WorldWideScience

Sample records for aircraft transportation system

  1. Active flow control systems architectures for civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbal, M; Liddle, SC; Crowther, WJ

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics This paper considers the effect of choice of actuator technology and associated power systems architecture on the mass cost and power consumption of implementing active flow control systems on civil transport aircraft. The research method is based on the use of a mass model that includes a mass due to systems hardware and a mass due to the system energy usage. An Airbus A320 aircraft wing is used as a case-study applicatio...

  2. An advanced control system for a next generation transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, J. J.; Davis, W. J; Grantham, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    The use of modern control theory to develop a high-authority stability and control system for the next generation transport aircraft is described with examples taken from work performed on an advanced pitch active control system (PACS). The PACS was configured to have short-period and phugoid modes frequency and damping characteristics within the shaded S-plane areas, column force gradients with set bounds and with constant slope, and a blended normal-acceleration/pitch rate time history response to a step command. Details of the control law, feedback loop, and modal control syntheses are explored, as are compensation for the feedback gain, the deletion of the velocity signal, and the feed-forward compensation. Scheduling of the primary and secondary gains are discussed, together with control law mechanization, flying qualities analyses, and application on the L-1011 aircraft.

  3. Next Generation Civil Transport Aircraft Design Considerations for Improving Vehicle and System-Level Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Wahls, Richard A.; DelRosario, Ruben,

    2013-01-01

    The future of aviation will benefit from research in aircraft design and air transportation management aimed at improving efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. This paper presents civil transport aircraft design trends and opportunities for improving vehicle and system-level efficiency. Aircraft design concepts and the emerging technologies critical to reducing thrust specific fuel consumption, reducing weight, and increasing lift to drag ratio currently being developed by NASA are discussed. Advancements in the air transportation system aimed towards system-level efficiency are discussed as well. Finally, the paper describes the relationship between the air transportation system, aircraft, and efficiency. This relationship is characterized by operational constraints imposed by the air transportation system that influence aircraft design, and operational capabilities inherent to an aircraft design that impact the air transportation system.

  4. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  5. Systems and certification issues for civil transport aircraft flow control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Stephen C; Crowther, William J.; Jabbal, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article is placed here with permission from the Royal Aeronautical Society - Copyright @ 2009 Royal Aeronautical Society The use of flow control (FC) technology on civil transport aircraft is seen as a potential means of providing a step change in aerodynamic performance in the 2020 time frame. There has been extensive research into the flow physics associated with FC. This paper focuses on developing an understanding of the costs and design drivers associated with the systems needed ...

  6. Overview of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Project Four Enabling Operating Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2005-01-01

    It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand still steadily increasing. NASA, FAA, and the National Consortium for Aviation Mobility (NCAM) have partnered to aid in increasing the mobility throughout the United States through the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project. The SATS project has been a five-year effort to provide the technical and economic basis for further national investment and policy decisions to support a small aircraft transportation system. The SATS vision is to enable people and goods to have the convenience of on-demand point-to-point travel, anywhere, anytime for both personal and business travel. This vision can be obtained by expanding near all-weather access to more than 3,400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized throughout the United States. SATS has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies, procedures, and concepts to pave the way for small aircraft to operate in nearly all weather conditions at virtually any runway in the United States. These four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. The SATS project culminated with the 2005 SATS Public Demonstration in Danville, Virginia on June 5th-7th, by showcasing the accomplishments achieved throughout the project and demonstrating that a small aircraft transportation system could be viable. The technologies, procedures, and concepts were successfully demonstrated to show that they were safe, effective, and affordable for small aircraft in near all weather conditions. The focus of this paper is to provide an overview of the technical and operational feasibility of the

  7. Demonstration of Four Operating Capabilities to Enable a Small Aircraft Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viken, Sally A.; Brooks, Frederick M.

    2005-01-01

    The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project has been a five-year effort fostering research and development that could lead to the transformation of our country s air transportation system. It has become evident that our commercial air transportation system is reaching its peak in terms of capacity, with numerous delays in the system and the demand keeps steadily increasing. The SATS vision is to increase mobility in our nation s transportation system by expanding access to more than 3400 small community airports that are currently under-utilized. The SATS project has focused its efforts on four key operating capabilities that have addressed new emerging technologies and procedures to pave the way for a new way of air travel. The four key operating capabilities are: Higher Volume Operations at Non-Towered/Non-Radar Airports, En Route Procedures and Systems for Integrated Fleet Operations, Lower Landing Minimums at Minimally Equipped Landing Facilities, and Increased Single Pilot Performance. These four capabilities are key to enabling low-cost, on-demand, point-to-point transportation of goods and passengers utilizing small aircraft operating from small airports. The focus of this paper is to discuss the technical and operational feasibility of the four operating capabilities and demonstrate how they can enable a small aircraft transportation system.

  8. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Off-Nominal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Conway, S.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather, at virtually any airport, offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of charter operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase traffic flow at any of the 3400 nonradar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). The concept's key feature is pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using procedures, aircraft flight data sent via air-to-air datalink, cockpit displays, and on-board software. This is done within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility or low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. The research described in this paper expands the HVO concept to include most off-nominal situations that could be expected to occur in a future SATS environment. The situations were categorized into routine off-nominal operations, procedural deviations, equipment malfunctions, and aircraft emergencies. The combination of normal and off-nominal HVO procedures provides evidence for an operational concept that is safe, requires little ground infrastructure, and enables concurrent flight operations in poor weather.

  9. Avionics Systems, Integration, and Technologies of the Light Transport Aircraft (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Ananda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avionics of the present day comprises advanced technology and software-intensive systems. Earlier generation avionics constituted federated architecture and used line replaceable units (LRUs having individual resources for each application with redundant hardware and software. However with the advancement of technology, methods,and mechanisms, the industry moved quite rapidly towards the integrated architecture called integrated modular avionics (IMA. Over the last decade there has been tremendous growth in these technologies which has resulted in reduced weight, volume, and developmental efforts. Usage of complex systems with advanced technologies and their certification for use in civil aircraft are the key issues to be addressed even today. Avionics of general aviation aircraft consists of typical systems like communication, navigation, display, radar, engine indication and data acquisition and recoding systems. These can be realised in federated as well as integrated architectures. TheLRUs requirements for avionics sub-system depends on the certification standards like FAR 23 or FAR 25. The whole cycle of architecture definition, integration, testing and means of compliance of the complete suite is the major activity in any new aircraft development programme. Development of ground-based test facilities and proper maintenance of the entire system on aircraft are other important activities in such programmes. These issues are presented in this paper for a typical light transport aircraft (LTA. The new technologies with their relevance, merits/de-merits, awareness of the global systems being adopted, etc., which are being attempted as indigenousdesign and development, are also presented.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.289-298, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1090

  10. Formal Modeling and Analysis of a Preliminary Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS)Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrreno, Victor A.; Gottliebsen, Hanne; Butler, Ricky; Kalvala, Sara

    2004-01-01

    New concepts for automating air traffic management functions at small non-towered airports raise serious safety issues associated with the software implementations and their underlying key algorithms. The criticality of such software systems necessitates that strong guarantees of the safety be developed for them. In this paper we present a formal method for modeling and verifying such systems using the PVS theorem proving system. The method is demonstrated on a preliminary concept of operation for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project at NASA Langley.

