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Sample records for aire secundario caliente

  1. Inyección de aire secundario caliente en calderas de vapor bagaceras y su influencia en el rendimiento térmico Injection of heated secondary air in steam bagasse boilers and its influence on thermal efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Golato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Como alternativa para aumentar la eficiencia térmica de calderas bagaceras productoras de vapor, se evalúa la inyección de aire secundario al hogar, previamente calentado. Además, se reúne información sobre la combustión y los factores que influyen en dicho fenómeno. Se calculó el rendimiento térmico en una caldera bagacera con inyección de aire secundario frío, mediante el empleo de balances de masa y energía con datos de ensayos experimentales. Se planteó luego un modelo teórico para el caso de calentar todo este aire secundario, y se determinó el nuevo rendimiento térmico. Finalmente se realizó un análisis técnico-económico para evaluar la rentabilidad del uso de esta tecnología, teniendo en cuenta el ahorro de bagazo y su equivalente en gas natural. Para el caso analizado, los resultados mostraron: aumento del rendimiento térmico de la caldera (1,62 puntos; mejora del índice de generación de vapor (2,27%; reducción del consumo de bagazo (2,45%; aceptable periodo de repago de la inversión (114 días de zafra.Previously heated secondary air injection is evaluated as an alternative to increase thermal efficiency of bagasse steam boilers. Aspects regarding the combustion process and the factors affecting it are also described. Tests were made in a bagasse boiler of a sugar mill. Thermal efficiency of the bagasse boiler with cold secondary air injection was determined by solving mass and energy balances. A new thermal efficiency for the case in which all secondary air is pre-heated with hot gases was determined afterwards. Finally, a technical-economic analysis was made to evaluate the yield of this technology, taking into account bagasse saving and its equivalent in natural gas. For the analyzed case, the results showed: an increase in the thermal efficiency of the boiler (1,62 points; a higher steam production index (2,27%; a reduction in bagasse consumption (2,45%; an acceptable payback period of the investment (114

  2. Cinéticas de deshidratación con aire caliente de zanahoria (Daucus caroto) en rodajas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Sibaja, Ana María; Fito Maupoey, Pedro

    1994-01-01

    Se realizó el Estudio de las cinéticas de secado con aire caliente de rodajas de zanahoria escaldadas. Se evaluaron diferentes temperaturas (60, 70 y 80 °C), humedades absolutas (12 y 55 g agua/kg aire seco) y velocidades del aire (0,5, 1,5 y 2,1 m/s). Se encontró un importante efecto de la temperatura en el proceso de secado: a mayores temperaturas el proceso se acelera, sin embargo la calidad sensorial se ve modificada. Las mejores condiciones para la deshidratación de zanahoria en rodajas ...

  3. INFLUENCIA DE UN PRE-TRATAMIENTO OSMÓTICO SOBRE LA DESHIDRATACIÓN POR AIRE CALIENTE DE MANZANA GRANNY SMITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS PUENTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de un pretratamiento osmótico (DO a tres concentraciones (30, 40 y 50 ºBrix sobre un proceso de deshidratación de manzana por aire caliente (SAC a dos temperaturas (55 y 65 ºC. Las velocidades de deshidratación fueron mayores para las manzanas pretratadas en comparación al producto fresco, distinguiéndose una corta primera etapa de inducción solo en SAC, en ambos tipos de tratamiento (DO+SAC una imperceptible segunda etapa de velocidad constante, y una clara tercera etapa de velocidad de deshidratación decreciente I y II. La velocidad de deshidratación se modeló utilizando las ecuaciones de Newton, Page y HendersonPabis. De estos modelos el que mejor explica el proceso fue la ecuación de Page, seguida por Newton y HendersonPabis. Respecto de la temperatura, los niveles ensayados fueron significativos como factor de proceso al presentar una interacción con los pretratamientos osmóticos. La mejor condición la conformó el pretratamiento osmótico DO 50º Brix con aire caliente SAC 65 ºC.

  4. DOE/NV/26383-LTR2008-01 Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Caliente, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Beatty, Sarcobatus Flats, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat NWR, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of the site's sampling program.

  5. Construcción de un modelo de secador de yuca, en medio poroso, usando flujo radial de aire caliente

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    Néstor Durango

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño y fabricación de un secador radial de yuca, en lecho poroso, usando energía eléctrica como fuente de calentamiento del aire de secado. Se presentan las pruebas llevadas a cabo en el secador con el fin de analizar su desempeño energético, la tasa de remoción de humedad en función del tiempo y las temperaturas de operación del mismo

  6. Cinética de secado de fruta bomba (Carica papaya L., cv. Maradol Roja) mediante los métodos de deshidratación osmótica y por flujo de aire caliente

    OpenAIRE

    Daybelis Fernández Valdés; Sahylin Muñiz Becerá; Annia García Pereira; Rafael Cervantes Beyra; Dayvis Fernández Valdés

    2015-01-01

    La deshidratación es uno de los métodos más utilizados para la conservación de frutas y vegetales, mediante su uso se logra extender los períodos de almacenamiento preservando siempre la calidad de los productos. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el comportamiento cinético de las principales propiedades de la fruta bomba (Carica papaya L, cv. Maradol Roja) durante los procesos agroindustriales de deshidratación osmótica (DO) y por flujo de aire caliente (DAC). Las frutas se cort...

  7. Metabolismo secundario de plantas.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El metabolismo es el conjunto de reacciones químicas que realizan las células de los seres vivos para sintetizar sustancias complejas a partir de otras más simples, o para degradar las complejas y obtener las simples. Las plantas, organismos autótrofos, además del metabolismo primario presente en todos los seres vivos, poseen un metabolismo secundario que les permite producir y acumular compuestos de naturaleza química diversa. Estos compuestos derivados del metabolismo secundario se denomina...

  8. Análisis comparativo de la cinética de deshidratación Osmótica y por Flujo de Aire Caliente de la Piña (Ananas Comosus, variedad Cayena lisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia García Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos tecnológicos de deshidratación han sido algunos de los métodos más utilizados para la conservación de frutas y vegetales. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar comparativamente la cinética de la deshidratación Osmótica (DO y por Flujo de Aire Caliente (DAC de la Piña (Ananas Comosus, variedad Cayena lisa para la Agroindustria. Durante el análisis se determinaron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de las frutas frescas y de los cubos deshidratadas (masa, firmeza, talla, pH, y contenido de sólidos solubles (SSC, posteriormente las frutas fueron troceadas en cubos de 1 x 5 ±0.02 cm para ser sometidas a tratamientos de Deshidratación Osmótica (DO (60 °C durante 10 h y por Deshidratación por Flujo de Aire Caliente (DAC (60°C durante 5 h. Se monitoreó además la variación de la masa, la firmeza y el porcentaje de pérdida de peso durante ambos procesos. Para el procesamiento estadístico de los datos se utiliza el software especializado Statgraphics Plus en su versión 5.1. Como resultado se obtuvo que la variabilidad alcanzada a partir de la diferencia entre los valores iniciales y finales de la masa, firmeza y el aumento del porcentaje de pérdida de peso fue inferior para la fruta sometida al proceso tecnológico de DO con valores de 49,4; 86 y 64,17%, que para la obtenida por DAC con valores 80; 88,3; y 80%, respectivamente, resultando también el método que mayor variabilidad aportó entre las propiedades estudiadas.

  9. Agua Caliente and Their Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryterband, Roman

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the traditional music of the Agua Caliente band of California's Desert Cahuilla Indian tribe, including accompanying instruments, types of songs, thematic material, and performance routines. Exploring the structure of the music, the article describes meter, tempo, harmony and tonal gravitations, and use of words. (DS)

  10. Automatización de un Secador Convectivo de Aire Caliente para fines de Docencia en Ingeniería de Alimentos Automation of a Convective Hot Air Dryer for Teaching in Food Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Saavedra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe el diseño y montaje de un dispositivo experimental para la automatización de un secador de aire caliente con flujo paralelo en co-corriente para realizar estudios de secado. El desarrollo del trabajo se dividió en dos actividades principales: (i diseño del sistema de automatización y (ii la validación de los datos entregados por el equipo. Se obtuvo un dispositivo capaz de registrar las variables del proceso de secado y de la imagen de la muestra deshidratada en tiempo real, como así mismo transmitir dicha información a través de Internet. Los datos procesados por el sistema automático comparados con experiencias manuales tradicionales (no automatizadas se validaron estadísticamente. Se concluye finalmente que la propuesta es viable, fiable y atractiva para el usuario por lo que facilita el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en un área de especial importancia en Ingeniería de Alimentos.This paper describes the design and installation of an automated experimental device applied to a parallel co-current hot air dryer to perform drying studies in the field of food engineering. The development of this work was divided into two main activities: (i design of the automation system and (ii validation of automatically collected data. A device capable of collecting and registering real time data and images from drying processes, and transmitting them through Internet was obtained. The data processed by the automatic device was statistically validated. It is concluded that the proposed automation device is feasible, reliable and attractive for the users, facilitating the teaching-learning process in an important area of Food Engineering.

  11. Heat pumping using the thermal earth gradient to produce air conditioned and hot water with savings of up to 70%; Bombeo de calor utilizando el gradiente termico de la tierra para producir aire acondicionado y agua caliente con ahorros de hasta un 70%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Ramirez, Alejandro [Novaenergia de Mexico S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The pumping of heat using the Earth heat as partial energy source bases its principle on which the energy of the ground is constant and the energy efficiency to produce air conditioning and hot water simultaneously is important, obtaining savings up to 70%, comparing itself with the traditional equipment and what these operate of separated way to produce each one of them the cold air and the hot water. The use of this technology presents an opportunity to reduce the energy costs of and the demand of the company. [Spanish] El bombeo de calor utilizando el calor de la tierra como fuente parcial de energia basa su principio en que la energia del suelo es constante y el rendimiento energetico para producir simultaneamente aire acondicionado y agua caliente es importante, obteniendose ahorros hasta de un 70%, comparandose con los equipos tradicionales y que estos operan de manera separada para producir cada uno de ellos el aire frio y el agua caliente. El uso de esta tecnologia presenta una oportunidad para reducir los costos de energia y demanda de la empresa.

  12. Neumomediastino secundario a estornudos

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    Lucía González-González

    2014-09-01

    El neumomediastino espontaneo (NE se define como la aparición de aire libre en el mediastino sin antecedentes previos de traumatismo, cirugía o procedimientos médicos. Se trata de una patología poco frecuente que se suele presentar de forma brusca con dolor torácico y/o cervical, disnea o síntomas de enfisema subcutáneo.

  13. Conformabilidad en caliente de aceros Twip

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda huitrón, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    En el presente proyecto de investigación, se trabajó con un acero de alto contenido en manganeso austenitico, TWIP, este acero se clasifica dentro de los aceros denominados: Aceros Avanzados de Alta Resistencia mecánica (AHSS). En este estudio se pretende estudiar las condiciones de trabajo en caliente óptimas para este acero, de modo que se pueda potenciar al máximo su resistencia sin penalizar su ductilidad. Para ello se efectuarán ensayos de compresión en caliente bajo difer...

  14. Tierra Caliente, Michoacán

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    C. I. Villa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de producción ganaderos de la región de Tierra Caliente están vinculados al manejo agrosilvopastoril, aprovechando una amplia gama de recursos forrajeros naturales, siendo las familias quienes conducen la administración y aprovechamiento de dichos recursos. Se buscó definir las características, recursos forrajeros aprovechables e insumos alimenticios, estimando su calidad nutricional, con el fin de encontrar estrategias de alimentación de ganado que reduzcan al mínimo el uso de insumos externos al interior de las unidades productivas. Se trabajó en comunidades del municipio de Tuzantla, en la región de Tierra Caliente del estado de Michoacán. El método incluye la recolección de información por medio de encuestas aplicadas a productores campesinos, durante el ciclo productivo 2007. Se analizaron de 200 a 300 g de 41 muestras de alimentos con el método de Wendee, para analizar su composición química. Se encontró que para la región de Tierra Caliente existe un sistema de producción bovina de mediana escala, semi-estabulado y trashumante que, en promedio, tiene 250 a 260 ha y 86 cabezas de ganado destinado a la producción de carne y pie de cría, y que producen 9.2 l/vaca/día; con esta leche se elabora queso a razón de 1kg de queso por cada 10 litros de leche. Se identificó, también, el uso de seis ingredientes fundamentales que componen dos dietas básicas, cuya composición química detectada fue de 10.2- 13.9% (PC, 7.9-11.8% (FC, 62.8-67.9% (ELN, 1.4-5% (EE y 1.9-8.8% (cenizas. Por tanto, se concluye que los ganaderos cubren los requerimientos nutricionales con base en el alto uso de concentrados, dejando los forrajes para satisfacer las necesidades de consumo de su ganado. Por esto, se requiere establecer un sistema de balanceo de raciones que permita optimizar los recursos

  15. Evaluación económica de la aplicación de los procesos tecnológicos de deshidratación Osmótica y por Flujo de Aire Caliente de la piña (Ananas Comosus variedad Cayena lisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia García Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación de métodos de conservación se reconoce como una variante efectiva para incrementar el aprovechamiento y mejor utilización de las producciones agrícolas. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar a través de indicadores económicos la aplicación de la deshidratación Osmótica y por Flujo de Aire Caliente de la Piña (Ananas Comosus, variedad Cayena lisa. Durante el análisis se utiliza la metodología propuesta en la NC 34-38:2001 con algunas modificaciones. Para el procesamiento de los datos se utiliza la herramienta Excel de Microsoft office 7. Como resultado se obtuvo que los gastos totales del proceso ascienden a un monto de 49.07 pesos para la DO y 15.03 pesos para la DAC para procesar 550 g en cada proceso.

  16. ERITEMA NODOSO Y SINDROME FEBRIL PROLONGADO ASOCIADOS A HIPERPARATIROIDISMO SECUNDARIO

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    Enz P

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  17. Ecuaciones constitutivas de la fluencia en caliente de aceros microaleados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, J. M.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries, the hot forming has been employed to provide shape to metáis. Nowadays, the deformation at high temperatures gives also the required final mechanical properties. From this point of view, the obtention of a constitutive equation describing the hot flow behaviour of microalloyed steels in particular is a very important task. The main difficulty in modelling the high temperature flow arises from the simultaneity of two opposite phenomena, namely, work hardening and dynamic softening due to recovery and recrystallization. In this is work a review of constitutive equations (including the effect of the chemical composition describing the flow behaviour of microalloyed steels deformed under high temperature conditions.

    Durante siglos el conformado en caliente se ha utilizado para proporcionar a los metales la forma deseada. Hoy en día la deformación en caliente no sólo genera la geometría deseada sino las características mecánicas requeridas. Así, la obtención de una ecuación constitutiva para la fluencia en caliente de un acero en particular, es una tarea ineludible para efectuar simulaciones por ordenador de procesos industriales. La complicación de la modelización de la fluencia a alta temperatura proviene de la simultaneidad de dos fenómenos contrapuestos durante la deformación, a saber, endurecimiento por deformación y ablandamiento por recuperación de la estructura. Este último a su vez puede constar de restauración y recristalización dinámicas. En este trabajo se revisan y plantean las ecuaciones constitutivas que describen las curvas de fluencia bajo condiciones de deformación en caliente, y se presenta una aplicación de las mismas a aceros microaleados.

  18. Calient Networks chosen as core platform for OptIPuter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Calient Networks, a provider of intelligent all-optical switching systems and software, will team with the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Cal-(IT)2) and the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) on development of the "OptIPuter,". This is a powerful distributed cyber-infrastructure project designed to support data-intensive scientific research and collaboration (1/2 page).

  19. Glaucoma secundario a neurofibromatosis tipo-1

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    Anay Martínez Díaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de 59 años de edad, con antecedentes de neurofibromatosis tipo 1 y trauma contuso del ojo derecho desde hace años. Acudió a consulta de oftalmología refiriendo disminución lenta de la visión; al examen físico se constató una agudeza visual de 0.6 en ambos ojos, así como disminución concéntrica del campo visual en la perimetría por confrontación. El examen objetivo mostró en los anexos una pingüécula en ojo derecho y pterigion grado II en ojo izquierdo; en segmento anterior, múltiples nódulos de Lisch en el iris de ambos ojos, y en el ojo derecho, pupila ligeramente midriática, pero reactiva. Se le realizó gonoscopia, oftalmoscopia y perimetría Humphry; en esta última se halló un escotoma arqueado en ojo derecho, y un defecto superior arqueado en el ojo izquierdo. Se concluyó el caso con los diagnósticos de catarata presenil incipiente y glaucoma secundario a neurofibromatosis tipo 1.

  20. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes... proceeding of Agua Caliente Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  1. El movimiento estudiantil secundario: del golpe de Onganía al Cordobazo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hay muy pocos trabajos sobre el movimiento estudiantil secundario en la Argentina que, a su vez, evidencia un muy acotado sustento empírico. En los últimos años ha sido más considerado por el protagonismo que alcanzó a partir de la toma de establecimientos como forma de lucha para reclamar por sus demandas, especialmente en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. En la región, cobró relevancia por el despliegue de acciones realizado por el estudiantado chileno (los “pingüinos”). Más allá de esta coyuntura...

  2. El Metronidazol en los agrandamientos gingivales secundarios a Ciclosporina A

    OpenAIRE

    FL Mesa; A. Osuna; Aneiros, J; Bravo, J.; P Junco; RG Del Moral; F O´Valle

    2002-01-01

    Introducción: El agrandamiento gingival (AG) secundario a fármacos continúa siendo un problema importante para los periodoncistas. Han sido comunicadas remisiones parciales o totales del AG tras tratamientos cortos con diversos antibióticos. Métodos: Hemos realizado un estudio aleatorio controlado a doble ciego para determinar el efecto del tratamiento con metronidazol durante siete días (250 mg/3 veces al día) sobre el AG incipiente secundario a ciclosporina A en pacientes adultos trasplanta...

  3. Provenance and Detrital-Zircon Studies of the Mint Canyon Formation and its Correlation to the Caliente Formation, Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    hoyt, johanna

    2012-01-01

    The Middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente formations represent sedimentation after triple-junction extension in southern California. Sandstone and conglomerate petrology, combined with detrital-zircon analysis, determines provenance of the Mint Canyon and Caliente formations. These data indicate that most detritus is locally derived, rather than being derived from the Chocolate Mountains across the San Andreas fault. The Mint Canyon and Caliente formations received Proterozoic anorthosite-s...

  4. La olla judía del šabbat: estudio lexicológico y lexicográfico de "adafina", "ḥamín", "caliente(s)" y otras denominaciones

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se aborda un detallado estudio lexicológico y lexicográfico de las distintas denominaciones de la olla judía del sábado en castellano, adafina, ḥamín, caliente(s) y otras denominaciones menos conocidas. Este plato constituía un e

  5. Agua Caliente Wind/Solar Project at Whitewater Ranch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Palm Springs, CA (United States); Stewart, Royce [Red Mountain Energy Partners, Sante Fe, NM (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) was awarded a grant by the Department of Energy (DOE) to study the feasibility of a wind and/or solar renewable energy project at the Whitewater Ranch (WWR) property of ACBCI. Red Mountain Energy Partners (RMEP) was engaged to conduct the study. The ACBCI tribal lands in the Coachella Valley have very rich renewable energy resources. The tribe has undertaken several studies to more fully understand the options available to them if they were to move forward with one or more renewable energy projects. With respect to the resources, the WWR property clearly has excellent wind and solar resources. The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has continued to upgrade and refine their library of resource maps. The newer, more precise maps quantify the resources as among the best in the world. The wind and solar technology available for deployment is also being improved. Both are reducing their costs to the point of being at or below the costs of fossil fuels. Technologies for energy storage and microgrids are also improving quickly and present additional ways to increase the wind and/or solar energy retained for later use with the network management flexibility to provide power to the appropriate locations when needed. As a result, renewable resources continue to gain more market share. The transitioning to renewables as the major resources for power will take some time as the conversion is complex and can have negative impacts if not managed well. While the economics for wind and solar systems continue to improve, the robustness of the WWR site was validated by the repeated queries of developers to place wind and/or solar there. The robust resources and improving technologies portends toward WWR land as a renewable energy site. The business case, however, is not so clear, especially when the potential investment portfolio for ACBCI has several very beneficial and profitable alternatives.

  6. 76 FR 56790 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the Caliente Resource Management Plan and Associated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Caliente RMP identifies parcels one and two for land tenure adjustment through land exchanges to consolidate natural resource values. Under the Caliente RMP, public lands identified for land tenure... tenure adjustment. All public lands in the Coast Management Area were identified as possibly...

  7. LOS ESTUDIANTES SECUNDARIOS DURANTE LA UNIDAD POPULAR, 1970-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rojas Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca reconstruir la experiencia organizativa y la participación política de los estudiantes secundarios en el conflictivo período en que gobernó Salvador Allende (1970-1973. Desde el entusiasmo inicial hasta las profundas fisuras que dividieron en dos bloques a la Federación de Estudiantes Secundarios de Santiago (FESES, el período estuvo dominado por un alto nivel de politización y una participación masiva de los estudiantes, que pocas veces se había observado y que tardaría en repetirse. Aunque el tema educacional fue uno más de los frentes de lucha de los actores sociales y políticos de la época, en él quedaron en evidencia las distintas posturas en juego y la forma en que se estructuró la acción partidaria.This study reconstructs the organizing experience and political participation of High School students during the conflictive period in which Salvador Allende governed Chile (1970-1973. From an initial enthusiasm to the appearance of deep cracks that divided the Federación de Estudiantes Secundarios (FESES in two blocs, the period was characterized by a high level of politicization and a massive student participation, few times seen, which took longer to reappear in Chile. Although education was only one of the various struggle fronts that motivated social and political actors of that time to participate, it is possible to see here evidences of the main political stances and partisan structure of Chile.

  8. 25 CFR 115.106 - Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assets of members of the Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 115.106 Section 115.106 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES TRUST FUNDS FOR TRIBES AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.106 Assets of members of the...

  9. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Martin, Peter; Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  10. 75 FR 81190 - Television Broadcasting Services; Vernal and Santaquin, UT, and Ely and Caliente, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Vernal and Santaquin, UT, and Ely and Caliente.... The Commission was required by the DTV Delay Act to ] terminate all licenses for full-power television... Commission no longer has the authority to act on rulemaking proposals in the full-power analog...

  11. Agua Caliente Solar Feasibility and Pre-Development Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolyn T. Stewart, Managing Partner; Red Mountain Energy Partners

    2011-04-26

    Evaluation of facility- and commercial-scale solar energy projects on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Reservation in Palm Springs, CA. The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) conducted a feasibility and pre-development study of potential solar projects on its lands in southern California. As described below, this study as a logical and necessary next step for ACBCI. Support for solar project development in California, provided through the statewide California Solar Initiative (CSI), its Renewable Portfolio Standard and Feed-in Tariff Program, and recently announced Reverse Auction Mechanism, provide unprecedented support and incentives that can be utilized by customers of California's investor-owned utilities. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program funding allowed ACBCI to complete its next logical step to implement its Strategic Energy Plan, consistent with its energy and sustainability goals.

  12. Analizan partículas calientes del accidente nuclear de Palomares

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Investigadores pertenecientes al Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CNA, (Universidad de Sevilla-Junta de Andalucía-CSIC) en colaboración con la Organización Internacional de la Energía Atómica (IAEA), han llevado a cabo me didas de elementos transuránicos en partículas calientes procedentes de accidentes nucleares tales como el de Thule (Groenlandia) o Palomares (España).

  13. El Metronidazol en los agrandamientos gingivales secundarios a Ciclosporina A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FL Mesa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El agrandamiento gingival (AG secundario a fármacos continúa siendo un problema importante para los periodoncistas. Han sido comunicadas remisiones parciales o totales del AG tras tratamientos cortos con diversos antibióticos. Métodos: Hemos realizado un estudio aleatorio controlado a doble ciego para determinar el efecto del tratamiento con metronidazol durante siete días (250 mg/3 veces al día sobre el AG incipiente secundario a ciclosporina A en pacientes adultos trasplantados renales. La valoración cuantitativa del AG se realizó semiautomáticamente con técnicas de Análisis Digital de Imagen. Resultados: En ninguno de los 26 pacientes incluidos en el estudio se obtuvo la remisión completa del AG al finalizar el estudio. El índice de AG obtenido a tiempo cero fue en los pacientes tratados con metronidazol (grupo MNZ 0.90 ± 0.16 y en los controles (grupo placebo 1.11± 0.33.Transcurridos 30 días de evolución el índice de AG en el grupo MNZ no se modificó (0.92 ± 0.28 y en los pacientes que tomaron placebo se incrementó ligeramente (1.18 ± 0.3, aunque sin llegar a ser estadísticamente significativo. El índice AG disminuyó en el 54.4% de los pacientes del grupo MNZ, mientras que sólo lo hizo en el 23.1% en el grupo placebo. A pesar de que no existieron diferencias en el índice de AG entre los dos grupo al principio del ensayo al finalizar el mismo el mayor incremento del lAG en el grupo placebo dió como resultado una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (MNZ 0.92 ± 0.28 vs placebo 1.18 ± 0.3, pBackground: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (GO remains a significant problem for the periodontologist. Partial and total regressions of this GO have been reported after a short course of antibiotics. Methods: We conducted a double-blind controlled randomized study in order to determine the effect of 7 days of metronidazole treatment (250 mg /3 times day on the regression of incipient cyclosporin Ainduced

  14. Efecto del boro en la deformación en caliente de un acero al carbono

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    En el presente estudio se evalúa el comportamiento a fluencia de tres aceros al carbono con distinto contenido en boro. Las curvas de fluencia se han obtenido a partir de ensayos de compresión uniaxial en caliente, realizada sobre probetas cilíndricas en una máquina de ensayos INSTRON que disponía de un horno de calentamiento por radiación adaptado al sistema. Los ensayos se realizaron a velocidad de deformación constante de 0,1s-1, 0,01s-1 y 0,001s-1, y las temperaturas de ens...

  15. Síndrome del túnel carpiano agudo secundario a cuerpo extraño.

    OpenAIRE

    Proubasta Renart, Ignacio; Álvarez, C; C. Lamas

    2013-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de síndrome del túnel carpiano agudo (STCA) secundario a la penetración de una espina de cactus dentro del canal carpiano. El tratamiento consistió en la inmediata liberación del retináculo flexor junto con la extracción del cuerpo extraño. La función del nervio mediano se recuperó inmediatamente. Creemos que es el primer caso publicado de STCA secundario a una espina de cact...

  16. MANEJO LAPAROSCÓPICO DE DISPOSITIVO INTRAUTERINO MIGRADO A TROMPA DE FALOPIO CON HIDROSALPINX SECUNDARIO

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta el caso clínico de un dispositivo intrauterino ubicado en el lumen de la trompa de Falopio con hidrosalpinx secundario, diagnosticado en forma incidental al realizar una radiografía de columna lumbar, estudio complementado con ecotomografia transvaginal. Se realizó laparoscopia diagnóstica y salpingectomía sin complicaciones

  17. Análisis y síntesis de la operación de circuitos secundarios de agua fría en climatización centralizada//Analysis and synthesis of the secondary circuits of cold water operation in centralized air conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reineris Montero-Laurencio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla la metodología del Análisis y Síntesis de Sistemas de Ingeniería para la preparación y toma de decisiones durante la operación en la climatización centralizada a flujo variable. Mediante un análisis externo se clasifica la información involucrada. En el análisis interno se describe el conjunto de trabajos de modelación matemática y la organización racional de los cálculos para determinar el indicador de eficiencia del proceso. El indicador de eficiencia contiene las potencias eléctricas debidas al trabajo de bombeo y al trabajo de compresión. Se plantean las generalidades de un procedimiento que implica la modelación térmica del edificio, la modelación de la red hidráulica y el cálculo de la potencia del compresor. La integración de estos aspectos termohidráulicos a partir de evaluar la incidencia de la variable de decisión, habitaciones días ocupadas, permite identificar los requerimientos mínimos de potencia del sistema. Palabras claves: climatización centralizada, flujo variable, sistema de ingeniería.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract In the current work is development the methodology of analysis and synthesis of system of the engineering to the preparation and taking of decision during the operation of the centralize air conditioning system with variable flow.  Using an external analysis, the involved variables are classified. In the internal analysis are described all the works of the mathematical models and the rational organization of the calculations to determine of the process efficiency indicators. The efficiency indicators contain the electricity power due to the pump and the compressor work. The generalities of a procedure that implies the thermal simulation of the building, the simulations of the hydraulic net and the calculation of the power of the compressor are shown. The integration of these termhydraulics

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  19. Ductilidad en caliente y mecanismos de fractura de un acero de construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, J.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The hot ductility of a structural steel produced from scrap recycling has been studied to determine the origin of the transverse cracks in the corners that appeared in some billets. Samples extracted both from a billet with transverse cracks and from a billet with no external damage were tested. To evaluate the influence of residual elements and inclusions, the steel was compared to another one impurity free. Reduction in area of the samples tensile tested to the fracture was taken as a measure of the hot ductility The tests were carried out at temperatures ranging from 1000ºC to 650ºC and at a strain rate of 1·10- 3 s-1. The fracture surfaces of the tested samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy in order to determine the embrittling mechanisms that could be acting. The steel with residuals and impurities exhibited lower ductility values for a wider temperature range than the clean steel. The embrittling mechanisms also changed as compared to the impurity free steel.

    Se evaluó la ductilidad en caliente de un acero de construcción procedente del reciclaje de chatarra con el fin de determinar el origen de las grietas transversales que aparecen en las esquinas de algunas palanquillas. Para ello, se extrajeron probetas de dos palanquillas de una misma calidad de acero. Una de las palanquillas había presentado agrietamiento transversal al ser colada y, la otra, no. Para conocer la influencia de los elementos residuales e inclusiones en la ductilidad en caliente, otro acero, con la misma composición pero sin impurezas, se fabricó en laboratorio y fue sometido al mismo análisis que los aceros comerciales. La ductilidad en caliente se midió como la reducción del área de las probetas ensayadas a tracción hasta la rotura. Las condiciones a las que se realizaron los ensayos fueron temperaturas de 1.000 a 650 ºC y a una velocidad de deformación de 1·10-3 s-1. Las superficies de fractura de las probetas ensayadas se

  20. Apuntes para una historia de la insurgencia en la Tierra Caliente de Guerrero, 1810-1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guzmán Urióstegui

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante el periodo de lucha por la independencia de México, de 1810 a 1821, una de las zonas geográficas más destacadas por su apoyo a la insurgencia fue la del Sur, cuyo territorio forma actualmente el estado de Guerrero. Primero con José María Morelos y Pavón y luego con Vicente Guerrero, la complicada geografía suriana y su no menos malsano clima puso en entredicho todos los intentos de las autoridades virreinales por reestablecer ahí la paz. Es cierto que los realistas lograron algunos éxitos, pero nunca pudieron vencer los afanes de libertad de los pobladores del lugar, especialmente de los de Tierra Caliente, mismos que si bien de 1811 a 1813 actuaron de manera en cierta forma aislada, pues Morelos no los tomaba muy en cuenta ya que prefería a los costeños, después fueron su sostén principal. Este papel lo refrendarían de igual manera de 1816 a 1821 con Guerrero, obligando a Agustín de Iturbide a negociar la paz.During Mexico's struggle for independence, from 1810 to 1821, one of the geographical zones that provided most support for the insurgents was the south, whose territory currently forms part of the state of Guerrero. First with José María Morelos y Pavón and then with Vicente Guerrero, the complicated geography of the south and its no less unhealthy climate jeopardized all the viceregal authorities' attempts to re-establish peace there. Although the royalists had some success, they were never able to overcome the locals' desire for freedom, especially those in Tierra Caliente. Although they acted in a somewhat isolated fashion from 1811 to 1813, since Morelos ignored them, preferring those on the coast, they subsequently provided his greatest support. They did the same with Guerrero from 1816 to 1821, forcing Agustín de Iturbide to negotiate peace.

  1. Tiroidectomía asociada a paratiroidectomía por hiperparatiroidismo primario y secundario

    OpenAIRE

    Pardal Refoyo, José Luis; Santiago Peña, Luis Francisco

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Introducción: La asociación de patología tiroidea y paratiroidea es frecuente y puede dificultar el diagnóstico preoperatorio por lo que debe hacerse estudio tiroideo funcional y estructural en el hiperparatiroidismo. Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia de patología quirúrgica de paratiroides y tiroides asociadas. Material y método: Estudio histórico de casos y control en 105 pacientes sometidos a paratiroidectomía total o parcial por hiperparatiroidismo primario (83,81%) o secundario (16...

  2. Síndrome hemofagocítico secundario a infecciones graves en un quemado

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina V. Mahuad; Gonzalo M. Garate; María de los Ángeles Vicente Reparaz; Claudia Casali; Mercedes Del Olmo; Alberto Bolgiani

    2013-01-01

    El síndrome hemofagocítico constituye una entidad infrecuente, heterogénea, subdiagnosticada, y muchas veces fatal. En los casos secundarios, los desencadenantes pueden ser numerosos, tales como infecciones, fármacos, enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. El mecanismo fisiopatogénico se explica por la presencia de una función disminuida o defectuosa de células NK y linfocitos T citotóxicos, que resulta en una activación inmune inefectiva y descontrolada, conduciendo al daño celular, falla mu...

  3. Vólvulo intestinal secundario a divertículo de Meckel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Massotto -Chaves

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available El divertículo de Meckel es la anomalía congénita más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal. La mayoría de veces se encuentra en forma incidental durante una laparotomía, o bien, en una autopsia. Cuando presenta síntomas (en aproximadamente un 4% de los casos estos suelen ser secundarios a la presencia de mucosa gástrica ectópica, que puede producir ulceraciones, hemorragia y perforación, procesos inflamatorios o bien obstrucción intestinal, como en el caso que se presenta.

  4. Vólvulo intestinal secundario a divertículo de Meckel

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    El divertículo de Meckel es la anomalía congénita más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal. La mayoría de veces se encuentra en forma incidental durante una laparotomía, o bien, en una autopsia. Cuando presenta síntomas (en aproximadamente un 4% de los casos) estos suelen ser secundarios a la presencia de mucosa gástrica ectópica, que puede producir ulceraciones, hemorragia y perforación, procesos inflamatorios o bien obstrucción intestinal, como en el caso que se presenta.Meckel´s diverticu...

  5. Investigating microbial diversity and UV radiation impact at the high-altitude Lake Aguas Calientes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Lorena; Chong, Guillermo; Demergasso, Cecilia; Farías, María Eugenia; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Grin, Edmond; Minkley, Edwin, Jr.; Yu, Yeoungeob

    2007-09-01

    The High-Lakes Project is funded by the NAI and explores the highest perennial volcanic lakes on Earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several lakes ~6,000 m elevation. These lakes represent an opportunity to study the evolution of microbial organisms in relatively shallow waters not providing substantial protection against UV radiation. Aguas Calientes (5,870 m) was investigated (November 2006) and samples of water and sediment collected at 1, 3, 5, and 10 cm depth. An Eldonet UV dosimeter positioned on the shore records UV radiation and temperature, and is logging data year round. A UV SolarLight sensor allowed acquisition of point measurements in all channels at the time of the sampling. UVA, UVB, and PAR peaks between 11:00 am and 1:00 pm reached 7.7 mW/cm2, 48.5 μW/cm2, and 511 W/m2, respectively. The chemical composition of the water sample was analyzed. DNA was extracted and DGGE analyses with bacterial and archaeal 16S fragments were performed to describe microbial diversity. Antibiotic resistances were established previously in similar environments in Argentine Andean wetlands. In order to determine these resistances in our samples, they were inoculated onto LB and R2A media and onto R2A medium containing either chloramphenicol, ampicillin or tetracycline. Bacterial was higher than archeal cell number determined by RT-PCR in all the samples, reaching maximum total values of 5x10 5 cell mL-1. DGGE results from these samples and Licancabur summit lake (5,916 m) samples were also compared. Eight antibiotic-resistant Gram negative strains have been isolated with distinct resistance patterns.

