudadas foram classificadas segundo mecanismos de transporte e fonte (autóctone ou alóctone. Os resultados demonstraram que a principal contribuição de íons Al e Fe foi o aterro sanitário; Mn e Ni vieram principalmente dos solos adjacentes; Cr foi modificado (III/VI por processo alobioquímico e Cu por processo bioinduzido.The Aurá River basin is situated in the Belém Metropolitan region, between the municipalities of Belém and Ananindeua, where the rate of population growth has increased without any social and environmental control. The region is intensely exploited and the more frequent environmental problems are deforestation, erosion, flooding, water pollution and contamination, especially by heavy metals and organic compounds (OC. Geochemistry behavior (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Cu and OC levels were determined in the 30 sampling sites between 2008 and 2010 in the bottom sediments of the river. There is an uncontrolled sanitary landfill situated at the north of the Aurá River responsible, in part, by the