  11. Small Aircraft Transportation System Simulation Analysis of the HVO and ERO Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsaps, Gary D.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    It is acknowledged that the aviation and aerospace industries are primary forces influencing the industrial development and economic well being of the United States and many countries around the world. For decades the US national air transportation system has been the model of success - safely and efficiently moving people, cargo, goods and services and generating countless benefits throughout the global community; however, the finite nature of the system and many of its components is becoming apparent. Without measurable increases in the capacity of the national air transportation system, delays and service delivery failures will eventually become intolerable. Although the recent economic slowdown has lowered immediate travel demands, that trend is reversing and cargo movement remains high. Research data indicates a conservative 2.5-3.0% annual increase in aircraft operations nationwide through 2017. Such growth will place additional strains upon a system already experiencing capacity constraints. The stakeholders of the system will continue to endure ever-increasing delays and abide lesser levels of service to many lower population density areas of the country unless more efficient uses of existing and new transportation resources are implemented. NASA s Small Aircraft Transportation System program (SATS) is one of several technologies under development that are aimed at using such resources more effectively. As part of this development effort, this report is the first in a series outlining the findings and recommendations resulting from a comprehensive program of multi-level analyses and system engineering efforts undertaken by NASA Langley Research Center s Systems Analysis Branch (SAB). These efforts are guided by a commitment to provide systems-level analysis support for the SATS program. Subsequent efforts will build upon this early work to produce additional analyses and benefits studies needed to provide the technical and economic basis for national

  12. Approach of Improving the Inertial Navigation System Error for Large Transport Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huzi; GENG Jianzhong; TANG Changhong; LI Wei

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding corrected method is proposed for the INS (INS-Inertial Navigation System) accumulated error of large transport aircraft.System errors contain aircraft position error,altitude error and speed error,one is increasing the accuracy of hardware; the other is development of low cost software algorithms.Because of improving hardware is more difficult in my country at present,developing software algorithms is essential way,which have been validated in my types of airplane.The combined heuristic algorithms (ABPNN,Advanced Back-propagation neural networks algorithm and LSM-least square method) are presented,which incorporates the effects of flight region and measured terrain height data by radar and barometer.Based on this algorithm,the appropriate match region was gotten by recognition of fiducial digital map in real time online.In process of work,the minimum of position error as a cost function and the constraint conditions are gave,the flight positions are recognized in real time and continuously,least sum of square is calculated based on LSM,in other words,the optimized result is obtained.The simulation case demonstrate that the method is very successful,the correct rate of recognition is more 90 percent.In words,the algorithm presented is economical,validation and effective.

  13. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  14. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  15. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT, BACKROUND FOR SHORT/ MEDIUM COURIER TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  17. Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 ? 2030 timeframe....

  18. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  19. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  20. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  1. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  2. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate data communication techniques are identified, including dedicated links, local buses, broadcast buses, multiplex buses, and mesh networks. The design methodology for mesh networks is then discussed, including network topology and node architecture. Several concepts of power distribution are reviewed, including current limiting and mesh networks for power. The technology issues of packaging, transmission media, and lightning are addressed, and, finally, the analysis tools developed to aid in the communication design process are described. There are special tools to analyze the reliability and connectivity of networks and more general reliability analysis tools for all types of systems.

  3. Choice of Aircraft Fleets in the U.S. Domestic Scheduled Air Transportation System: Findings from a Multinomial Logit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadra, Dipasis

    2005-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) in the United States had an inventory of 5,156 big jets at the end of December 2002, of which 4,085 were narrow bodies, and 1,071 were wide bodies. In addition, there were 1,180 regional jets and 660 turboprops in the system at that time. Empirical research reveals that there is a critical link between the flow of scheduled passenger services and the choice of aircraft used by the airlines in serving market pair demand. This relationship can be empirically r...

  4. Structural ballistic armour for transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, I; Austin, S J; Bishop, W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the structural response of a current ceramic-faced composite armour system and a proposed structural armour system for aircraft use. The proposed structural ballistic armour system is shown to be capable of providing significant structural integrity even after ballistic impact whilst providing ballistic protection equivalent to an existing applique system. The addition of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic front panel to the existing ceramic faced composite armour system i...

  5. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  6. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  7. Environmental Impact Evaluation of Aircraft at System-of-Systems Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroijen, M.J.T.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Voskuijl, M.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Next generations of civil transport aircraft will need to be evaluated not only against their behaviour as an aircraft system but also as a part of the larger air transport system. In addition to this are the sustainability issues related to for instance noise and emissions, represented by environme

  8. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  9. Review of measured vibration and noise environments experienced by passengers in aircraft and in ground transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured vibration and interior noise data are presented for a number of air and surface vehicles. Consideration is given to the importance of direction effects; of vehicle operations such as take-off, cruise, and landing; and of measurement location on the level and frequency of the measurements. Various physical measurement units or descriptors are used to quantify and compare the data. Results suggest the range of vibration and noise associated with a particular mode of transportation and illustrate the comparative levels in terms of each of the descriptors. Collectively, the results form a data base which may be useful in assessing the ride of existing or future systems relative to vehicles in current operation.

  10. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  11. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.