  6. Desarrollo de un termogenerador para electrificación y provisión de agua caliente a hogares rurales

    OpenAIRE

    Juanico, Luis Eduardo; Taglialavore, Eduardo; Rinalde, Gustavo Fabián; Ortiz, Luciana Cecilia; Di Lalla, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Se presenta un termogenerador portátil para electrificación inicial de hogares rurales trabajando sobre una cocina a leña u fuente térmica variable, basado en módulos BiTe. Dado que utiliza un baño de agua como sumidero de calor, se propone aquí un sistema mixto que provee de agua caliente al hogar y a la vez mejora el control térmico del termogenerador. Palabras claves: termogenerador, electricidad rural, cogeneración, prototipo. Fil: Juanico, Luis Eduardo. Consejo Nacional de I...

  7. Desarrollo de un refuerzo Montante/Pilar A para automoción mediante nuevos procesos de conformado en caliente

    OpenAIRE

    Berto, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    El proyecto tiene como objetivo el estudio de un refuerzo montante A, pieza estructural, fabricado mediante un nuevo proceso de conformado por soplado en caliente, y su posible integración en un coche. Esta pieza debería integrarse al nuevo modelo de Seat Leon, por eso se tendrá que definir conjuntamente con el área de Desarrollo Carrocería del Centro Técnico de SEAT y el proveedor Linde Wiemann una geometría tanto encajable, como fabricable. La elaboración y la evolución de...

  8. ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE Ocotea puberula EN UN BOSQUE SECUNDARIO Y PRIMARIO DE LA SELVA MIXTA MISIONERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Lucia Caldato

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la estructura de la población de Ocotea puberula (Nees et Mart. Nees (Lauraceae, en bosques de sucesión secundaria y primaria en el Nordeste de Misiones en Argentina, a 26º 15´S y 54º 15´W. Dos parcelas permanentes de muestreo de 3 hectáreas cada una fueron instaladas en el bosque secundario y primario, respectivamente. Cada parcela fue dividida en 75 subparcelas de 20 x 20 m, donde todos los individuos de Ocotea puberula de tamaño igual o superior a 20 centímetros de altura fueron registrados. Se estudió la estructura de tamaño y la distribución espacial. Ocotea puberula mostró ser una especie secundaria con un número abundante de individuos en la fase de regeneración natural en el bosque secundario, y solamente árboles adultos en el bosque primario. La especie presentó en ambos bosques un patrón agrupado de distribución espacial.

  9. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. II parte. Enfriamiento secundario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Once the strand leaves the mold, the solidification of steel progresses due to the heat extracted in the secondary cooling zone of the continuous casting machine. In this zone, heat is extracted mainly by: the incidence of water from sprays, radiation to surroundings contact with rolls and run out water accumulated between rolls and strand. In this work, all these mechanisms are evaluated and, when it is possible, they are quantified. Methods which are usually employed to measure solidification profiles in the continuous casting machine are also reviewed. Finally, the incidence of secondary cooling on the quality of cast products is discussed.

    La solidificación del acero iniciada en el molde continúa en la zona de enfriamiento secundario de la máquina donde el calor es extraído, principalmente por la incidencia del agua de los rociadores, la radiación al medio ambiente, el contacto con los rodillos y el agua acumulada en ellos. En este trabajo se revisa cada uno de estos mecanismos determinando, en los casos en que es posible, valores cuantitativos de los mismos. Además, se analizan los distintos métodos empleados para medir el avance del espesor solidificado en la máquina de colada continua. Por último, se discute la incidencia del enfriamiento secundario en la calidad final de los productos colados.

  10. Estudio de la influencia de la microestructura sobre la deformabilidad en caliente de un acero inoxidable dúplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza-Mendia, A.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the hot deformation behaviour of the ferrite and austenite in a duplex structure is increased as compared with that of single phase ferritic or austenitic steels. Important factors are: the spatial phase distribution with respect to the direction of the imposed deformation, the codeformation of both phases having considerably different mechanical properties, and the nature of the interface between austenite and ferrite. In the present study, the influence of these factors on the crack formation during the hot deformation is analyzed.

    El comportamiento frente al conformado en caliente de la ferrita y de la austenita, en una estructura dúplex, es muy diferente al que presentan ambas fases por separado en los aceros monofásicos austeníticos o ferríticos. A ello contribuyen, entre otros, la distribución espacial de las fases con respecto a la deformación impuesta, la codeformación de dos fases, con propiedades mecánicas muy diferentes, y la naturaleza de la intercara. En el presente trabajo se analiza la influencia de estos factores en la formación de daño bajo condiciones de deformación en caliente.

  11. Vólvulo intestinal secundario a divertículo de Meckel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Massotto -Chaves

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available El divertículo de Meckel es la anomalía congénita más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal. La mayoría de veces se encuentra en forma incidental durante una laparotomía, o bien, en una autopsia. Cuando presenta síntomas (en aproximadamente un 4% de los casos estos suelen ser secundarios a la presencia de mucosa gástrica ectópica, que puede producir ulceraciones, hemorragia y perforación, procesos inflamatorios o bien obstrucción intestinal, como en el caso que se presenta.Meckel´s diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In most cases it is found incidentaly during a laparotomy or in autopsies. When it is simptomatic (in about 4% of cases it could be sencondary to ulceration, bleeding or perforation due to ectopic gastric mucosa; to inflamation or to intestinal obstruction, as in the case presented here.

  12. Síndrome hemofagocítico secundario a infecciones graves en un quemado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina V. Mahuad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome hemofagocítico constituye una entidad infrecuente, heterogénea, subdiagnosticada, y muchas veces fatal. En los casos secundarios, los desencadenantes pueden ser numerosos, tales como infecciones, fármacos, enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. El mecanismo fisiopatogénico se explica por la presencia de una función disminuida o defectuosa de células NK y linfocitos T citotóxicos, que resulta en una activación inmune inefectiva y descontrolada, conduciendo al daño celular, falla multiorgánica y proliferación macrofágica con hemofagocitosis. Existen diferentes opciones terapéuticas, mayormente combinaciones de citostáticos y esteroides, cuyo objetivo es la supresión de la respuesta inmune descontrolada. Ocasionalmente, la condición clínica de algunos pacientes con síndrome hemofagocítico impide la utilización de esquemas terapéuticos intensivos. Comunicamos el caso de un paciente quemado grave, que reúne los criterios diagnósticos de síndrome hemofagocítico, quien presentó una evolución favorable con el tratamiento combinado de esteroides e inmunoglobulinas endovenosas.

  13. Queloide bilateral secundario a otoplastia tratado mediante escisión y colgajos queloideos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Espadero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los queloides son cicatrices de aspecto tumoral que pueden aparecer hasta varios años después de la herida original, y se extienden más allá de los confines de ésta. La oreja prominente es la deformidad auricular estética más frecuente. La otoplastia para su corrección logra resultados altamente satisfactorios. Sin embargo, no está exenta de complicaciones, entre las que hay que considerar el desarrollo de queloides. Existen muchas técnicas para la extirpación y la posterior cobertura. La técnica del colgajo queloideo consiste en la escisión del queloide preservando una capa delgada de su cubierta cutánea, unida por un pedículo a la piel normal, para reparar el defecto. El colgajo queloideo es una solución sencilla y efectiva para la cobertura de defectos importantes tras la extirpación completa de grandes queloides. Se presenta un caso clínico ilustrativo, secundario a otoplastia, del empleo de dicho procedimiento.

  14. Caracterización de los sistemas ganaderos en dos comunidades del municipio de Tuzantla de la región de Tierra Caliente, Michoacán

    OpenAIRE

    C. I. Villa; M. J. Tena; R. Tzintzun; Val, D.

    2008-01-01

    Los sistemas de producción ganaderos de la región de Tierra Caliente están vinculados al manejo agrosilvopastoril, aprovechando una amplia gama de recursos forrajeros naturales, siendo las familias quienes conducen la administración y aprovechamiento de dichos recursos. Se buscó definir las características, recursos forrajeros aprovechables e insumos alimenticios, estimando su calidad nutricional, con el fin de encontrar estrategias de alimentación de ganado que red...

  15. Modelización de la deformación en caliente de un cobre puro comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, V. G.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to model the flow curve at high temperature of a commercialpurity copper which contains 297 ppm of phosphorus. For this purpose a theoretical model is applied to derive a constitutive equation that reliably predicts the behaviour at higher strain rates than experimentally tested. The test temperature range was from 873 K to 1223 K in increments of 50 K, using six true strain rates at every temperature, which span from 0.3 s-1 to 0.001 s-1 The hot flow tests were performed on a copper with a relatively large grain size (637 µm but of similar scale to pertinent industrial processes. This metal presents two antagonistic phenomena during the hot working: strain hardening and softening by dynamic restoration, which in turns can be divided into dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization. A quantification of the mentioned mechanisms is done through the use of physically based constitutive equations.

    El objetivo de este estudio es modelizar la curva de fluencia a alta temperatura de un cobre de pureza comercial conteniendo 297 ppm de fósforo. Todo ello, con objeto de obtener una ecuación constitutiva que fiablemente prediga el comportamiento a otras velocidades de deformación diferentes de las posibles experimentalmente. El intervalo de temperaturas en los que se efectuaron ensayos fue desde 873 K a 1.223 K en incrementos de 50 K, utilizando seis velocidades de deformación verdadera a cada temperatura, las cuales iban desde 0,3 s-1 hasta 0,001 s-1 Los ensayos de deformación en caliente fueron realizados en un cobre con un tamaño de grano relativamente grande (637 μm pero escalarmente similar al de procesos industriales relevantes. Durante la deformación en caliente, el metal presenta dos fenómenos antagonistas, a saber: endurecimiento por deformación y ablandamiento por recuperación dinámica, el cual, a su vez, puede desglosarse en restauración y

  16. Incidencia de las metas de aprendizaje en estudiantes secundarios avanzados de Argentina: Un estudio descriptivo cuantitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilera, María Soledad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta resultados de una investigación transeccional descriptiva, sobre las metas de aprendizaje que eligen estudiantes secundarios avanzados. Se pretendió conocer y describir las elecciones motivacionales de alumnos en diferentes situaciones pedagógicas de aula. Los datos se obtuvieron implementando una Encuesta de Relatos Motivacionales, administrada a 126 alumnos de cuatro escuelas públicas de la ciudad de Río Cuarto, Argentina. Los resultados se sistematizaron mediante estadística descriptiva y muestran que: 1 la meta de ‘aprendizaje’ fue elegida principalmente, para describir las acciones más frecuentes orientadas a obtener mejores notas, y para la manera más adecuada de resolver una materia especialmente difícil; 2 la meta de ‘no complicarse la vida’ fue seleccionada para caracterizar el mejor modo de enfrentar los aprendizajes, y para describir el propio comportamiento dentro del aula; 3 la meta de la ‘desesperanza aprendida’ fue elegida para describir la historia más frecuente en clases, y para el mejor modo de revolver una asignatura particularmente fácil. Dichas metas aluden a motivos, intereses, razones, creencias y deseos que se proponen los alumnos para orientar su comportamiento dentro del aula, en tanto dicho espacio configura las elecciones que realizan los estudiantes en él. Ellos persiguen diversas metas en función de las condiciones contextuales pedagógicas, optando por distintos modos de relacionarse con las tareas y los contenidos de enseñanza. Por ello, el compromiso, la dedicación y las valoraciones que realizan los alumnos sobre su propio desempeño son altamente situacionales, dependiendo del propósito personal hacia el aprendizaje.

  17. ASPECTOS INGENIERILES DEL CULTIVO IN VITRO DE CÉLULAS VEGETALES PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DE METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO ARIAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas son una fuente importante de metabolitos que han sido usados como medicamentos, pesticidas, saborizantes y fragancias. Con el fin de producir estos compuestos sin necesidad de cultivar la planta completa, se ha propuesto la tecnología de cultivo de sus células in vitro (callos, suspensiones y órganos. En este trabajo se abordan diferentes aspectos ingenieriles del cultivo de células vegetales concernientes a la producción de metabolitos secundarios.

  18. Aplicabilidad del Cuestionario Dash en mujeres con linfedema secundario a tratamiento de cáncer de mama

    OpenAIRE

    Puentes Gutiérrez, Ana Belén

    2016-01-01

    El linfedema con mayor prevalencia en las consultas de Rehabilitación, es el secundario a cáncer de mama. Se desarrolla como complicación secundaria en los primeros 18 meses tras el tratamiento quirúrgico del cáncer de mama y se convierte en una patología crónica y sin solución curativa. La aparición de linfedema repercute negativamente en todos los componentes de la salud del individuo que lo padece, tanto en la esfera física, como funcional o psico-social, disminuyendo su calidad de vida (C...

  19. Infarto esplénico secundario a pancreatitis aguda Splenic infarction secondary to acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Arenal Vera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento y objetivo: la estrecha relación anatómica del páncreas con los vasos esplénicos y el bazo es responsable de complicaciones esplénicas en el curso de la pancreatitis aguda. El objetivo es presentar dos casos clínicos de pancreatitis aguda grave que sufrieron infarto esplénico como complicación de la enfermedad pancreática. Pacientes, participantes: en un periodo de tres meses, dos pacientes fueron diagnosticados de infarto esplénico secundario a pancreatitis aguda. En ambos casos el diagnóstico y seguimiento evolutivo del infarto esplénico se hizo a través de tomografía axial computerizada. Resultados: en el primer paciente, las imágenes muestran de forma inequívoca la afectación de la arteria esplénica por el proceso inflamatorio pancreático. En el segundo, no se pudo demostrar afectación de los vasos esplénicos, por lo que la única posible explicación etiológica es un incremento de coagulabilidad intravascular. Conclusiones: sería recomendable añadir las complicaciones esplénicas al conjunto de complicaciones graves extrapancreáticas de la pancreatitis aguda. La tomografía axial computerizada es de gran utilidad para la detección y seguimiento de las complicaciones esplénicas de la pancreatitis aguda.Background and objective: the close anatomic relationship of the pancreas with the splenic vessels and the spleen is responsible for splenic complications in the course of acute pancreatitis. Our objective was to report two cases of severe acute pancreatitis complicated by splenic infarction. Patients: in a three-month period of time two patients were diagnosed with splenic infarction secondary to acute pancreatitis. In both cases splenic infarction diagnosis and follow-up were carried out using computed tomography. Results: in the first case images clearly showed a narrowing of the splenic artery due to the inflammatory pancreatic condition. In the second case no involvement of the splenic vessels could

  20. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UNA MEZCLA DENSA DE ASFALTO EN CALIENTE MODIFICADA CON DESECHO DE POLICLORURO DE VINILO (PVC

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    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo la tecnología de los asfaltos modificados ha sido una técnicaampliamente utilizada para mejorar las características que presentan las mezclasasfálticas convencionales cuando experimentan niveles elevados de tránsito ygradientes de temperatura. Por lo general lo que se busca con este tipo detecnología es mejorar algunas de las propiedades mecánicas y reológicas de losasfaltos y las mezclas asfálticas convencionales tales como la susceptibilidad térmica, la rigidez, y la resistencia al envejecimiento, a las deformaciones plásticas ya la fatiga. El artículo presenta los resultados experimentales de ensayar una mezcla asfáltica densa en caliente modificada con desecho de policloruro de vinilo (el cual se denominará en el presente trabajo PVC. Para la evaluación del comportamiento de las mezclas asfálticas convencionales y modificadas se realizaron ensayos Marshall, módulo dinámico y deformación permanente. Para el cemento asfáltico (CA con y sin aditivo se realizaron ensayos de caracterización de asfaltos como penetración, punto de ablandamiento y viscosidad. La modificación de las mezclas se realizó por vía húmeda y seca. Adicionando desecho de PVC al cemento asfáltico y a las mezclas, se obtiene un material más rígido con mayor resistencia a la penetración y menor susceptibilidad térmica a fluir.

  1. Características clínicas periodontales de piezas con diagnóstico de trauma de oclusión secundario

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Cárdenas, Yessica Janeth; Editor Administrativo. Área de Publicaciones Científicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia.Lima; Chávez-Reátegui, Beatriz Del Carmen; Manrique-Chávez, Jorge Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar las características periodontales de piezas con diagnóstico de trauma de oclusión secundario en pacientes atendidos en la Clínica Dental Docente de la Facultad de Estomatología “Roberto Beltrán” de la Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia durante los años 2011-2012. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo, observacional y de corte transversal, con un universo conformado por pacientes con características clínicas de trauma de oclusión secundario recibidos po...

  2. EVALUACIÓN ESPACIO-TEMPORAL DE VEGETACIÓN Y USO DE SUELO DE LA CUENCA RÍO CALIENTE, JALISCO, MÉXICO.

    OpenAIRE

    H.U. Ramírez-Sánchez; M.E. García-Guadalupe; G. Villalpando-Piña

    2013-01-01

    El territorio mexicano ha sufrido un proceso acelerado de degradación de bosques con transformación en áreas de uso agropecuario o urbano. Los estudios de procesos dinámicos del uso del suelo son importantes y necesarios, ya que proporcionan información de la degradación producto de factores antrópicos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y cuantificar la variación espacial de los tipos de vegetación y usos de suelo en la Cuenca Río Caliente del Área de Protección de Flora y Fauna La ...

  3. CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL QUESO TEPEQUE DE LA TIERRA CALIENTE DE MICHOACÁN: UN QUESO PRODUCIDO EN UN SISTEMA SILVOPASTORIL INTENSIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Donají Solís Méndez; Raquel Martínez Loperena; Javier Solorio Sánchez; Julieta G. Estrada Flores; Francisca Avilés Nova; Ana Tarin Gutiérrez Ibáñez; Octavio Alonso Castelán Ortega

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir las características del Queso Tepeque de la Tierra Caliente del Estado de Michoacán en términos de su región de origen, proceso de manufactura, características fisicoquímicas y microbiológicas, y documentar los cambios atribuibles a la implementación de un sistema silvopastoril intensivo (SSPi) para la alimentación del ganado. La metodología consintió en visitar la zona de estudio para recolectar información sobre el territorio donde se produce e...

  4. Retención y Penetración en Estacones de Eucalyptus Saligna. Sometidos a Tratamiento con CuSO4 y Sal CCC, en Baño Caliente y frio y Vacio-Presión

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    Escobar C. Oscar

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe y da los resultados obtenidos con el pretratamiento de estacones de Eucalyptus saligna a tres soluciones de CUS04 y su posterior tratamiento con sales CCA (OSMOSE K-33. El sulfato de cobre se aplicó por el método de baño caliente y frío, seguido por el proceso de difusión durante una semana; para los anteriores tratamientos se usó madera verde o parcialmente seca al aire; las sales CCA se aplicaron a madera seca por el método de vacío-presión. Una de las razones para llevar a cabo este refuerzo de las sales CCA, es haber encontrado postes de eucalipto severamente atacados por hongos, en especial con pudrición blanda. Los estacones fueron tratados inicialmente con soluciones de sulfato de cobre a 1 %, 2% y 3% de concentración; luego los estacones fueron tratados con una solución de sal CCA al 2.5% de concentración por vacío-presión. Se usaron 40 estacones distribuídos en 4 grupos de 10: tres (3 grupos fueron usados para el tratamiento con las soluciones de CUS04 y solución de CCA; el grupo restante fue tratado con la sal CCA únicamente, el cual fue usado como grupo testigo para fines de comparación en los ensayos de campo (cementerios.

  5. Valoración del estado de salud y psicopatología de los familiares en el trastorno del comportamiento alimentario : diferencias entre cuidadores principales y secundarios

    OpenAIRE

    Berbel, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Ana. R.; Graell, Monserrat; Andres, Patricia; Carrobles, José A.; Morandé, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue explorar las diferencias en el estado general de salud y psicopatología entre cuidadores principales y secundarios de pacientes con trastorno del comportamiento alimentario. Se suministró una batería de cuestionarios a una

  6. MODELO DE FACHADA VENTILADA CON DESECANTE PARA ACONDICIONAMIENTO DEL AIRE EXTERIOR DE VENTILACIÓN

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Hernández, Francisco; Cejudo López, José Manuel; Domínguez Muñoz, Fernando; Carrillo Andrés, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Los sistemas de climatización y ventilación de edificios deben garantizar la calidad del aire interior y unas condiciones de temperatura y humedad que proporcione a los ocupantes un ambiente confortable y saludable, tal y como se recoge en el Código Técnico de la Edificación [1]. Con este fin, los materiales desecantes son utilizados en las unidades de tratamiento de aire. Combaten, en climas húmedos, la elevada carga latente de la zona, y son regenerados con aire caliente a partir de 50-60º...

  7. Constraining the Late Mesozoic and Early Tertiary Tectonic Evolution of Southern Mexico: Structure and Deformation History of the Tierra Caliente Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano; Draper; Lang; Harrison

    2000-07-01

    We analyze the structure and assess the deformation history of the Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex (TCMC) of southern Mexico, where Laramide accretion of exotic terranes is in debate. The TCMC consists of a south-plunging antiform fault that is bounded on both its eastern and western flanks. Tierra Caliente Metamorphic Complex rocks show at least two phases of compressional deformation. The first and most prominent records a mean tectonic transport direction of 068 degrees. This phase is responsible for east-verging asymmetrical folding and thrusting of both metamorphic and superjacent sedimentary rocks. The second phase has an average transport direction of 232 degrees and is restricted to the western portion of the TCMC. A third phase is responsible for normal faulting. Lack of discernible deformation before Late Cretaceous time indicates that the main deformation phase is coincident with Laramide orogenesis elsewhere in the North American Cordillera. The stratigraphy, structure, and deformational history of the TCMC do not require accretion of exotic terranes. We explain the Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the TCMC in terms of deposition and deformation of Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary strata over the attenuated continental crust of the North American plate.

  8. Clima organizacional y desempeño laboral docente en instituciones educativas de nivel primario y secundario

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Paco Ccora; José Matas Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar la existencia de una relación significativa entre el clima organizacional y el desempeño laboral docente en la Institución Educativa Particular San Pío X y la Institución Educativa Estatal Rosa de Lima de San Jerónimo de la provincia de Huancayo. La investigación fue de tipo básico descriptivo correlacional. El tipo de muestra fue no probabilístico e incluyó 110 docentes entre varones y mujeres del nivel primario y secundario; 60 docentes de la I.E.P San Pío X y 50 ...

  9. Migrantes y poder judicial. Crónica de una investigación basada en datos secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente nota reflexiona sobre la utilización de datos secundarios en la investigación sociológica, una estrategia que no recibió suficiente atención en la enseñanza universitaria y los debates académicos. Las ideas presentadas surgen de la experiencia de las autoras en la búsqueda y evaluación de fuentes secundarias para identificar posibles asimetrías en el accionar del sistema judicial de acuerdo con la nacionalidad de los sujetos. Las dificultades surgidas durante este trabajo llevaron a la reformulación de los objetivos y alcances iniciales de la propuesta. Pese a ello, se muestra la importancia de recurrir a esta estrategia para conocer y comprender ciertos fenómenos sociales.

  10. Hematoma epidural secundario a anestesia espinal: Tratamiento conservador Epidural hematoma secondary to spinal anesthesia: Conservative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bermejo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El hematoma epidural secundario a una anestesia neuroaxial es una complicación poco frecuente, pero de gran trascendencia tanto por sus implicaciones clínicas como por las médico legales; según algunos autores su incidencia puede oscilar entre 1/190.000-1/200.000 para las punciones peridurales y 1/320.000 en el caso de las espinales. El aspecto prioritario en su manejo terapéutico es el del diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz, antes de las 6-12 primeras horas. No obstante, en determinados pacientes como en el caso que presentamos puede no ser precisa la cirugía, resolviéndose el cuadro con tratamiento conservador. Caso clínico: Varón de 73 años, ASA IV, con antecedentes de cirrosis con hipertensión portal, hiperesplenismo, EPOC, obesidad, cardiopatía hipertensiva e insuficiencia tricuspídea. Se programa para alcoholización prostática al haber sido desechada la cirugía. En la analítica preoperatoria destacaba una actividad de protrombina del 80% y 90.000 plaquetas. Se realizaron varios intentos fallidos de punción espinal, finalmente fue precisa una anestesia general con ventilación espontánea mediante mascarilla laríngea, propofol, fentanilo y sevoflurano. A las 36 horas, comienza la clínica en forma de dolor intenso lumbar, sin irradiación y arreflexia cutáneo plantar, confirmándose en la RMN la presencia de un hematoma epidural de L1 a L4. Ante la ausencia de paraparesia flácida, afectación esfinteriana u otros signos sensitivo-motores y tras consulta con la Unidad de Raquis y con el Servicio de Neurología se decide tratamiento conservador y actitud expectante en forma de analgesia y monitorización neurológica estricta, clínica y radiológica. Evolucionando favorablemente en los siguientes días. Discusión: Determinadas condiciones clínicas pueden influir en la aparición de un hematoma tras la realización de un bloqueo regional central: heparinas de bajo peso molecular, punciones dificultosas

  11. Estudio del comportamiento termo-mecánico de un acero microaleado de medio carbono durante un proceso de conformado en caliente usando una red neuronal artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcelay, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermo-mechanical behavior of medium carbon microalloyed steel has been analyzed by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The flow curves for training the ANN have been obtained from the hot compression tests, carried out over a temperature range varying from 900 to 1150 °C and at different true strain rates ranging from 10-4 to 10 s-1. It has been found that the ANN model developed in this study is capable to predict accurately and efficiently the flow behavior of the studied steel and there is a good agreement between the experimental results and the ANN results. To analyze the formability of the studied steel, processing maps have been constructed on the basis of the Dynamic Materials Model (DMM, using the ANN values of the flow stress. The study of maps reveals the different domains of the flow behavior of the studied steel and shows the great similarity between the experimental results and the theoretical results, so the use of the ANN can constitute an interesting alternative for design and study of hot forming processes.El comportamiento termo-mecánico de un acero microaleado de medio carbono ha sido analizado mediante una Red Neuronal Artificial (RNA. Las curvas de fluencia para el entrenamiento de la RNA han sido obtenidas mediante ensayos de compresión en caliente que se efectuaron a temperaturas que oscilaron entre 1150 °C y 900 °C a incrementos de 50 °C, y en un intervalo de velocidades de deformación que varió entre 10-4 y 10 s-1. Se ha podido comprobar que el modelo de RNA, desarrollado en el presente trabajo, es capaz de predecir con exactitud y eficiencia el comportamiento de fluencia en caliente del acero estudiado y existe un buen acuerdo entre los resultados experimentales y los resultados de la RNA. Para analizar la conformabilidad del acero microaleado se han construido mapas de procesado basados en el modelo dinámico de materiales (DMM usando los valores de la tensión de fluencia obtenidos mediante la RNA. El

  12. Eliminación de Bandas Calientes en Reformador de Gas Natural Elimination of Hot Bands in a Natural Gas Reformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Correa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue encontrar las causas de la formación de bandas calientes por deposición de coque en un reformador de gas natural, que provoca la salida de servicio de la unidad y mayores costos de producción. Se recurrió a la literatura para determinar las variables que tienen incidencia en esta problemática y se creó un trazador que cuantifica la formación de coque, denominado Índice de Obstrucción. Se analizó sistemáticamente el impacto de las distintas variables y se relacionaron con la evolución del Índice de Obstrucción, siempre tomando información de la propia planta industrial. Descartando todas las hipótesis, excepto la presencia de hidrocarburos livianos, se determinó que el problema de las bandas calientes no se origina en el propio horno de reforma, sino aguas arriba del proceso, en el desulfuradorThe purpose of this study was to find the causes of formation of hot bands due to coke deposition in a natural gas reformer which caused the unit to go out of service, resulting in higher production costs. A literature study was made to determine the variables which affected the incidence of this problem, and to produce an index which quantified the formation of coke, named Obstruction Index. The impact of different variables was systematically analyzed and these variables were related to the evolution of the Obstruction Index, always taking into account the information from the industrial plant studied. All hypotheses were discarded except that relating to the presence of light hydrocarbons. It was determined that the problem of the hot bands did not originate within the reforming unit, but rather upstream of the process in the desulfurization unit

  13. Los Fenómenos Físico-Geológicos Secundarios en la Ciudad de Santiago de Cuba

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    José A. Zapata-Balanqué

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Un análisis de los sismos más fuertes ocurridos en la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba arrojó que en caso de eventos de moderada y de gran intensidad los suelos pueden desencadenar procesos físico-geológicos secundarios. Tomando como base resultados de investigaciones anteriores de microzonificación sísmica realizadas desde 1984 hasta 1995 se realizó una nueva investigación que abarcó áreas de la ciudad y sus alrededores, en la que se pudo comprobar que las zonas con mayor posibilidad de ocurrencia de deslizamientos, derrumbes y licuefacción están ubicadas en los alrededores de la bahía, la cuenca del río San Juan y de los antiguos ríos Yarayó y Trocha, en zonas aledañas a Altamira, Versalles, Chicharrones y en la parte norte del Distrito José Martí.

  14. Caracterización de aceros dual-phase obtenidos por laminación en caliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houbaert, Y.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Samples were obtained from C-Mn-Si steel available in the market. Through a hot rolling and coiling process, it was possible to obtain Dual-Phase steel with microstructural and mechanical properties in the theoretical range typical of this material. The thermomechanical process consisted of a strong reduction by multiples pass of hot rolling at temperatures above Ar3, controlled-cooling the sheets during 5 s (at a rate of 20 °C/s in the equilibrium range α+γ. Temperature Ar3 measured by differential scanning calorimetry was 890 °C. Quenching was then carried out in the coiling temperatures range (500-675 °C, cooling the samples in accordance to an established curve that corresponds to the actual cooling curve of a coil. The microstructural characterization of the samples obtained was carried out by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Additionally, texture measurements were carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to study the resulting orientations due to the finishing rolling temperature and coiling temperature, determining the influence on these parameters of the different texture components. The microstructural results were complemented with the normal and planar anisotropy indexes measured in according to the ASTM E-517 standard. The intensities of the different texture components were correlated with the values of anisotropy indexes, finding that it is possible to obtain only a slightly enhancement in the normal anisotropy index through an appropriate combination of finish rolling and coiling temperatures.

    Se tomaron muestras de acero al C-Mn-Si disponible en el mercado y mediante un proceso de laminación en caliente y bobinado, se obtuvo acero Dual Phase con microestructura y propiedades mecánicas dentro del rango teórico esperado de este material. El proceso termomecánico consistió en producir una fuerte reducción a temperaturas mayores a Ar3

  15. Reglamento de instalaciones de calefacción, climatización y agua caliente sanitaria con el fin de racionalizar su consumo energético, Real Decreto 1618/1980 de 4 de julio

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available En agosto de este año se han publicado las instrucciones técnicas complementarias del Reglamento de Instalaciones de Calefacción, Climatización y Agua Caliente Sanitaria con el fin de racionalizar su consumo energético. («B.O.E.», 13 agosto, 1981, Orden de 16 de julio de 1981.

  16. Clima organizacional y desempeño laboral docente en instituciones educativas de nivel primario y secundario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paco Ccora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar la existencia de una relación significativa entre el clima organizacional y el desempeño laboral docente en la Institución Educativa Particular San Pío X y la Institución Educativa Estatal Rosa de Lima de San Jerónimo de la provincia de Huancayo. La investigación fue de tipo básico descriptivo correlacional. El tipo de muestra fue no probabilístico e incluyó 110 docentes entre varones y mujeres del nivel primario y secundario; 60 docentes de la I.E.P San Pío X y 50 de la I.E.E. Rosa de Lima de San Jerónimo. Los instrumentos aplicados fueron las escalas de clima social en el trabajo (WES, que evalúa el ambiente social existente en diversos tipos y centros de trabajo, y el inventario de desempeño laboral. Los resultados de la investigación determinaron la existencia de una relación positiva y significativa, entre el clima organizacional y el desempeño laboral docente en la I.E.P. San Pio X y la I.E.E. Rosa de Lima, con un valor r de Pearson = 0,71. En conclusión, el clima organizacional es un factor determinante en el desempeño laboral docente e implica una referencia de los miembros respecto a su estar en la organización. Por tanto, un clima favorable conllevará a la predisposición de un trabajo óptimo, lo cual tendrá un impacto positivo en la enseñanza, aprendizaje y la construcción de nuevos conocimientos.

  17. Simulación de la fluencia en caliente de un acero microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. III parte. Ecuaciones constitutivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, J. M.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the part 1 of this work the constitutive equations of the hot flow behaviour of a commercial microalloyed steel have been obtained. For this purpose, the uniaxial hot compression tests described in the part 2 were employed. Tests were carried out over a range of 5 orders of magnitude in strain rate and 300 °C of temperature. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical model introduced in the first part of this study. It is concluded that deviations between experimental and theoretical curves are lower than 10 %. It is shown that the classical hiperbolic sine constitutive equation described accurately the experimental behaviour provided that stresses are normalized by the Young's modulus and strain rates by the self-diffusion coefficient. An internal stress must also be introduced in the latter equation when the initial grain size is fine enough.

    Siguiendo el planteamiento teórico efectuado en la I parte de este trabajo, se determinaron las ecuaciones constitutivas del comportamiento a la deformación en caliente de un acero comercial microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. Para este objetivo se emplearon los ensayos de compresión uniaxial en caliente ya descritos en la II parte, los cuales se efectuaron en un rango de cinco órdenes de magnitud en velocidad de deformación y 300 °C de temperatura. Se comparan los resultados experimentales con el modelo teórico introducido en la I parte y se verifica que el error es inferior al 10 %. Se comprobó que la clásica ecuación del seno hiperbólico podía describir con precisión el comportamiento observado siempre y cuando las tensiones se normalicen por el módulo de Young, las velocidades de deformación por el coeficiente de autodifusión de la austenita, y se considere un efecto adicional sobre la tensión cuando el tamaño de grano inicial sea suficientemente fino.

  18. INMERSIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍZ EN AGUA CALIENTE EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE GERMINADOS PARA FORRAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gonz\\u00E1lez-Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la tolerancia al deterioro y la viabilidad de semillas de maíz en inmersión en agua caliente. Se evaluaron tres cultivares de maíz: País Tuxpeño (PT, X ́nuuknal (X y Sinaloa (S que se sometieron a 0, 2, 4, 6 y 8 segundos de inmersión en agua a 100°C, en la producción de germinados para forraje. El estudio se realizó en Conkal, Yucatán, México en junio de 2011. Las variables evaluadas en semillas fueron: peso inicial (PIS, porcentaje de germinación (PG, número medio de días a germinación (NMDG e índice de velocidad (IVG; en plántulas: peso fresco (PF, seco (PS y la rela - ción producción de biomasa por unidad de peso de semilla (PF:PIS. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en todas las variables, excepto en NMDG. El PG fue de 96, 74 y 55% para PT, X y S, respectivamente. La inmersión por 2 s incrementó el PG, IVG, PF, PS y PF:PIS en X y S pero con inmersión por 4 y 6 s estas variables disminuyeron. Por el contrario, el PT inmerso por 2 s disminuyó el PG al 75%, pero con inmersión por 4 y 6 s todas las variables mostraron valores ascendentes. El tiempo de inmersión por 8 s afectó severamente a los tres cultivares, siendo PT el menos afectado ya que el PF solamente disminuyó el 35%, mientras que para X y S el decremento fue de 61% y 42% respectivamente. En conclusión, PT presentó mayor tolerancia al deterioro por in - mersión en agua caliente y por tanto, es el más recomendado para la producción de germinados para forraje verde.

  19. Modelación de fenómenos metalúrgicos en laminación en caliente de acero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano, P.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of hot rolling of steel strip involves metallurgical phenomena such as restoration of deformed structures, transformation to ferrite and growth of the oxide layer on top of the steel strip. The effect of composition is taken into account when restoration and phase transformation is considered, whereas it is assumed that the chemical composition of the steel substrate does not affect the oxide crust, being common place to consider the oxide just as a thermal barrier and to assume sticking conditions within the roll-gap. Observations indicate that elements such as silicon and manganese, more susceptible to oxidize than iron, affect the growth kinetics, adhesion and the behaviour during deformation of the oxide layer. This work deals with the way used to model various superficial and metallurgical phenomena, and how this knowledge is used to simulate hot rolling of steel strip.