    2015-11-01

    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  12. Effect of electromagnetic interference by neonatal transport equipment on aircraft operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nish, W A; Walsh, W F; Land, P; Swedenburg, M

    1989-06-01

    The number of civilian air ambulance services operating in the United States has been steadily increasing. The quantity and sophistication of electronic equipment used during neonatal transport have also increased. All medical equipment generates some electromagnetic interference (EMI). Excessive EMI can interfere with any of an aircraft's electrical systems, including navigation and communications. The United States military has strict standards for maximum EMI in transport equipment. Over the past 15 years, approximately 70% of neonatal transport monitors, ventilators, and incubators have failed testing due to excessive EMI. As neonatal transport equipment becomes more sophisticated, EMI is increased, and there is greater potential for aircraft malfunction. The Federal Aviation Administration should develop civilian standards for acceptable EMI, civilian aircraft operators must be aware of the possible dangers of excessive EMI, and equipment which does not meet future FAA standards should not be purchased. PMID:2751593

  13. Impact of aircraft systems within aircraft operation: A MEA trajectory optimisation study

    OpenAIRE

    Seresinhe, R.

    2014-01-01

    Air transport has been a key component of the socio-economic globalisation. The ever increasing demand for air travel and air transport is a testament to the success of the aircraft. But this growing demand presents many challenges. One of which is the environmental impact due to aviation. The scope of the environmental impact of aircraft can be discussed from many viewpoints. This research focuses on the environmental impact due to aircraft operation. Aircraft operation causes...

  14. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  15. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  16. System-Level Experimental Validations for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Time Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Todd E.; Fugal, Spencer R.; Fink, Lawrence E.; Adamson, Eric E.; Shaw, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    completed as a precursor to the selection of the facilities used for validation testing. As facility schedules allowed, the propulsion testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 8 x 6-Foot wind tunnel, while boom and force testing was done at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 9 x 7-Foot wind tunnel. During boom testing, a live balance was used for gathering force data. This report is broken down into nine sections. The first technical section (Section 2) covers the general scope of the Phase II activities, goals, a description of the design and testing efforts, and the project plan and schedule. Section 3 covers the details of the propulsion system concepts and design evolution. A series of short tests to evaluate the suitability of different wind tunnels for boom, propulsion, and force testing was also performed under the Phase 2 effort, with the results covered in Section 4. The propulsion integration testing is covered in Section 5 and the boom and force testing in Section 6. CFD comparisons and analyses are included in Section 7. Section 8 includes the conclusions and lessons learned.

  17. Global Local Structural Optimization of Transportation Aircraft Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciampa, P.D.; Nagel, B.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a multilevel optimization methodology for the preliminary structural design of transportation aircraft wings. A global level is defined by taking into account the primary wing structural components (i.e., ribs, spars and skin) which are explicitly modeled by shell layered finite e

  18. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  19. Structural Health Monitoring of Transport Aircraft with Fuzzy Logic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray C. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A structural health monitoring method based on the concept of static aeroelasticity is presented in this paper. This paper focuses on the estimation of these aeroelastic effects on older transport aircraft, in particular the structural components that are most affected, in severe atmospheric turbulence. Because the structural flexibility properties are mostly unknown to aircraft operators, only the trend, not the magnitude, of these effects is estimated. For this purpose, one useful concept in static aeroelastic effects for conventional aircraft structures is that under aeroelastic deformation the aerodynamic center should move aft. This concept is applied in the present paper by using the fuzzy-logic aerodynamic models. A twin-jet transport aircraft in severe atmospheric turbulence involving plunging motion is examined. It is found that the pitching moment derivatives in cruise with moderate to severe turbulence in transonic flight indicate some degree of abnormality in the stabilizer (i.e., the horizontal tail. Therefore, the horizontal tail is the most severely affected structural component of the aircraft probably caused by vibration under the dynamic loads induced by turbulence.

  20. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  1. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  2. Aircraft observations of Asian pollution transported into the Arctic UTLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Arnold, F.; Schäfler, A.; Aufmhoff, H.; Cooper, O. R.; Lazzara, M. A.; Stohl, A.; Sodemann, H.; Schiller, C.; Guenther, G.

    2010-12-01

    We present aircraft-borne observations of Asian pollution in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere above Greenland. The measurements were performed within the GRACE campaign (Greenland Aerosol and Chemistry Experiment), a sub-project of the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) initiative. The GRACE campaign was conducted in summer 2008 and aimed to study the influence of both boreal forest fire and anthropogenic emissions on the composition of the UT/LS in the summer-time Arctic. We used the DLR Falcon operated from Kangerlussuaq (Greenland) and performed a total of 16 flights up to altitudes of 12 km. Here we focus on measurements of a flight on 10th July 2008, where we probed an air mass with unusually high CO, PAN and H2O mixing ratios of up to 136 nmol mol-1, 350 pmol mol-1 and 80 µmol mol-1, respectively. The air mass was encountered at 11.3 km altitude, well above the dynamical tropopause. In-situ measurements of ozone, NO, and NOy indicate that this layer was a mixed air mass containing both air from the troposphere and stratosphere. Backward tracer and trajectory analysis with FLEXPART and LAGRANTO suggest that we probed the top of a polluted air mass originating from the coastal regions of South East Asia. This anthropogenic pollution experienced strong up-lift to more than 10 km altitude in a warm conveyor belt (WCB) located over the Russian east-coast. Due to a low pressure system moving from Siberia towards Spitsbergen, the polluted air mass was transported across the North Pole into the sampling area, hereby up-lifting the local tropopause by ~2.5 km. Mixing with Arctic stratospheric air most likely took place along the sides of the plume when the tropospheric air mass was stretched into long and narrow filaments. The transport pathway presented in this study could be an important mechanism to bring pollution into the polar lowermost

  3. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  4. Conceptual design proposal: HUGO global range/mobility transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Tom; Perretta, Dave; Mcbane, Doug; Morin, Greg; Thomas, Greg; Woodward, Joe; Gulakowski, Steve

    1993-01-01

    With the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the emergence of the United Nations actively pursuing a peace keeping role in world affairs, the United States has been forced into a position as the world's leading peace enforcer. It is still a very dangerous world with seemingly never ending ideological, territorial, and economic disputes requiring the U.S. to maintain a credible deterrent posture in this uncertain environment. This has created an urgent need to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States (CONUS) to any potential world trouble spot by means of a global range/mobility transport aircraft. The most recent examples being Operation Desert Shield/Storm and Operation Restore Hope. To meet this challenge head-on, a request for proposal (RFP) was developed and incorporated into the 1992/1993 AIAA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation Graduate Team Aircraft Design Competition. The RFP calls for the conceptual design and justification of a large aircraft capable of power projecting a significant military force without surface transportation reliance.

  5. Estimated Benefits of Variable-Geometry Wing Camber Control for Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, Alexander; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical benefits of variable-camber capability on subsonic transport aircraft are explored. Using aerodynamic performance models, including drag as a function of deflection angle for control surfaces of interest, optimal performance benefits of variable camber are calculated. Results demonstrate that if all wing trailing-edge surfaces are available for optimization, drag can be significantly reduced at most points within the flight envelope. The optimization approach developed and illustrated for flight uses variable camber for optimization of aerodynamic efficiency (maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio). Most transport aircraft have significant latent capability in this area. Wing camber control that can affect performance optimization for transport aircraft includes symmetric use of ailerons and flaps. In this paper, drag characteristics for aileron and flap deflections are computed based on analytical and wind-tunnel data. All calculations based on predictions for the subject aircraft and the optimal surface deflection are obtained by simple interpolation for given conditions. An algorithm is also presented for computation of optimal surface deflection for given conditions. Benefits of variable camber for a transport configuration using a simple trailing-edge control surface system can approach more than 10 percent, especially for nonstandard flight conditions. In the cruise regime, the benefit is 1-3 percent.

  6. Damage tolerant wing-fuselage integration structural design applicable to future BWB transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sodzi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Wing joint design is one of the most critical areas in aircraft structures. Efficient and damage tolerant wing-fuselage integration structure, applicable to the next generation of transport aircraft, will facilitate the realisation of the benefits offered by new aircraft concepts. The Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept represents a potential revolution in subsonic transport efficiency for large airplanes. Studies have shown the BWB to be superior to conventional airframes...

  7. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  8. Application of parametric weight and cost estimating relationships to future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Morris, M. A.; Anderson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model comprised of system level weight and cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft is presented. In order to determine the production cost of future aircraft its weight is first estimated based on performance parameters, and then the cost is estimated as a function of weight. For initial evaluation CERs were applied to actual system weights of six aircraft (3 military and 3 commercial) with mean empty weights ranging from 30,000 to 300,000 lb. The resulting cost estimates were compared with actual costs. The average absolute error was only 4.3%. Then the model was applied to five aircraft still in the design phase (Boeing 757, 767 and 777, and BAC HS146-100 and HS146-200). While the estimates for the 757 and 767 are within 2 to 3 percent of their assumed break-even costs, it is recognized that these are very sensitive to the validity of the estimated weights, inflation factor, the amount assumed for nonrecurring costs, etc., and it is suggested that the model may be used in conjunction with other information such as RDT&E cost estimates and market forecasts. The model will help NASA evaluate new technologies and production costs of future aircraft.

  9. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;

    2013-01-01

    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial comm...

  10. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  11. High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Simulation: Reference-H Cycle 1, MATLAB Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotack, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Buttrill, Carey S.

    1999-01-01

    The mathematical model and associated code to simulate a high speed civil transport aircraft - the Boeing Reference H configuration - are described. The simulation was constructed in support of advanced control law research. In addition to providing time histories of the dynamic response, the code includes the capabilities for calculating trim solutions and for generating linear models. The simulation relies on the nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom equations which govern the motion of a rigid aircraft in atmospheric flight. The 1962 Standard Atmosphere Tables are used along with a turbulence model to simulate the Earth atmosphere. The aircraft model has three parts - an aerodynamic model, an engine model, and a mass model. These models use the data from the Boeing Reference H cycle 1 simulation data base. Models for the actuator dynamics, landing gear, and flight control system are not included in this aircraft model. Dynamic responses generated by the nonlinear simulation are presented and compared with results generated from alternate simulations at Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company and NASA Langley Research Center. Also, dynamic responses generated using linear models are presented and compared with dynamic responses generated using the nonlinear simulation.

  12. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  13. Personal Aircraft Point to the Future of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, as well as a number of Agency innovations, have helped Duluth, Minnesota-based Cirrus Design Corporation become one of the world's leading manufacturers of general aviation aircraft. SBIRs with Langley Research Center provided the company with cost-effective composite airframe manufacturing methods, while crashworthiness testing at the Center increased the safety of its airplanes. Other NASA-derived technologies on Cirrus SR20 and SR22 aircraft include synthetic vision systems that help pilots navigate and full-plane parachutes that have saved the lives of more than 30 Cirrus pilots and passengers to date. Today, the SR22 is the world's top-selling Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-certified single-engine airplane.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an increasing need to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national...

  15. 14 CFR 119.53 - Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. 119.53 Section 119.53 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Chapter § 119.53 Wet leasing of aircraft and other arrangements for transportation by air. (a)...

  16. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  17. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  18. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  19. Path-tracking Control of a Tractor-aircraft System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nengjian Wang; Hongbo Liu; Wanhui Yang

    2012-01-01

    An aircraft tractor plays a significant role as a kind of important marine transport and support equipment.It's necessary to study its controlling and manoeuvring stability to improve operation efficiency.A virtual prototyping model of the tractor-aircraft system based on Lagrange's equation of the first kind with Lagrange mutipliers was established in this paper.According to the towing characteristics,a path-tracking controller using fuzzy logic theory was designed.Direction control herein was carried out through a compensatory tracking approach.Interactive co-simulation was performed to validate the path-tracking behavior in closed-loop.Simulation results indicated that the tractor followed the reference courses precisely on a flat ground.

  20. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  1. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  2. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and adva...

  3. Flying Qualities Metrics and Design Guidelines for Modern Transport Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and planned transport aircraft designs are making more use of fly-by-wire technology, allowing an unprecedented design space for control laws, including...

  4. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  5. Advanced Navigation System for Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Satheesh Reddy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of navigation are present in today’s world, leading from satellite based navigation to several archaic forms of navigation like star gazing. Now, lots of technologies are available to achieve this but with certain limitations. For example, FOG based navigation provides accuracy with in 0.10-100 range which is not sufficient for various military applications. Therefore, there is a need to design a system which will have better accuracy and thus requires development of ring laser gyro-based inertial systems. This paper concentrates on the aided navigation system based on ring laser gyro of 0.01 deg/hr class and GPS - GLONASS to further enhance the capability of system in terms of accuracy. The usage of such systems not only provides accurate results momentarily but it also persists for longer duration with the aid of GPS - GLONASS for applications like aircraft, ship and long range missiles. The system provides accuracy of the level of 1 Nm/hr in pure navigation and 30 m with the aid of GPS - GLONASS. Apart from this, the availability of gyro-compass and baro-inertial algorithms further enhances the system capabilities and made them self dependent to the major extent.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.131-137, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4254

  6. A Study on Simulation of Aircraft Maintenance and Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance and support are basic elements to realize the effectiveness of aircraft. For basic analysis of the characteristics of an aircraft maintenance and support system, a simulation method is presented in this paper, and the structure and realization ofthe simulation system is discussed.