    La modelación del proceso de laminación en caliente de acero incorpora fenómenos metalúrgicos como son la restauración de la estructura deformada, la trasformación de fase y el crecimiento de la capa de óxido sobre la superficie del acero. Se reconoce el efecto de la composición química sobre la transformación de fase y la restauración, sin embargo se considera que el crecimiento del óxido no es afectado por la presencia de elementos aleantes en el acero y es común que se maneje a la costra de óxido como una barrera térmica y que se supongan condiciones de fricción adhesivas en el entrehierro. Determinadas observaciones indican que elementos como el silicio y el manganeso, más susceptibles a oxidarse que el hierro, afectan la cinética de crecimiento, la adhesión y el comportamiento de la costra al ser deformada. En este trabajo se presenta la forma en que diversos fenómenos metalúrgicos y de superficie se modelan y se utilizan para simular el proceso de laminación en caliente.

  20. Cultivo de células vegetales en biorreactores:un sistema potencial para la producción de metabolitos secundarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Sánches Fernando

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de células vegetales en biorreactores ofrecen un gran potencial para la producción de metabolitos secundarios, con importantes aplicaciones en la industria química, farmacéutica o alimenticia. Estos sistemas permiten controlar mejor la producción, a diferencia de los métodos tradicionales con plantaciones, los cuales presentan variaciones en la calidad y cantidad del producto debido a cambios climatológicos, estacionales, problemas geopolíticos o tenencia del suelo. Esta revisión presenta algunos grupos de metabolitos secundarios de plantas, su utilidad y ejemplos de sustancias con un potencial de producción al nivel comercial en cultivos celulares. Además, se presentan tres tipos de reactores (células en suspensión, células inmovilizadas y biopelículas de células, los problemas asociados con el cultivo de células vegetales y los factores que afectan la producción de los metabolitos secundarios. Los anteriores factores involucran la composición del medio de cultivo (sales inorgánicas, vitaminas, fuente de carbono, hormonas y reguladores de crecimiento, la composición del gas suministrado (oxígeno, bióxido de carbono, etileno, la temperatura, el pH, la radiación luminosa, las características de mezclado, la fase del crecimiento celular, el grado de diferenciación celular y la elicitación (biótica o abiótica. El estudio y la manipulación de los anteriores factores (variables operación constituyen una etapa determinante para el diseño de un proceso que utilice esta tecnología como método de producción.

  1. Modelización térmica, termodinámica y experimentación de un motor Ericsson de aire caliente en ciclo de Joule

    OpenAIRE

    Fula Rojas, Manuel Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales, en particular, las fuentes de energías fósiles, las energías renovables se consideran de nuevo como una alternativa real para la transición energética de los países industrializados. Los motores a contribución de calor externa como el Stirling y su “primo” el motor Ericsson pueden valorizar múltiples fuentes - renovables o no de energía térmica. El motor Ericsson se adapta así especialmente bien para la conversión de la energía solar o la biomasa...

  2. La recristalización dinámica durante la deformación en caliente de un acero calidad armco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafzi, K.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The onset and kinetics of dynamic recrystallization of an ARMCO steel is characterised in this wok. For this purpose, uniaxial hot compression tests were carried out. The Avrami equation was employed to describe the kinetics of recrystallization. Moreover the critical strain determining the onset for dynamic recrystallization was analysed. It was observed that the latter characteristic parameters were strain rate and temperature dependent. A comparison with published results and a derivation of the possible effect of chemical composition is also offered.

    En este trabajo se caracteriza la recristalización dinámica de un acero calidad ARMCO, desde el punto de vista de su inicio y su cinética. Para este fin, se realizaron ensayos de compresión uniaxial en caliente. Se determinaron, tanto los parámetros de la ecuación de Avrami, que caracterizan la cinética de recristalización, como los que describen la denominada deformación de pico que marca el inicio de la recristalización. Se observó que estos parámetros dependían de las condiciones de deformación. Finalmente, se ofrece una comparación de los resultados obtenidos con otros resultados encontrados para diversos materiales.

  3. La espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (EIS aplicada al estudio del mecanismo de la corrosión en caliente por sales fundidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Báez P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas electroquímicas son empleadas para evaluar las reacciones de corrosión en sistemas acuosos, simulando condiciones reales. En la actualidad no existe un monitoreo en tiempo real del desgaste corrosivo por sales fundidas en los componentes de las calderas; por lo que se hace necesario investigar la utilización de la técnica de EIS para evaluar la corrosión por sales fundidas. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se construyó una celda de ensayos electroquímicos para corrosión en caliente y se evaluó la velocidad de corrosión de los aceros AISI-304H y T22 en un electrolito 80%V2O5-20%Na2SO4 entre 550°C y 800°C, y con la adición de inhibidores de corrosión como el MgO y el CaO, por medio de las técnicas Extrapolación de Tafel y EIS. Los resultados mostraron que los aceros, por debajo de 750°C, presentan control por difusión en la película de óxido y sobre 750°C, control por difusión en el fundido.

  4. A late Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction from Agua Caliente, southern Belize, linked to regional climate variability and cultural change at the Maya polity of Uxbenká

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Prufer, Keith M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2014-07-01

    We report high-resolution macroscopic charcoal, pollen and sedimentological data for Agua Caliente, a freshwater lagoon located in southern Belize, and infer a late Holocene record of human land-use/climate interactions for the nearby prehistoric Maya center of Uxbenká. Land-use activities spanning the initial clearance of forests for agriculture through the drought-linked Maya collapse and continuing into the historic recolonization of the region are all reflected in the record. Human land alteration in association with swidden agriculture is evident early in the record during the Middle Preclassic starting ca. 2600 cal yr BP. Fire slowly tapered off during the Late and Terminal Classic, consistent with the gradual political demise and depopulation of the Uxbenká polity sometime between ca. 1150 and 950 cal yr BP, during a period of multiple droughts evident in a nearby speleothem record. Fire activity was at its lowest during the Maya Postclassic ca. 950-430 cal yr BP, but rose consistent with increasing recolonization of the region between ca. 430 cal yr BP and present. These data suggest that this environmental record provides both a proxy for 2800 years of cultural change, including colonization, growth, decline, and reorganization of regional populations, and an independent confirmation of recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the same region.

  5. Characterization of a hot dry rock reservoir at Acoculco geothermal zone, Pue.; Caracterizacion de un yacimiento de roca seca caliente en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia; Flores Armenta, Magaly Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia-lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    metamorphism due to the emplacement of intrusive rocks (hornblende granite), which was identified in the lithologic column from both wells. Based on all these features, the Acoculco geothermal zone is a candidate for development under an EGS scheme. [Spanish] Los recursos geotermicos de roca seca caliente (HDR: Hot Dry Rock), tambien conocidos actualmente como sistemas geotermicos mejorados (EGS: Enhanced Geothermal Systems), han sido investigados de tiempo atras. El concepto de HDR es muy simple. Los yacimientos mas comunes se encuentran a unos 5000 m de profundidad y estan formados por rocas impermeables que tienen una temperatura entre 150 grados centigrados y 300 grados centigrados , y no contienen ningun tipo de fluido. La temperatura es un criterio economico principal, ya que para la generacion de energia electrica se requiere una temperatura inicial mayor a los 200 grados centigrados. Para desarrollar el sistema se hacen dos perforaciones, en una de las cuales se introduce agua fria y en la otra se obtiene agua caliente. En Francia, desde junio de 2008 se encuentra en operacion una planta de 1.5 MW como parte del proyecto Soultz-sous-Forest financiado por el European Deep Geothermal Energy Programme. A fin de caracterizar los yacimientos HDR se llevo a cabo una recopilacion de informacion multidisciplinaria referente a: (1) origen de la fuente de calor, (2) informacion cuantitativa de temperatura y mecanismos de transferencia de calor natural, (3) fallas y fracturas naturales, (4) esfuerzos locales, y (5) tipo de basamento. Esta informacion se aplico a la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue., explorada por el Departamento de Exploracion mediante los pozos EAC-1 y EAC-2 para determinar la presencia de un yacimiento de alta temperatura (de 220 grados centigrados a mas 250 grados centigrados). Esta zona presenta las siguientes caracteristicas: (1) Origen de la fuente de calor: volcano-tectonico; (2) Los registros de temperatura mostraron valores de 263.8 grados centigrados y

  6. Estudio de la anatomía del xilema secundario de seis especies del género Citrus cultivadas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes-Angulo, Oxana; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal,Egresada; Cartago, Costa Rica; Reyes-Cordero, David; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal,Egresada; Cartago, Costa Rica; Moya-Roque, Roger; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal; Cartago, Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    En Costa Rica, algunas especies del género Citrusson plantadas para la producción del fruto o comoárboles de servicio en cultivos de café (Coffea spp). Sinembargo, el aprovechamiento de estas plantaciones selimita solamente al fruto, por lo que al llegar al final de suvida útil, las partes leñosas del árbol son despreciadas,a pesar de ser una fuente importante de biomasa para laproducción de energía. En el presente trabajo se estudióla anatomía del xilema secundario de seis especies delgénero...

  7. Estado confusional, lesión pulmonar y glúteos que languidecen. Efectos secundarios de procedimientos estéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Peña-Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Los procedimientos estéticos a cargo de personal no médico son cada vez más frecuentes, muchos no controlados médicamente y promotores de efectos secundarios desde leves a graves. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 29 años de edad, sin problemas de salud relevantes, quien acudió a un centro de estética para inyectarse silicio orgánico en sus glúteos, con la finalidad de aumentar su volumen, desarrolló posteriormente un síndrome de embolismo masivo.

  8. Inicio temprano de terapia física en pacientes con daño neurológico secundario a asfixia perinatal.

    OpenAIRE

    Toral Cáceres, Andrea Paola

    2016-01-01

    El daño neurológico perinatal es considerado como la injuria al cerebro que altera la integridad tanto estructural como funcional del sistema nervioso en desarrollo secundario a un evento perinatal. Materiales y Métodos: la investigación se llevo a cabo en el período 2013 ¿ 2015, en la equinoterapia de Durán, observacional, retrospectivo, analítico, diseño es un estudio de casos y controles. El Grupo "caso" lo constituyeron aquellos pacientes expuestos a la asfixia perina...

  9. Respiración microbial y de raíces en suelos de bosques tropicales primarios y secundarios (porce, colombia).

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Los suelos son el mayor reservorio de carbono en los ecosistemas terrestres y a su vez la mayor fuente de CO2 atmosférico, el cual es producido mediante un proceso denominado respiración del suelo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar las tasas de respiración del suelo y sus componentes (respiración de raíces y de microorganismos), y evaluar el control que sobre las tasas de emisión de CO2 ejercen factores como la humedad y la temperatura del suelo, en bosques primarios (BP) y secundarios ...

  10. Cultivo de células vegetales en biorreactores:un sistema potencial para la producción de metabolitos secundarios.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Los cultivos de células vegetales en biorreactores ofrecen un gran potencial para la producción de metabolitos secundarios, con importantes aplicaciones en la industria química, farmacéutica o alimenticia. Estos sistemas permiten controlar mejor la producción, a diferencia de los métodos tradicionales con plantaciones, los cuales presentan variaciones en la calidad y cantidad del producto debido a cambios climatológicos, estacionales, problemas geopolíticos o tenencia del suelo. Esta revisión...

  11. El abordaje del linfedema secundario a cáncer de mama desde una perspectiva educacional y rehabilitadora. Revisión narrativa.

    OpenAIRE

    López Serrano, Raquel; Marcos Asenjo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo fin de grado en Enfermería Introducción y justificación: El linfedema es una patología crónica que se produce como consecuencia de alteraciones en la función del sistema linfático. La etiología más frecuente del linfedema secundario es el tratamiento del cáncer de mama. Se caracteriza por un desarrollo progresivo y evolutivo hacia la cronicidad e irreversibilidad, que afecta tanto a la esfera física como psicosocial de las personas que lo padecen. Objetivos: Analizar...

  12. PERFIL FARMACOLÓGICO, BIOQUÍMICO Y BIOTECNOLÓGICO DEL MEJORAMIENTO DE LOS METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS DE Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Jair Barrales Cureño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rauwolfia serpentina es una planta de la familia Apocynacea e de interés medicinal, distribuida en zonas húmedas y cálidas de Asia, África, América tropical y Australia. Las especies de Rauwolfia sirven como materia prima para la extracción de alcaloides libres; para la obtención de extractos con un contenido estan darizado de alcaloides y para la preparación de polvos medicinales de sus raíces. La serpentina se utiliza sobre todo, para el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial y como sedante. El polvo de corteza y de raíz también se utilizan como: afrodisíaco, vomi tivo, purgante, disentérico, sedante y otros. Los principios activos son alcaloides como la ajmalicina, sarpagina, yohimbina y otros de tipo indólico que se encuentran en una concentración del 1 al 2 %. El cultivo de R. serpentina a través de semillas pres enta baja germinación y viabilidad. Por otro lado, la Rauwolfia , es una especie amenazada por la sobreexplotación. Por estos motivos hay una enorme necesidad de propagación in vitro de Rauwolfia serpentina para satisfacer para la producción de alcaloides y su demanda comercial así como la conservación de este valioso recurso natural en peligro de extinción. De ahí que sea necesaria la optimización en las técnicas de cultivo in vitro de tejidos vegetales para la propagación masiva de R. serpentina. El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una actualización acerca de a la actividad farmacológica y biotecnológica de los metabolitos secundarios de Rauwolfia serpentina y revisa la ruta biosintética de la reserpina.

  13. Planeación de sistemas secundarios de distribución usando el algoritmo Branch and Bound Secondary distribution system planning using branch and bound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Hincapie-Isaza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea una metodología para la solución del problema delplaneamiento de sistemas secundarios de distribución considerando un modelode programación lineal entero mixto (PLEM, el cual considera la ubicación y dimensionamiento de transformadores de distribución, el dimensionamientoy rutas de circuitos secundarios y sus costos variables. Para la solución delproblema se emplea el algoritmo Branch and Bound. Los resultados obtenidosen un sistema de prueba empleado en la literatura especializada muestran lavalidez y efectividad de la metodología propuesta.This paper presents a methodology for solving secondary distribution systems planning problem as a mixed integer linear programming problem (MILP. The algorithm takes into account several design issues such as the capacity and location of distribution transformers and secondary feeders. Variable costs of secondary feeders are also considered. The problem is solved using branch and bound algorithm. Numerical results show that the mathematical model and the solution technique are effective for this kind of problems.

  14. La Evaluación del Estrés Traumático Secundario. Estudio Comparado en Bomberos y Paramédicos de los Servicios de Emergencia de Guadalajara, México

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Meda; Bernardo Moreno-Jiménez; Andrés Palomera; Elva Arias; Rodrigo Vargas

    2012-01-01

    El estrés traumático secundario, se refiere a un proceso por el cual un individuo que observa el sufrimiento de otro, experimenta paralelamente las mismas respuestas emocionales a las emociones reales o esperadas de la otra persona , Moreno, Morante, Rodríguez Garrosa (2004). A partir de esta noción, Moreno, Garrosa, Morante, Rodríguez Losada (2004b) diseñaron el Cuestionario de Estrés Traumático Secundario (CETS). Se presenta un estudio comparado en dos muestras de bomberos y paramédic...

  15. Origen y endurecimiento por dispersión de carbonitruros en un acero comercial microaleado al niobio y laminado en caliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia, E.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this work, a study on niobium carbonitrides formation and its hardening effect in a commercial hot strip microalloyed steel is presented. Optic and electron micrographs were obtained while mechanical tests and indirect models allow to predict samples yield strength, taking into account the steel composition and its structural characteristics. The results showed an extended precipitation on austenite boundary cells during the last thermomechanical processing stages, which probably achieved a considerable contribution to the hardening by dispersion in the material studied. Otherwise, no evidence of precipitation in ferrite by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM was observed. A poor interphase precipitation was detected in about 10 per cent of the total observed zones with no appreciated contribution to the steel hardness.

    Se presenta un estudio sobre el origen de los carbonitruros de niobio y su efecto en el endurecimiento de un acero comercial microaleado y laminado en caliente. Para tal fin se utilizaron micrografías ópticas y electrónicas; así como también ensayos mecánicos y modelos indirectos que permitieron predecir el límite elástico teniendo en cuenta la composición del acero y sus características estructurales. Los resultados mostraron una extensa precipitación en la austenita durante las últimas fases del proceso de laminación siendo ésta responsable del principal aporte al endurecimiento por dispersión en el material investigado. No hubo evidencias de precipitación en la ferrita por observaciones al microscopio electrónico de transmisión y sólo una escasa precipitación interfásica fue detectada en un 10 % de las zonas observadas sin una apreciable contribución al endurecimiento del acero.

  16. Compresas húmedo calientes como intervención para reducir el dolor musculoesquelético: Análisis de la evidencia Hot packs like intervention to reduce musculoskeletal pain: An analysis of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Josué Pavez Ulloa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En los Estados Unidos el dolor en niños causa un promedio de 21 millones de días de escuela perdidos y en empleados trabajadores provoca una pérdida de 147 millones de días de trabajo. El dolor produce desordenes musculoesqueléticos y las modalidades terapéuticas se usan comúnmente en su tratamiento. Una de las modalidades más usadas clínicamente son las compresas húmedo calientes previas a tratamientos. No existen artículos que analicen cual es la evidencia disponible sobre la efectividad de las compresas húmedo calientes como intervención para aliviar el dolor. Objetivos: Determinar si existe evidencia científica que avale la efectividad de las compresas húmedo calientes como intervención efectiva en el alivio del dolor. Agrupar la mejor evidencia clínica disponible en relación a la analgesia producida por las compresas húmedo calientes. Evaluar la calidad de los estudios que investigaron los efectos de las compresas húmedo calientes sobre pacientes con dolor. Materiales y métodos: Se buscaron ensayos clínicos aleatorios las bases de datos MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Plus, CINAHL, DARE. A dichos estudios se les aplicó la escala de PEDro para evaluar la validez de los trabajos y posteriormente se clasificó la evidencia según la escala del Centro de Medicina Basada en Evidencias de Oxford. Resultados: Se incluyeron 4 ensayos clínicos aleatorios y una revisión sistemática que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Conclusión: Existe evidencia de nivel 1b y recomendación A que las compresas húmedo calientes producen efectos benéficos sobre el dolor de forma tal que potencian una intervención posterior. Aun falta investigación para formular conclusiones adecuadas.Introduction: The pain in children causes an average of 21 million days of school lost and in hardworking employees in the United States it provoke a loss of 147 million workdays. The pain produces musculoskeletal disorders

  17. Estudio de la recuperación del zinc presente en los baños agotados de decapado procedentes de las industrias de galvanizado de zinc en caliente mediante técnicas electroquímicas

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Abad, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Actualmente, el 43% de la producción mundial de zinc se destina al proceso de galvanizado por inmersión en caliente. Previamente a la introducción de las piezas en el baño de zinc fundido, éstas necesitan una serie de tratamientos superficiales. Entre estos tratamientos cabe destacar la etapa de decapado, que consiste en la inmersión de las piezas en un baño de ácido clorhídrico para eliminar de su superficie cáscaras y restos de óxido, como la etapa más contaminante del p...

  18. El ejercicio físico en agua caliente reduce el dolor pero no el número de puntos sensibles de mujeres con fibromialgia: un ensayo clínico randomizado

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Raimundo, Armando; TIMON, Rafael; Gusi, Narcis

    2007-01-01

    Introducción: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de 8 meses de ejercicio físico en agua caliente sobre el dolor de mujeres con fi- bromialgia (FM). Métodos: treinta y tres pacientes fueron distri- buidas aleatoriamente en dos grupos: un grupo de ejercicio (n=17), que realizó 3 sesiones semanales de 60 minutos de ejercicio físico; y un grupo de control (n=16), que continuó realizando sus activi- dades habituales de la vida diaria. El dolor fue evaluado usando las dimension...

  19. Dimensionado de la instalación de energía solar térmica para producción de agua caliente sanitaria de un módulo de la prisión Puerto III

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Villarejo, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    El siguiente proyecto es un dimensionado de los componentes de un sistema solar activo de baja temperatura para la obtención de agua caliente sanitaria (ACS) para el Centro Penitenciario de Puerto III, ubicado en la carretera A-2078, 7Km, CP 11.500, municipio del Puerto de Santa María (provincia de Cádiz). El objeto del proyecto incluye todo el dimensionado teórico del sistema de energía solar térmica necesario para el edificio, desde los cálculos de necesidades, hasta, por ...

  20. Secondary metabolites of vertebrate-dispersed fruits: evidence for adaptive functions Metabolitos secundarios de frutos dispersados por aves: evidencia de funciones adaptativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN L. CIPOLLINI

    2000-09-01

    patternsEn este articulo discuto evidencia reciente acerca del significado adaptativo de los metabolitos secundarios en la fruta madura y sus implicaciones para la dispersión de semillas por aves y otros vertebrados. Específicamente, reviso las hipótesis adaptativas originalmente presentadas y discutidas por Cipollini & Levey en 1997. Estas incluyen: atracción/asociación, efectos sobre la germinación, toxicidad general y dirigida, y compromisos en defensa. Además, presento y discuto una nueva hipótesis adaptativa: efectos nutricionales directos. Esta hipótesis es postulada para reflejar los descubrimientos recientes sobre los efectos positivos resultantes del consumo de metabolitos secundarios. Concluyo que se requieren estudios con un foco estrecho para examinar estas hipótesis de un modo directo. La evidencia en favor o en contra de cada hipótesis es observacional o indirecta, y obtenida de estudios no diseñados específicamente para probar estas hipótesis. A pesar de esto, la mayor parte de las hipótesis encuentran cierto nivel de apoyo - en ocasiones, incluso cuando el mismo metabolito es considerado (e.g., antocianinas y carotenoides que funcionan como pigmentos además de antioxidantes nutricionales. Finalmente, discuto la naturaleza de los blancos moleculares de los compuestos secundarios encontrados en plantas. Al hacerlo, refuerzo las nociones que sugieren que la existencia de interacciones sinérgicas y que la acción multifuncional en estos compuestos pueden proveer de soluciones económicas a plantas que se enfrentan a selección temporalmente variable, y a veces multidireccional, sobre frutos y semillas. Puede no resultar sorprendente el que los compuestos secundarios en plantas cumplen funciones múltiples; siendo probable el apoyo a muchas hipótesis no mutuamente exclusivas. Estudios comparados que permitan examinar estas hipótesis deben ser diseñados considerando cuidadosamente los efectos potenciales de las relaciones filogenéticas y las

  1. La técnica de Charles en el tratamiento del linfedema secundario crónico del dorso del pie: caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El linfedema se define como la retención intersticial de líquido hiperprotéico. En su fase incial es reversible; pero en fases más avanzadas desencadena múltiples reacciones locales que culminan en un aumento del volumen de las extremidades, hipertrofia y fibrosis de los tejidos más superficiales. El tratamiento quirúrgico del linfedema secundario crónico es idéntico cualquiera que sea su etiología, pero difiere según el estadío de la enfermedad. En los estadíos iniciales el tratamiento conservador es la primera elección; pero ante el fallo de las medidas conservadoras, el tratamiento microquirúrgico mediante anastomosis linfático-venosas y linfo-linfáticas es el que se acepta como de primera línea y proporciona excelentes resultados. En fases más tardías, las técnicas de escisión radical, más especificamente la técnica de Charles asociada o no a medidas fisiológicas, juegan un papel importante en la resolución del linfedema dada la necesidad de conseguir una redución volumétrica del miembro afectado. Con la presentación de un caso clínico, pretendemos demostrar la utilidad de la técnica de Charles en el tratamiento del linfedema secundario crónico avanzado del dorso del pie.

  2. Estudio de los exitus con diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición en un hospital de tercer nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Fernández Valdivia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La desnutrición constituye uno de los principales problemas de Salud Pública, según datos de la OMS, es la primera causa de mortalidad, cuando la misma afecta al colectivo de los sujetos hospitalizados, toma entidad propia denominándose "desnutrición hospitalaria". Objetivos: El objetivo general es cuantificar los diagnósticos principales de alta más frecuentes, que causan exitus, con el diagnóstico secundario de desnutrición. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal y descriptivo, en el que se han incluido todas las altas hospitalarias del año 2011 y primer semestre de 2012, que han sido exitus y que tienen como diagnóstico secundario la desnutrición, siendo el total de 33. Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo, efectuándose el test de Mann-Whitney para pruebas no paramétricas (p < 0,05. Resultados: Los diagnósticos principales más frecuentes entre las 33 altas analizadas son la sepsis (12,1%, metástasis hepáticas (9,1%, neumonía (6,1%, insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (6,1% e insuficiencia renal aguda (6,1%. Conclusiones: Aunque el diagnóstico principal más frecuente es la sepsis, al agrupar los diagnósticos, el GRD más frecuente es de patología respiratoria, por lo que se ha de hacer codificación exhaustiva y de calidad para ajustar el peso relativo de los mismos a la realidad. Es fundamental especificar en la fuente de información clínica utilizada para la codificación, el grado de desnutrición, para obtener mayor especificidad en los datos.

  3. Determinación de la tensión de laminación en caliente a partir de ensayos de tracción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsalve, A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of mechanical behavior of hot rolled steels is an important aspect during industrial processing. The rolling stress needed to the process were estimated using three methods, the first of which is related to the Sellars`s model that takes into account the friction coefficient and the yield stress. The second method estimates the rolling stress as the average stress obtained during the tensile tests. The third method, estimates the rolling stress from the data of power consumed by the rolling equipment. This methodology was applied in this study to a carbon steel. The conclusion of the work is that results obtained by Sellars`s and consumed power, are coincident. The method based on the average tensile stress predicts stresses lower than those obtained with other two methods.

    La predicción del comportamiento mecánico de aceros laminados en caliente es un aspecto importante durante el procesamiento industrial. En el presente trabajo, las tensiones necesarias para el proceso de laminado, fueron estimadas usando tres métodos, el primero de los cuales se basa en la aplicación del modelo de Sellars, que toma en cuenta el coeficiente de fricción y el límite elástico. El segundo método, estima la tensión de laminado a partir de la tensión promedio obtenida durante los ensayos de tracción. El tercer método, estima la tensión de laminado a partir de los datos de potencia consumida por el equipo de laminación. Esta metodología fue aplicada en este estudio a un acero al carbono. La conclusión de este trabajo es que los resultados obtenidos por los métodos basados en el modelo de Sellars y de la potencia consumida, son coincidentes, en tanto que el método basado en la tensión de tracción, presenta valores ligeramente menores a los predichos por los otros modelos.

  4. Caracterización de residuos sólidos procedentes de dos procesos distintos de galvanizado en caliente por inmersión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvasto, P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc dust and zinc ash from hot-dip galvanizing industries located in Venezuela were characterized using atomic spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Dust was formed during the high-pressure drying process of the galvanized pieces, in a plant that uses a steel kettle to hold the molten zinc. Ash identified as “A” came from the same plant as the dust, while ash identified as “B” came from a hot-dip galvanizing plant which use a ceramic lined galvanizing furnace. Dust contained 98 wt % Zn, in metallic form. Both ash samples contained: Zn and ZnO, while Zn5(OH8Cl2—H2O and ZnCl2 were only found in ash “B”. Globally, ash “A” and ash “B” contain 71 and 75 wt % Zn, respectively.

    Se caracterizaron polvos y escorias de zinc de industrias venezolanas de galvanizado en caliente por inmersión empleando espectroscopía atómica, microscopía electrónica de barrido, difracción de R-X y espectroscopía infrarroja. Los polvos se obtienen del proceso de secado a alta presión de las piezas en una planta cuyo proceso se basa en una cuba de acero para contener el zinc fundido, planta de la cual procede también la muestra de escoria denominada “A”. Por su parte, la escoria denominada “B” se genera en una industria que utiliza una cuba recubierta con refractario cerámico. Los polvos contienen 98 % en peso de zinc, en forma metálica. Las escorias, por su parte, presentaron las siguientes fases: Zn y ZnO,. Adicionalmente, la escoria “B” mostró la presencia ZnCl2 y Zn5(OH8Cl2—H2O. El contenido total de zinc (% en peso en la escoria “A” es 71 %, mientras que en la escoria “B” es 75 %.

  5. Air Quality Scoping Study for Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada (EMSI April 2007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Kavouras, Ilias; Campbell, Dave; Campbell, Scott; Kohl, Steven; Shafer, David

    2007-04-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S.Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at seven sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Sarcobatus Flat, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and Crater Flat, and at four sites on the NTS. The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. Letter reports provide summaries of air quality and meteorological data, on completion of each site’s sampling program.

  6. Secondary pollutants or macro ecological contamination: A biotic contamination of the air. Contaminantes secundarios o contaminacion macroecologica: contaminacion abiotica de la atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Abil, O. (Catedra de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Publica Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The primary and secondary contaminants are analyzed by the author. As well the effects of these contaminants by man and the ecosystem. The main topics are: (1) Photochemistry contamination (photo chemical smog) (2) Acid rain and its effects. (3) Depletion of ozone layer.

  7. Geology, geochemistry, geochronology, and economic potential of Neogene volcanic rocks in the Laguna Pedernal and Salar de Aguas Calientes segments of the Archibarca lineament, northwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J. P.; Jourdan, F.; Creaser, R. A.; Maldonado, G.; DuFrane, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study presents new geochemical, geochronological, isotopic, and mineralogical data, combined with new geological mapping for a 2400 km2 area of Neogene volcanic rocks in northwestern Argentina near the border with Chile, between 25°10‧S and 25°45‧S. The area covers the zone of intersection between the main axis of the Cordillera Occidental and a set of NW-SE-trending structures that form part of the transverse Archibarca lineament. This lineament has localized major ore deposits in Chile (e.g., the late Eocene La Escondida porphyry Cu deposit) and large volcanic centers such as the active Llullaillaco and Lastarría volcanoes on the border between Chile and Argentina, and the Neogene Archibarca, Antofalla, and Cerro Galán volcanoes in Argentina. Neogene volcanic rocks in the Laguna Pedernal and Salar de Aguas Calientes areas are mostly high-K calc-alkaline in composition, and range from basaltic andesites, through andesites and dacites, to rhyolites. Magmatic temperatures and oxidation states, estimated from mineral compositions, range from ~ 1000 °C and ∆FMQ ≈ 1.0-1.5 in andesites, to ~ 850 °C and ∆FMQ ≈ 1.5-2.0 in dacites and rhyolites. The oldest rocks consist of early-middle Miocene andesite-dacite plagioclase-pyroxene-phyric lava flows and ignimbrites, with 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 17.14 ± 0.10 Ma to 11.76 ± 0.27 Ma. Their major and trace element compositions are typical of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone, and show strong crustal contamination trends for highly incompatible elements such as Cs, Rb, Th, and U. These rocks are geochemically grouped as sub-suite 1. This widespread intermediate composition volcanism was followed in the middle-late Miocene by a period of more focused rhyodacitic flow-dome complex formation. These felsic rocks are characterized by less extreme enrichments in highly incompatible elements, and increasing depletion of heavy rare earth elements. These rocks are geochemically grouped as sub-suite 2. The

  8. Análisis digital de imágenes para la caracterización microscópica de parámetros críticos en la producción fermentativa de metabolitos secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corkidi Gabriel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Los metabolitos secundarios, y particularmente los antibióticos, se encuentran entre el grupo de fármacos de mayor relevancia en el mercado mundial, y son producidos, en su mayoría, mediante el cultivo sumergido de hongos filamentosos. Desde el punto de vista hidrodinámico, estos procesos involucran fundamentalmente la dispersión de hasta cuatro fases diferentes: agua-aceite-aire-hongo. Aun cuando se sabe que la hidrodinámica del cultivo determina la eficiencia global del proceso de fermentación, poco se ha logrado en cuanto al entendimiento de las relaciones hidrodinámica-dispersión-fisiología-productividad. Esto se debe en parte a la falta de metodologías que permitan cuantificar y caracterizar con precisión tanto la viabilidad del hongo (ya que en buena medida determina el rendimiento y la productividad del metabolito de interés, como el tamaño de las burbujas de gas y de gotas de aceite (ya que de ello depende la eficiencia de transporte de nutrientes como el oxígeno y los ácidos grasos del aceite. En este trabajo se resume y revisa el desarrollo de las metodologías que nuestro grupo ha publicado, basadas en el procesamiento y el análisis digital de imágenes aplicadas al estudio del cultivo de Trichoderma harzianum, hongo que produce antimicóticos de alta potencia (como la 6-pentil-alfa-pirona. Con el uso de estas metodologías hemos generado conocimiento básico de los fenómenos que ocurren en el fermentador, lo que nos ha permitido establecer estrategias para incrementar la productividad de este tipo de procesos. Palabras clave: cultivos miceliares; hidrodinámica; dispersión multifásica; fisiología microbiana; productividad; análisis de imágenes

  9. Efecto del contenido de azufre y del grado de desoxidación sobre la ductilidad en caliente de aceros inoxidables austeníticos resulfurados en estado de solidificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella, J.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of free machining austenitic stainless steels features a specific drawback derived from their high sulphur content, which is needed for generating, into the austenitic matrix, inclusions to optimize the different machining operations. However, sulphur has a harmful effect on hot workability. This paper deals with assessing the effect of sulphur content and deoxidation level on the hot ductility of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels in as cast condition. Hot tensile tests were conducted on a Gleeble machine, at temperatures between 1,150 and 1,250°C, studying a ductility factor as a function of sulphur content, deoxidation degree, as well as type, size and distribution of sulfides. Results point out the harmful effect of increasing sulphur and oxygen contents on the hot workability of resulphurized austenitic stainless steels, and the need to control carefully the level of oxides of these steels.

    La fabricación de aceros inoxidables austeníticos de alta maquinabilidad presenta una problemática específica derivada de su elevado contenido de azufre; elemento necesario para generar en la matriz austenítica inclusiones que faciliten las diferentes operaciones de mecanizado, pero perjudicial en cuanto al deterioro que produce en la deformabilidad en caliente. Este artículo describe el estudio realizado para evaluar el efecto del contenido de azufre y el grado de desoxidación sobre la ductilidad en caliente de aceros inoxidables austeníticos resulfurados, partiendo de una estructura de solidificación (as cast condition. Se realizaron ensayos de tracción en un sistema Gleeble, a temperaturas entre 1.150 y 1.250°C, analizándose el parámetro de ductilidad en función del contenido de azufre, nivel de desoxidación, y del tipo, tamaño y distribución de los sulfuros presentes. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto el efecto perjudicial de los contenidos de azufre y oxígeno sobre la deformabilidad en

  10. Respuesta mecánica durante la inversión de la deformación en caliente de un acero microaleado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiola, D. J.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviour of a Nb-microalloyed steel under non monotonie conditions has been studied using double hit hot torsion tests involving changes in the twist direction. For strain reversal conditions, a clear mechanical transient has been observed. This transient has been characterized by a steep hardening region just after reversal which takes place up to a stress level near the one reached before reversing, then a region showing a low strain hardening rate and finally, a region extending up to the convergence of monotonie and reversal behaviours. Testing temperatures and strain rates have ranged from 950°C to 1200°C and from 0.01s-1 to 0.1s-1, respectively. Applied prestrains before reversal have varied from 0.03 to 0.25 in order to avoid the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization during previous strain. Lastly, some relationships have been established between the deformation conditions and the parameters defining the transient. These parameters depend mainly on the prestrain.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento mecánico de un acero microaleado con niobio bajo condiciones no monótonas de deformación mediante ensayos de torsión en caliente de doble pasada con cambio de sentido de giro entre la primera y la segunda de ellas. Se ha observado que la inversión de la deformación produce un transitorio en las curvas de fluencia caracterizado por un endurecimiento rápido hasta alcanzar un nivel de tensión menor al que se tenía, justo, antes de aplicar el cambio en el sentido de giro, una etapa de endurecimiento nulo y, finalmente, una región en la que el comportamiento mecánico durante la inversión tiende progresivamente al comportamiento mecánico monótono. Las temperaturas de ensayo se han variado entre 950 °C y 1.200 °C y las velocidades de deformación entre 0,01 y 0,1 s-1 Las deformaciones previas aplicadas antes de la reversión han estado comprendidas entre 0,03 y 0,25, evit

  11. Criterios de predicción de inestabilidades plásticas en procesos de conformado en caliente. (Parte I: Revisión teórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Omar, A.