  7. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil;

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, air is supplied to the aircraft cabin either by individual nozzles or by supply slots. The air is expected to be fully mixed in the cabin, and the system is considered to be a mixing ventilation system. This paper will provide measurements on the mixing flow in an aircraft cabin...

  8. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  9. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  10. Linear Quadratic Tracking Design for a Generic Transport Aircraft with Structural Load Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    When designing control laws for systems with constraints added to the tracking performance, control allocation methods can be utilized. Control allocations methods are used when there are more command inputs than controlled variables. Constraints that require allocators are such task as; surface saturation limits, structural load limits, drag reduction constraints or actuator failures. Most transport aircraft have many actuated surfaces compared to the three controlled variables (such as angle of attack, roll rate & angle of side slip). To distribute the control effort among the redundant set of actuators a fixed mixer approach can be utilized or online control allocation techniques. The benefit of an online allocator is that constraints can be considered in the design whereas the fixed mixer cannot. However, an online control allocator mixer has a disadvantage of not guaranteeing a surface schedule, which can then produce ill defined loads on the aircraft. The load uncertainty and complexity has prevented some controller designs from using advanced allocation techniques. This paper considers actuator redundancy management for a class of over actuated systems with real-time structural load limits using linear quadratic tracking applied to the generic transport model. A roll maneuver example of an artificial load limit constraint is shown and compared to the same no load limitation maneuver.

  11. The rotor systems research aircraft - A flying wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, A. W.; Hellyar, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Aircraft Corporation is constructing two uniquely designed Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). These aircraft will be used through the 1980's to comparatively test many different types of rotors - articulated, hingeless, teetering, and gimballed, as well as advanced rotor concepts, such as reverse velocity and variable diameter rotors. The RSRA combines a new airframe with existing Sikorsky H-3 (S-61) dynamic components. A force measurement system is incorporated to permit accurate evaluation of significant rotor characteristics. Both rotor and fixed-wing control systems are provided, appropriately integrated for operation in the pure helicopter mode, compound helicopter mode, and fixed-wing mode. The RSRA is the first rotary wing aircraft designed with a crew escape system, including a pyrotechnic system to sever the main rotor blades.

  12. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  13. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  14. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  15. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2011-05-01

    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft.

  16. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2011-05-01

    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft. PMID:21568404

  17. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 800 - Request to the Secretary of the Department of Transportation To Investigate Certain Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation To Investigate Certain Aircraft Accidents Appendix to Part 800 Transportation Other Regulations... the Department of Transportation To Investigate Certain Aircraft Accidents (a) Acting pursuant to the... Safety Board Act of 1974, and as set forth below to investigate the facts, conditions, and...

  19. Aircraft Vehicle Systems Modeling and Simulation under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkellner, Sören

    2011-01-01

    In aircraft development, it is crucial to understand and evaluate behavior, performance, safety and other aspects of the systems before and after they are physically available for testing. Simulation models are used to gain knowledge in order to make decisions at all development stages. Modeling and simulation (M&S) in aircraft system development, for example of fuel, hydraulic and electrical power systems, is today an important part of the design process. Through M&S a problem in a f...

  20. Method and System for Active Noise Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzina, Mark D. (Inventor); Nguyen, Khanh Q. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and systems for reducing noise generated by rotating blades of a tiltrotor aircraft. A rotor-blade pitch angle associated with the tiltrotor aircraft can be controlled utilizing a swashplate connected to rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. One or more Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) signals can be transmitted and input to a swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate. A particular blade pitch oscillation (e.g., four cycles per revolution) is there-after produced in a rotating frame of reference associated with the rotating blades in response to input of an HHC signal to the swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate to thereby reduce noise associated with the rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. The HHC signal can be transmitted and input to the swashplate control actuator to reduce noise of the tiltrotor aircraft in response to a user input utilizing an open-loop configuration.

  1. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...

  2. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  3. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase 1 has seen the development of a revolutionary new type of sensor for making carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and...

  4. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  5. Advanced energy systems (APU) for large commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberger, A.; Bleil, J.; Arendt, M. [Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The intention of using a highly integrated component using on fuel cell technology installed on board of large commercial passenger aircraft for the generation of onboard power for the systems demand during an entire aircraft mission was subject of several studies. The results of these studies have been based on the simulation of the whole system in the context of an aircraft system environment. In front of the work stood the analyses of different fuel cell technologies and the analyses of the aircraft system environment. Today onboard power is provided on ground by an APU and in flight by the main engines. In order to compare fuel cell technology with the today's usual gas turbine operational characteristics have been analysed. A second analysis was devoted to the system demand for typical aircraft categories. The MEA system concept was supposed in all cases. The favourable concept represented an aircraft propelled by conventional engines with starter generator units, providing AC electrical power, covering in total proximately half of the power demand and a component based on fuel cell technology. This component provided electrical DC power, clean potable water, thermal energy at 180 degrees Celsius and nitrogen enriched air for fire suppression and fire extinguishing agent. In opposite of a usual gas turbine based APU, this new unit was operated as the primary power system. (orig.)

  6. Investigation of Practical Flight Control Systems for Small Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkena, W.

    2012-01-01

    Personal air transportation utilizing small aircraft is a market that is expected to grow significantly in the near future. However, seventy times more accidents occur in this segment as compared with the commercial aviation sector. The majority of these accidents is related to handling and control

  7. Construction of a Survivability Evaluation System for Military Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation indexes system of aircraft survivability is constructed for the first time from three aspects: susceptibility, vulnerability and combat resilience; the bargaining weight method is proposed to determine the weights of the indexes and evaluate aircraft survivability. The bargaining weight method brings different opinions into accord under the constraint of minimum loss, it can overcome the partial subjectivity in determining weights and evaluation, and has objectivity. The example testifies rationality and feasibility of the evaluation system.

  8. Research on Data Distribution Service for Aircraft Collaborative Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxing Bian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft designing is a complex, multi-disciplinary process, while the applications are separated from each other due to their particular design and analysis tools. The separated applications are unable to meet the collaborative designing requirements. One of the fundamental problems in Aircraft Collaborative Design System is that how to make each subsystem collaborate. The known solutions, using Existing middlewares to unify data formats, are not reliable due to the tightly coupled architecture, poor portability and reusability, large update latency, etc. To solve this problem, the paper propose that apply DDS into Aircraft Collaborative Design System, and give the solution that how to use open source projects OpenDDS in Aircraft Collaborative Design System.

  9. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  10. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  11. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  12. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS......, technical and logistical challenges facing scientists intending to use UAS in their arctic work. Future planned campaigns and science goals under the Coordinated Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions (CICCI) umbrella will be outlined. A new AMAP report on conducting safe UAS operations...

  13. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.

  14. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the provisions of the regulations for execution of the aviation law. Terms of exclusive loading and container are explained. Transportable radioactive materials hereunder exclude naturally igniting fluid materials, substances necessary to be contained in vessels which filtrate interior gas with filters or refrigerate contents with cooling devices, etc., or BM loads necessary to be continuously ventilated. Radioactive materials to be conveyed as radioactive loads and L loads are prescribed with tables attached. Technical standards for radioactive loads are stipulated for L, A, BM and BU loads respectively. Confirmation of safety of radioactive loads may be made by examiniation of documents prepared by persons acknowledged proper by the Minister of Transportation. Radioactive materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which include one or more than two of such substances. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. The maximum doses of containers with radioactive loads shall not exceed for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Confirmation of safety of transport, method of loading, prevention of criticality, restriction of mixed shipment, transport index, signals and others are provided for in detail. (Okada, K.)

  15. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  16. Development of the Frontend of an Entertainment Systems for Aircrafts

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Llorente, Maria Begoña

    2016-01-01

    The in-flight entertainment system "Immfly" is a gate-to-gate entertainment system that provides flights passengers a new way of entertainment during their flight until they arrive to their destination. It is a solution that generates a wi-fi network inside the aircraft to which the users can connec

  17. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  18. Sensitivity of transport aircraft performance and economics to advanced technology and cruise Mach number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitivity data for advanced technology transports has been systematically collected. This data has been generated in two separate studies. In the first of these, three nominal, or base point, vehicles designed to cruise at Mach numbers .85, .93, and .98, respectively, were defined. The effects on performance and economics of perturbations to basic parameters in the areas of structures, aerodynamics, and propulsion were then determined. In all cases, aircraft were sized to meet the same payload and range as the nominals. This sensitivity data may be used to assess the relative effects of technology changes. The second study was an assessment of the effect of cruise Mach number. Three families of aircraft were investigated in the Mach number range 0.70 to 0.98: straight wing aircraft from 0.70 to 0.80; sweptwing, non-area ruled aircraft from 0.80 to 0.95; and area ruled aircraft from 0.90 to 0.98. At each Mach number, the values of wing loading, aspect ratio, and bypass ratio which resulted in minimum gross takeoff weight were used. As part of the Mach number study, an assessment of the effect of increased fuel costs was made.

  19. Transport in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop a theory of transport in Hamiltonian systems in the context of iteration of area-preserving maps. Invariant closed curves present complete barriers to transport, but in regions without such curves there are still invariant Cantor sets named cantori, which appear to form major obstacles. The flux through the gaps of the cantori is given by Mather's differences in action. This gives useful bounds on transport between regions, and a universal scaling law for one-parameter families when a curve has just broken, which agree well with numerical experiments of Chirikov and explain an apparent disagreement with results of Greene. By dividing the phase space into regions separated by the strongest barriers, and assuming the motion is mixing within them, we derive a global picture of transport, which can be used, for example, to predict confinement times and to explain longtime tails in the decay of correlations

  20. Systems and Methods for Collaboratively Controlling at Least One Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estkowski, Regina I. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An unmanned vehicle management system includes an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control station controlling one or more unmanned vehicles (UV), a collaborative routing system, and a communication network connecting the UAS and the collaborative routing system. The collaborative routing system being configured to receive flight parameters from an operator of the UAS control station and, based on the received flight parameters, automatically present the UAS control station with flight plan options to enable the operator to operate the UV in a defined airspace.

  1. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than...

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used for scientific, emergency management, and defense missions, among others. The existing federal air regulations,...

  3. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  4. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at... operator or as complex as a high altitude surveillance aircraft patrolling our nation's borders. They may... aerial systems and national airspace almost identical to the language in the FAA Modernization and...

  5. A practical scheme for adaptive aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athans, M.; Willner, D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight control system design is presented, that can be implemented by analog hardware, to be used to control an aircraft with uncertain parameters. The design is based upon the use of modern control theory. The ideas are illustrated by considering control of STOL longitudinal dynamics.

  6. Evaluation of an improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Liping; Xu, Jie; Fang, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    An improved air distribution system for aircraft cabin was proposed in this paper. Personalized outlets were introduced and placed at the bottom of the baggage hold. Its ratio of fresh air to recirculation air and the conditioned temperature of different types of inlets were also designed carefully...

  7. A model based monitoring system for aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eisses, A.R.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2008-01-01

    A new approach for an airport noise monitoring system is presented that comprises not only a number of measuring stations, but also a dedicated sound propagation model and an aircraft noise emission model. This approach enables estimation of noise levels in the whole area around the airport and not

  8. In-Service Aircraft Engine System Life Monitor Using Advanced Life-Estimating Technique Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate in-service aircraft engine life monitor system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for aircraft engines....

  9. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  10. Projected Demand and Potential Impacts to the National Airspace System of Autonomous, Electric, On-Demand Small Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hartman, Christopher L.; Kwa, Teck-Seng; Moore, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Electric propulsion and autonomy are technology frontiers that offer tremendous potential to achieve low operating costs for small-aircraft. Such technologies enable simple and safe to operate vehicles that could dramatically improve regional transportation accessibility and speed through point-to-point operations. This analysis develops an understanding of the potential traffic volume and National Airspace System (NAS) capacity for small on-demand aircraft operations. Future demand projections use the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), a tool suite developed by NASA and the Transportation Laboratory of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Demand projections from TSAM contain the mode of travel, number of trips and geographic distribution of trips. For this study, the mode of travel can be commercial aircraft, automobile and on-demand aircraft. NASA's Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) is used to assess NAS impact. This simulation takes a schedule that includes all flights: commercial passenger and cargo; conventional General Aviation and on-demand small aircraft, and operates them in the simulated NAS. The results of this analysis projects very large trip numbers for an on-demand air transportation system competitive with automobiles in cost per passenger mile. The significance is this type of air transportation can enhance mobility for communities that currently lack access to commercial air transportation. Another significant finding is that the large numbers of operations can have an impact on the current NAS infrastructure used by commercial airlines and cargo operators, even if on-demand traffic does not use the 28 airports in the Continental U.S. designated as large hubs by the FAA. Some smaller airports will experience greater demand than their current capacity allows and will require upgrading. In addition, in future years as demand grows and vehicle performance improves other non-conventional facilities such as short runways incorporated into

  11. Cross-tropopause transport by deep convective storms : model simulations and satellite/aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K.