    2010-04-01

    ápida de una fisura, que puede dar lugar a una rotura final. La complejidad de los modos de deformación y la intervención simultanea de varios parámetros han llevado a varios investigadores a desarrollar diversos criterios, con diferentes planteamientos, para predecir la aparición de defectos y optimizar los parámetros de control en los procesos de conformado. El presente trabajo pretende exponer, a modo de revisión, algunos criterios ampliamente usados en la literatura para la predicción de las inestabilidades plásticas durante el conformado de materiales. Se ha estimado oportuno dividir la materia del trabajo en dos partes: una primera parte presenta los criterios fenomenológicos de predicción de las inestabilidades plásticas, basados en la observación descriptiva de los fenómenos microscópicos de la deformación (endurecimiento por deformación y sensibilidad a la velocidad de deformación, luego se analizan los criterios continuos basados en los principios de máxima velocidad de producción de entropía de la termodinámica irreversible aplicada a la mecánica continua de la fluencia plástica en grandes deformaciones. Asimismo, se comenta una discusión bibliográfica entablada entre varios autores referida al fundamento físico del Modelo Dinámico de Materiales. En la segunda parte, se lleva a cabo un estudio comparativo para caracterizar la inestabilidad plástica durante un proceso de conformado en caliente de un acero microaleado de medio carbono usando criterios continuos y fenomenológicos.

  12. Efecto de la luz y de la escarificación en la germinación de las semillas de cinco especies de árboles tropicales secundarios

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña, Pablo I.; Garwood, Nancy C

    2016-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la luz y de la escarificación de la testa en la germinación de las semillas de cinco especies de árboles característicos de sucesión secundaria, Apeiba membranacea, A. tibourbou, Luehea seemannii, Trichospermum mexicanum y Guazuma ulmnifolia. Las semillas se escarificaron con ácido sulfúrico o agua caliente por 2 o 10 minutos y se pusieron a germinar en invernadero bajo condiciones de luz o sombra.Las especies no son fotoblásticas. En los testigos, la germinación fue m...

  13. Estudio de la corrosión en caliente de la aleación aisi-sae 304h, mediante la técnica de espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica (eis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ TRISTANCHO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La corrosión en caliente es uno de los mayores problemas que se presentan en la industria generadora de energía eléctrica, especialmente en los componentes que conforman los equipos generadores de vapor (calderas. El fenómeno corrosivo que presentan las sales fundidas, es por lo menos parcialmente, de naturaleza electroquímica y por lo tanto, puede ser estudiado empleando la técnica de impedancia electroquímica (EIS, adaptada a las condiciones especiales de temperatura y composición del medio corrosivo. En esta investigación se evalúo el comportamiento del acero AISI304H expuesto a un electrolito compuesto de 80%V2O5 – 20%Na2SO4 fundido, en un intervalo de temperatura comprendido entre 550ºC y 700ºC

  14. Materials with low emission of secondary electrons for Space applications; Materiales de baja emision de electrones secundarios para el Espacio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, I.; Aguilera, L.; Nistor, V.; Galan, L.

    2010-07-01

    Coatings were studied low secondary electron emission preventing effect multipactor in radio-frequency devices, high-power space satellites aboard. In particular, it is stable materials with high electrical conductivity and good adhesion to substrate: silicon and titanium nitride and silicon carbon. The coefficient of secondary emission electrons have been correlated with the power multipactor threshold. The surface composition and stability of the materials when exposed to air have been studied by photoemission spectroscopy X-ray The results have been simulated using Monte Carlo methods. Because satellites are subjected to irradiation with photons, in addition to the bombardment with electrons in the laboratory also been experimentally simulated photoemission conditions in space. (Author) 10 refs.

  15. Letter Report: Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Englebrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2008-08-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  16. Letter Report Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative - Air Quality Scoping Study for Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Engelbrecht; I. Kavouras; D. Campbell; S. Campbell; S. Kohl; D. Shafer

    2009-04-02

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) is performing a scoping study as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI). The main objective is to obtain baseline air quality information for Yucca Mountain and an area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Air quality and meteorological monitoring and sampling equipment housed in a mobile trailer (shelter) is collecting data at eight sites outside the NTS, including Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Pahranagat NWR, Beatty, Rachel, Caliente, Crater Flat, and Tonopah Airport, and at four sites on the NTS (Engelbrecht et al., 2007a-d). The trailer is stationed at any one site for approximately eight weeks at a time. This letter report provides a summary of air quality and meteorological data on completion of the site's sampling program.

  17. Estado confusional, lesión pulmonar y glúteos que languidecen. Efectos secundarios de procedimientos estéticos Seconday effects of aesthetic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Peña-Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Los procedimientos estéticos a cargo de personal no médico son cada vez más frecuentes, muchos no controlados médicamente y promotores de efectos secundarios desde leves a graves. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 29 años de edad, sin problemas de salud relevantes, quien acudió a un centro de estética para inyectarse silicio orgánico en sus glúteos, con la finalidad de aumentar su volumen, desarrolló posteriormente un síndrome de embolismo masivo.Aesthetic procedures performed by non medical personnel are increasing in frequency. Many are not medical controlled and cause side effects from mild to serious. We present the case of a 29-year-old woman, with no relevant health problems, who went to a aesthetics center to have organic silicon injected into her buttocks to increase volume, developing later a massive pulmonary embolism syndrome.

  18. EXPERIENCIAS Y REFLEXIONES EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA HOMOLOGÍA Y HOMOPLASIA EN EL COLEGIO SECUNDARIO (Pag: 136-145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Urquiza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se discute el rol que la homología y la homoplasia podrían jugar en la enseñanza de la biología evolutiva y de la naturaleza de la ciencia en los últimos años del colegio secundario. La homología es uno de los conceptos más discutidos en Biología y central en biología evolutiva. Permite analizar conceptos de filogenia, biología del desarrollo, genética molecular, morfología y paleontología e integrarlos en diferentes formas, logrando así una visión más acabada e integral de la biología y de los organismos. Se concluye que puede usarse como elemento vertebrador para articular parte de la Biología y abordar a través de él algunos elementos de la naturaleza de la ciencia.

  19. El futuro de los recursos humanos en informática. Un estudio empírico con estudiantes secundarios argentinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Zukerfeld

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El sector de software y servicios informáticos ha tenido un crecimiento notable en la Argentina de la última década, sin embargo los recursos humanos son vistos por los actores del sector como el principal limitante para el desarrollo futuro de este. La pregunta general que fundamenta la investigación es: ¿en qué medida los adolescentes presentan potencialidades para desempeñarse en el futuro cercano, en procesos productivos de software? se preven algunas respuestas a través de tres ejes: tecnológico (cantidad y calidad del uso de tecnologías digitales e internet, subjetivo (la compatibilidad entre los gustos y habilidades de los jóvenes y los que son útiles en los procesos productivos de software e intersubjetivo (representaciones sobre los programadores, el mercado de trabajo y las carreras profesionales. Asimismo, se consideran las divergencias de género y las potencialidades de los jóvenes para, más allá de la producción de software, participar del trabajo informacional. Metodológicamente, su desarrollo se basa en información primaria surgida de una encuesta realizada a 627 estudiantes secundarios. Las conclusiones muestran que las actividades informáticas, en las tres dimensiones, las mujeres presentan una lejanía mayor que los varones. Asimismo, pese a que encontramos algunas habilidades subjetivas promisorias, en la dimensión intersubjetiva emergen fuertes limitaciones para identificarse con un horizonte laboral en informática. Finalmente, se considera que quiénes manifiestan deseos de avanzar en una educación universitaria en informática, no son los alumnos que declaran tener prácticas actuales en esa actividad. Se sugieren algunas líneas de acción respaldadas por políticas públicas.

  20. Efecto de la velocidad de deformación en la recristalización dinámica de un cobre ETP durante su compresión en caliente con temperatura descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrente, G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to establish the effect of strain rate in the dynamic recrystallization of an ETP copper during its hot deformation with descending temperature. For this, there were made some tests of hot compression until true deformations close to one, with four strain rates while the temperature was descending. The tests that were made to the two lowest strain rates, showed a multiple peaks dynamic recrystallization with a rise of the tension instead it reaches the steady state, maybe due a continuous decline of the temperature.With the increase of rate the rest of the tests showed simple peak recrystallization and recovering respectively. The experimental results were compared with the results of a simulation based on the Damped Cosine Avrami Model. The simulation produced results closed to those measured during the multiple peaks dynamic recrystallization. These suggest that the application of this Model may be extended to multiple peaks dynamic recrystallization processes with changeable temperature.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el efecto de la velocidad de deformación en la recristalización dinámica de un cobre electrolítico puro durante su deformación en caliente con temperatura descendente. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de compresión en caliente hasta deformaciones verdaderas cercanas a uno, con cuatro velocidades de deformación, mientras descendía la temperatura. Los ensayos realizados a las dos velocidades de deformación más bajas mostraron recristalización dinámica de picos múltiples con un ascenso de la tensión en lugar del estado de saturación, debido probablemente al continuo descenso de la temperatura. Con el aumento de la velocidad, los ensayos restantes mostraron recristalización de pico simple y solo restauración, respectivamente. Los resultados experimentales se compararon con los de una simulación basada en el modelo cosenoidal amortiguado de Avrami. La simulación arroj

  1. Aplicación de los mapas de procesado en la optimización de los parámetros de un proceso de conformado en caliente. I parte. Revisión teórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Omar, A.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The hot working processes constitute an important step in the manufacture of components for engineering applications. In the past, the mechanical processing have been used to impart a shape to the engineering materials. More recently, however, the hot working processes are used not only to achieve the required shape but also to impart desirable mechanical and microstructural characteristics by an adequate design of the thermomechanical process. The aim of the present paper is to summarize the general characteristics of the Dynamic Materials Model. In this model, the workpiece material under hot working conditions is considered to be a dissipater of power. Also, the extreme principles of irreversible thermodynamics applied to large plastic flow are described to develop a continuum criterion capable to predict the metallurgical instabilities in a hot worked material.

    Los procesos de conformado en caliente de materiales constituyen un paso muy importante en la fabricación de los componentes mecánicos. Durante siglos estos procesos fueron utilizados para dar a los metales la forma deseada. Hoy en día, sin embargo, la deformación en caliente no sólo proporciona la geometría deseada sino las características mecánicas y microestructurales necesarias mediante un adecuado diseño del proceso de termoconformado. En el presente trabajo se presentan, a modo de revisión, las características generales del llamado "modelo dinámico de materiales" mediante el cual se optimizan los parámetros de conformación de un material usando los mapas de disipación de energía. En este modelo, la pieza conformada a alta temperatura se considera como la única parte de todo el sistema del proceso capaz de disipar energía. Se describe, también, la termodinámica irreversible aplicada a la mecánica continua de la fluencia plástica en las grandes deformaciones para desarrollar un criterio capaz de predecir las inestabilidades metalúrgicas en un material

  2. Topiramato: efectos secundarios a nivel ocular. Revisión a propósito de un caso Ocular side effects with topiramate: A case discussion and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Medin Catoira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de miopización bilateral aguda asociada a hipertensión ocular por cierre angular, secundario al inicio del tratamiento con topiramato vía oral. Revisión: Revisamos los principales efectos oculares secundarios al tratamiento con topiramato, tales como cierre angular agudo asociado a glaucoma o hipertensión ocular, miopización secundaria, o toxicidad retiniana. Los síntomas aparecen típicamente en las primeras semanas tras iniciar el tratamiento, o al duplicar la dosis. El cuadro se resuelve normalmente al suspender el fármaco. Conclusión: El topiramato es un fármaco utilizado principalmente como antiepiléptico si bien es ampliamente utilizado en otros tratamientos neurológicos y cuadros variados como cefaleas, alcoholismo, espasmos infantiles, neuralgias e incluso tratamiento de la obesidad y bulimia, entre otros. Dados los efectos secundarios descritos a nivel ocular, éstos deben ser conocidos por el oftalmólogo, y considerados por el médico prescriptor, informando al paciente y a su familia al inicio del tratamiento.Clinical case: We describe a case of acute bilateral ocular myopia associate to ocular hypertension by angle-closure secondary oral treatment with topiramate. Review: We review the main ocular effects related to the treatment with topiramate, such as angle-closure glaucoma, hypertension, secondary myopia, or retinal toxicity. Symptoms typically occur in the first weeks of the topiramate therapy, or when the dose is duplicate. The disease and symtoms dissapear when the medication is discontinued. Conclusion: The topiramato is a drug used mainly as anti-epileptic, and also in other variable neurological disorders as migraines, alcoholism, spasms, neuralgias and obesity and bulimia, among others. The secondary ocular effects must be known by the ophtalmologist and communicated to the patient and his family at the beginning of the treatment.

  3. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  4. Modelo dinámico de incorporación de oxígeno incidente sobre sustratos de silicio durante análisis de espectrometría de masas de iones secundarios

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán de la Mata, Berta

    2002-01-01

    LA ESPECTROMETRIA DE MASAS DE IONES SECUNDARIOS ES UNA TECNICA DE ANALISIS QUIMICO DE LA SUPERFICIE DE SOLIDOS CON GRAN MARGEN DINAMICO DE SEÑAL. ESENCIALMENTE, LA TECNICA CONSISTE EN EL PULVERIZADO DE LA SUPERFICIE A ANALIZAR POR INCIDENCIA DE UN HAZ DE IONES EN VACIO. JUNTO A OTROS TIPOS DE PARTICULAS, SE EMITEN IONES QUE SON RECOGIDOS Y ANALIZADOS. EL PRINCIPAL PROBLEMA DE ESTA TECNICA ES QUE DA INFORMACION CUALITATIVA Y NO CUANTITATIVA. NO ES POSIBLE, EN GENERAL, DETERMINAR A PARTIR DE RA...

  5. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD NUTRITIVA, FERMENTACIÓN In Vitro Y METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS EN ARVENSES Y RASTROJO DE MAÍZ UTILIZADOS PARA LA ALIMENTACIÓN DEL GANADO LECHERO

    OpenAIRE

    R. Martínez-Loperena; O.A. Castelán-Ortega; M. González-Ronquillo; J. G. Estrada-Flores

    2011-01-01

    En los sistemas campesinos del altiplano central mexicano en la época de lluvias existe una gran disponibilidad de recursos naturales forrajeros, tal es el caso de las arvenses (plantas que crecen dentro de los cultivos de maíz), que son ampliamente utilizadas para la alimentación del ganado lechero. El objetivo fue determinar la calidad nutritiva, metabolitos secundarios de las arvenses y el efecto que tienen en la cinética de fermentación ruminal al ser mezcladas con el rastrojo de maíz en ...

  6. Inclusión digital y prácticas de enseñanza en el marco del Programa Conectar Igualdad para la formación docente de nivel Secundario

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Desde 2011 el Programa Conectar Igualdad (PCI) viene distribuyendo netbooks a estudiantes y docentes de los Institutos de Formación Docente (ISFD) cuyas carreras forman para el nivel secundario. En ese contexto, durante el año 2012 se realizó un primer perfil de acceso y usos de las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) – personal y con fines pedagógicos - entre estudiantes, docentes y directivos de los ISFD que no habían recibido aún las netbook, con el fin de que el mismo co...

  7. Efectos secundarios del sirólimus en la cavidad oral. Presentación de dos casos cínicos en pacientes trasplantados de hígado

    OpenAIRE

    Somacarrera Pérez, María Luisa; Martín Carreras-Presas, Carmen; Díaz Rodríguez, Milagros

    2009-01-01

    El Sirolimus (SRL) fue inicialmente aprobado para uso en trasplante renal en 1999 por la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) es un macrólido con propiedades antimicóticas, antiproliferativas e inmunosupresoras. Es estructuralmente similar a los inhibidores calcineurínicos (IC) pero tiene mecanismo de acción y efectos secundarios diferentes. El SRL se une a la misma proteína a la que se liga el FK, la FK Binding Protein (FKBP), pero este complejo SRL-FKBP no ...

  8. Reconstrucción en linfedema peneano y escrotal secundario a hernia inguinal bilateral gigante Reconstruction in penile and scrotal lymphedema secondary to billateral giant inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El linfedema peneano y escrotal tiene consecuencias funcionales, estéticas, sociales y psicológicas significativas para el paciente que lo padece. Es una enfermedad infrecuente en los países desarrollados, aunque relativamente prevalente en los países tropicales. Su causa más común es la filariasis, aunque en nuestra práctica diaria se asocia más frecuentemente a cirugía, radioterapia, procesos inflamatorios y neoplásicos. Presentamos un caso singular de linfedema penoescrotal secundario a cirugía por hernia inguinal gigante bilateral que persistía un año después de la intervención. El tratamiento quirúrgico consistió en la exéresis de toda la piel linfedematosa del escroto involucrada y el uso de colgajos de piel escrotal posterior para la cobertura testicular. En un segundo tiempo quirúrgico se llevó a cabo una extirpación total de la piel del pene y del tejido subcutáneo superficial a la fascia de Buck. Empleamos injertos de piel de grosor parcial para cubrir el pene denudado. El resultado estético postoperatorio fue aceptable y los resultados funcionales y psicológicos son satisfactorios para el paciente 3 años después de la cirugía.Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum has important functional, cosmetic, social, psychological consequences for the affected patient. It is a rare disease in the developed countries, although it is relatively frequent in tropical countries. Globally, the most common cause is filariasis, although in our practice it is most frecuently associated to surgery, radiotherapy, inflammatory and neoplasic diseases. We report one rare case of penoscrotal lymphedema due to billateral giant inguinal hernia reconstrction. The lymphedema was persistent one year after the repair of the billateral hernia. The technique of reconstruction consisted of excision of all involved lymphedematous skin of the scrotum, and use of posterior scrotal flaps for testicular coverage. In a second surgical time, a total

  9. A profile of sexually active male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru Perfil de los adolescentes varones sexualmente activos en colegios secundarios de Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús L. Chirinos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.Con el objetivo de documentar el nivel de conocimiento y las actitudes con respecto a sexualidad y las prácticas sexuales de los adolescentes varones de colegios secundarios en Lima, Peru, 991 estudiantes varones, entre los 12-19 años, completaron una encuesta autoaplicable y anónima dentro de un Programa de Prevención de Comportamientos Sexuales de Riesgo. Datos de la encuesta: sociodemográficos de la familia; de actividades personales; de conocimiento y actitudes con respecto a la sexualidad; de experiencia sexual y uso de anticonceptivos. El conocimiento sobre sexualidad es limitado. Los varones discuten principalmente sobre sexualidad con sus pares varones (49,8%. Las actitudes hacia la actividad sexual y el uso de condones fueron positivas, pero

  10. Simulación de la fluencia en caliente de un acero microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. II parte. Recristalización dinámica: inicio y cinética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the part 1 of this work, in this second part the dynamic recrystallization of a commercial medium carbon microalloyed steel is characterized from the point of view of its onset and kinetics. For this purpose uniaxial hot compression tests were carried out over a range of five orders of magnitude in strain rate and 300 °C of temperature. Experimental results are compared with those reported in the literature and the possible effect of dynamic precipitation is also analyzed. It is verified that the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization can faithfully be described by the classical Avrami equation.

    Siguiendo el planteamiento efectuado en la I parte de este trabajo, en esta II parte se caracteriza la recristalización dinámica de un acero comercial microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono desde el punto de vista de su inicio y de su cinética. Con este objeto se efectuaron ensayos de compresión uniaxial en caliente en un intervalo de cinco órdenes de magnitud en velocidad de deformación y 300 °C de temperatura. Los resultados experimentales se comparan con los resultados reportados por diversos autores y se analizan los posibles efectos de precipitación dinámica. Se verifica que la cinética de la recristalización dinámica puede representarse fielmente por la ecuación de Avrami.

  11. Simulación de la fluencia en caliente de un acero microaleado con un contenido medio de carbono. I parte. Aproximación teórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, J. M.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The constitutive equations to model the hot flow behaviour of metallic materials in general, and of microalloyed steels in particular (see part 2 of this work are established in this work. Special emphasis is done on the dynamic softening mechanisms, i.e., dynamic recovery and recrystallization phenomena. The equations developed are physic-based, not empirical, and the modeling allows an easy implementation in an analysis by numerical methods. The resulting equations are even able to predict the final grain size.

    En la presente revisión se plantean las ecuaciones constitutivas necesarias para efectuar la modelización de la fluencia en caliente de materiales metálicos y, en particular, de un acero microaleado (Véase la II parte de este trabajo. Se hace especial hincapié en la simulación de los fenómenos de restauración y recristalización dinámica. Las ecuaciones propuestas son de base física, no empírica, y el modelo resultante es relativamente sencillo de utilizar y de implementar en un análisis por métodos numéricos. El estudio no queda circunscrito al comportamiento a fluencia sino que es capaz de predecir el tamaño de grano final.

  12. Agentes calciomiméticos en el tratamiento del hiperparatiroidismo secundario a la insuficiencia renal crónica Calcimimetic agents in the treatment of hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Negri

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available La reciente identificación y clonación del receptor sensor de calcio (RSCa ha permitido tener una mejor comprensión de la regulación normal del metabolismo del calcio y entender un número de trastornos relativamente poco frecuentes del metabolismo mineral. En la glándula paratiroides el RSCa es el mecanismo responsable de modular la liberación de la hormona paratiroidea en función del nivel de calcio extracelular. Este descubrimiento también ha permitido desarrollar drogas que imitan o potencian las acciones del calcio extracelular sobre el RSCa (llamadas calciomiméticos que disminuyen la secreción de paratohormona sin incrementar el calcio sérico. Los calciomiméticos de última generación son pequeñas moléculas orgánicas que actúan como moduladores alostéricos del RSCa y se encuentran en su fase inicial de desarrollo clínico. A pesar de que la experiencia obtenida con estas drogas hasta ahora es limitada, ellas han mostrado ser efectivas para reducir los niveles de paratohormona en pacientes con hiperparatiroidismo secundario a fallo renal terminal sin inducir efectos secundarios de importancia. Es por ello que los compuestos calciomiméticos tienen un considerable potencial como nuevas drogas para el tratamiento del hiperparatiroidismo secundario y de la enfermedad ósea secundaria a la insuficiencia renal.The recent discovery and cloning of the extra cellular calcium sensing receptor (CaSR has allowed a better understanding of the regulation of normal calcium metabolism and of rare disturbances in mineral metabolism. In the parathyroid glands the CaSR is responsable for modulating parathyroid hormone release as a function of the extra cellular calcium level. This discovery has allowed the development of drugs that mimics or potentiates the actions of extra cellular calcium on the CaSR, called calcimimetics that decrease parathyroid hormone secretion without increasing serum calcium. The new calcimimetics are small organic

  13. Simulación del secado de cebolla blanca (Allium cepa) por flujo de aire caliente y evaluación en la pérdida de su pungencia

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Delgado, Luis Fernando

    1996-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos En el presente trabajo de investigación se desarrollaron dos metodologías matemáticas capaces de describir las curvas típicas del proceso de secado de alimentos: la metodología de Alvarez y Legues modificada, y la metodología de diferencias finitas. Estas metodologías fueron producto de un análisis físico y matemático del proceso difusivo no lineal del agua durante el secado, y fueron transcrit...

  14. Estudio de la deshidratación osmótica y del secado por aire caliente como operaciones de estabilización de productos de manzana (var. Granny Smith) enriquecidos en calcio

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera Puigdollers, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    El reciente interés de los consumidores por ingerir alimentos que sean más beneficiosos para su salud ha impulsado en los últimos años el mercado de los alimentos funcionales, entendiéndose por alimento funcional cualquier producto alimenticio que proporcione un beneficio para la salud más allá del que aportan sus nutrientes esenciales. Entre las diferentes técnicas de obtención de alimentos funcionales, la impregnación a vacío permite la incorporación de compuestos fisiológicamente activo...

  15. Estudio por HPLC de la acción de dos elicitores bióticos sobre la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios en células de clavel (Dianthus canophyilus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ligia Higuera M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la investigación que busca contribuir al estudio de los mecanismos de defensa que operan en la interacción clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. - Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, se evaluó la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios asociados con resistencia del clavel. Para ello se usaron cultivos de células en suspensión de variedades de clavel resistente (var. Candy y susceptible (var. Rosana, elicitadas durante 3 y 15 días con dos elicitores bióticos, ácido fusárico y filtrado de medio de cultivo del hongo.

  16. Composición y abundancia de aves rapaces nocturnas en bosques secundarios a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal de la Vertiente Pacífica de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Riba Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Durante la época lluviosa del año 2010 y la época seca del año 2011 fue examinada la composición de especies de lechuzas en la Vertiente Pacífica de Costa Rica. Se utilizó el método de estimulación con vocalizaciones coespecíficas para estimar la composición, frecuencia de detección y abundancia relativa de especies de ensamblajes de búhos y lechuzas en tres núcleos de bosque tropical secundario distribuidos en un rango de 0 m hasta 2100 m. El estudio se basó en la clasificación de zonas de ...

  17. Estudio electroforético de germoplasma de fríjol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en centros secundarios de diversidad genética: el caso de África sur-Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana E. Mónica

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 238 muestras de Phaseolus vulgaris L. de Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia y Zimbabwe por sus tipos de faseolina, utilizando la electroforesis SDS-PAGE. Al ubicar las variedades dentro de los centros de origen en las Américas, se encontró que el 69% eran del tipo ''T'', indicando un origen en el sur de los Andes. En el estudio se discuten aspectos evolutivos de diversidad genética en un centro secundario.238 samples of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Rhodesia and Zimbabwe of the south-eastern of Africa were analyzed for their phaseolin types using the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Tracing them bad to their centers of origin in the Americas, a majority of materials (69% were found to be of "T" type, indicating an origin in the Southern Andes. Evolution aspects of genetic diversity in a secondary center are discussed.

  18. Metabolitos secundarios, cuantificación de fenoles y flavonoides totales de extractos etanólicos de propóleos de tres localidades del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivos determinar los metabolitos secundarios y cuantificar los  fenoles y flavonoides totales de  los extractos etanólicos de propóleos de tres localidades del Perú. Los propóleos fueron recolectados de Piura, Ayacucho y Pucallpa.  El tamizaje fitoquímico se realizó haciendo uso de reactivos de coloración y precipitación. Los fenoles y flavonoides totales  se cuantificaron con el método de Folin-Ciocalteau y  el de formación de complejos con AlCl3 al 2%, resp...

  19. Influencia del grado de búsqueda de información de internet en el nivel de análisis interpretativo de sus contenidos en estudiantes de nivel secundario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Prica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de la investigación fue determinar la influencia del grado de búsqueda de información de Internet, en el nivel de análisis interpretativo de sus contenidos por parte de estudiantes del nivel secundario. El tipo de investigación fue básica de enfoque cuantitativo, con diseño no experimental, transversal de tipo descriptivo correlacional. La muestra estuvo constituida por 77 estudiantes de nivel secundario. Para el desarrollo del estudio se elaboró un instrumento validado por expertos. El análisis de los resultados demostró que los estudiantes tienen altos porcentajes en los niveles malo y regular (23.4% y 58.4% para la búsqueda de información; de la misma manera y en los mismos niveles (23.4% y 41.6% para el análisis interpretativo. Por otro lado la prueba x2 demostró que existe influencia directa y significativa (xcal=17.49 > xtab=15.51; p xtab=15.51; p < 0.05 en un 48.5%. Estos resultados corroboraron directamente la influencia que tienen las variables en estudio, demostrando que si los estudiantes tienen un buen manejo de la búsqueda de información en internet serán capaces de interpretar críticamente sus contenidos y desarrollar un trabajo académico confiable, discriminando entre la información buena y la espuria, entre elaborar un trabajo académico correcto a uno que solo será por cumplir sin un significado concreto, ganando conocimientos y desarrollo cognitivo.

  20. Efecto del Tostado Sobre los Metabolitos Secundarios y la Actividad Antioxidante de Clones de Cacao Colombiano / Effect of Roasting on the Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Colombian Cocoa Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zapata Bustamante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El tostado es una de las operaciones tecnológicas másimportantes en el procesamiento de los granos de cacao; esteproceso conduce a la formación de los productos de la reacciónde Maillard (RM los cuales son cruciales para el desarrollo dela calidad organoléptica de los granos de cacao y sus productosasociados. En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto del tostadosobre el contenido de metabolitos secundarios y la actividadantioxidante en cinco clones de cacao cultivados en Colombia.En los extractos metanólicos de los diferentes clones de cacao sedeterminó el contenido de fenoles totales, taninos condensados,antocianinas totales, catequina y epicatequina, teobromina ycafeína. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante pormedio de la actividad atrapadora del radical ABTS•+, el métodoORAC y la capacidad atrapadora de radicales superóxido. Enconclusión, el efecto del tostado en los clones de cacao no tuvo uncomportamiento uniforme sobre los cambios en los contenidos delos diversos metabolitos secundarios y la actividad antioxidante. /  Abstract. Roasting is one of the most important technologicaloperations in the processing of cocoa beans; this process leads tothe formation of products of the Maillard reaction (RM, which arecrucial for the development of organoleptic quality of cocoa beansand its associated products. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of roasting on the content of secondary metabolites andantioxidant activity in five Colombian cocoa clones, by differentmethodologies. The methanolic extracts of the cocoa beans wereanalyzed for total phenols content, condensed tannins, totalantiocianins, catechin and epicatechin, theobromine and caffeine.The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS assay, ORACmethod and superoxide radical scavenging method. The effect ofroasting on cocoa clones did not have an unspecified behavior. Inconclusion, the effect of roasting of cacao clones was not uniformon the

  1. Un nuevo modelo fenomenológico y diferencial para predecir la respuesta mecánica de materiales metálicos policristalinos sometidos a deformación en caliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos, J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new phenomenological and differential model (that use differential equations to predict the flow stress of a metallic polycrystalline material under hot working. The model, called MCC, depends on six parameters and uses two internal variables to consider the strain hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization processes that occur under hot working. The experimental validation of the MCC model has been carried out by means of stress-strain curves from torsion tests at high temperature (900 ºC a 1200 ºC and moderate high strain rate (0.005 s-1 to 5 s-1 in a high nitrogen steel. The results reveal the very good agreement between experimental and predicted stresses. Furthermore, the Garofalo a-parameter and the strain to reach 50 % of recrystallized volume fraction have been employed as a control check being a first step to the physical interpretation of variables and parameters of the MCC model.

    Este trabajo presenta un nuevo modelo fenomenológico y diferencial (que emplea ecuaciones diferenciales para predecir la respuesta mecánica de un material metálico policristalino sometido a deformación en caliente. El modelo, llamado MCC, depende de seis parámetros y utiliza dos variables internas para considerar los procesos de endurecimiento por deformación, restauración y recristalización dinámicas. La validación experimental del modelo MCC se ha realizado empleando curvas tensión-deformación procedentes de ensayos de torsión a alta temperatura (900 ºC a 1.200 ºC y moderadamente alta velocidad de deformación (0,005 s-1 a 5 s-1 sobre un acero de alto contenido en nitrógeno. Los resultados obtenidos revelan la concordancia significativa entre las tensiones experimentales y predichas. Además el parámetro a de Garofalo y la deformación para el 50 % de volumen recristalizado se han utilizado como elementos de control para realizar un primer paso en la

  2. Evaluación del grado de adecuación del proceso de forja en caliente para la fabricación de piezas estampadas: criterios de viabilidad y optimización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arenas Reina, José Manuel

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of industrial parts is a clear example of integrative effort that, with a focus of several disciplines, requires a detailed analysis of the different scientific and technological knowledge implied in its conception and development. Inside this performance context, the present work approaches the problem of the project of hot forging parts, proposing the use of criteria of viability and optimization that, based in technical and economical considerations, allow to value the adjusting degree of various alternative to the forge process, facilitating with it the selection of the most appropriate. Fixed these bases and with object of shortening times of answer and analysis in an application corresponding to parts with revolution symmetry, a computerized system has been introduced that, taking as started data the design of the part, geometrically simulates the forge process, allowing to calculate the adaptation coefficients in those morphologing that are possible according to the criteria of viability criteria. This system also provides a graphic representation of machined part, the forged part and the finished stamp.

    El diseño de piezas industriales supone un claro ejemplo de esfuerzo integrador que, con un enfoque interdisciplinar, requiere un análisis detallado de los diferentes conocimientos científicos y tecnológicos implicados en su concepción y desarrollo. Dentro de este marco de actuación, el presente trabajo aborda la problemática del proyecto de piezas estampadas en caliente, proponiendo la utilización de criterios de viabilidad y optimización que, fundamentados en consideraciones técnico-económicas, permiten valorar el grado de adecuación de las diferentes alternativas al proceso de forja, facilitando con ello la selección de la más adecuada. Fijadas estas bases y con objeto de acortar tiempos de respuesta y análisis en una aplicación correspondiente a piezas axisimétricas, se ha introducido un sistema

  3. Crecimiento secundario inusual en raíz principal de Pfaffia gnaphalioides (L. Fil. Mart. (Amaranthaceae Secondary and unusual growth in main root of Pfaffia gnaphalioides (L. Fil. Mart. (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Alicia Grosso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Raíces de Pfaffia se comercializan como "ginseng brasilero" y extractos crudos de raíces de Pfaffia glomerata tienen actividad analgésica y desinflamatoria. Pfaffia gnaphalioides es herbácea perenne y crece en el área serrana del sur de la Provincia de Córdoba, Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el crecimiento secundario inusual en raíz principal de Pfaffia gnaphalioides. Se estudió en invernáculo la forma de crecimiento durante los dos primeros años relacionando la parte aérea y subterránea. Se realizaron calicatas in situ para analizar el sistema radical. La raíz principal desarrolla raíces laterales, plagiótropas, con yemas que forman brotes aéreos de innovación. En cortes transversales de raíz principal se observa desarrollo secundario inusual. Un meristema lateral produce corteza secundaria hacia afuera y tejido conjuntivo y una sucesión de cambia vascular hacia adentro. Cuando cada cambium vascular es producido, el meristema lateral que se encuentra hacia afuera de éste tiende a permanecer quiescente, retornando a la actividad cuando el cambium vascular interno a éste permanece menos activo. Los cordones vasculares secundarios están dispuestos en anillos concéntricos sin radios parenquimáticos. La presencia de abundante parénquima conteniendo almidón en la estructura inusual de raíz en Pfaffia gnaphalioides, constituye una buena adaptación a condiciones xéricas.Pfaffia roots have been commercialized as "brazilian ginseng" and crude extracts of Pfaffia glomerata roots have analgesic and disinflamatory activity. Pfaffia gnaphalioides is a perennial herb and grows in southern Córdoba, Argentina. The objective of this work is to analyze root systems in Pfaffia gnaphalioides. Growth of above and belowground organs was observed for two years in a greenhouse. Belowground organs were analyzed in situ in hillcountry shrublands, by digging soil pits. The root system is characterized by presence of a main

  4. Los jóvenes y la construcción del "ciudadano ideal" : Una aproximación a las acciones y relatos de ciudadanía de jóvenes escolarizados de Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    Kriger, Miriam Elizabeth; Fernández Cid, Hernán

    2011-01-01

    En esta ponencia se presentan resultados preliminares y parciales de una investigación empírica más amplia sobre jóvenes, nación y política. El estudio se ha realizado sobre una muestra de 275 alumnos del último año del secundario en siete escuelas de diverso nivel socio-económico de Buenos Aires y alrededores, en el año 2010 y 2011. Se aplicó un cuestionario escrito elaborado ad hoc con este fin, del cual tomamos aquí solo una pregunta, que solicita a los alumnos ponderar acciones que repres...

  5. Relación de los hallazgos coronariográficos y ecocardiográficos en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio secundario a trauma penetrante cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernando Morales Uribe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Después de reparar quirúrgicamente una lesión cardíaca por trauma penetrante se puede presentar como complicación el infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM. Tradicionalmente se explica esta complicación por la herida u oclusión de una arteria coronaria. Sin embargo, esto no siempre se cumple. Se desea enfocar la fisiopatología del IAM traumático para posteriormente plantear estrategias de tratamiento. HIPÓTESIS: los pacientes con trauma cardíaco penetrante por arma cortopunzante pueden desarrollar IAM traumático sin haber presentado ningún tipo de lesión vascular coronaria. DISEÑO: estudio observacional prospectivo. LUGAR: Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul, Medellín, Colombia. PACIENTES: entre abril de 2007 y abril de 2008 se estudiaron 51 pacientes con herida cardíaca por arma cortopunzante. DESENLACE: el desenlace primario fue la definición de lesión vascular coronaria en los pacientes que desarrollaron infarto traumático agudo de miocardio. RESULTADOS: de los 51 pacientes fallecieron 3 (5,9%. Treinta y cinco (68,6% no tuvieron IAM, 6 (11,8% presentaron IAM secundario a lesión coronaria y 10 (19,6% tuvieron IAM sin lesión coronaria. Entre los factores de riesgo explorados para IAM postraumático sin lesión coronaria el único que presentó asociación fue el RTS (Revised Trauma Score menor de 8 (RR = 5,09. IC: 95% 1,1-23,49. No se presentó relación entre el IAM postraumático y el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas ni con los factores de riesgo para ateroesclerosis como hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia. CONCLUSIÓN: el principal factor de riesgo para desarrollar infarto agudo de miocardio secundario a trauma penetrante por arma cortopunzante es el RTS menor de 8. Se debe hacer una búsqueda activa del IAM traumático en todos los pacientes aunque no presenten lesión de las coronarias ni síntomas sugestivos de isquemia.

  6. ESTRATEGIAS PARA INCREMENTAR LA PRODUCCIÓN DE METABOLITOS SECUNDARIOS EN CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS VEGETALES STRATEGIES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF SECONDARY METABOLITES PRODUCTION IN PLAN CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arias Zabala

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de células vegetales ha surgido como una alternativa para la obtención de metabolitos de alto valor agregado, producidos en las plantas en bajas concentraciones y para los cuales, no existen procesos de síntesis química conocidos; sin embargo, para la implementación de esta tecnología es necesario el desarrollo de estrategias que permitan incrementar la productividad de los cultivos in vitro. En este trabajo se discuten diferentes alternativas planteadas para lograr este objetivo: en la primera parte se presentan las formas para obtener líneas celulares sobreproductoras, abordando las estrategias clásicas de selección y la ingeniería genética; posteriormente se discuten los efectos que sobre el crecimiento y la producción de metabolitos secundarios pueden tener la composición química del medio de cultivo y las condiciones físicas en las que se conduce el proceso; finalmente, se presenta la elicitación como alternativa para inducir la síntesis de metabolitos secundarios en cultivos de células vegetales.The strategy of plant cell culture has become an alternative for the production of high value metabolites that are normally produced in low levels in plants and for which there is not chemical synthesis processes known. However, for the implementation of this technology it is necessary to develop strategies that let us improve the productivity of the in vitro cultures. In this work, different alternatives in order to fulfill that objective are presented: in the first part, the strategies to obtain overproducer cell lines are discussed, showing the clasic strategies for cell line selection and genetic engineering as alternatives; after that, the efect over the growth and secondary metabolite productition of the chemical medium composition and physical conditions of the process are reviewed; finally, the elicitation is presented as an alternative to induce the synthesis of secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures.

  7. Una mirada sobre la educación argentina en los niveles primario y secundario entre 1862 y 1900. Las dificultades de la implantación de la enseñanza técnica y manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero, Alejandro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Tedesco ha sostenido que el sistema educativo cumplió, básicamente, una función política en el siglo XIX argentino. Y que el vertiginoso progreso económico produjo un enorme optimismo en la dirigencia política que no le permitió visualizar la relevancia de orientar la enseñanza hacia la formación técnica, principio básico de toda sociedad moderna. Este artículo que no se opone a la tesis de Tedesco (1970, sino que intenta completar su lectura, afirma que dicha dirigencia política tenía serios problemas que consideraba prioritarios, y por este motivo desplazó a un plano secundario la implantación de la orientación técnica de la enseñanza. Para decirlo de otro modo: no se trata de políticos ciegos a la función económica de la educación, sino que existían, a sus ojos, dificultades más urgentes que atender y su resolución implicaba fortalecer, aún más, la función política de la instrucción pública.

  8. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies Aceptabilidad y efectos secundarios percibidos del rociado residual intradomiciliario de insecticidas bajo diferentes esquemas de manejo de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo David Rodríguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptabilidad y los efectos secundarios del rociado intradomiciliar de insecticidas pyrethroides (PYR, carbamato y organophosphato rociados

  9. Criterios de predicción de inestabilidades plásticas en procesos de conformado en caliente. (Parte II. Caracterización de la fluencia plástica de un acero microaleado de medio carbono usando criterios continuos y fenomenológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Omar, A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the study of hot forming processes the knowledge of interaction between microstructural behaviour and control process parameters such as temperature, strain rate and strain is very important. In the last decades, processing maps have been developed to design, control and optimize the hot deformation of various metallic materials. In this work, in order to study the hot formability of medium carbon microalloyed steel, during hot compression tests, a comparative study between two types of processing maps constructed using phenomenological and thermodynamic continuum criteria have been carried out. The analysis of the maps indicates that the studied steel does not undergo any type of plastic instability. However, the maps corresponding to the deformation of ε = 0,6 reveal a domain of dynamic recrystallization, considered as the more efficiently domain within the “safe” region process. This domain is centered at 1150 °C and 10 s–1. Also, the comparative study of the obtained results shows the difference between the positions of plastic deformation domains predicted by the two criteria.

    En el estudio de los procesos de conformado en caliente es muy importante conocer la interacción entre el comportamiento microestructural y los parámetros de control del proceso de deformación, tales como temperatura, velocidad de deformación, deformación, etc. En las últimas décadas, los mapas de procesado han sido elaborados para diseñar, controlar y optimizar la deformación en caliente de varios materiales metálicos. En el presente trabajo, con el fin de estudiar la conformabilidad en caliente de un acero microaleado de medio carbono, durante ensayos de compresión en caliente, se presenta un estudio comparativo entre dos tipos de mapas de procesado construidos usando criterios termodinámicos continuos y criterios fenomenológicos. El análisis de los mapas de procesado indica que el acero estudiado no sufre ningún tipo de

  10. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to view this content or go to source URL . What NIEHS is Doing on Air Pollution Who ... Junction Last Reviewed: February 06, 2017 This page URL: NIEHS website: https://www.niehs.nih.gov/ Email ...

  11. Hallazgos de tomografía computarizada en coenurosis cerebral crónica con hidrocéfalo secundario en una oveja joven Computed tomographic findings in chronic cerebral coenurosis associated with secondary hydrocephalus in a young ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gómez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue caracterizar, en una hembra ovina con signos clínicos de coenurosis cerebral, los hallazgos radiográficos observados mediante tomografía computarizada (TC. La TC de cráneo fue realizada sin contraste utilizando un escáner de cuarta generación. En las imágenes transversales de TC el quiste fue observado como una estructura hipodensa rodeada por un anillo hiperdenso y localizada en los hemisferios cerebrales a nivel del sistema ventricular. La presencia de ventriculomegalia y atrofia cortical indicaron la presencia de hidrocéfalo secundario. El Coenurus fue removido quirúrgicamente por trepanación a través del hueso frontal y luego de algunos días el animal recuperó su estado de salud. Los resultados observados indican que la TC constituye un método útil en demostrar la localización anatómica del quiste y en el planeamiento quirúrgico para la remoción de ésteThe purpose of this study was to describe the computed tomographic (CT features of a 14 month old ewe showing clinical signs of cerebral coenurosis. The CT analysis of the head was made using a fourth generation CT scanner. On transverse CT images the cyst was seen as an hipodense, ring enhanced mass located in the cerebral hemispheres and ventricular system. Ventriculomegaly and atrophy of the cortical tissue was also observed indicating the presence of secondary hydrocephalus. The Coenurus was surgically removed by skull trepanation through the frontal bone and after a few days the animal recovered its healthy status. CT proved to be useful in demonstrating the anatomic location of the cyst and was helpful in surgical planning

  12. La formación docente analizada en perspectiva comparada : convergencias y divergencias en las transformaciones de la formación inicial del profesorado para el nivel secundario en el MERCOSUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas los países del Sur de América Latina realizaron reformas que tuvieron en la estructura académica y en la formación de los profesores dos de sus ejes de transformación. Si adoptamos la perspectiva comparada e internacional, podemos evidenciar que en las reformas educativas implementadas en los países latinoamericanos, se notó una ampliación del rango de obligatoriedad hasta llegar a cubrir la educación de nivel medio. Entendemos que la comprensión histórica de los ciclos, modalidades, de sus cambios y el estudio curricular respectivo, permite interpretar las implicancias que tienen las transformaciones implementadas en dichas dimensiones en la actualidad de la realidad educativa en estos países. En este trabajo realizamos un análisis de los cambios que experimentó la formación del profesorado para el nivel secundario en algunos países del MERCOSUR para identificar divergencias y convergencias de las transformaciones así como los fundamentos pedagógicos que orientaron dichas acciones de reforma educativa.This article focuses on the educational reforms that have taken place in South America countries. Academic structures and teachers training programs were affected by these policies. From a comparative and international perspective, it is possible to identify also an increase of the range of compulsory education that reaches the secondary-level of education in most of Western countries. We believe that it is necessary to understand from an historical point of view the changes of the cycles, tracks and the curricula of these educational systems. Therefore, in this paper we analyze changes experimented at the training teacher policy, for the secondary level, in some MERCOSUR countries. We will point out divergences and convergences of educational reforms as well as their pedagogical foundations.

  13. Análisis jurídico sobre la calidad del servicio del agua en Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara María Minaverry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo general analizar la eficacia de una serie de casos jurisprudenciales y de normativa seleccionada, en relación con la protección de la calidad del servicio de agua potable en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. En primer lugar, se recopiló doctrina, normativa y jurisprudencia nacional, todos vinculados con el estado de situación de la calidad de dicho servicio. Desde el punto de vista metodológico se utilizó el método de observación documental, y los datos cualitativos a recoger fueron secundarios (doctrina, normativa y jurisprudencia. A tal fin se analizaron profundamente tres leading cases, los cuales podrían fijar lineamientos generales para futuros proyectos de leyes y para políticas públicas que fomenten un servicio más sustentable.

  14. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  15. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  16. Edema pulmonar neurogénico secundario a crisis epiléptica: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Neurogenic pulmonary edema secondary to epileptic seizures: Report of a case and a short review

    OpenAIRE

    PAMELA DÍAZ A; JUAN BRIONES C; YESSENIA ORELLANA A; JAVIER ARELLANO L; RENE FABA B

    2009-01-01

    El edema pulmonar agudo neurogénico (EPN) es un tipo de edema pulmonar que ocurre como consecuencia de una variada gama de lesiones del sistema nervioso central. Generalmente es subdiagnosticado. Se ha reportado en múltiples patologías y lesiones directas del sistema nervioso central. Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de mediana edad, con edema pulmonar agudo secundario a una crisis convulsiva epiléptica. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura con especial énfasis en las implicancias...

  17. Efectividad y seguridad de la viscosuplementación con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA) para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis Efficacy and safety of single intra-articular injection of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA) for gonarthrosis pain treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: valorar la efectividad y seguridad de la inyección de dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA) para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis. Material y métodos: se han incluido un total de 37 pacientes afectos de gonartrosis diagnosticada previamente por el Traumatólogo/Reumatólogo en los que ha fracasado el tratamiento conservador y/o que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico. Se les ha efectuado una infiltración en dosis única de ...

  18. PARTICIPACIÓN EN ACTIVIDADES FÍSICAS DURANTE EL TIEMPO LIBRE Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL ESTRÉS TRAUMÁTICO SECUNDARIO EN BOMBEROS [Participation of physical activities during free time and the relation of the secundary traumatic stress in firefigther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Fernando Rojas-Quirós

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito fue analizar cómo la actividad física (AF puede tener relación con procesos psicológicos como el Estrés Traumático Secundario (ETS en bomberos, para ello se examinó cuál era el nivel de participación en AF durante el tiempo libre y la prevalencia de ETS en 56 bomberos seleccionados por conveniencia. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Estrés Traumático Secundario y el Cuestionario Mundial sobre Actividad Física (GPAQ. Se encontró que un 80.3% de los bomberos presentan un nivel de AF moderada y vigorosa en el tiempo libre, invirtiendo en promedio 2662.86 MET-min/semana. El nivel de AF correlaciona positiva y significativamente con la dimensión de Trauma Secundario o Sintomatología del ETS (r =.324, sig. .015, la cual presenta mayor prevalencia (32.1% en la muestra, seguida de Sacudidas de Creencias con un 17.9%. En conclusión, los bomberos que presentan mayores niveles de AF en el tiempo libre tienden a mostrar una mayor afectación de ETS, específicamente en la dimensión de Trauma secundario o Sintomatología.AbstractThe purpose was to analyze the relationship between the participation of physical activity (PA and the psychological processes of Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS on firefighters. Levels of participation in PA during free time and prevalence of STS were measured in a convenience sample of 56 firefighters using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Questionnaire and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings show that 80.3% of the firefighters report moderate and vigorous free time-PA levels, investing an average of 2662.86 MET-min/week. Free time-PA levels show positive and significant correlations with the Secondary Trauma/Symptoms subscale of STS (r=.324, sig. .015, which is the factor with higher prevalence (32.1%, followed by Shattered Assumptions with 17.9%. In conclusion, firefighters with higher levels of free time-PA tend to report higher scores of ETS, specifically regarding to Secondary Trauma/Symptoms.

  19. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  20. Air-to-Air Missile Vector Scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    64 4.6. Unscented Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get...Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Executing a Vertical Climb...Kalman Filter Performance in Air-to-Air Missile Scor - ing Application with Continuous Velocity Dynamics Model (Tar- get Aircraft Non-maneuvering

  1. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  2. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  3. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  4. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    undoubtedly begat the shield; poisonous gases were countered by the mask. Surely men on the surface of the earth will not have to submit to violent air attack...properties, production methods and cost of helium are given in “Balloon and Airship Gases ,” a volume of the Ronald Aeronautic Library. 5 More complete...becomes and more inse - cure. We shall see later that even some of the men who were advancing in the path prescribed by the principle of mass

  5. RESISTENCIA MECÁNICA EVALUADA EN EL ENSAYO MARSHALL DE MEZCLAS DENSAS EN CALIENTE ELABORADAS CON ASFALTOS MODIFICADOS CON DESECHOS DE POLICLORURO DE VINILO (PVC, POLIETILENO DE ALTA DENSIDAD (PEAD Y POLIESTIRENO (PS MECHANICAL RESISTANCE OF HOT THICK MIXTURES MADE WITH ASPHALT MODIFIED WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE, POLYCLORURE (PVC WASTES, HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (PEAD, AND POLYSTYRENE (PS EVALUATED IN MARSHALL ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo buscó evaluar en laboratorio el cambio en la resistencia mecánica que experimentan mezclas asfálticas densas en caliente cuando se adicionan, por vía húmeda, al cemento asfáltico aditivos poliméricos producto de desechos industriales del tipo plastómero (policloruro de vinilo, polietileno de alta densidad y poliestireno. Para tal fin se empleó el ensayo Marshall. De los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la resistencia mecánica de mezclas asfálticas modificadas con desechos del tipo plastómero es mayor en comparación con las convencionales (mezclas que emplean asfaltos sin ningún aditivo.The main objective of this research Project was to evaluate in a laboratory the change in mechanical strength that dense hot asphalt mixtures go through when waste polymeric additives of plastomeric type (polyvinyl chloride, high density polyethylene and polystyrene are added to asphalt cement, by 'wet way'. This change was evaluated using Marshall Test. The general conclusion of the experimental results was that modified hot asphalt mixtures present better mechanical behavior than conventional mixtures (mixtures which use asphalt without additives.

  6. Tratamiento del dolor secundario al síndrome de ATM mediante estimulación nerviosa periférica The management of pain secondary to TMJ syndrome using peripheral nerve stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: con el nombre de síndrome témporo-mandibular o síndrome de Costen se hace referencia a una patología cuyos síntomas más frecuentes son: dolor y chasquidos articulares, dificultad para abrir la boca e incomodidad en la articulación témporo-mandibular. Su diagnóstico es básicamente clínico. La ATM está inervada por el nervio aurículo-temporal rama colateral del nervio mandibular, III rama del trigémino. Material y método: presentamos un total de seis pacientes, tratadas entre el 2008 al 2010, todas ellas con un cuadro de dolor secundario a un síndrome ATM, unilateral en cinco pacientes y bilateral en una de ellas. Todas las pacientes habían sido tratadas de forma previa en Cirugía Maxilofacial así como distintos tratamientos farmacológicos y rehabilitadores sin resultado en el alivio del dolor ni el la mejoría de la apertura de la boca. Previo al implante del sistema de estimulación se realizó, en todos los casos, bloqueos nerviosos aurículo-temporales con lidocaína al 2%, con el fin de determinar la zona y el nivel de analgesia obtenidos. En todos los casos se implantó en quirófano un electrodo en la región preauricular de la articulación témporo-mandibular afectada. Se valoró tanto la intensidad del dolor como la situación general de las pacientes antes del inicio del tratamiento y a las dos semanas, en las cuales se dio por terminado el periodo de prueba y se procedió a la implantación de un generador definitivo. Resultados: todas las pacientes fueron del sexo femenino, con una edad media de 32 años. Todas ellas presentaban dolor continuo con gran dificultad en la apertura de la boca y estaban en tratamiento farmacológico sin obtener un alivio adecuado del dolor. En todas las pacientes el resultado analgésico obtenido fue del 84% a las cuatro semanas de la implantación del electrodo.Introduction: the term temporomandibular joint syndrome or Costen's syndrome refers to a disorder whose most

  7. Manejo del dolor crónico en Atención Primaria, perfil de prescripción de opiáceos mayores: indicación, coste y efectos secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guzmán-Ruiz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el objetivo principal del estudio es conocer las características de la prescripción de opiáceos mayores en Atención Primaria. Material y métodos: se diseña un estudio retrospectivo mediante una cohorte histórica, valorando a los pacientes que hayan consumido opiáceos mayores en todos los centros de salud de Jaén capital durante 2011, mediante un muestreo sistemático, 215 pacientes, calculando el tamaño de muestra para un nivel de confianza 95 %, precisión 5 %, y pérdidas 5 % (ampliando la muestra este 5 % por sesgo de información; Se auditan las historias clínicas recogiendo: edad, sexo, antecedentes personales, nivel social, frecuentación sanitaria, características de la prescripción de opiáceos (dosis, duración, coste, efectos secundarios y uso de otros analgésicos/coadyuvantes. Se procesan los datos para ofrecer un estudio descriptivo y una posterior comparación en función del opiáceo prescrito. Resultados: se valoran 215 pacientes (44 % del total de la población, de los que se obtienen 323 prescripciones de opiáceos en el año de estudio (23 % de la muestra con dos prescripciones de opiáceos y 13 % con tres. Los opiáceos más prescritos son fentanilo (60 % y buprenorfina (22%, por un 3 % de morfina. La buprenorfina es el más usado en monoterapia (70 %, preferentemente en mujeres de edad avanzada y pensionistas, sobre todo para el dolor mixto por parte del médico de familia. El fentanilo se usa principalmente en parches (95 % de las prescripciones de fentanilo y la hidromorfona se emplea en pacientes de menor edad (< 60 años, prescrito por la Unidad del Dolor y Reumatología (43 % y 20 % del total de prescripciones, respectivamente. La oxicodona se emplea más en pacientes de zonas necesitadas de transformación social (46 % del total de opioides prescritos en ZNTS y exclusivamente para el dolor neuropático y mixto (52 % y 48 % respectivamente de las prescripciones totales de oxicodona, sobre todo

  8. Metabolitos secundarios de líquenes de la zona nival de la Sierra Nevada de Mérida-Venezuela y su papel en la absorción de la radiación ultravioleta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balza-Quintero, Alirio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Photochemical analyses of secondary compounds in lichens from the venezuelan andean snow zone were carried out in order to know the absorbance capacity of UV radiation at the UVA, UVB and UVC ranges and to determine its probable UV protective function. Spectrophotometric (UV and fine layer chromatographic techniques (TLC were utilized to separate and identify the compounds. UV radiation values were obtained from the Red Bioclimática del Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada de Mérida which constitutes a program supported by the University of Los Andes, Venezuela. Results indicated the existence of 22 species of lichens at the snow zone; 55% of these species showed a strong resistance to UVC radiation, 95% to UVB radiation, whereas the 100% revealed a strong resistance to UVA radiation. The substances that have the highest resistance to UVA and UVB radiation are characterized by having ester bonds among phenolic units depsids and constitute the most abundant products in lichens, whereas the substances having both ester and ether bonds among the two phenolic units depsidones revealed a higher capacity to absorb UVC radiation that could indicate a primitive origin.Se hicieron análisis fotoquímicos de compuestos secundarios presentes en líquenes de la zona nival andina venezolana con la finalidad de conocer su capacidad de absorber las radiaciones ultravioletas UVA, UVB y UVC e inferir en la probable función protectora de estos compuestos ante estas radiaciones. Para la separación e identificación de sustancias se utilizaron técnicas espectrofotométricas (UV y técnicas de cromatografía de capa fina (TLC. Para el estudio climático de la zona nival se utilizaron registros de la Red Bioclimática del Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Programa de la Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela. Los resultados revelaron que, de las 22 especies encontradas, el 55% presentó una resistencia potencial a la radiación UVC, el 95% a la radiación UVB y el

  9. Usos en medicina folclórica, actividad biológica y fitoquímica de metabolitos secundarios de algunas especies del género Zanthoxylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Enríque Macias Villamizar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSegún el Herbario Nacional de Colombia de la familia Rutaceae en Colombia se encuentran 150 géneros y 900 especies (1, de las cuales muchas han sido utilizada no sólo en la medicina folklórica (2, 3, 4, 5 en tratamientos digestivos, tónico estomático, diuréticos, sedativos entre otros; sino también determinada su actividad biológica como antiplasmódico y citotóxico (5. En la familia Rutaceae se encuentra el género Zanthoxylum (6, del cual también se utiliza en medicina folklórica que incluyen tratamientos contra la tos, enteritis, diarrea, resfriado, reumatismo y ulceraciones (7, 8, 9, 10, 11; también se ha ensayado su actividad biológica donde se encontró ser efectiva, entre otras, a nivel: antimicrobial (7, 8, 9; citotóxica (12,13; Antiagregación plaquetaria (14, 15, y antitumoral (16. La amplia gama de usos etnobotánicos y farmacológicos convierte a los extractos (o compuestos aislados del género Zanthoxylum en materia prima a utilizar en el desarrollo de ensayos para evaluar la actividad biológica, la cual está asociada a la riqueza de metabolitos secundarios tales como alcaloides, lignanos, terpenos, flavonoides, cumarinas, entre otros; convirtiendo al género Zanthoxylum en objeto de estudió fitoquímico promisorio.En este artículo se realiza un aporte al estudió del género Zanthoxylum, en aspectos relacionados con su fitoquímica, sus usos en medicina folclórica y su actividad biológica; y en consecuencia un aporte pertinente al conocimiento en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, debido a la actual tendencia de recurrir a medicina natural para el desarrollo de medicamentos de relativo bajo costo y con mayor probabilidad de adquisición del mismo. (Duazary 2007; 2: 140 - 159AbstractAccording to the Herbarium National of Colombia the Rutaceae family in Colombia are 150 genus and 900 species (1, of which many have been used not only in the folkloric medicine (2, 3, 4, 5 in digestive treatments, stomatic

  10. Dinámica de la dispersión de plantas ornitócoras, reclutamiento y conectividad en fragmentos de bosque altoandino secundario (Reserva Natural Protectora, Cogua Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Orlando

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre febrero y agosto de 2003 se analizó la dinámica de la dispersión de plantas ornitócoras en tres sectores de la Reserva Forestal de Cogua que presentaban fragmentos de bosque altoandino secundario con diferente heterogeneidad de mosaicos de vegetación. En cada sector se tomaron dos fragmentos de bosque limitados por un pastizal y entre éstos se colocaron 30 perchas para aves, en 15 de ellas se colectaron las semillas y en las restantes el seguimiento de la implantación. Se evaluó mensualmente en transectos de vegetación la oferta de frutos ornitócoros contando los frutos maduros o haciendo un estimativo del total para cada especie, y mediante el muestreo de punto centrado se estimó la frecuencia de observación de aves. Estos aspectos se relacionaron con la heterogeneidad de mosaicos de vegetación, factores climáticos, la tasa de deposición de las semillas y el establecimiento de plántulas tanto a nivel local como
    regional. Se presentó un grado de asociación significativo y positivo entre la lluvia de semillas con la abundancia de aves (rs = 0,71; p ² 0,07, y altamente significativa con las especies en fructificación (rs = 0,83; p ² 0,02. La oferta de frutos y la frec uencia de observación de aves varió en las tres zonas como respuesta a las diferencias en diversidad de plantas y número de individuos en fructificación. Geissanthus andinus y Miconia elaeoides fueron las plantas con mayores cosechas y Turdus fuscater y Anisognathus igniventris las aves que en mayor frecuencia fueron observadas. A nivel regional abril fue el mes con mayor oferta de frutos, mientras que febrero
    lo fue para la frecuencia de observación de aves. Las tasas de deposición de semillas fueron mayores para las zonas A y B (3,20 y 2,93 semillas/m2/día respectivamente que presentaban pastizales con menor cantidad de arbustos que en la zona C (1,76 semillas/m2/día donde eran abundantes. La implantación fue de 2,58 plántulas/m2

  11. RESPIRACIÓN MICROBIAL Y DE RAÍCES EN SUELOS DE BOSQUES TROPICALES PRIMARIOS Y SECUNDARIOS (PORCE, COLOMBIA MICROBIAL AND ROOT RESPIRATION IN SOILS OF TROPICAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY FORESTS ( PORCE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Andrés Ramírez Palacio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos son el mayor reservorio de carbono en los ecosistemas terrestres y a su vez la mayor fuente de CO2 atmosférico, el cual es producido mediante un proceso denominado respiración del suelo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar las tasas de respiración del suelo y sus componentes (respiración de raíces y de microorganismos, y evaluar el control que sobre las tasas de emisión de CO2 ejercen factores como la humedad y la temperatura del suelo, en bosques primarios (BP y secundarios (BS de la región de Porce, Colombia. Para este fin se midió la emisión de CO2 del suelo durante un año, en 10 parcelas con una cámara de respiración de suelo conectada a un analizador de gases infrarrojo. La tasa promedia anual de respiración fue 15,91 (0,71 e.e. y 14,03 (0,75 e.e. C t · ha-1 · año-1 en BP y BS, respectivamente. La respiración de las raíces representó casi la mitad de la respiración total en ambos tipos de bosque. La variación estacional de la respiración total estuvo asociada principalmente a las diferencias de humedad del suelo. Los resultados sugieren que desde el suelo de los bosques tropicales se emiten cantidades considerables de carbono hacia la atmósfera, y que factores ambientales como la humedad y la temperatura del suelo, ejercen un control importante sobre las tasas de emisión. De este modo, un incremento en la emisión de CO2 desde los suelos de estos ecosistemas, en respuesta a los cambios ambientales, puede tener grandes implicaciones en el balance global del carbono.Soils are the largest carbon pool of terrestrial ecosystems as well as the largest source of atmospheric CO2 through a process called soil respiration. The purpose of this study was to estimate the soil respiration rates and its components (root and microbial respiration, and to evaluate the control of environmental factors such as soil humidity and temperature on emission rates of CO2 in primary (PF and secondary forests (SF of the Porce

  12. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  13. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-01

    Air pollution conditions in Iwakuni city were monitored at 9 monitoring stations, and 21 locations where sulfur oxides were measured by the lead peroxide candle method, and 13 locations where particulates concentrations were determined by the deposit cage method. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations in 1973 measured by the lead peroxide candle method ranged from 0.17 mg sulfur trioxide/day/100 sq cm at the Miso Office to 0.58 mg SO/sub 3//day/100 sq cm at Mitsui Sekiyu Shataku. The average SO/sub x/ concentrations measured by the conductivity method ranged from 0.021 ppM at Kazuki Kominkan to 0.037 ppM at the Higashi Fire Department. Only 58% of a total of 264 measurement days gave hourly average concentrations below the environmental standard of 0.04 ppM at the Higashi Fire Deparment. The average airborne particulate concentrations ranged from 0.050 mg/cu m at Totsu Kominkan to 0.056 mg/cu at the Higashi Fire Department. The average nitrogen oxides concentrations measured by the Saltzman method ranged from 0.007 ppM to 0.061 ppM. The average oxidant concentrations at the Iwakuni Municipal Office and Kazuki Kominkan were 0.028 ppM and 0.037 ppM, respectively.

  14. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  15. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  16. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  17. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  18. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    OpenAIRE

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; de Loos S; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. T...

  19. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  20. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  1. Effect of Ethephon on Almond Bloom Delay, Yield, and Nut Quality under Warm Climate Conditions in Northwestern Mexico Efecto del Ethephon en el Retraso de la Floración, la Producción y la Calidad del Almendro, bajo Condiciones de Clima Caliente del Noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Leonel Grijalva-Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available World almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb production is mostly located in areas where flowering is injured by low temperatures, and using ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid to delay bloom is suggested as a measure to avoid frost damage. However, it is unknown if that practice could be beneficial in Mexico’s warm climates. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethephon on almond bloom delay and yield. We evaluated foliar applications of ethephon at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg L-1 at 10% leaf drop stage and at 150 mg L-1 during dormancy over 2 yr. In 2004, ethephon applied at 10% leaf drop stage delayed bloom by 7, 8, and 9 d at 75, 150, and 300 mg L-1, respectively (p La producción de almendra (Prunus dulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb en el mundo está situada sobre todo en las áreas donde la floración es dañada por bajas temperaturas, y se sugiere el uso del ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico para retrasarla, como una medida para evitar daños por helada. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esa práctica podría ser beneficiosa bajo los climas calientes de México. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto del ethephon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfónico sobre el retraso de la floración y la producción de la almendra. Evaluamos la aplicación foliar de ethephon en dosis de 75; 150 y 300 mg L-1 en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja, y en 150 mg L-1 en la etapa de dormancia, durante 2 años. En el 2004, ethephon aplicado en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja retrasó la floración por 7; 8 y 9 d a 75; 150 y 300 mg L-1 respectivamente (p < 0,01, y en 2005 el retraso de la floración fue de 3 d a 300 mg L-1. El ethephon aplicado durante dormancia retrasó la floración 2 d en el primer año pero no hubo efecto en el segundo año. El rendimiento y el amarre de fruta fueron afectados por el ethephon aplicado en la etapa de 10% de caída de la hoja en 2004, pero no en 2005. Ni la producción ni el amarre de fruta fue

  2. Molecular biology, a tool for bioprospection of plants secondary metabolism in Colombia Biología molecular, una herramienta para la bioprospección del metabolismo secundario de plantas en Colombia Ejemplo práctico en plantas colombianas de interés medicinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burtin Daniel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-plant, plant-microorganisms and plant-insect interactions. They also protect the plants against stress environmental conditions. Plant secondary metabolites are also very important to humans due to their nutritional, pharmaceutical, medical and industrial properties. However, the secondary metabolism of tropical plant species still remains very poorly understood and characterised at the biochemical, molecular and genetic level. Within bioprospection programs to study the biodiversity of Colombian plants, the secondary metabolism is a very important target. Here we present an experimental methodology based on genomic DNA isolation from field collected plants, and the use of degenerate primers to PCR amplify genes that encodes pyridoxal-dependent enzymes which are involved in the alkaloids biosynthesis. Based on sequence homology we designed degenerate primers to amplify conserved gene sequences from 18 different plant families. Six putative tydc/tdc decarboxylases sequences were obtained from plants of the Piper genus. This report shows the usefulness of the DNA collection and PCR-based methodology e to increase the understanding and exploration of the secondary metabolism of Colombian plants. Key words: Bioprospection, secondary metabolism, degenerate primer, microarrays, PLP-dependent decarboxylases.Los metabolitos secundarios producidos por las plantas están involucrados en una multitud de interacciones ecológicas, entre ellas las interacciones planta-planta, planta-microorganismos, planta-animales y planta-insectos. Además de protegerlas de algunos patógenos, también ayudan a las plantas a sobrevivir en condiciones medioambientales adversas. Dadas sus características medicinales e industriales, dichos metabolitos también son de gran importancia para el ser humano. Sin embargo, el estudio de estos compuestos en plantas tropicales a nivel bioquímico, molecular y gen

  3. Las segundas partes sí pueden ser mejores: algunas reflexiones sobre el uso de datos secundarios en la investigación cualitativa The second parts may be better: some reflections on the use of secondary data in qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Scribano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de datos secundarios es una de las estrategias más "antiguas" que los sociólogos han empleado para dar cuenta de fenómenos de la realidad social sobre los que se disponía de información elaborada por otros El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo establecer una reflexión sistemática sobre el uso de información secundaria en los procesos de investigación social cualitativos. El articulo consta de cuatro partes: 1.- hacia una definición de dato y análisis secundario; 2. ventajas y desventajas del uso de información secundaria; 3.- cómo, por qué y para qué re-usar información cualitativa, y 4.- algunas propuestas a modo de apertura de un campo de discusión. Abogamos por establecer criterios claros que puedan facilitar el uso y análisis de información elaborada por otros y/o en diferentes contextos de producción.The analysis of secondary data is one of the "oldest" strategies that sociologists have used to work with the phenomena of social reality when the available information was prepared by others. This study intends to establish a systematic reflection on the use of secondary information in the processes of qualitative social research. The article is divided into four parts: the first works on a definition of data and secondary analysis; the second part discusses advantages and disadvantages of the use of qualitative information; the third asks how, why and what for is the reuse of qualitative information; and finally the fourth part presents some proposals for discussion. The aim is to establish clear criteria that would facilitate the use and analysis of information produced by others and/or in different contexts of production.

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  6. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...

  7. Connectable solar air collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Bosanac, M.

    2002-02-01

    The project has proved that it is possible to manufacture solar air collector panels, which in an easy way can be connected into large collector arrays with integrated ducting without loss of efficiency. The developed connectable solar air collectors are based on the use of matrix absorbers in the form of perforated metal sheets. Three interconnected solar air collectors of the above type - each with an transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} - was tested and compared with parallel tests on two single solar air collectors also with a transparent area of approx. 3 m{sup 2} One of the single solar air collectors has an identical absorber as the connectable solar air collectors while the absorber of the other single solar air collector was a fibre cloth. The efficiency of the three solar air collectors proved to be almost identical in the investigated range of mass flow rates and temperature differences. The solar air collectors further proved to be very efficient - as efficient as the second most efficient solar air collectors tested in the IEA task 19 project Solar Air Systems. Some problems remain although to be solved: the pressure drop across especially the connectable solar air collectors is too high - mainly across the inlets of the solar air collectors. It should, however, be possible to considerably reduce the pressure losses with a more aerodynamic design of the inlet and outlet of the solar air collectors; The connectable solar air collectors are easy connectable but the air tightness of the connections in the present form is not good enough. As leakage leads to lower efficiencies focus should be put on making the connections more air tight without loosing the easiness in connecting the solar air collectors. As a spin off of the project a simple and easy way to determine the efficiency of solar, air collectors for pre-heating of fresh air has been validated. The simple method of determining the efficiency has with success been compared with an advance method

  8. AirCompare

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — AirCompare contains air quality information that allows a user to compare conditions in different localities over time and compare conditions in the same location...

  9. Allegheny County Air Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Air quality data from Allegheny County Health Department monitors throughout the county. Air quality monitored data must be verified by qualified individuals before...

  10. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  11. Indoor Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  12. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements...

  13. Air Power and Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Memorial, 1963. (T) 767.8 A3 ser .3, V.4) Air war against Germany and Italy, 1939-1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial, 1954. (D 767.8 A3 Ser .3, V.3...et al. Air poder indivisible Air University Ouarterly Review 2:5-18, Fall 1950. Spaatz, Crrl. Air-power odds against us. Readers Digest 58:11-14, June

  14. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  15. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  16. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  17. Manual for THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen

    The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS.......The report provides an outline of the THOR-AirPAS - air pollution assessment system and a brief manual for getting started with the air quality models and input data included in THOR-AirPAS....

  18. 75 FR 24409 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; California; San Joaquin Valley, South...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... failed to identify two tribes that have Indian country in Coachella Valley: The Santa Rosa Band of... Indians Cahuilla Band of Agua Caliente Band of Rumsey Indian Rancheria (including the Big Sandy Rancheria). Indians (including the Cahuilla Indians of Wintun Indians Cahuilla Reservation). (including the...