    2008-12-01

    More and more evidences have shown that deep convective storms play an important role in the transport of water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere. Such transport has been observed to occur not only in midlatitudes but in lower latitudes as well. Observational evidences include elongated storm overshooting top cirrus plumes in the presence of strong upper level wind shear and pancake clouds above storm clouds in weak shear environment as observed in satellite visible and infrared images. In addition, jumping cirrus phenomenon observed by aircraft and ground based photography corroborates with satellite observations to further confirm the deep convective transport. Simulations of deep convective storms using a cloud resolving model provide more details on the physics and dynamics of this mechanism and also suggest potential techniques of using satellite data to estimate the deep convective transport. All these will be reviewed and summarized in this paper.

  12. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  13. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carrier operations and maintenance program (14 CFR part 43, 14 CFR part 91, 14 CFR part 121). (b) Each... § 141.804 Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan. (a) Each air carrier must develop and implement an aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan for each aircraft water system that...

  14. Aircraft hydraulic power system diagnostic, prognostics and health management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This Individual Research Project (IRP) is the extension research to the group design project (GDP) work which the author has participated in his Msc programme. The GDP objective is to complete the conceptual design of a 200-seat, flying wing civil airliner—FW-11. The next generation aircraft design demands higher reliability, safety and maintainability. With the development of the vehicle hydraulic system technology, the equipment and systems become more and more complex, their reliability...

  15. A novel posture alignment system for aircraft wing assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Bao-guo YAO; Ying-lin KE

    2009-01-01

    A novel 6-degree of freedom (DOF) posture alignment system, based on 3-DOF positioners, is presented for the assembly of aircraft wings. Each positioner is connected with the wing through a rotational and adsorptive half-ball shaped end-effector, and the positioners together with the wing are considered as a 3-PPPS (P denotes a prismatic joint and S denotes a spherical joint) redundantly actuated parallel mechanism. The kinematic model of this system is established and a trajectory planning method is introduced. A complete analysis of inverse dynamics is carried out with the Newton-Euler algorithm, which is used to find the desired actuating torque in the design and path planning phase. Simulation analysis of the displacement and actuating torque of each joint of the positioners based on inverse kinematics and dynamics is conducted, and the results show that the system is feasible for the posture alignment of aircraft wings.

  16. Ordnance delivery system and method including remotely piloted or programmable aircraft with yaw-to-turn guidance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, Ch. H.; Behrens, F. A.; Frederick, F. A.; Huton, J. H.

    1985-07-23

    A method and system for delivering ordnance to a target via a remotely piloted or programmable aircraft including a yaw-to-turn guidance system, a deployment and launching system and packaging for the aircraft are disclosed.

  17. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  18. Aircraft Measurements of Saharan dust properties and impact of atmospheric transport during Fennec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Claire; Highwood, Ellie; Rosenberg, Phil; Trembath, Jamie; Brooke, Jennifer; Bart, Mark; Dean, Angela; Dorsey, James; Crosier, Jonny; McQuaid, Jim; Brindley, Helen; Banks, James; Marsham, John; Sodemann, Harald; Washington, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of Saharan dust from recent airborne campaigns have found variations in size distributions and optical properties across Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa. These variations have an impact on radiation and thus weather and climate, and are important to characterise and understand, in particular, to understand how they vary with time after dust uplift, transport, and height in the atmosphere. New in-situ aircraft measurements from the Fennec 2011 aircraft campaign over a remote part of the Sahara Desert and the Atlantic Ocean will be presented and compared to previous airborne measurements. Size distributions extending to 300 μm will be shown, representing measurements extending further into the coarse mode than previously published for Saharan dust. The dust sampled by the aircraft covered a wide variety of loadings, dust source regions (Mali, Mauritania and Algeria) and dust ages (from fresh uplift to several days old). A significant coarse mode was present in the size distribution measurements with effective diameter up to 23 μm, and the mean size distribution showed greater concentrations of coarse mode than previous aircraft measurements. Single scattering albedo (SSA) values at 550nm calculated from these size distributions revealed high absorption from 0.77 to 0.95, with a mean of 0.85. Directly measured SSA values were higher (0.91 to 0.99) but new instrumentation revealed that these direct measurements, behind Rosemount inlets, overestimate the SSA by 0.02 to 0.20 depending on the concentration of coarse particles present. This is caused by inlet inefficiencies and pipe losses. Previous measurements of SSA from aircraft measurements may also have been overestimates for this reason. This has a significant impact on atmospheric heating rates. The largest dust particles were encountered closest to the ground, and were most abundant in cases where dust was freshly uplifted. Number concentration, mass loading and extinction coefficient showed inverse

  19. Selected Aircraft Throttle Controller With Support Of Fuzzy Expert Inference System

    OpenAIRE

    Żurek Józef; Grzesik Norbert; Kurpas Jakub

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes Zlin 143Lsi aircraft engine work parameters control support method – hourly fuel flow as a main factor under consideration. The method concerns project of aircraft throttle control support system with use of fuzzy logic (fuzzy inference). The primary purpose of the system is aircraft performance optimization, reducing flight cost at the same time and support proper aircraft engine maintenance. Matlab Software and Fuzzy Logic Toolbox were used in the project. Work of the sy...

  20. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  1. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  2. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.

  3. Experimental investigation of the vortical activity in the close wake of a simplified military transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Yannick; Jardin, Thierry; Klöckner, Andreas

    2013-05-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of the vortex structures that develop in the aft fuselage region and in the wake of a simplified geometry of a military transport aircraft. It comes within the framework of the military applications of airflow influence on airdrop operations. This work relies on particle image velocimetry measurements combined with a vortex-tracking approach. Complex vortex dynamics is revealed, in terms of vortex positions, intensities, sizes, shapes and fluctuation levels, for both closed and opened cargo-door and ramp airdrop configurations.