  19. The United States Army Air Arm, April 1861 to April 1917

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    of aeronautical engines, while eminent authorities gave lectures on meteorology, aeronautical engineering, propel- lers, and internal combustion ...Villa. McGuire was killed in an exhibition flight at Agua Caliente while in Villa’s employ. It is not known what became of Heth. iJohn Hettich

  20. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  1. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  2. Edema pulmonar neurogénico secundario a crisis epiléptica: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Neurogenic pulmonary edema secondary to epileptic seizures: Report of a case and a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAMELA DÍAZ A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El edema pulmonar agudo neurogénico (EPN es un tipo de edema pulmonar que ocurre como consecuencia de una variada gama de lesiones del sistema nervioso central. Generalmente es subdiagnosticado. Se ha reportado en múltiples patologías y lesiones directas del sistema nervioso central. Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de mediana edad, con edema pulmonar agudo secundario a una crisis convulsiva epiléptica. Se realiza una revisión de la literatura con especial énfasis en las implicancias clínicas y tratamiento.The acute neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE is a kind of pulmonary edema that occurs as a result of a variety of injuries of the central nervous system. Usually it is underdiagnosed. It has been reported in many diseases and direct injuries of the central nervous system. We present the clinical case of a middle age women with a neurogenic pulmonary edema secondary to a epileptic seizure. We made a review of the literature with special emphasis on clinical implications and treatment.

  3. 走近Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华

    2007-01-01

    @@ 大家对air这个单词并不陌生,它通常用作名词,表示"空气".例如: 1.Better let in fresh air. 最好让新鲜空气进来. 2.The air smells of paint. 空气里散发着油漆味. 3.The air was heavy with perfume of the flowers. 空气里弥漫着花朵的芳香.

  4. Contact air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R

    1999-05-01

    The advantages of contact air abrasion techniques are readily apparent. The first, of course, is the greatly increased ease of use. Working with contact also tends to speed the learning curve by giving the process a more natural dental feel. In addition, as one becomes familiar with working with a dust stream, the potential for misdirecting the air flow is decreased. The future use of air abrasion for deep decay removal will make this the treatment of choice for the next millennium.

  5. Olefin metathesis in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady; Nolan, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  6. Experiencias de la instauración de normas relativas al contenido de plomo en aire y el agua, en los Estados Unidos de América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis J Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Estados Unidos de América se ha logrado una disminución de la exposición a plomo de la población en general, gracias al establecimiento de diversas normas. En este artículo se destaca parte de los conocimientos adquiridos a través de la experiencia obtenida en este país en materia de plomo, en particular respecto al aire y al agua. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales es la posibilidad de contar con una base científica sólidamente establecida y claramente entendida, a partir de la cual se tomarán las medidas correspondientes. Los efectos secundarios de ciertas normas concernientes al aire ponen de manifiesto de qué manera los esfuerzos orientados a solucionar un problema pueden aportar beneficios en otras áreas, si bien pueden surgir consecuencias no deseadas, debido a la falta de previsión y de evaluación. Asimismo, en este documento se discuten las diferencias entre los enfoques centralizados y los descentralizados para el manejo de la exposición a plomo.

  7. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  8. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  9. The Air We Breathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  10. Air/liquid collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Olesen, Ole; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    1997-01-01

    This report determine efficiency equations for combined air/liquid solar collectors by measurements on to different air/liquid collectors. Equations which contain all relevant informations on the solar collectors. A simulation program (Kviksol) has been modified in order to be able to handle...

  11. Bad Air For Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    1976-01-01

    Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)

  12. Air pollution and society

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  13. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  14. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  15. Air Pollution and Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  16. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    sensor, observer and target parameters still remain. In order to reduce the number of cases to a manageable one, while preserving the geometric...perforance of variotu. ulro-air passive ranging tecnique has been examined as a fimn- tiam of uarget location andi motiom, observer motion. and length

  17. Restoran Buenos Aires = Restaurant Buenos Aires

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Restorani Buenos Aires (Narva mnt. 5, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid: Janno Roos ja Andres Labi (Ruumilabor OÜ). Laudu eraldavad 400 vardasse aetud puukuuli. Sisearhitektidest, nende tähtsamad tööd. I-III korruse plaan, 12 värv. vaadet, fotod sisearhitektidest

  18. Cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola (Macrobrachium jelskii a dos temperaturas y dos velocidades de aire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Roberti Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola Macrobrachium jelskii. La experimentación se llevó a cabo en un secador de bandejas, a temperaturas de 70 y 80 ºC y velocidades de aire de secado de 2 y 3 m/s, determinándose en cada experiencia la disminución de los valores de masa total a través del tiempo para construir las gráficas de humedad libre (XL versus tiempo, relación de humedad (X’ versus tiempo y la de velocidad de secado (N contra la humedad promedio, utilizando Microsoft® Excel. El análisis de los resultados se realizó a través de un diseño factorial 2 E2, siendo la variable de respuesta el tiempo de secado y los factores: temperatura de secado y velocidad del aire, determinando que el factor más influyente sobre el tiempo de secado fue la temperatura del proceso, con un nivel de significancia p = 0,0162. Las curvas de secado de esta especie demostraron que el fenómeno ocurrió solo en el período de velocidad de secado decreciente. La curva de velocidad de secado contra humedad promedio presentó concavidad hacia abajo, característico del secado de alimentos con capilares porosos y gran superficie de evaporación. Asimismo, se determinaron los valores de la humedad inicial (X0 para el M. jelskii cuyo promedio fue de 3,27 ± 0,10 g H2O/g sólido seco; el tiempo promedio de secado para alcanzar la humedad en el equilibrio (X* a temperatura de 70 ºC fue de 295 minutos a velocidad de aire de secado de 3 m/s y de 325 minutos a velocidad del aire de secado de 2 m/s, en contraste con la temperatura en la cámara a 80 ºC donde se alcanzó la humedad en el equilibrio en base seca en 270 minutos a velocidad del aire de 2 m/s y 235 minutos a 3 m/s. Con los resultados obtenidos se logró una data experimental que permite predecir el tiempo de deshidratación y datos importantes para el diseño de un secador con aire caliente para esta especie.

  19. Cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola (Macrobrachium jelskii a dos temperaturas y dos velocidades de aire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Roberti Pérez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la cinética del secado convectivo del camarón dulceacuícola Macrobrachium jelskii. La experimentación se llevó a cabo en un secador de bandejas, a temperaturas de 70 y 80 ºC y velocidades de aire de secado de 2 y 3 m/s, determinándose en cada experiencia la disminución de los valores de masa total a través del tiempo para construir las gráficas de humedad libre (XL versus tiempo, relación de humedad (X’ versus tiempo y la de velocidad de secado (N contra la humedad promedio, utilizando Microsoft® Excel. El análisis de los resultados se realizó a través de un diseño factorial 22, siendo la variable de respuesta el tiempo de secado y los factores: temperatura de secado y velocidad del aire, determinando que el factor más influyente sobre el tiempo de secado fue la temperatura del proceso, con un nivel de significancia p = 0,0162. Las curvas de secado de esta especie demostraron que el fenómeno ocurrió solo en el período de velocidad de secado decreciente. La curva de velocidad de secado contra humedad promedio presentó concavidad hacia abajo, característico del secado de alimentos con capilares porosos y gran superficie de evaporación. Asimismo, se determinaron los valores de la humedad inicial (X0 para el M. jelskii cuyo promedio fue de 3,27 ± 0,10 g H2O/g sólido seco; el tiempo promedio de secado para alcanzar la humedad en el equilibrio (X* a temperatura de 70 ºC fue de 295 minutos a velocidad de aire de secado de 3 m/s y de 325 minutos a velocidad del aire de secado de 2 m/s, en contraste con la temperatura en la cámara a 80 ºC donde se alcanzó la humedad en el equilibrio en base seca en 270 minutos a velocidad del aire de 2 m/s y 235 minutos a 3 m/s. Con los resultados obtenidos se logró una data experimental que permite predecir el tiempo de deshidratación y datos importantes para el diseño de un secador con aire caliente para esta especie.

  20. AIRE-Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Benda; Peng, Chuan; Yang, Yang; Huo, Zhuoxi

    2015-08-01

    AIRE-Linux is a dedicated Linux system for astronomers. Modern astronomy faces two big challenges: massive observed raw data which covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum, and overmuch professional data processing skill which exceeds personal or even a small team's abilities. AIRE-Linux, which is a specially designed Linux and will be distributed to users by Virtual Machine (VM) images in Open Virtualization Format (OVF), is to help astronomers confront the challenges. Most astronomical software packages, such as IRAF, MIDAS, CASA, Heasoft etc., will be integrated into AIRE-Linux. It is easy for astronomers to configure and customize the system and use what they just need. When incorporated into cloud computing platforms, AIRE-Linux will be able to handle data intensive and computing consuming tasks for astronomers. Currently, a Beta version of AIRE-Linux is ready for download and testing.

  1. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2016-12-30

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  2. Location Problem of Air Materials Supply Center for Air Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 何亚群; 陶学禹

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of three influencing factors on the air material supply center location, the location model of air material supply center was established. By solving the model, the rational supply center of air materials was also determined.

  3. Air Baltic: Estonian Air on nurka surutud / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Air Balticu asepresidendi Janis Vanagsi hinnangul on Estonian Air aastaid jätnud tähelepanuta oma peamised turismiturud ning on praegu halvas seisus. Air Baltic on endiselt huvitatud Estonian Airi ostust. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi seisukoht

  4. Aire Acondicionado Solar, para Conjunto de Viviendas en Mexicali, México Solar Air Conditioning for a Housing Compound in Mexicali, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Luna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es dimensionar y evaluar un sistema de enfriamiento por absorción LiBr-H2O asistido con energía solar y gas natural, para climatizar un conjunto de viviendas en Mexicali, Baja California, México. El análisis de comportamiento horario, diario y mensual en el periodo con mayor demanda de enfriamiento se realiza con el programa TRNSYS 16 y se busca la menor área de captación y la mayor fracción solar. Esto se traduce en el mínimo costo de operación e inversión inicial. Se encontró que el sistema genera condiciones del espacio entre confortablemente caliente y confortablemente frío, según la norma ISO 7730 (2005. Esto se logra a partir de 287 m²detubos evacuados, que aportan el 90% de la energía requerida. El sistema es técnicamente factible, ya que cubre la demanda de enfriamiento durante el periodo de verano y requiere un área de colección similar a la disponible en el conjunto de viviendas.The objective of the present work is to dimension and evaluate an absorption LiBr-H2O cooling system assisted by solar energy and natural gas for air conditioning of a group of housings in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico. The analysis of the hourly, daily and monthly operating performance in the period with more cooling demand is carried out by mean of TRNSYS 16, and it is seeking the least collection area and the highest solar fraction; that which is translated in the minimum operation cost and initial investment. It was found that the system generates conditions of the space between comfortably warm and comfortably cold, according to ISO 7730 (2005, with 287 m² of evacuated tubes which contribute 90% of the required energy. The system is technically feasible, since it covers the cooling demand during the summer period and it requires a similar collecting area to the available one in the housing compounds.

  5. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  6. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  7. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  8. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  9. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  10. Olefin metathesis in air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance.

  11. Air/Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  12. Olefin metathesis in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Lorenzo; Nahra, Fady

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the discovery and now widespread use of olefin metathesis, the evolution of metathesis catalysts towards air stability has become an area of significant interest. In this fascinating area of study, beginning with early systems making use of high oxidation state early transition metal centers that required strict exclusion of water and air, advances have been made to render catalysts more stable and yet more functional group tolerant. This review summarizes the major developments concerning catalytic systems directed towards water and air tolerance. PMID:26664625

  13. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  14. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  15. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LlU FENG'AN

    2011-01-01

    On September 1 two new aerobatic demonstration teams,theSky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China's Jilin Province.The show was staged at a ceremony held by the Aviation University of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Air Force.Also performing at the show was the 50-year-old Bayi aerobatic demonstration team.The teams demonstrated their superlative flying skills,which showcase the quality of the air force's rigorous pilot training.

  16. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  17. Natural Air Purifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  18. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  19. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  20. Temporal solitons in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of atmospheric air with a model that includes the entire manifold of infrared transitions in air reveals a remarkably broad and continuous anomalous-GVD region in the high-frequency wing of the carbon dioxide rovibrational band from approximately 3.5 to 4.2 μm where atmospheric air is still highly transparent and where high-peak-power sources of ultrashort midinfrared pulses are available. Within this range, anomalous dispersion acting jointly with optical nonlinearity of atmospheric air is shown to give rise to a unique three-dimensional dynamics with well-resolved soliton features in the time domain, enabling a highly efficient whole-beam soliton self-compression of such pulses to few-cycle pulse widths.

  1. Air Data Calibration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is for low altitude subsonic altimeter system calibrations of air vehicles. Mission is a direct support of the AFFTC mission. Postflight data merge is...

  2. Investigating Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  3. Indoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirk R.

    2003-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activi...

  4. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  5. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  6. INDOOR AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of modern architecture, one of the building's interior decoration, furnishings, appliances and equipment have become increasingly demanding, making construction of the indoor environment of increasing pollution, increasing pollution, indoor environmental pollution hazards to human is also a growing the greater. This thesis summarizes the major indoor air pollution sources and major pollutants. Indoor air pollutants are formaldehyde, radon, ammonia, total volatile org...

  7. Multipollutant air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidy, George M; Pennell, William T

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of a recent NARSTO assessment, this review discusses the factors involved in the implementation of a risk- and results-based multipollutant air quality management strategy applicable to North America. Such a strategy could evolve from current single-pollutant regulatory practices using a series of steps that would seek to minimize risk of exposure for humans and ecosystems while providing for a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the management process. The tools needed to support multipollutant air quality management are summarized. They include application of a formal risk analysis, accounting for atmospheric processes, ambient measurements, emissions characterization, air quality modeling of emissions to ambient concentrations, and characterization of human and ecological responses to ambient pollutant exposure. The new management strategy would expand the current practice of accountability that relates emission reductions and attainment of air quality derived from air quality criteria and standards. Conceptually, achievement of accountability would establish goals optimizing risk reduction associated with pollution management. This expanded approach takes into account the sequence of processes from emissions reduction to resulting changes in ambient concentration. Using ambient concentration as a proxy for exposure, the resulting improvement in human and ecosystem health is estimated. The degree to which this chain of processes and effects can be achieved in current practice is examined in a multipollutant context exemplified by oxidants, as indicated by ozone, particulate matter, and some hazardous air pollutants. Achievement of a multipollutant management strategy will mostly depend on improving knowledge about human and ecosystem response to pollutant exposure.

  8. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  9. Fluidized Bed Air-to-Air Heat Pump Evaporator Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    Frost formation of air-to-air heat pump evaporator surfaces reduces unit efficiency and restricts application. The use of a fluidized bed heat...exchanger as an air-to- heat pump evaporator was investigated to determine if frost accumulation could be eliminated. Experimental investigations were...evaluated, with no practical solution being developed. The use of a fluidized bed heat exchanger for air-to-air heat pump evaporators was determined not feasible. (Author)

  10. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  11. Computers in Air Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V.S. Rao

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available With man's mastery over the third dimension - the near atmosphere and space- it has become increasingly necessary to protect oneself not merely from attacks from land and the sea but, more importantly, from attacks from the air. This was recognised even during the World War II and a rudimentary air defence capability was sought to be established; by the manul (visual surveillance and the anti-aircraft guns. The advent of radar signified a major advance in air defence technology and techniques. Rather than depend on visual observation and the hazards and limitations thereof, it became possible with radar to detect the presence of flying objects at much great distances. The PPI display of a conventional air-surveillance radar permits an operator to scan the sky for several hundreds of kilometers all around. Early radar-based air defence systems were dependent on human observation and decision making for detecting targets, identifying them, deciding on interception strategy and for recovering the interceptor after completion of his mission. This was feasible because, with a radar of between 200 to 400 kilometers and aircraft speeds in the range of 500 kilometers per hour, upto 30 minutes warning was available before the target was overhead.

  12. Experiencias de la instauración de normas relativas al contenido de plomo en aire y el agua, en los Estados Unidos de América Establishing lead in air and water standards in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Michael Davis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Estados Unidos de América se ha logrado una disminución de la exposición a plomo de la población en general, gracias al establecimiento de diversas normas. En este artículo se destaca parte de los conocimientos adquiridos a través de la experiencia obtenida en este país en materia de plomo, en particular respecto al aire y al agua. Uno de los aspectos fundamentales es la posibilidad de contar con una base científica sólidamente establecida y claramente entendida, a partir de la cual se tomarán las medidas correspondientes. Los efectos secundarios de ciertas normas concernientes al aire ponen de manifiesto de qué manera los esfuerzos orientados a solucionar un problema pueden aportar beneficios en otras áreas, si bien pueden surgir consecuencias no deseadas, debido a la falta de previsión y de evaluación. Asimismo, en este documento se discuten las diferencias entre los enfoques centralizados y los descentralizados para el manejo de la exposición a plomo.Lead regulations and standards have resulted in a lower exposure to lead in the general population of the United States of America. This paper highlights some of the know-how developed through lead-containing experiences, particularly regarding lead content in air and water. The availability of a solid and clear scientific knowledge is central to the success of these policies. Collateral effects of some air-related standards show the extent to which problem-oriented efforts may be beneficial in other areas, inasmuch as they may have untoward consequences if careful planning and evaluation are not considered. Finally, this paper presents a discussion of the differences between centralized and decentralized approaches to lead exposure control.

  13. Urban Air Pollution in India

    OpenAIRE

    Narain, Urvashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the main efforts undertaken to stem the growth of air pollution in Indian cities. We begin by examining trends in air quality across the country. This is followed by a description of the legal and institutional framework and policies for controlling air pollution in India. Next we report on efforts to improve air quality in Delhi. We conclude by describing recent actions to control air pollution in cities other than Delhi.

  14. AirPort Extreme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    AirPort Extreme是基于IEEE802.11g无线通讯协议的54Mbps的无线路由机站,它提供了比802.11b标准几乎快5倍以上的连接速率。AirPort Extreme基站可以同时为50台Mac和PC机用户服务。它支持从无线打印至带有USB接口或以太网接口的打印机,支持无线桥接技术,并同时提供了一整套强大的管理工具。除此之外,AirPort Extreme基站还配有一个内建防火墙,

  15. Urban Air Pollution Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1995-09-01

    This document focuses on the specific problems of urban air pollution related to emissions, urban climate, meteorology, smog potential, specific locations, air pollution measurements and trends. Examples are given with cases from European cities in particular. The north south differences, coastal and inland problems and data from various parts of Europe are presented. Global trends and results from the UNEP programme are used to illustrate the magnitude of the problem. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of different sources and their importance in selected cities. Different types of atmospheric dispersion models, their development and use, is outlined. The importance of local and regional meteorological data for explanation purposes and for estimating and forecasting urban air quality is presented. Finally, monitoring programmes, mapping, impact assessment and optimum abatement strategy planning are illustrated with examples from different areas in the world. 9 refs., 56 figs., 1 table

  16. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  17. La Corona: un acercamiento a las políticas del reino Kaan desde un centro secundario del noroeste del Petén La Corona: an approach to politics in the kingdom of Kaan from a secondary center in Norwest Petén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello A. Canuto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Regional Arqueológico La Corona estudia la región del noroeste de Petén, Guatemala, donde se localiza la antigua ciudad maya de La Corona, que recientemente fue identificada como el Sitio Q. La investigación ha incluido las excavaciones de arquitectura monumental, asentamientos, la elaboración de mapas, el uso de sensores remotos y la realización de estudios paleoclimatológicos y ecológicos. Desde el punto de vista de los modelos de la organización política, las investigaciones en La Corona presentan una oportunidad para estudiar la naturaleza y las relaciones políticas de los sitios secundarios. Los datos epigráficos relatan una afiliación directa entre La Corona y la dinastía gobernante en Calakmul, por lo que el primer centro seguramente fungió como punto clave para las estrategias de expansión de Calakmul por las Tierras Bajas Mayas durante los siglos VI y VII d.C. Aquí se presentan algunos resultados obtenidos en las investigaciones llevadas al cabo entre 2005 y 2009.The La Corona Regional Archaeological Project is studying the northwestern Peten region (Guatemala, where the ancient Maya city of La Corona is located. This site has been recently identified as the unknown Site Q. The research at La Corona has included excavations of monumental and settlement architecture, mapping, use of remote sensing and ecological and paleo-climate studies. Viewed from the political organization models, investigations at La Corona present an opportunity to study the nature and political relations of secondary sites. Epigraphic data show a direct affiliation between La Corona and the ruling dynasty of Calakmul, suggesting that La Corona could have been a key center for the expansionistic strategies of Calakmul during the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. In this paper we present some of the results obtained in the investigations carried out between 2005 and 2009.

  18. Distribución espacial de la macrofauna edáfica en bosque mesófilo, bosque secundario y pastizal en la reserva La Cortadura, Coatepec, Veracruz, México Spatial distribution of soil macrofauna in cloud forest, secondary forest and grassland in La Cortadura reserve, Coatepec, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis N. De la Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La conversión de un área de bosque para la agricultura o el pastoreo homogeniza las propiedades del suelo y las comunidades de macroinvertebrados. Este trabajo estudió si la diversidad (H', densidad y heterogeneidad espacial (tamaño de parche de macroinvertebrados de hojarasca y suelo se recuperan en una secuencia sucesional pastizal (Pas-bosque secundario (Bsec-bosque mesófilo maduro (BMM. En el sustrato hojarasca se observó un gradiente de aumento para todas las variables estudiadas en la secuencia Pas-Bsec-BMM. Sin embargo, este patrón no se presentó en el suelo, ya que la mayor diversidad y densidad (por taxón y total se encontraron en el Bsec. Mediante un análisis de variografía, en la hojarasca se encontraron distribuciones espaciales heterogéneas de los macroinvertebrados en ambos bosques, mientras que en el pastizal la distribución fue homogénea, lo que apoya la idea de que el disturbio va acompañado de una homogenización espacial de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados, pero la restructuración espacial se recupera en la sucesión temprana. En el suelo de los 3 sitios, la distribución de todas las variables fue en parches (5 a 60 m de diámetro, pero no se encontró disminución en la heterogeneidad espacial predicha para la secuencia Pas-Bsec-BMM.The conversion of forest to agriculture or pasture homogenizes soil properties, including the communities of macroinvertebrates. This study examined whether the diversity (H', density and spatial heterogeneity (patch size of litter and soil macroinvertebrate recover through the secondary successional sequence pasture (Pas-secondary forest (Bsec- mature cloud forest (BMM. In the litter an increasing gradient for all variables was observed through the successional sequence. However, this pattern was not present in the soil, where the highest diversity and density (per taxon and total were found in the Bsec. Using variography, we found heterogeneous spatial distributions of

  19. Obtención de un conjugado anti IgG de ratón - FITC mediante la tecnología IgY para uso como anticuerpo secundario en la detección de antígenos de superficie celular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban J. Gutiérrez Calzado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 1996, el Centro Europeo para la Validación de Métodos Alternativos recomendó el uso de la IgY como sustituto de la IgG de mamíferos con el objetivo de reducir al mínimo las situaciones de daño que se les causa a los animales que se someten a la producción de anticuerpos (Acs. En 1999, la tecnología IgY se aprobó por la Oficina Federal Veterinaria del gobierno suizo como un método alternativo para sustentar el cuidado y bienestar de los animales. Muchas de las publicaciones relacionadas con IgY demuestran las características desde el punto de vista bioquímico de esta inmunoglobulina que la hace tomar ventajas sobre la IgG, entre las que refiere que los complejos inmunes que contienen Acs aviares, no pueden interactuar con los receptores Fc o del complemento sobre las células, por lo que el reemplazamiento de los Acs de mamíferos por sus similares en gallinas pudieran evitar interferencias en muchos ensayos diagnósticos. Este conocimiento ha sido la base objetiva de este trabajo que consistió en la obtención de Acs IgY anti IgG de ratón con elevado grado de pureza, los que fueron conjugados por unión covalente vía grupos amino primarios libres al isotiocianato de fluoresceína (FITC. Estos conjugados mostraron poseer una razón molar FITC/proteína en intervalos reportados para un buen desempeño. La dilución óptima de trabajo obtenida para ellos fue muy adecuada y demostró su utilidad como Acs secundarios en el conteo de antígenos de superficie celular linfocitario humano por sus resultados comparables con los reactivos similares de origen mamífero ensayados en paralelo.

  20. Colonización de hojas en descomposición de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnhardt por invertebrados en un cauce secundario del río Paraná medio Invertebrate colonization on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnhardt leaf litter breakdown in an anabranche of the Middle Parana River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Galizzi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hojas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, fueron recolectadas después de la abscisión y se colocaron 6 g de hojas secas en bolsas de nylon de 5 mm de abertura de malla en un cauce secundario del río Paraná medio (31° 40'S y 60° 33' O. Se extrajeron 3 réplicas a los 7, 14, 28, 56 y 112 días durante un período de estiaje del agua (mayo-septiembre, 2002. El coeficiente de descomposición (k fue de 0.0131 d-1 a los 112 días. El tiempo necesario estimado para que se descomponga el 95% del material vegetal fue de 36 días, teniendo en cuenta el coeficiente k obtenido. La mayor densidad de invertebrados (600 ind.g-1 de peso seco de hojas y riqueza taxonómica (39 taxa fueron obtenidas a los 112 y 14 días de exposición, respectivamente. Los quironómidos y bivalvos fueron los taxa dominantes en la colonización de hojas en descomposición. Los colectores - recolectores (principalmente Naididae y Chironominae dominaron las primeras etapas de la sucesión y los colectores - filtradores (Limnoperna fortunei aumentaron notablemente en las etapas finales. Mientras que los trituradores (Polypedilum spp. fueron más abundantes durante las primeras fases de la colonización.Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves collected at abscission and 6 g dry weight were placed innylon bags of 5 mm mesh net in a secondary channel of Middlle Parana River (31° 40'S y 60° 33' W. Three replicates were collected after 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112 days during low water level (may-september 2002. The decay coefficient (k calculated over 112 days was 0.0131 d-1. The time estimated for 95% of leaves decomposition was 36 days according to the k obtained. The highest invertebrate density (600 ind.g-1 of leaves dry weight and taxonomic richness (39 taxa were obtained at 112 days and 14 days of leaf decomposition, respectively. The colonization on decomposing leaves was dominated by chironomids and mussels. Gatherers-collectors (Naididae and Chironominae were dominant during the first time

  1. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    Air movement - good or bad? The question can only be answered by those who are exposed when they are exposed. Human perception of air movement depends on environmental factors including air velocity, air velocity fluctuations, air temperature, and personal factors such as overall thermal sensation...... and activity level. Even for the same individual, sensitivity to air movement may change from day to day as a result of e.g. different levels of fatigue. Based on existing literature, the current paper summarizes factors influencing the human perception of air movement and attempts to specify in general terms...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  2. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  3. Air Structures: Inflatable Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Joseph M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes and evaluates several avant garde'' examples of air structures. Included are a soft'' child's playpen, a pneudome that employs a water ballast for anchoring, a one-acre enclosed campus, an instant city'' constructed for an industrial design conference, and the Fuji Pavilion, at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, that was large enough to cover…

  4. Mid-air Acrobatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Two new aerobatic demonstration teams take to the skies On September 1,two new aerobatic demonstration teams,the Sky Wing and the Red Falcon,debuted at an air show held in Changchun,capital of northeast China’s Jilin Province.

  5. Hexane Air Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Philipp A; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2010-01-01

    Hot surface ignition and subsequent flame propagation of premixed n-hexane air mixtures are shown in this fluid dynamics video. High speed schlieren photography revealed 3 distinct behaviors of ignition and propagation as a function of mixture composition and initial pressure.

  6. Images in the Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, H. G.; Rosenberger, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two "magic tricks" in terms of underlying optical principles. The first trick is new and produces a "ghost" in the air, and the second is the classical real image produced with two parabolic mirrors. (Contains 2 figure and 6 photos.)

  7. Air Blast Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    gauges at this point are still inside the explosive fireball (where the pressure time histories are dramatically influenced by the propagating...outside of the explosive fireball (since no evidence of an air-product interface is detected in any of the pressure time histories at this point

  8. Learning AirWatch

    CERN Document Server

    Dunkerley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    If you are a technical professional who wants to dive deeper into the functionality offered by AirWatch or manage the solution, then this book will help you choose the best set of configuration, device management, and monitoring options that you can use to effectively manage your EMM implementation.

  9. Tribal Air Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals (ITEP) (Flagstaff, Arizona) provides training and support for tribal professionals in the technical job skills needed for air quality monitoring and other environmental management tasks. ITEP also arranges internships, job placements, and hands-on training opportunities and supports an…

  10. Indoor Air Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selman, Ayser Dawod; Heiselberg, Per

    Overall purpose of the research is to provide an overview of the relevance and importance of various defined Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters in a European perspective. Based on the report it should be possible to prioritize which countries to target for further activities as well as it should...

  11. Air Distribution in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The research on air distribution in rooms is often done as full-size investigations, scale-model investigations or by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). New activities have taken place within all three areas and this paper draws comparisons between the different methods. The outcome of the l...

  12. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  13. Contingencias y desencuentros: una protesta de estudiantes secundarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Maldonado

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Las reflexiones presentes derivan de una investigación realizada en una escuela media pública de la ciudad de Córdoba. Tomamos en este caso un conflicto puntual, como analizador de prácticas y acciones de los sujetos involucrados en la institución que puede leerse como símbolo de un orden cuestionado o como demanda que acompaña la lógica hegemónica. De acuerdo con lo planteado por Reguillo, quien analiza cómo un sujeto que puede ser "espectador de su propio problema", cuando se organiza y elabora estrategias se convierte en "actor" y cuando apela a distintas formas de capital para hacer frente a la contingencia, deviene "agente". Interesa dar cuenta de las acciones que movilizan a los estudiantes, pues en su escolarización, se advierten conflictos y desinterés pero también están activamente apropiándose de los recursos materiales y simbólicos disponibles en el espacio escolar, para armar lazos, disputar su lugar como jóvenes o para formarse como ciudadanos.These reflections are the result of our research in a Public High School in Córdoba, Argentina. We focused on one particular conflict which acts as an analyst of the practice and deeds of the students; this in turn may be interepreted as the symbol of the order at stake or as demand that accompanies the hegemonic logic. According with Reguillo who analyzes how a subject may be "the spectator of his own problem" when he plans his organization and formulates strategies becomes "the actor" and then when he appeals to different forms of capital to face a contingency becomes an " agent". Our aim is to show wich actions make students react because in their education process appear conflicts and lack of interest; but also, they profit from material and symbolic resources available at school in order to create social ties, fight for a place as youth and be trained as future citizens.

  14. El Khat: efectos secundarios y peligros de una planta psicoestimulante

    OpenAIRE

    Raga Rodríguez, Luis; Espert Tortajada, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    El Khat o Catha Edulis Forsk, es un arbusto que se emplea por sus propiedades euforizantes y estimulantes del sistema nervioso central y por su capacidad para aliviar la fatiga, sin embargo, su consumo abusivo produce efectos adversos sobre las funciones cognitivas. En este artículo de revisión se resume el origen, la producción, farmacología, toxicología, neuropsicología y los aspectos psicosociales del consumo del khat en un intento por aportar el mayor conocimiento posible sobre este arbus...

  15. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  16. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  17. Molecular Air Data Clear Air Turbulence Sensor: MADCAT Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes usually above 18,000ft, often without...

  18. Air-Coupled Vibrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, D.; Solodov, I.; Busse, G.

    Sound and ultrasound in air are the products of a multitude of different processes and thus can be favorable or undesirable phenomena. Development of experimental tools for non-invasive measurements and imaging of airborne sound fields is of importance for linear and nonlinear nondestructive material testing as well as noise control in industrial or civil engineering applications. One possible solution is based on acousto-optic interaction, like light diffraction imaging. The diffraction approach usually requires a sophisticated setup with fine optical alignment barely applicable in industrial environment. This paper focuses on the application of the robust experimental tool of scanning laser vibrometry, which utilizes commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The imaging technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) is based on the modulation of the optical path length by the acoustic pressure of the sound wave. The theoretical considerations focus on the analysis of acousto-optical phase modulation. The sensitivity of the ACV in detecting vibration velocity was estimated as ~1 mm/s. The ACV applications to imaging of linear airborne fields are demonstrated for leaky wave propagation and measurements of ultrasonic air-coupled transducers. For higher-intensity ultrasound, the classical nonlinear effect of the second harmonic generation was measured in air. Another nonlinear application includes a direct observation of the nonlinear air-coupled emission (NACE) from the damaged areas in solid materials. The source of the NACE is shown to be strongly localized around the damage and proposed as a nonlinear "tag" to discern and image the defects.

  19. Air-cooled, hydrogen-air fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelekhin, Alexander B. (Inventor); Bushnell, Calvin L. (Inventor); Pien, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An air-cooled, hydrogen-air solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell with a membrane electrode assembly operatively associated with a fluid flow plate having at least one plate cooling channel extending through the plate and at least one air distribution hole extending from a surface of the cathode flow field into the plate cooling channel.

  20. Nightfall: Machine Autonomy in Air-to-Air Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Debashis Chanda et al., “Large-Area Flexible 3D Optical Negative Index Metamaterial Formed by Nanotransfer Printing,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, no. 7 (July...article restricts the discussion to air-to-air applications because they present an extremely sterile environment compared to the air-to-ground (surface

  1. A Breath of Fresh Air: Addressing Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution refers to "chemical, biological, and physical contamination of indoor air," which may result in adverse health effects (OECD 2003). The causes, sources, and types of indoor air pollutants will be addressed in this article, as well as health effects and how to reduce exposure. Learning more about potential pollutants in home…

  2. EN EL AIRE / In the air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés López Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el aire es un viaje a la primera mitad del siglo XX que nos tratará de acercar la frescura y oportunidad de las calles corredor y los jardines en la ciudad vertical. Se inicia en 1909 en Nueva York, con la publicación por la revista Life de La Torre del Globo, se acerca al Inmueble-Villas y al Plan Obus para Argel de Le Corbusier, y finaliza en 1952 con el proyecto para el conjunto residencial de Golden Lane en Londres de A. y P. Smithson. Fragmentos para la ciudad vertical que se construía sobre papel, tras el espejo, paralela en el tiempo, pero muy distinta a la ciudad real, con el objetivo entre otros de integrar arquitectura y naturaleza. Esas propuestas siguen teniendo hoy un gran valor, en un panorama en que el espacio público ligado a la vivienda colectiva, prácticamente ha desaparecido, y el esfuerzo que se demanda al arquitecto se centra, en tejer a modo de encaje de bolillos, una fachada que envuelva un programa de vivienda, funcional y espacialmente obsoleto.SUMMARY In the air, is a journey to the first half of the twentieth century that will try to bring us to the freshness and opportunity of the corridor streets and gardens in the vertical city. It begins in 1909 in New York, with the publication in Life magazine of the Globe Tower, it approaches the Immeubles-Villas and Plan Obus for Algiers by Le Corbusier, and ends in 1952 with the project for the Golden Lane Estate residential complex in London, by A. and P. Smithson. Fragments for the vertical city that was constructed on paper, behind the mirror, parallel in time, but was very different from the real city, with the aim, inter alia, of integrating architecture and nature. These proposals continue to have great value today, in a scenario where the public space linked to the collective home has virtually disappeared, and the effort that is demanded of the architect focuses on weaving a facade like bobbin lace around a functionally and spatially obsolete housing

  3. Efectividad y seguridad de la viscosuplementación con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis Efficacy and safety of single intra-articular injection of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid (NASHA for gonarthrosis pain treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Monerris Tabasco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: valorar la efectividad y seguridad de la inyección de dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA para el tratamiento del dolor secundario a gonartrosis. Material y métodos: se han incluido un total de 37 pacientes afectos de gonartrosis diagnosticada previamente por el Traumatólogo/Reumatólogo en los que ha fracasado el tratamiento conservador y/o que no son tributarios de tratamiento quirúrgico. Se les ha efectuado una infiltración en dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado no animal (NASHA, Durolane®. Se han recogido datos demográficos, efectos adversos e intensidad del dolor (valorada mediante escala verbal numérica y puntuación en los cuestionarios Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoartritis Index (WOMAC y Barthel -basal, a las 2 semanas, a los 3 meses y a los 6 meses de la infiltración-. Se ha considerado efectiva una disminución ≥ 30% durante más de 3 meses en las puntuaciones basales. Resultados: los pacientes son mayoritariamente mujeres (83,8%, con una edad media de 72,8 años (desviación típica -S- = 8,4 e índice de masa corporal medio (IMC 31,9 (S = 6,9. La rodilla infiltrada es izquierda en el 51,7%, derecha en el 41,4% y bilateral en el 6,9% de los pacientes. Han presentado efectos adversos en forma de artralgias bien toleradas el 11,1% de los pacientes. En base a los resultados, la infiltración con dosis única de ácido hialurónico estabilizado de origen no animal (NASHA por gonalgia de origen artrósico provoca una reducción estadísticamente significativa en la intensidad del dolor (escala verbal numérica y WOMAC y de la capacidad funcional (WOMAC en todos los intervalos valorados. Se ha producido una reducción ≥ 30% en la intensidad del dolor en el 54% (valor que coincide con la reducción en la puntuación WOMAC de dolor, en la rigidez en el 62,1% y en la capacidad funcional en el 48,6% de los pacientes. Conclusiones: en nuestros

  4. Litterfall, litter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in old-growth evergreen and secondary deciduous Nothofagus forests in south-central Chile Aporte, descomposición de hojarasca y mineralización de nitrógeno en bosques siempreverdes de antiguo crecimiento y bosques secundarios deciduos, centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEROEN STAELENS

    2011-03-01

    mineralization rates in the present study.Los ecosistemas forestales del sur de Chile presentan un gran valor ecológico pues constituyen una de las mayores áreas del hemisferio Sur con existencias de bosques templados lluviosos. Están sometidos a procesos de deforestación, invasión de especies exóticas, fragmentación e incremento de depositación de nitrógeno (N atmosférico. Para apoyar su manejo sustentable se requiere de mayor conocimiento en el ciclo de nutrientes de estos ecosistemas. Se estudia la dinámica de nutrientes en cuatro sitios de bosques lluviosos valdivianos de la precordillera de los Andes, centro-sur de Chile: un bosque siempreverde de antiguo crecimiento prístino y otro alterado, un bosque caducifolio secundario con manejo silvícola y otro sin. Durante el período octubre 2002 -septiembre 2006, se estimaron (i masa de la hojarasca (cuatro años y contenido de nutrientes de la hojarasca (un año, (ii descomposición y dinámica de nutrientes de hojarasca (un año y de la corteza de Saxegothaea conspicua, y (iii mineralización neta de nitrógeno (N-min en el suelo in situ (un año. El aporte de hojarasca en los cuatro sitios fluctúa desde 3.5 hasta 5.8 ton ha-1 año-1, y es temporalmente menor en bosque caducifolio manejado, respecto del caducifolio sin manejo. Además, presentan una estacionalidad en los siempreverdes que es diferente, respecto de los deciduos. La hojarasca se descompone más rápidamente (promedio 32 % pérdida de masa después de un año que la corteza (8 %, pero no se presentaron diferencias significativas en la hojarasca. El N neto en la hojarasca de los bosques siempreverdes disminuye durante la descomposición, pero se incrementa en la hojarasca de los deciduos. La N-mineralización neta del suelo fue completa en el bosque siempreverde prístino, intermedia en los bosques deciduos y el más baja en el bosque siempreverde alterado. Dada la ausencia de réplicas en las parcelas, no puede ser demostrado el impacto definido del

  5. Studies efficiency solar air collector

    OpenAIRE

    YORKIN SODIKOVICH ABBASOV; MIRSOLI ODILJANOVICH UZBEKOV

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the existing solar air collectors. A description of the design and the results of experimental studies on the effectiveness of the solar air collector with an absorber of from metal shavings.

  6. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...

  7. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share ... indoor air pollution. For this reason, it is important to pay attention to the time and place ...

  8. Air Markets Program Data (AMPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Air Markets Program Data tool allows users to search EPA data to answer scientific, general, policy, and regulatory questions about industry emissions. Air...

  9. Aluminum/air electrochemical cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; 王雷

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a very promising energy carrier given its high capacity and energy density, low cost, earth abundance and environmental benignity. The Al/air battery as a kind of metal/air electrochemical cell attracts tremendous attention. Traditional Al/air batteries suffer from the self-corrosion and related safety problems. In this work, three new approaches were investigated to tackle these challenges and to develop high-performance Al/air cells: (1) incorporate an additional hydrogen/a...

  10. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  11. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  12. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  13. Aeromicrobiology/air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gary L.; Frisch, A.S.; Kellogg, Christina A.; Levetin, E.; Lighthart, Bruce; Paterno, D.

    2009-01-01

    The most prevalent microorganisms, viruses, bacteria, and fungi, are introduced into the atmosphere from many anthropogenic sources such as agricultural, industrial and urban activities, termed microbial air pollution (MAP), and natural sources. These include soil, vegetation, and ocean surfaces that have been disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The airborne concentrations range from nil to great numbers and change as functions of time of day, season, location, and upwind sources. While airborne, they may settle out immediately or be transported great distances. Further, most viable airborne cells can be rendered nonviable due to temperature effects, dehydration or rehydration, UV radiation, and/or air pollution effects. Mathematical microbial survival models that simulate these effects have been developed.

  14. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  15. Overview of Emerging Air Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    These slides will be presented at the 2014 National Ambient Air Monitoring Conference in Atlanta, GA during August 11-15, 2014. The goal is to provide an overview of air sensor technology and the audience will be primarily state air monitoring agencies and EPA Regions.

  16. Improving IAQ Via Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Provides tips on using air filtration to control indoor air quality in educational facilities, including dedicated spaces with unique air quality conditions such as in libraries, museums and archival storage areas, kitchens and dining areas, and laboratories. The control of particulate contaminants, gaseous contaminants, and moisture buildup are…

  17. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  18. Fast Air Temperature Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert

    1998-01-01

    The note documents briefly work done on a newly developed sensor for making fast temperature measurements on the air flow in the intake ports of an SI engine and in the EGR input line. The work reviewed has been carried out in close cooperation with Civ. Ing. Michael Føns, the author (IAU......) and Spencer C. Sorenson (ET). The theory which decribes in detail the overall dynamic chracteristics of the sensor was developed at IAU, DTU....

  19. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  20. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    passenger and all-cargo aircraft. The air cargo system consists of a large, complex distribution network linking manufacturers and shippers to freight...free transportation to San Jose, California. His only luggage was a guitar case that concealed hammers, mallets, a knife, and a spear gun. At the...authorities and airplane manufacturers study methods to mitigate the effects of in-flight explosions.76 The FAA has had a active research program in blast

  1. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    compressor ex- cept that the piston rings are made of a low friction material (usually a Teflon- composite ) The piston walls are oil-less and all friction... descal - ing. The water-cooled models are smaller, more efficient, and cause less heating of room air. Water-cooled aftercoolers must have an...dry to a dew point of -400C (-400 F). It has high adsorption capacity. (b) Silica Gel , which must be protected from liquid (usually by a layer of

  2. Clearing the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    On November 8,seven Beijing residents,including a representative from a local environmental organization,were invited by the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BMEPB)to visit its air-quality monitoring center,The visit was the first of a regular program of visits that will take 40 visitors to the center every Tuesday in hopes of giving them a betttr understanding of how airquality data are collected and analyzed.

  3. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  4. Enhancing indoor air quality –The air filter advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannan Kandi Vijayan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become the world's single biggest environmental health risk, linked to around 7 million deaths in 2012 according to a recent World Health Organisation (WHO report. The new data further reveals a stronger link between, indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. The role of air pollution in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, is well known. While both indoor and outdoor pollution affect health, recent statistics on the impact of household indoor pollutants (HAP is alarming. The WHO factsheet on HAP and health states that 3.8 million premature deaths annually - including stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. Use of air cleaners and filters are one of the suggested strategies to improve indoor air quality. This review discusses the impact of air pollutants with special focus on indoor air pollutants and the benefits of air filters in improving indoor air quality.

  5. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  6. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  7. Solid-Sorbent Air Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-01-01

    Portable unit takes eight 24-hour samples. Volatile organic compounds in air collected for analysis by portable, self-contained sampling apparatus. Sampled air drawn through sorbent material, commercial porous polymer of 2, 3-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide. High-boiling-point organic compounds adsorbed onto polymer, while low-boiling-point organics pass through and returned to atmosphere. Sampler includes eight sample tubes filled with polymeric sorbent. Organic compounds in atmosphere absorbed when air pumped through sorbent. Designed for checking air in spacecraft, sampler adaptable to other applications as leak detection, gas-mixture analysis, and ambient-air monitoring.

  8. Air Risk Information Support Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  9. Air Quality at Your Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Becker, Thomas; Ketzel, Matthias

    DTU Transport as well as data on travel speeds based on GPS data from SpeedMap from the Danish Road Directorate. Modelled concentrations have been compared to fixed regional, urban background and street air quality monitoring stations to assess uncertainties, and to model results from about 30 streets......Citizens are frequently concerned about the air quality where they live, where they go to work, where their children go to kindergarten or where they want to move to. Municipalities may also have an interest in location based air quality information e.g. in relation to screening of complaints from...... concerned citizents, or in the context of localization of institutions, etc. The purpose of the project ‘Air Quality at Your Street’ is to create interactive air quality maps on the internet using webGIS to illustrate the geographical variation of air quality in Denmark for selected health related air...

  10. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  11. Determinación de la actividad lignocelulolítica en sustrato natural de aislamientos fúngicos obtenidos de sabana de pastoreo y de bosque secundario de sabana inundable tropical Determination of lignocellulolytic activity in a natural substrate of native fungi strains obtained from savanna and of secondary forest from a tropical flooded savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía Ortiz Moreno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar aislamientos de hongos ligninolíticos y celulolíticos que pudieran degradar desechos de cosecha y mejorar las características del suelo en los Llanos Orientales, se realizó un muestreo siguiendo la metodología de transepto y muestras integradas. Se obtuvo una cepa ligninolítica (005L Verticillium spp. y 72 cepas celulolíticas. La comparación de los usos del suelo (sabana de pastoreo y bosque secundario mostró que no existía una relación entre el número de géneros obtenidos y las características del suelo. Posteriormente, se realizó la cuantificación de la actividad celulolítica y ligninolítica de los aislamientos para identificar las cepas que posteriormente serían evaluadas en el sustrato natural pasto seco (Brachiaria spp.. Se encontraron dos cepas con alta actividad exoglucanasa (055C y 061C Penicillium spp. y una cepa con alta actividad endoglucanasa (019C Trichoderma spp. respecto al control Trichoderma viride. En el sustrato natural se evaluaron los consorcios de las cepas seleccionadas formados por pares: una ligninolítica y una celulolítica. Las pruebas mostraron que los aislamientos promisorios aumentaron su actividad enzimática en el sustrato pasto superando a los controles positivos (Pleurotus ostreatus para lignina y T. viride para celulosa y que los consorcios no afectaron la capacidad enzimática de las cepas que los formaban. Por lo tanto, se recomienda utilizar estos consorcios para el desarrollo de biofertilizantes acondicionadores del suelo, empleando especialmente el consorcio formado por las cepas 005L (Verticillium spp. y 055C (Penicillium spp., que mostró alta actividad ligninolítica y celulolítica.The aim of this work was to identify lignolytic and cellulolytic fungal strains capable of degrading harvest waste and thereby improving the soil characteristics of the eastern Llanos of Colombia. Sampling was carried out using the transept methodology and

  12. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...

  13. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  14. Solid sorbent air sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, T. J.

    1986-04-01

    A fluid sampler for collecting a plurality of discrete samples over separate time intervals is described. The sampler comprises a sample assembly having an inlet and a plurality of discreet sample tubes each of which has inlet and outlet sides. A multiport dual acting valve is provided in the sampler in order to sequentially pass air from the sample inlet into the selected sample tubes. The sample tubes extend longitudinally of the housing and are located about the outer periphery thereof so that upon removal of an enclosure cover, they are readily accessible for operation of the sampler in an analysis mode.

  15. AIR VELOCITY SENSOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘本琛

    1992-01-01

    During the last twenty years there has been rapid progress in the use of automation in a wide range of industries,as well as in military, scientific application. However, the progress in the application of automatic control is often hindered by the lack of accurate, reliable measuring apparatus. An economic thermal couple air flow sensor with better linearity (accuracy is ±5% of full scale) has been successfully made at Trolex Ltd. Many other existing sensors fail in the application of industries because of non-linearity.

  16. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  17. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  18. Ag-Air Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Econ, Inc.'s agricultural aerial application, "ag-air," involves more than 10,000 aircraft spreading insecticides, herbicides, fertilizer, seed and other materials over millions of acres of farmland. Difficult for an operator to estimate costs accurately and decide what to charge or which airplane can handle which assignment most efficiently. Computerized service was designed to improve business efficiency in choice of aircraft and determination of charge rates based on realistic operating cost data. Each subscriber fills out a detailed form which pertains to his needs and then receives a custom-tailored computer printout best suited to his particular business mix.

  19. Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

    2010-04-01

    Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator.

  20. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunesada Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  1. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilhauer, B.; Bohacova, M.; Fraga, M.; Matthews, J.; Sakaki, N.; Tameda, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Ulrich, A.

    2013-06-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of Air Fluorescence Workshops commenced in 2002. At the 8th Air Fluorescence Workshop 2011, it was suggested to develop a common way of describing the nitrogen fluorescence for application to air shower observations. Here, first analyses for a common treatment of the major dependences of the emission procedure are presented. Aspects like the contributions at different wavelengths, the dependence on pressure as it is decreasing with increasing altitude in the atmosphere, the temperature dependence, in particular that of the collisional cross sections between molecules involved, and the collisional de-excitation by water vapor are discussed.

  2. Air Traffic Flow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ganu, Hrishikesh V

    2008-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management is the regulation of air traffic in order to avoid exceeding airport or flight sector capacity in handling traffic, and to ensure that available capacity is used efficiently. We have tried to explore the logic behind the claims by Bertsimas et.al about integral solutions to the LP relaxation of the Traffic Flow Management Problem(TFMP). Polyhedral theory only indicates that the stronger TFMP formulation of Bertsimas et.al might lead to integral solutions in some cases. Our computations indicate that the encouraging results reported by Bertsimas et.al are not merely fortuitous or due to their specific data set. Indeed, we found that the TFMP had integral solutions even in case of artificial data sets generated to include severe conflicts in the flight schedules. In our limited tests with 4-5 scenarios, we obtained non-integral solutions only once. This is of significant practical importance because, the LP relaxation can be solved even on small machines with low memory and processor...

  3. Managing Air in Olympic Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing W. Tian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century Olympic Agenda aims to align itself with the concept of sustainable development and has driven improved environmental quality in host cities, such as the Green Games in Sydney 2000 and the planned Beijing 2008 Games and in London 2012 as the Low Carbon Games. Air quality has long been a concern of Olympic mega-cities, although the air quality plans and strategies have often seemed short-lived and unsustainable in the long term. We have explored air quality data and air pollution control from seven Olympic cities: Mexico City, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens and also Beijing and London which will host Olympic Games in near future. The study shows that despite a high altitude and air pollution problems, Mexico City had no clear environmental policy in place for the 1968 games. The characteristic smog of Los Angeles raised concerns about athletic performance at the Olympic Games of 1984, but there were limited efforts to tackle the ozone concentration during these games. The 1996 Atlanta Games represents a case where temporary public transport changes were used as a tactic to reduce air pollution. In Sydney a well planned sustainable strategy reduced air pollutants and CO2 emissions in 2000, but Athens' long efforts to improve air quality for the 2004 games were not wholly effective. Even where strategies proved successful the improvements in air quality seem short-lived. Current host cities Beijing and London are developing emission reduction plans. These have clear air quality objectives and are well intentioned. However, the improvements may be too narrow and may not be sustainable in the long term. Our analysis looks at the origins of success and failure and how more coherent improvements might be achieved and what would promote sustainable plans for air quality management at future games. The study illustrates the feedback between air pollution science and policy awareness.

  4. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  5. The Cost of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation

    2016-01-01

    The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the economic case for action, a joint study of the World Bank and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), seeks to estimate the costs of premature deaths related to air pollution, to strengthen the case for action and facilitate decision making in the context of scarce resources. An estimated 5.5 million lives were lost in 2013 to diseases associated with outdoor and household air pollution, causing human suffering and reducing economic...

  6. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  7. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  8. [Air quality and climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Steffen

    2009-10-26

    Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.

  9. Aerodynamical sealing by air curtains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria; Linden, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Air curtains are artificial high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in a doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The performance of an air curtain is assessed in terms of the sealing effectiveness E, the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. The main controlling parameter for air curtain dynamics is the deflection modulus Dm representing the ratio of the momentum flux of the air curtain and the transverse forces acting on it due to the stack effect. In this talk, we examine the influence of two factors on the performance of an air curtain: the presence of an additional ventilation pathway in the room, such as a small top opening, and the effects of an opposing buoyancy force which for example arises if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. Small-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the E (Dm) -curve of an air curtain in both situations. We present both experimental results and theoretical explanations for our observations. We also briefly illustrate how simplified models developed for air curtains can be used for more complex phenomena such as the effects of wind blowing around a model building on the ventilation rates through the openings.

  10. Modern Air Situation Picture Display for Air Surveillance Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stamatović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a modern air situation picture display applicable in air surveillance radars. The display is based on commercial of-the-shelf hardware and custom software. This paper is focused on the details of the development process. Comparison with a similar commercially available product is given too.

  11. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  12. Norma Primaria de calidad del aire AIR QUALITY STANDARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA MATUS C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Las normas primarias de calidad del aire tienen por finalidad proteger la salud de la población de la contaminación atmosférica. Ellas establecen un nivel de riesgo socialmente aceptado. Este artículo describe los antecedentes considerados durante el proceso de actualización de la regulación vigente en Chile. Detalla conceptos sobre la calidad del aire, describe los efectos en la salud de los contaminantes, y el procedimiento seguido para fijar los nuevos estándares Finaliza enumerando la norma primaria de calidad del aire, sus valores y los limites definidos para ser considerados en el ámbito de la gestión de los episodios críticos o de alta contaminaciónThe main purpose of air quality standards is to protect people health from air pollution. They establish a socially accepted level of risk. This article describes the background information considered during the process for updating the current Chilean regulation. Concepts about quality of air, and the effects of the pollutants on the health are described. The procedure followed to fix the new standards is detailed. Finally we state the primary air quality norm, its values as well as the critical limits in order to control critical events of high air pollution

  13. Reactive Air Aluminization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  14. Indoor air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, D.R. (Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  15. Air Composition and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, Peter

    1996-01-01

    This book is about the atmosphere and humanity's influence on it. For this new edition, Brimblecombe has rewritten and updated much of the book. In the early chapters, he discusses the geochemical, biological and maritime sources of the trace gases. Next, he examines the chemistry of atmospheric gases, suspended particles, and rainfall. After dealing with the natural atmosphere, he examines the sources of air pollution and its effects, with all scenarios updated from the last edition. Scenarios include decline in health, damage to plants and animals, indoor pollution, and acid rain. The final chapters, also revised, are concerned with the chemistry and evolution of the atmospheres of the planets of the solar system. Students with an interest in chemistry and the environmental sciences will find this book highly valuable.

  16. de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación explora la situación de los cibercafés en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y de su principalpoblación, los adolescentes de sectores populares. Aunque en los últimos años millones de adolescentes abandonaronestos espacios como consecuencia de la ampliación de la Internet hogareña, en sectores popularesmuchos adolescentes aún continúan asistiendo en busca de recreación lúdico-comunicativa, información eintegración social. La metodología utilizada consiste en 40 entrevistas en profundidad, observaciones participantesy análisis de contenido de perfiles de Facebook (n: 200. Entre los resultados, se destaca que lasprincipales prácticas de estos adolescentes son comunicativas y que estos espacios funcionan para ellos comoherramientas de alfabetización digital, sociabilidad entre pares e inclusión ciudadana.

  17. Metal hydride air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Ke; DU; Ping; LU; Man-qi

    2005-01-01

    The relationship among the hydrogen storage properties, cycling characteristics and thermal parameters of the metal hydride air conditioning systems was investigated. Based on a new alloy selection model, three pairs of hydrogen storage alloys, LaNi4.4 Mn0.26 Al0.34 / La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1, LaNi4.61Mn0. 26 Al0.13/La0.6 Nd0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 Cu0. 1 and LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0.13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0. 2, were selected as the working materials for the metal hydride air conditioning system. Studies on the factors affecting the COP of the system showed that higher COP and available hydrogen content need the proper operating temperature and cycling time,large hydrogen storage capacity, flat plateau and small hysterisis of hydrogen alloys, proper original input hydrogen content and mass ratio of the pair of alloys. It also needs small conditioning system was established by using LaNi4.61 Mn0.26 Al0. 13/La0.6 Y0.4 Ni4.8 Mn0.2 alloys as the working materials, which showed that under the operating temperature of 180℃/40℃, a low temperature of 13℃ was reached, with COP =0.38 and Wnet =0.09 kW/kg.

  18. Resultados preliminares del estudio zooarqueológico y tafonómico de los restos óseos de roedores del sitio Calera (Sierras Bayas, partido de Olavarría, provincia de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel A. Scheifler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El sitio Calera, localizado en las Sierras Bayas (partido de Olavarría, provincia de Buenos Aires, estaba conformado por una serie de rasgos transgresivos (denominados cubetas de dimensiones variables, que contenían una gran cantidad de materiales arqueológicos. Los estudios realizados hasta el presente plantean un origen antrópico, tanto de los rasgos como de los materiales, los cuales serían producto de ofrendas y/o basura ritual generadas durante períodos de agregación de bandas de cazadores-recolectores en el Holoceno Tardío (ca. 3400 a 1750 años AP. En este trabajo se efectúa el análisis zooarqueológico y tafonómico de los cráneos y mandíbulas de roedores provenientes de la cubeta Nº 2. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que estos restos fueron originados por diferentes agentes y procesos, tanto naturales como producto de la acción humana, y que habrían ingresado a la cubeta por diferentes mecanismos, como el entrampamiento natural, la depositación antrópica y mecanismos secundarios, tales como transporte eólico y/o fluvial.

  19. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  20. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  1. Aportes para examinar las desigualdades educativas en los grandes centros urbanos. El uso del coeficiente de Gini para analizar la distribución del abandono escolar entre las escuelas secundarias de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Steinberg

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La Ley de Educación Nacional promulgada en 2006 en Argentina establece la obligatoriedad de la educación secundaria en todo el país, la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires ha sido pionera al respecto estableciendo esta meta en el año 2002. En este marco, se propone analizar los desafíos que este tipo de política enfrenta en la actualidad, centrando la atención en la capacidad de los sistemas e instituciones educativas para garantizar este derecho en términos de acceso, permanencia y promoción de los alumnos en el nivel secundario. Este trabajo tiene por objeto plantear un ejercicio de análisis del abandono escolar que ocurre durante el ciclo lectivo en las escuelas a partir de la consideración del análisis del porcentaje de alumnos “salidos sin pase”, e incorporar, a la vez, una medida de dispersión (coeficiente de Gini que permita visibilizar las desigualdades entre escuelas a nivel territorial en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

  2. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  3. Screening in humid air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Anatoly; Derbenev, Ivan; Dyatko, Nikolay; Kurkin, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Low temperature air plasmas containing H2O molecules are of high importance for atmospheric phenomena, climate control, biomedical applications, surface processing, and purification of air and water. Humid air plasma created by an external ionization source is a good model of the troposphere where ions are produced by the galactic cosmic rays and decay products of air and soil radioactive elements such as Rn222. The present paper is devoted to study the ionic composition and the screening in an ionized humid air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The ionization rate is varied in the range of 101 -1018 cm-3s-1. The humid air with 0 - 1 . 5 % water admixture that corresponds to the relative humidity of 0 - 67 % at the air temperature equal to 20°C is considered. The ionic composition is determined on the analysis of more than a hundred processes. The system of 41 non-steady state particle number balance equations is solved using the 4th order Runge-Kutta method. The screening of dust particle charge in the ionized humid air are studied within the diffusion-drift approach. The screening constants are well approximated by the inverse Debye length and characteristic lengths of recombination and attachment processes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Project No. 16-12-10424.

  4. Ozone as an air pollutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    1996-01-01

    A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995.......A Danish new book on ozone as an air pollutant has been reviewed. The Book is "Ozon som luftforurening" by Jes Fenger, Published by "Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser, 1995....

  5. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.;

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...

  6. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of a healthy school--and one that, unfortunately, often falls by the wayside--is indoor air quality. The U.S. Government Accountability Office estimates that more than 15,000 schools nationwide report suffering from poor indoor air quality. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, schools with poor…

  7. Mind Your Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Lily

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to excelling in the classroom, it turns out the air students are breathing is just as important as the lessons they are learning. Studies show poor indoor air quality (IAQ) can lessen the comfort of students as well as staff--affecting concentration, attendance and student performance. It can even lead to lower IQs. What's more, poor…

  8. Vehicles and Particulate Air Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The current scene relating to particles and vehicular emissions in UK is reviewed. The active research topics are health effects of particles, particle size and composition, modeling the fate of particles and assessing individual exposure. There is a National Air Quality Strategy combined with local air quality management which includes monitoring and assessment, dispersion modeling and development of management plans.

  9. Cylindrical air flow reversal barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woznica, C.; Rodziewicz, M.

    1988-06-01

    Describes an innovative design introduced in the ZMP mine in Zory for quick reversal of ventilation air flow. Geologic mining conditions at the 705 m deep horizon, where the barrier was built, are described. According to the design used until now, a reversal system consisted of safety barriers, ventilation air locks, a ventilation bridge and stopping needed in case of a fire when air flow direction must be reversed. Nine air locks and an expensive concrete ventilation bridge were needed and the air locks had to be operated at 8 points of the region to effect reversal. The new design consists of a 2-storey cylindrical barrier which also fulfills the function of a ventilation bridge. It can be manually or remotely operated by a mechanical or pneumatic system. Tests showed that the new barrier permits immediate air flow reversal while retaining 60% of the original air, which is important in the case of fire and methane hazards. It permits improved seam panelling and splitting of pillars and brings an economy of about 40 million zlotys in construction cost. Design and operation of the barrier is illustrated and ventilation air circulation is explained. 7 figs.

  10. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.

    1984-07-10

    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  11. `Energy storage` using liquid air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.C. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Storage of liquid air is relatively simple, and the work needed to manufacture it is, at least in principle, entirely recoverable. Available energy densities seem excellent. Unfortunately the technology to use liquid air for energy storage has never been developed. The Phillips-Stirling and McMahon and Gifford air liquefiers, and a previous proposal by Smith, provide leads as to the form which the technology might take. This paper introduces the concept of `Exergy`, and how it can be utilized in the storage of liquid air. It concludes that liquid air seems to present some real advantages over batteries for energy storage. The development presents a challenge. Since battery technology is not making the huge advances promised, it could be time to take a more serious look at this alternative. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  12. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  13. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  15. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Sørensen, Jan; Bønløkke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed......) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.......4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution....

  16. 22 CFR 228.22 - Air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air transportation. 228.22 Section 228.22... for USAID Financing § 228.22 Air transportation. (a) The eligibility of air transportation is... U.S. flag air carriers for all international air travel and transportation, unless such service...

  17. Air Safety Spinoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Weight saving-even a matter of a few pounds-is an important consideration in airplane design and . construction. Boeing saved 200 pounds simply by substituting a new type of compressed gas cylinder on their 747 commercial airliners. For quickly evacuating passengers in the event of a ground emergency the 747 escape chutes allow ' passengers to slide to safety from the two-story height of the cabin deck. The chutes pop out of exitways and are automatically inflated in seconds by compressed air stored in pressure vessels. Boeing's weight saving resulted from a recent changeover to a new type of pressure vessel built by Structural Composites Industries Inc. of Azusa, Cal. The company employs technology originally developed for rocket motor casings; the cylinders are constructed by winding fibers around an aluminum liner. This technique offers high strength for very low weight-in this case 60 percent less than the pressure vessels earlier used on the 747. Another contribution to improved air safety is an underwater locator device. Called the "Pinger," it uses sonar techniques to locate aircraft crashed in water-or, more specifically, to recover the flight recorder aboard the airplane. Its recovery provides clues as to what caused the accident and suggests measures to prevent similar future occurrences. Until recently, there was no way to recover flight recorders aboard aircraft lost in water crashes. The Pinger, now serving 95 percent of the airline industry, provides an answer. Key element of the Pinger system is a small, battery-powered transmitter, or homing beacon, included as part of the recorder package. For as long as 30 days, the transmitter sends out an acoustic signal from water depths up to 20,000 feet. The other element of the system is a receiver, used by search crews to home in on the transmitter's signal. Originating as a U.S. Navy project, this device was refined and further developed by NASA's Langley Research Center to retrieve submerged nose cones

  18. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  19. 78 FR 12267 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Pollution Control District and Feather River Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits... County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation...

  20. Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System for Air Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    CMAQ simultaneously models multiple air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter and a variety of air toxics to help air quality managers determine the best air quality management scenarios for their communities, regions and states.

  1. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  2. Radioxenon spiked air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Matthew G; Delmore, James E; Hague, Robert K; Houghton, Tracy P; Jenson, Douglas D; Mann, Nick R

    2015-12-01

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes ((131m)Xe, (133m)Xe, (133)Xe and (135)Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This paper focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  3. Airing Out Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

  4. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  5. Eficacia de la aplicación de ozono epidural y paravertebral a una concentración de 50 μg/ml en pacientes con dolor crónico secundario a síndrome postlaminectomía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Riestra Grijalva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el dolor crónico es una entidad que afecta a la salud física y psicológica de los pacientes. El síndrome postlaminectomía consiste en la aparición o persistencia de dolor lumbar y/o radicular en un paciente que ha tenido uno o más procedimientos quirúrgicos en la columna. Objetivo general: evaluar la efectividad de la administración de ozono epidural y paravertebral, a una concentración de 50 μg/ml, en pacientes con dolor crónico asociado a síndrome postlaminectomía lumbar. Material y métodos: durante el periodo comprendido entre el 15 de julio y el 30 de diciembre del 2010 se realizó un estudio prospectivo, en 30 pacientes de ambos géneros, con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 85 años de edad, que tenían un diagnóstico de dolor crónico secundario a síndrome postlaminectomia lumbar. La media de las EVAs iniciales fue 6,8 sobre 10. La primera infiltración se realizó bajo sedación endovenosa y con control fluoroscópico de la región lumbosacra; se administró vía caudal un volumen de 20 ml de ozono a una concentración de 50 μg/ml en el espacio epidural, y en la región muscular paravertebral lumbar bilateral (L3, L4 y L5 se administraron 10 ml de ozono a la misma concentración en cada nivel. En total, el volumen infiltrado fue de 60 ml. La infiltración en la región paravertebral se repitió, al mismo volumen y concentración, en intervalos de 7 días durante 3 semanas consecutivas. Para medir la efectividad del tratamiento se evaluó la intensidad del dolor considerando las medias inicial y final en la escala visual analógica (EVA. Como medida de la funcionalidad se usó el índice de discapacidad de Oswestry, que se registró previo a la infiltración y a las semanas 4 y 8. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el programa Statistical 7.0, aplicando el test de Friedman para las dos variables principales, y la estadística descriptiva (media y desviación estándar para el an

  6. Solar air systems - built examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, S.R. [ed.] [Solararchitektur, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-07-01

    Active solar systems for air heating are a straightforward yet efficient way of using solar energy to heat spaces, ventilation air and even domestic hot water. They offer important advantages over solar water systems, improved comfort and fuller use of solar gains compared with many passive solar systems and are a natural fit with mechanically ventilated buildings. Solar air systems become more economical when they serve multiple functions such as providing a sound barrier, a weatherskin, sunshading, inducing cooling and even electricity supply (hybrid PV/air). Thirty-five different buildings with successfully installed exemplary solar air systems in climates ranging from Canada and Norway to Italy are described and documented. The building types cover single family houses, apartment buildings, schools, sports halls, and industrial commercial buildings with six different configurations of solar air systems used. Each building is described over several pages, with plans, performance details and illustrations provided. An accompanying product catalogue identifies suppliers of the necessary equipment and offers advice on product selection. As well as giving architects and designers invaluable advice based on the experience from these projects, this book also illustrates clearly the wide range of applications and the many benefits of solar air systems. (author)

  7. Air Sensor Toolbox: Resources and Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Air Sensor Toolbox provides information and guidance on new low-cost compact technologies for measuring air quality. It provides information to help citizens more effectively and accurately collect air quality data in their community.

  8. Profit goal set for airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka president arvab, et airBalticu olukorra stabiliseerimiseks läheb vähemalt aasta. AirBalticu senine juht Bertolt Flick võib hakata uue Vilniuse lennukompanii investoriks. AirBalticu uuest juhatusest

  9. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  10. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  11. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  12. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from ... reduce carbon pollution. Carbon pollution from transportation Other Air Pollution Learn about smog, soot, ozone, and other air ...

  13. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease Diane R. Gold , Jonathan ... http://www.epa.gov/greenheart/ . 7 What Is Air Pollution? Air pollution is a mixture of gases and ...

  14. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  15. Korean Air Excellence in Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Korean Air with a fleet of 119 aircraft, is one of the world's top 20 airlines, and oper-ates almost 400 flights everyday to 90 cities in 33 countries. The airline has about 50 flights per week between the US and Asia from nine US gateways: New York, Los Angeles, Washington,Chicago, Dallas, San Francisco, Atlanta, Anchorage and Honolulu.The carrier is a founding member of SkyTeam, the global airline alliance partnering AeroMexico, Air France, Alitalia, CSA Czech Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Air Lines, KLM and Northwest Airlines to provide customers with extensive worldwide destina-tions, flights and services.

  16. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  17. Air Parity: Re-Discovering Contested Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    maritime theories to war fighting strategy in the air domain, specific to the air control spectrum. The author assesses the importance of translating...effort to accomplish strategic 11 National Security Strategy , 12. 12 Office of the Secretary of...Defense, Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense (2012), 4. 13 Office of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, The

  18. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  19. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  20. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Armin [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  1. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  2. Personal Air Vehicle Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a low aspect ratio all-lifting configuration for personal air vehicles. This configuration uses an architecture fundamentally different from...

  3. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  4. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Forecast Current AQI AQI Loop More Maps AQI: Good (0 - ... About the Highest 5 Today's Forecasts Tomorrow's Forecasts Current AQI Metropolitan Baltimore, MD 101 Metropolitan Washington, DC ...

  5. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  6. US Air Force Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Worksheets containing pilot balloon data computed from releases at Air Force stations in the western United States. Elevation and azimuth angles are used to compute...

  7. US Air Force Base Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations taken by U.S. Air Force personnel at bases in the United States and around the world. Foreign observations concentrated in the Middle East and...

  8. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to...

  9. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  10. Reverse Ballistic Air Gun Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This custom-designed facility houses a suite of three air guns capable of generating accelerations up to 100,000 Gs and velocities up to 2,000 ft/s. In addition to a...

  11. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  12. Quality and Indoor Air treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile HORT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, between 70% and 90% of the life time are spent in confined spaces (housing, transport, etc.. Air quality in these closed spaces is generally inferior than outside. Our lifestylesand the growing use of new products and materials create cocktails of chemicals compounds (COV, CIV... that can cause an increase of worrying diseases such as asthma, allergies or even cancer. These pollutants are particularly present in indoor air. These increasing public health problems gives rise to the development of devices for the treatment of indoor air. However, indoor air contains a lot of chemical substances showing very different physicochemical properties. The “Laboratoire de Thermique, Energétique et Procédés” (LaTEP studies the coupling of treatment processes, such as biofiltration coupled to adsorption.

  13. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  14. Global air quality and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M; Naik, Vaishali; Spracklen, Dominick V; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Prather, Michael; Bergmann, Dan; Cameron-Smith, Philip J; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J; Dalsøren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A; Ginoux, Paul; Horowitz, Larry W; Josse, Béatrice; Lamarque, Jean-François; MacKenzie, Ian A; Nagashima, Tatsuya; O'Connor, Fiona M; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T; Shindell, Drew T; Skeie, Ragnhild B; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang

    2012-10-07

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH(4)), ozone precursors (O(3)), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O(3) precursor CH(4) would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH(4) and tropospheric O(3). Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions, which increase tropospheric O(3) (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH(4) (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH(4) volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O(3) and CH(4). Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O(3) and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas

  15. Global Air Quality and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Arlene M.; Naik, Vaishali; Steiner, Allison; Unger, Nadine; Bergmann, Dan; Prather, Michael; Righi, Mattia; Rumbold, Steven T.; Shindell, Drew T.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Sudo, Kengo; Szopa, Sophie; Horowitz, Larry W.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Zeng, Guang; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, William J.; Dalsoren, Stig; Eyring, Veronika; Folberth, Gerd A.; Ginoux, Paul; Josse, Batrice; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; OConnor, Fiona M.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Nagashima, Tatsuya; Shindell, Drew Todd; Spracklen, Dominick V.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants and their precursors determine regional air quality and can alter climate. Climate change can perturb the long-range transport, chemical processing, and local meteorology that influence air pollution. We review the implications of projected changes in methane (CH4), ozone precursors (O3), and aerosols for climate (expressed in terms of the radiative forcing metric or changes in global surface temperature) and hemispheric-to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O3 precursor CH4 would slow near-term warming by decreasing both CH4 and tropospheric O3. Uncertainty remains as to the net climate forcing from anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, which increase tropospheric O3 (warming) but also increase aerosols and decrease CH4 (both cooling). Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and non-CH4 volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) warm by increasing both O3 and CH4. Radiative impacts from secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are poorly understood. Black carbon emission controls, by reducing the absorption of sunlight in the atmosphere and on snow and ice, have the potential to slow near-term warming, but uncertainties in coincident emissions of reflective (cooling) aerosols and poorly constrained cloud indirect effects confound robust estimates of net climate impacts. Reducing sulfate and nitrate aerosols would improve air quality and lessen interference with the hydrologic cycle, but lead to warming. A holistic and balanced view is thus needed to assess how air pollution controls influence climate; a first step towards this goal involves estimating net climate impacts from individual emission sectors. Modeling and observational analyses suggest a warming climate degrades air quality (increasing surface O3 and particulate matter) in many populated regions, including during pollution episodes. Prior Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios (SRES) allowed unconstrained growth, whereas the Representative

  16. Call for improving air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  17. Cognitive abilities and air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raufhon Salahodjaev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between intelligence and air pollution is subject to controversy. Some studies report that intelligence has insignificant effect in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. By using carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions for a large set of countries we present further novel empirical evidence on the relation between level of intelligence and air pollution. Our findings suggest that the relation follows a U-shape pattern and resembles environmental Kuznets curve.

  18. Autonomy of the Air Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lewis, and Maj. Gen. George Simonds. Standing, left to right: Brig. Gen. John Gulik, James Doolittle (at that time a civilian), Edgar Gorrell, Brig...official sanction of the War Department, was submitted by Representative John M. Morin ." 56 CREATION OF THE ARmy AIR CORPS The initial stages of the...reality was a revision of the Morin air bill. 47 A quick summary at this point should clarify the major issues under review. Through the medium of various

  19. The lithium air battery fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Bruce, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Lithium air rechargeable batteries are the best candidate for a power source for electric vehicles, because of their high specific energy density. In this book, the history, scientific background, status and prospects of the lithium air system are introduced by specialists in the field. This book will contain the basics, current statuses, and prospects for new technologies. This book is ideal for those interested in electrochemistry, energy storage, and materials science.

  20. Study of fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during the dry-hot time in the Toluca city; Estudio de las particulas finas (PM{sub 2.5}) durante la epoca seca-caliente en la ciudad de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendo G, V. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vero_rosen2108@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    The first obtained results of the analysis of the fine fraction particulate material (PM{sub 2.5}) samples collected in the Toluca City are presented. The samples analyzed are part of a more extensive campaign that contemplates the low project the one which one carries out this work and that it integrates three climatic times (dry-hot, of rains and dry-cold time) with the purpose of investigating the events of contamination in one complete year. The obtained results correspond to the dry-hot time and its include mainly the database starting from which the temporal variation graphs were obtained, the correlations among elements and the enrichment factor, as well as a multiple correlation analysis. Additionally the gravimetry was measured. Its are not observed significant episodes, however, it was found an element of the traces order, little common in other atmospheric studies as it is arsenic. From the gravimetry it was deduced that the air quality standard of fine particle, it does not violate. (Author)

  1. Paleoactividad hidrotermal en la discordancia entre el Complejo Buenos Aires y la Formación La Tinta en el área de Barker, Tandilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Martínez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la alteración presente en las rocas de la discordancia entre el Complejo Buenos Aires, Precámbrico, y la Formación La Tinta, Precámbrico tardío - Cámbrico, en ocho perfiles dispuestos en una extensa área de los alrededores de Barker, sierras de Tandil. El estudio petrográfico, la difractometría de rayos x, el tratamiento de los análisis químicos de roca total y el estudio de inclusiones fluidas permitieron apoyar o cuestionar hipótesis previas sobre el origen de la alteración de tales rocas. Las paragénesis minerales sugieren patrones de alteración asimétricos confinados al contacto basamento - secuencia sedimentaria, con variaciones locales. Pirofillita + sericita (2M1-1M + especularita (titanohematita ± minerales alumino fosfato-sulfato (AFS ± turmalina ± rutilo se encuentran en la discordancia donde la lixiviación de elementos y temperaturas fueron mayores (~ 260 °C. Sericita (1M + clorita + calcita ± anatasa-rutilo ± caolinita (1T ± cuarzo secundario se desarrolló donde las temperaturas fueron menores, alejadas de la discordancia. La silicificación local de las rocas de la discordancia fue posterior ó simultánea a la alteración de más baja temperatura (< 190 °C. Mediante el uso de diagramas de la isócona se muestra la movilidad de los componentes en los distintos tipos de alteración. Todas las paragénesis minerales halladas pueden ser explicadas satisfactoriamente por un modelo de alteración hidrotermal en el cual la discordancia actuó como canal de circulación de fluidos, de múltiples focos de actividad, a escala regional.

  2. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  3. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  4. A mixed air/air and air/water heat pump system ensures the air-conditioning of a cinema; Un systeme mixte PAC air/air et air/eau climatise un cinema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the air conditioning system of a new cinema complex of Boulogne (92, France) which comprises a double-flux air processing plant and two heat pumps. Each heat pump has two independent refrigerating loops: one with a air condenser and the other with a water condenser. This system allows to limit the power of the loop and to reduce the size of the cooling tower and of the vertical ducts. This article describes the technical characteristics of the installation: thermodynamic units, smoke clearing, temperature control, air renewing. (J.S.)

  5. Air quality in Europe - 2012 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    This report presents an overview and analysis of the status and trends of air quality in Europe based on concentration measurements in ambient air and data on anthropogenic emissions and trends from 2001 - when mandatory monitoring of ambient air concentrations of selected pollutants first produced reliable air quality information - to 2010. (Author)

  6. Ozone, Air Quality, and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gases can also affect lung function. continue How Poor Air Quality Affects People With Asthma Air pollution is a problem for ... to evening. In cities larger than 350,000 people, state and local agencies are ... days when air quality is poor, run the air conditioning and limit your child's ...

  7. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  8. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  9. 30 CFR 75.321 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 75.321 Section 75.321 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.321 Air quality. (a)(1) The air in areas where... air current in these areas shall be sufficient to dilute, render harmless, and carry away...

  10. 32 CFR 989.30 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 989.30 Section 989.30 National... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.30 Air quality. Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act..., Air Quality Compliance. 10 10 See footnote 1 to § 989.1....

  11. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outdoor > Air Pollution Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

  12. Air void structure and frost resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2014-01-01

    are conducted. Results were not originally presented in a way, which made comparison possible. Here the amount of scaled material is depicted as function of air voids parameters: total air content, specific surface, spacing factor, and total surface area of air voids. The total surface area of air voids...... is proportional to the product of total air content and specific surface. In all 4 cases, the conclusion is concurrent that the parameter of total surface area of air voids performs equally well or better than the spacing factor when linking air void characteristics to frost resistance (salt frost scaling...... on that capillary pores are connected to air voids. The chance that a capillary pore is connected to an air void depends on the total surface area of air voids in the system, not the spacing factor....

  13. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  14. Development and benefits of air/air-heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, H.W.; Cremer, P.

    1986-02-01

    After the first experiments using glass tube heat exchangers, many air/air heat exchangers have made within ten years the breakthrough as ''interior climate improvers'' in stables. Especially inexpensive synthetic panels, foils and self-construction, ribbed heat exchangers are very popular among farmers. Based on thorough installation planning and satisfactory operating results, thousands of heat exchangers were installed, through which heating oil and fuel gas are being replaced as energy sources, and through an improved interior climate, the productivity can be optimized in fattening and rearing houses. (orig.).

  15. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-02-15

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  16. Psychiatric aspects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, A

    1996-02-01

    Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Manifestations are often insidious or delayed, but they can provide a more sensitive indicator of toxic effects than cancer rates or mortality data. Other medical effects of air pollution, such as asthma, can indirectly affect psychological health. The sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity are conditions with toxicologic and psychiatric aspects. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. Reactions to stress depend on cultural, individual, and situational variables. We must understand these factors to be able to alleviate and prevent the consequences of environmental trauma. Expanded research is recommended in three main areas: (1) how people perceive and cope with environmental health risks, (2) the effects of air pollution on behavior and neuropsychological functioning, and (3) neurotoxicologic evaluation of air pollutants with both behavioral and in vitro studies.

  17. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Guy; Witberg, Guy; Danenberg, Haim

    2007-10-01

    Cardiovascular atherothrombosis is the most common cause of death globally, with several well-known risk factors. Air pollution is a byproduct of fuel combustion by motor vehicles, power plants and industrial factories. It is composed of gases, fluids and particulate matter (PM) of different sizes, which include basic carbon, organic carbonic molecules and metals such as vanadium, nickel, zinc and iron. These particles are subdivided by their median size, a major contributing factor for their capability to enter the human body through the respiratory system. Most of the epidemiological studies have shown correlation between acute and long-term exposure to air pollution elements and cardiovascular morbidity in general, and angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction specifically. Physiological studies have found different arrhythmias as the etiologic cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality following exposure to air pollution. A major finding was a decline in heart rate variability, a phenomenon known as endangering for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in patients after acute myocardial infarction. To date, several pathways have been proposed, including a hypercoagulable state following an inflammatory response, cardiac nervous autonomic disequilibrium, endothelial dysfunction with blood vessel contraction and direct toxic impact on cardiac muscle. Additional research is needed for clarifying the pathophysiological pathways by which air pollution affects the cardiovascular system. That might allow forthcoming with preventive measures and correct treatment, and hence a decrease in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Another important target is dose-outcome correlation curves for safety threshold calculation as a basis for air pollution regulations.

  18. Air protection strategy in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  19. [Microbial air purity in hospitals. Operating theatres with air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulski, Adam; Szczotko, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the influence of air conditioning control for microbial contamination of air inside the operating theatres equipped with correctly working air-conditioning system. This work was based on the results of bacteria and fungi concentration in hospital air obtained since 2001. Assays of microbial air purity conducted on atmospheric air in parallel with indoor air demonstrated that air filters applied in air-conditioning systems worked correctly in every case. To show the problem of fluctuation of bacteria concentration more precisely, every sequences of single results from successive measure series were examined independently.

  20. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongqiu Li; Franck Courchamp; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our resu...

  1. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  2. Commercial Air Carrier Vulnerabilities to Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    GMO /ENS/02E-11 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT/ GMO /ENS/02E-11 COMMERCIAL AIR CARRIER VULNERABILITIES TO INFORMATION OPERATIONS...networks that without them, “there is no water coming out of your tap; there is no electricity lighting your room; there is no food being transported to

  3. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  4. Review of Air Exchange Rate Models for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessments is estimation of the air exchange rate (AER) for various buildings, where people spend their time. The AER, which is rate the exchange of indoor air with outdoor air, is an important determinant for entry of outdoor air pol...

  5. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  6. 21 CFR 211.46 - Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and... Buildings and Facilities § 211.46 Ventilation, air filtration, air heating and cooling. (a) Adequate... holding of a drug product. (c) Air filtration systems, including prefilters and particulate matter...

  7. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  8. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  9. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  10. Animal Welfare in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Popović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare is becoming an evermore-important factorfor air carriers from the economical viewpoint, due to its importantimpact on the carrier public image. High standard care hasto be taken of animals during transport in order to satisfy an importantsegment of airline customers, either the Business/Firstclass passengers travelling with pets, or influential shippers ofracing horses, dogs, Zoo species etc.Air transp011 of animals, disregarding other advantages,may pose a threat to their health and welfare being a significantmultifactorial stressor. Along with cardiovascular, endocrineand metabolic abe1mtions, it affects the immune response ofan animal and increases susceptibility to infection. Therefore,strict conditions for air transport of eve1y animal species havebeen imposed. Transport of only healthy animals is approved,as it is necessG/y to prevent the spread of disease during transportand to provide satisfactOJy environment for animals to betransported.

  11. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, J.

    1987-03-13

    In the discussion on possible adverse effects of air pollution upon human health one has to distinguish between out-door and in-door environment. The most frequent pollutants in out-door air over industrialized areas are particulate substances, sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxide, carbonmonoxide, ozone and lead. Most of these substances have direct irritating effects on mucous surfaces. Hypersensitivity reactions have been described against sulfur dioxide and sulfites occurring as asthma, urticaria or anaphylactoid reactions. In-door air pollution is of much greater practical importance for a variety of diseases. Apart from physio-chemical irritants and microbial organisms leading to infections, organic allergens (e.g. house dust mites, moulds, animal epithelia) can induce a variety of allergic diseases via different pathomechanisms.

  12. Air quality management planning (AQMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most urban areas of the world, particulate matter (PM levels pose severe problems, addressed in several policy areas (air quality, climate change, and human health. PM presents multiple challenges due to the multitude of its sources, spanning many sectors of economic activity as well as nature, and due to the complexity of atmospheric processes involved in its transport and secondary formation. For the authorities, the goal is to assure minimal impacts of atmospheric PM levels, in practice represented by compliance with existing regulations and standards. This may be achieved through an air quality management plan (AQMP. In Northern America and in parts of Europe, comprehensive research programs have guided development of AQMP over the last forty years. This cumulated experience can be utilized by others who face the same problems, but have yet to develop their own substantial research base. The main purpose of the AQMP development process is to establish an effective and sound basis for planning and management of air quality in a selected area. This type of planning will ensure that significant sources of impacts are identified and controlled in a most cost-effective manner. The choice of tools, methods and input information is often dictated by their availability, and should be evaluated against current best practices. Important elements of the AQMP are the identification of sources and development of a complete emission inventory, the development and operation of an air quality monitoring programme, and the development and application of atmospheric dispersion models. Major task is to collect the necessary input data. The development of the AQMP will take into account: - Air Quality Management System (AQMS requirements; - Operational and functional structure requirements; - Source identification through emission inventories; - Source reduction alternatives, which may be implemented; - Mechanisms for facilitating interdepartmental

  13. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  14. Thermodynamic properties of sea air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.

    In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.

    The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.

  15. Flow in air conditioned rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    1974-01-01

    of the flow equations is demonstrated and the flow in air conditioned rooms in case of steady two dimensional flow is predi cted. Compari son with measured results is shown i n the case of small Archimedes numbers, and predictions are shown at high Archimedes numbers. A numerical prediction of f low and heat......Flow in air conditioned r ooms is examined by means of model experiments . The different gearnetries giving unsteady, steady three- dimensional and steady twodimensional flow are determined . Velacity profiles and temperature profiles are measured in some of the geometries. A numerical solution...

  16. When water molecules meet air

    OpenAIRE

    Hsie, Cho-Shuen; Campen, R. Kramer; Verde, Ana Vila; Bolhuis, Peter; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bonn, Mischa

    2012-01-01

    About 70% of our planet is covered in water. Most of that water exists as water in the bulk – the neighbors of water molecules are other water molecules – and only a small fraction of molecules are at the air-water interface. Despite the small relative abundance of interfacial water, it is of the utmost importance: it governs the chemistry involving the surface of oceans and seawater aerosols, or the small water droplets forming clouds. Reactions at the air-water interface are directly releva...

  17. Multizone Age-of-Air Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2007-07-01

    Age of air is a technique for evaluating ventilation that has been actively used for over 20 years. Age of air quantifies the time it takes for outdoor air to reach a particular location or zone within then indoor environment. Age of air is often also used to quantify the ventilation effectiveness with respect to indoor air quality. In a purely single zone situation this use of age of air is straightforward, but application of age of air techniques in the general multizone environment has not been fully developed. This article looks at expanding those single-zone techniques to the more complicated environment of multizone buildings and in doing so develops further the general concept of age of air. The results of this analysis shows that the nominal age of air as often used cannot be directly used for determining ventilation effectiveness unless specific assumptions are made regarding source distributions.

  18. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of Significant Deterioration; Greenhouse Gases AGENCY:...

  19. Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aerometric Information Retrieval System/AIRS Facility Subsystem (AIRS/AFS) is a database that provides information on air releases from various stationary...

  20. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  1. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by California as a revision to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD...

  2. Operating experiences with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers: hospitals, schools, nursing homes, swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Systems utilizing rotary air-to-air heat exchangers are discussed. Basic considerations of use (fresh air requirements, system configurations, cost considerations), typical system layout/design considerations, and operating observations by engineers, staff and maintenance personnel are described.

  3. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    KAUST Repository

    Beilharz, D.

    2015-08-14

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a higher-viscosity drop onto a lower-viscosity pool, we have explored new geometries of such air films. In this way we are able to maintain stable air layers which can wrap around the entire drop to form repeatable antibubbles, i.e. spherical air layers bounded by inner and outer liquid masses. Furthermore, for the most viscous drops they enter the pool trailing a viscous thread reaching all the way to the pinch-off nozzle. The air sheet can also wrap around this thread and remain stable over an extended period of time to form a cylindrical air sheet. We study the parameter regime where these structures appear and their subsequent breakup. The stability of these thin cylindrical air sheets is inconsistent with inviscid stability theory, suggesting stabilization by lubrication forces within the submicron air layer. We use interferometry to measure the air-layer thickness versus depth along the cylindrical air sheet and around the drop. The air film is thickest above the equator of the drop, but thinner below the drop and up along the air cylinder. Based on microbubble volumes, the thickness of the cylindrical air layer becomes less than 100 nm before it ruptures.

  4. Air Power in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    bombardment attacks with fighter offense for the control of the air.”57 Douhet commonly bucked the theory of fighter offense, relying solely on “a...morale booster as well. Now patrols could cut a landing zone with chain saws and explosives to receive a medevac chopper rather than face an extended

  5. New concepts in air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, R N

    1998-03-01

    There is no doubt that air abrasion is going to be part of the millennial shift in dentistry away from traditional treatment modalities. With the change in incidence and morphology of caries as a result of the hardening effect of fluoride on enamel, this ability to remove only decayed areas and permanently seal the less susceptible areas becomes increasingly desirable.

  6. Pariisi-kiri / Aire Allikmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allikmets, Aire

    1997-01-01

    Fanny de Siversile pühendatud vastuvõtust College de France'i Sinises Salongis 27. märtsil 1997 ja temale pühendatud koguteosest 'Contacts de langues et de cultures dans l'aire Baltique' (koost. M. M. Jocelyne Fernendez ja Raimo Raag)

  7. A Breath of Fresh Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Have you ever driven by a sewage-treatment plant and noticed a rotten-eggstink? Air-quality requirements force these plants touse devices called chemical scrubbers to eliminate malodorous hydrogen sulfide from the gases createdby bacteria in sewageslurry. The process works,but it's expensive and depends on filtering gasthrough toxic chemicalssuch as lye and bleach.

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  9. A Tire Air Maintenance Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Improperly inflated car tires can reduce gas mileage and car performance, speed up tire wear, and even cause a tire to blow out. The AAA auto club recommends that someone check the air pressure of one's car's tires at least once a month. Wouldn't it be nice, though, if someone came up with a tire pressure-monitoring system that automatically kept…

  10. Air-Leakage Control Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, Jim; Washington State Energy Office; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the how and why'' of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the Simple Caulk and Seal'' (SIMPLE{center dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  11. Air-leakage control manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1991-05-01

    This manual is for builders and designers who are interested in building energy-efficient homes. The purpose of the manual is to provide the ``how and why`` of controlling air leakage by means of a system called the ``Simple Caulk and Seal`` (SIMPLE{center_dot}CS) system. This manual provides an overview of the purpose and contents of the manual; It discusses the forces that affect air leakage in homes and the benefits of controlling air leakage. Also discussed are two earlier approaches for controlling air leakage and the problems with these approaches. It describes the SIMPLE-{center_dot}CS system. It outlines the standard components of the building envelope that require sealing and provides guidelines for sealing them. It outlines a step-by-step procedure for analyzing and planning the sealing effort. The procedure includes (1) identifying areas to be sealed, (2) determining the most effective and convenient stage of construction in which to do the sealing, and (3) designating the appropriate crew member or trade to be responsible for the sealing.

  12. Ballistics examination of air rifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  13. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  14. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  15. Biological effects of air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosting, P.E.; Houten, J.G. ten

    1971-01-01

    Exposure of living organisms to sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid, fly ash, other particulates, and oxides of nitrogen is discussed from the points of view of air pollution phenomenology, specific and nonspecific responses of plants, animals and man, and environmental and constitutional factors that i

  16. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  17. Air ambulance medical transport advertising and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.

  18. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos

    2009-01-01

    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application

  19. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  20. Variaciones estacionales de 25-hidroxivitamina D en jóvenes y ancianos de la ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fassi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La hipovitaminosis D es un fenómeno observado con frecuencia en personas mayores y en centros urbanos. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar los niveles circulantes de 25-hidroxi-vitamina D, 25(OHD, en pacientes ambulatorios ancianos y jóvenes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires y establecer el impacto de valores descendidos de Vitamina D en la remodelación ósea. Se evaluaron 83 ancianos y 76 jóvenes de 71.9±8.1 y 29.8±6.6 años respectivamente, mediante la medición de 25(OHD, parathormona medio-molecular y de marcadores del metabolismo óseo y mineral. En invierno se comprobaron valores de 25 (OH D en grado de insuficiencia en ambos grupos y un 14.2% de ancianos y 15.9% de jóvenes con valores menores de 10 ng/ml. En verano se observó un incremento de la 25(OHD en toda la población, sin embargo los niveles circulantes de Vitamina D no superaron los 40 ng/ml, en ambos grupos. Los niveles plasmáticos de parathormona fueron más elevados en ancianos que en jóvenes y en esa subpoblación se observó la presencia de hiperparatiroidismo secundario. La elevación de parathormona está condicionada por la deficiencia de vitamina D y otros factores adicionales como la edad, la insuficiencia renal y el grado de nutrición de la población. La remodelación ósea presentó variaciones estacionales: se incrementó en invierno en ambos grupos. En la ciudad de Buenos Aires se han observado niveles descendidos de Vitamina D en jóvenes y mayores, durante todo el año. Se deberán evaluar las políticas sanitarias apropiadas destinadas a corregir esta deficien-cia, la cual predispone a la osteoporosis.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of hypovitaminosis D in elderly and young outpatients populations of the City of Buenos Aires, and to establish its impact on bone remodeling. A total of 83 elderly and 76 young patients aged 71.9±8.1 and 29.8±6.6 years respectively, were evaluated by measuring 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25 (OHD

  1. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  2. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  3. TANGO ARRAY An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    CERN Document Server

    Bauleo, P; Filevich, A; Reguera, A

    2004-01-01

    A new Air Shower Observatory has been constructed in Buenos Aires during 1999, and commissioned and set in operation in 2000. The observatory consists of an array of four water \\v{C}erenkov detectors, enclosing a geometrical area of $\\sim$ 30.000 m$^{2}$, and is optimized for the observation of cosmic rays in the ``knee'' energy region. The array detects $\\sim$ 250 to $\\sim$ 1500 showers/day, depending on the selected triggering condition. In this paper, the design and construction of the array, and the automatic system for data adquisition, daily calibration, and monitoring, are described. Also, the Monte Carlo simulations performed to develop a shower database, as well as the studies performed using the database to estimate the response and the angular and energy resolutions of the array, are presented in detail.

  4. Power plant VII revisited - Air-air /Scirocco/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etievant, C.; Royer, D.

    A hybrid fossil fuel-solar central receiver power plant is described, noting principally a 'Scirocco' configuration for the receiver. The primary loop contains air which enters passages in the alveolar-configured walls of the boiler, which is semi-spherically shaped. The alveoles are located in the back of the cavity while the upper and lower surfaces are reflective. A heat flux of 24.4 MWth is delivered to the aperture by 668 heliostats, each having a 53 sq m surface. Air is heated to 660 C and then flows past flame tubes to attain temperatures near 900 C through use of a combustor before impinging on the turbine blades. It is noted that although only 1000 hr of functioning are currently available for the Scirocco configuration, it offers the chance to reduce the size of the boiler. Further studies to optimize the materials for the boiler are indicated.

  5. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  6. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  7. TANGO ARRAY I: An Air Shower Experiment in Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.; Reguera, A.

    The TANGO Array is an air shower experiment which has been recently constructed in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It became fully operational in September, 2000. The array consists of 4 water ˇCerenkov detector stations enclosing a geometrical area of ˜ 30.000 m2 and its design has been optimized for the observation of EAS produced by cosmic rays near the "knee" energy region. Three of the detectors have been constructed using 12000-liter stainless steel tanks, and the fourth has been mounted in a smaller, 400liter plastic container. The detectors are connected by cables to the data acquisition room, where a fully automatic system, which takes advantage of the features of a 4-channel digital oscilloscope, was set for data collection without the need of operator intervention. This automatic experiment control includes monitoring, data logging, and daily calibration of all stations. This paper describes the detectors and their associated electronics, and details are given on the data acquisition system, the triggering and calibration procedures, and the operation of the array. Examples of air shower traces, recorded by the array, are presented.

  8. Community air monitoring and Village Green Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost and logistics are practical issues that have historically constrained the number of locations where long-term, active air pollution measurement is possible. In addition, traditional air monitoring approaches are generally conducted by technical experts with limited engageme...

  9. Solid State Air Purification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this proposed research is to develop a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide from air in a far...

  10. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  11. Noise Emission from Laboratory Air Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Windham, Betty

    1978-01-01

    Product noise ratings for a number of laboratory air blowers are reported and several recommendations for reducing laboratory noise from air blowers are given. Relevant noise ratings and methods for measuring noise emission of appliances are discussed. (BB)

  12. Air quality strategy for Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, N.K.Y. [Air Policy Group, Wanchai (Hong Kong). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Hong Kong has experienced unimpeded economic growth for four decades but at the same time has suffered from growing air pollution. A new look at the air quality strategy is therefore required to bring about sustainable development. (author)

  13. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-30

    This document provides specifications for the process air compressor for a compressed air storage project, requests a budgetary quote, and provides supporting information, including compressor data, site specific data, water analysis, and Seneca CAES value drivers.

  14. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.

    1982-05-28

    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  15. Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0034762, the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station is authorized to discharge from the interior storm drainage system and air exhaust stacks at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex, in El Paso County, Colorado, to tributaries Fountain Creek.

  16. Estonian Air sai lennukilisa / Gert D. Hankewitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2007-01-01

    Lennukompanii Estonian Air liisib kolm uut lennukit. Kommenteerib Rein Loik. Vt. samas intervjuud SAS-i asepresidendi Per Jensen Mölleriga, kes eitab spekulatsioone, et SAS võiks airBalticu ja Estonian Airi liita

  17. Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163365.html Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk? Fine particles from power plants ... 1, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may cause more than just lung disease: New ...

  18. Air Emissions Sources, Charts and Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Air Emissions provides (1) interactive charts supporting national, state, or county charts, (2) county maps of criteria air pollutant emissions for a state, and (3)...

  19. Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA, through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program is providing funding to six institutions that will advance air monitoring technology while helping communities address unique air quality challenges.

  20. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  1. Indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.

    During the last two decades there has been increasing concern within the scientific community over the effects of indoor air quality on health. Changes in building design devised to improve energy efficiency have meant that modern homes and offices are frequently more airtight than older structures. Furthermore, advances in construction technology have caused a much greater use of synthetic building materials. Whilst these improvements have led to more comfortable buildings with lower running costs, they also provide indoor environments in which contaminants are readily produced and may build up to much higher concentrations than are found outside. This article reviews our current understanding of the relationship between indoor air pollution and health. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a range of sources. The health impacts from indoor exposure to combustion products from heating, cooking, and the smoking of tobacco are examined. Also discussed are the symptoms associated with pollutants emitted from building materials. Of particular importance might be substances known as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which arise from sources including paints, varnishes, solvents, and preservatives. Furthermore, if the structure of a building begins to deteriorate, exposure to asbestos may be an important risk factor for the chronic respiratory disease mesothelioma. The health effects of inhaled biological particles can be significant, as a large variety of biological materials are present in indoor environments. Their role in inducing illness through immune mechanisms, infectious processes, and direct toxicity is considered. Outdoor sources can be the main contributors to indoor concentrations of some contaminants. Of particular significance is Radon, the radioactive gas that arises from outside, yet only presents a serious health risk when found inside buildings. Radon and its decay products are now recognised as important indoor pollutants, and their effects are

  2. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  3. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todde, V.

    1998-09-01

    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  4. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  5. Solar air-conditioning. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the 3rd International Conference on solar air-conditioning in Palermo (Italy) at 30th September to 2nd October, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Removal of non-technological barriers to solar cooling technology across Southern European islands (Stefano Rugginenti); (2) The added economic and environmental value of solar thermal systems in microgrids with combined heat and power (Chris Marney); (3) Australian solar cooling interest group (Paul Kohlenbach); (4) Designing of a technology roadmap for solar assisted air conditioning in Austria (Hilbert Focke); (5) Solar cooling in the new context of renewable policies at European level (Raffaele Piria); (6) Prototype of a solar driven steam jet ejector chiller (Clemens Pollerberg); (7) New integrated solar air conditioning system (Joan Carlos Bruno); (8) Primary energy optimised operation of solar driven desiccant evaporative cooling systems through innovative control strategies; (9) Green chiller association (Uli Jakob); (10) Climate Well {sup registered} (Olof Hallstrom); (11) Low capacity absorption chillers for solar cooling applications (Gregor Weidner); (12) Solar cooling in residential, small scale commercial and industrial applications with adsorption technology (Walter Mittelbach); (13) French solar heating and cooling development programme based on energy performance (Daniel Mugnier); (14) Mirrox fresnel process heat collectors for industrial applications and solar cooling (Christian Zahler); (15) Modelling and analyzing solar cooling systems in polysun (Seyen Hossein Rezaei); (16) Solar cooling application in Valle Susa Italy (Sufia Jung); (17) Virtual case study on small solar cooling systems within the SolarCombi+Project (Bjoern Nienborg); (18) Design of solar cooling plants under uncertainty (Fernando Dominguez-Munoz); (19) Fast pre-design of systems using solar thermally driven chillers (Hans-Martin Henning); (20) Design of a high fraction solar heating and cooling plant in southern

  6. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  7. Health effects of air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, C.; Caillaud, D.

    The air conditioning used in residential or commercial buildings (offices, hotels, sterile areas of hospitals, computer and electronics industries) is responsible for a certain number of well identified ailments which can be classified in three groups: infections (legionnaires'disease, ornithosis), allergies (mainly respiratory) eg. rhinitis, asthma, alveolitis but also Monday morning illness or humidifier fever, various functional disorders grouped under the name Sick Building Syndrome. To avoid these problems, a certain number of recommendations may be made. They concern: installation of air conditioning, humidification which is the cause of bacterial and fungal contamination, filtration, monitoring of the installation by qualitative and quantitative measurements, maintenance. The legal problems relating to these illnesses, the responsibility for which is ultimately laid at the door of the installers, should also be mentioned. Allergies are recognized to be of professional origin in Table 66 of allergic illnesses issued by the Social Security.

  8. Plant response to polluted air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, J.B. Jr.; Darley, E.F.; Middleton, J.T.; Paulus, A.O.

    1956-08-01

    Field observations and controlled fumigation experiments have shown that plants differ in their response to atmospheric contamination by ethylene, herbicides, fluorides, sulfur dioxide, and smog, or oxidized hydrocarbons. Controlled experiments have also shown that plant response to air pollution varies with species and variety of plant, age of plant tissue, soil fertility levels, soil moisture, air temperatures during the prefumigation growth period, and presence of certain agricultural chemicals on leaves. The leaves of many plants; such as tomato, African marigold, fuchsia, pepper, and potato, become curved and malformed in the presence of ethylene, while those of cantaloupe, China aster, gardenia, Cattleya orchid, and snapdragon do not. Ethylene may cause serious damage to the sepals of orchids without injury to the petals or leaves.

  9. Marine Special Operations Companies Need Marine Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    Reconnaissance S S S P S S Electronic Warfare S S P P S P Anti-Air Warfare S S P S S P Source: LtCol Luis Mercado USMC and Maj Jay Lynn USMC...will most certainly not be MEU air.6 Without MEU air support during deployment the MSOC will labor to effectively achieve combined arms synergy

  10. U turn to venous air embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harsimran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a definitive risk of venous air embolism when the fluid infusion is complete and the drip set is still open in a glass bottle.We have devised a novel way of preventing the chances of air embolism when the fluid in the glass bottle finishes. It really gives a "U" turn to the chances of venous air embolism.

  11. Statistical distributions of air pollution concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1982-07-01

    Methodologies and limitations in describing air quality through statistical distributions of pollutant are discussed, and the use of extreme statistics in the evaluation of different forms of air quality standards are explained. In addition, the interpretation of rollback calculations with regard to air quality standards is discussed. (JMT)

  12. Air pocket removal from downward sloping pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in water pipelines and hydropower tunnels. Water pipelines and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket accumulation in downward sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pockets cause energy losses and an assoc

  13. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  14. Impact of wildfires on regional air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the impact of wildfires and agricultural/prescribed burning on regional air pollution and Air Quality Index (AQI) between 2006 and 2013. We define daily regional air pollution using monitoring sites for ozone (n=1595), PM2.5 collected by Federal Reference Method (n=10...

  15. Millimeter-Wave Studies of Moist Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    m3) DRY WATER HAZE, FOG AIR + VAPOR + CLOUD + RAIN TOTAL --------------------------------------------------------------------- FREQUENCY Nt-IMAGINARY...100.000 (GHz) OUTPUT: Case Number: 1 (Refractive delay = 1171.5 pe/km) MOIST AIR (v= 12.81 g/m3) DRY WATER HAZE, FOG AIR + VAPOR + CLOUD + RAIN TOTAL

  16. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of permanent supports. (3) If machine mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved... currents cannot be controlled and air measurements cannot be obtained, the air shall have perceptible... results of sampling that demonstrate that the lesser air quantity will maintain continuous compliance...

  17. The effectiveness of a heated air curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Daria

    2014-11-01

    Air curtains are high-velocity plane turbulent jets which are installed in the doorway in order to reduce the heat and the mass exchange between two environments. The air curtain effectiveness E is defined as the fraction of the exchange flow prevented by the air curtain compared to the open-door situation. In the present study, we investigate the effects of an opposing buoyancy force on the air curtain effectiveness. Such an opposing buoyancy force arises for example if a downwards blowing air curtain is heated. We conducted small-scale experiments using water as the working fluid with density differences created by salt and sugar. The effectiveness of a downwards blowing air curtain was measured for situations in which the initial density of the air curtain was less than both the indoor and the outdoor fluid density, which corresponds to the case of a heated air curtain. We compare the effectiveness of the heated air curtain to the case of the neutrally buoyant air curtain. It is found that the effectiveness starts to decrease if the air curtain is heated beyond a critical temperature. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of the buoyant air curtain. Numerical results obtained from solving this model corroborate our experimental findings.

  18. 40 CFR 257.3-7 - Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air. 257.3-7 Section 257.3-7... and Practices § 257.3-7 Air. (a) The facility or practice shall not engage in open burning of... 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. (c) As used in this section “open burning” means the...

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Steve M.

    This paper presents air quality and ventilation data from an existing chemical laboratory facility and discusses the work practice changes implemented in response to deficiencies in ventilation. General methods for improving air quality in existing laboratories are presented and investigation techniques for characterizing air quality are…

  20. AirBaltic says RIX favors Ryanair

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Riia lennujaama juht märkis 10. märtsi telesaates, et airBaltic ei saa oma arveid õigeks ajaks makstud. AirBaltic süüditab lennujaama Ryanairi soosimises. Valitsus kaalub airBalticule investorite otsimist