  4. System Design for Transitional Aircraft Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.T. Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force and industry are undergoing significant changes in the way they work together in capability enhancement programs. There are capability gaps in maintaining and supporting current obligations during major asset acquisition, which has migrated into the front line of Royal Air Force Fighter Groups as a new capability. This paper examines a steady state support solution and argues that in order to interchange from one support solution to a new architecture there must be a period for transition, which may need its own interim business model and operational service. A preliminary study of several existing support solutions reveals the generic elements that need to be parameterized and traced through the support system architecture trajectory.

  5. Structural Configuration Systems Analysis for Advanced Aircraft Fuselage Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Welstead, Jason R.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Structural configuration analysis of an advanced aircraft fuselage concept is investigated. This concept is characterized by a double-bubble section fuselage with rear mounted engines. Based on lessons learned from structural systems analysis of unconventional aircraft, high-fidelity finite-element models (FEM) are developed for evaluating structural performance of three double-bubble section configurations. Structural sizing and stress analysis are applied for design improvement and weight reduction. Among the three double-bubble configurations, the double-D cross-section fuselage design was found to have a relatively lower structural weight. The structural FEM weights of these three double-bubble fuselage section concepts are also compared with several cylindrical fuselage models. Since these fuselage concepts are different in size, shape and material, the fuselage structural FEM weights are normalized by the corresponding passenger floor area for a relative comparison. This structural systems analysis indicates that an advanced composite double-D section fuselage may have a relative structural weight ratio advantage over a conventional aluminum fuselage. Ten commercial and conceptual aircraft fuselage structural weight estimates, which are empirically derived from the corresponding maximum takeoff gross weight, are also presented and compared with the FEM- based estimates for possible correlation. A conceptual full vehicle FEM model with a double-D fuselage is also developed for preliminary structural analysis and weight estimation.

  6. Aircraft Performance Analysis in Conceptual Design Phase based on System-of-Systems Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a competitive design in aircraft conceptual design phase, this paper propose an aircraft performance analysis method based on system-of-systems (SoS simulations. The analysis process includes design space exploration and mission effectiveness analysis and the stochastic nature in SoS mission is captured based on a Monte Carlo method. Meanwhile as an example, the performance of UAVs which are applied in earthquake search and rescue SoS is analysed based on SoS simulations. The results show that the level of aircraft performance which leads to an optimum SoS effectiveness could be designed below the maximum performance. And it is necessary to apply SoS simulations into aircraft conceptual design phase to help designers optimize aircraft performance.

  7. Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission: Design, execution, and first results

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Daniel James; Crawford, James; Kleb, Mary; Connors, VIckie; Bendura, Richard; Raper, James; Sachse, Glen; Gille, John; Emmons, Louisa; Heald, Colette

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission was conducted in February–April 2001 over the NW Pacific (1) to characterize the Asian chemical outflow and relate it quantitatively to its sources and (2) to determine its chemical evolution. It used two aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, operating out of Hong Kong and Yokota Air Force Base (near Tokyo), with secondary sites in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, Okinawa, and Midway. The aircraft carried instrumentation f...

  8. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... aircraft supplied power and data failures on the engine control system, and the resulting effects on engine... case, an electronic engine control with aircraft interfaces. Additionally, Special Conditions for High...: Aircraft Engines''; Part 35 (``Airworthiness Standards: Propellers''; Sec. 25.903(d)(l) (``Engines'';...

  9. Flying and handling qualities of a fly-by-wire blended-wing-body civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2003-01-01

    The blended-wing-body (BWB) configuration appears as a promising contender for the next generation of large transport aircraft. The idea of blending the wing with the fuselage and eliminating the tail is not new, it has long been known that tailless aircraft can suffer from stability and control problems that must be addressed early in the design. This thesis is concerned with identifying and then evaluating the flight dynamics, stability, flight controls and handling qualities of a generic B...

  10. Design and Testing of a Flight Control System for Unstable Subscale Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sobron, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis was to study, implement, and test low-cost electronic flight control systems (FCS) in remotely piloted subscale research aircraft with relaxed static longitudinal stability. Even though this implementation was carried out in small, simplified test-bed aircraft, it was designed with the aim of being installed later in more complex demonstrator aircraft such as the Generic Future Fighter concept demonstrator project. The recent boom of the unmanned aircraft ...

  11. Optical wireless networked-systems: applications to aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on leveraging the progress in semiconductor technologies to facilitate production of efficient light-based in-flight entertainment (IFE), distributed sensing, navigation and control systems. We demonstrate the ease of configuring "engineered pipes" using cheap lenses, etc. to achieve simple linear transmission capacity growth. Investigation of energy-efficient, miniaturized transceivers will create a wireless medium, for both inter and intra aircrafts, providing enhanced security, and improved quality-of-service for communications links in greater harmony with onboard systems. The applications will seamlessly inter-connect multiple intelligent devices in a network that is deployable for aircrafts navigation systems, onboard sensors and entertainment data delivery systems, and high-definition audio-visual broadcasting systems. Recent experimental results on a high-capacity infrared (808 nm) system are presented. The light source can be applied in a hybrid package along with a visible lighting LED for both lighting and communications. Also, we present a pragmatic combination of light communications through "Spotlighting" and existing onboard power-lines. It is demonstrated in details that a high-capacity IFE visible light system communicating over existing power-lines (VLC/PLC) may lead to savings in many areas through reduction of size, weight and energy consumption. This paper addresses the challenges of integrating optimized optical devices in the variety of environments described above, and presents mitigation and tailoring approaches for a multi-purpose optical network.

  12. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  13. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.

    2003-08-01

    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  14. Multi-level systems modeling and optimization for novel aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Shreyas Vathul

    This research combines the disciplines of system-of-systems (SoS) modeling, platform-based design, optimization and evolving design spaces to achieve a novel capability for designing solutions to key aeronautical mission challenges. A central innovation in this approach is the confluence of multi-level modeling (from sub-systems to the aircraft system to aeronautical system-of-systems) in a way that coordinates the appropriate problem formulations at each level and enables parametric search in design libraries for solutions that satisfy level-specific objectives. The work here addresses the topic of SoS optimization and discusses problem formulation, solution strategy, the need for new algorithms that address special features of this problem type, and also demonstrates these concepts using two example application problems - a surveillance UAV swarm problem, and the design of noise optimal aircraft and approach procedures. This topic is critical since most new capabilities in aeronautics will be provided not just by a single air vehicle, but by aeronautical Systems of Systems (SoS). At the same time, many new aircraft concepts are pressing the boundaries of cyber-physical complexity through the myriad of dynamic and adaptive sub-systems that are rising up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) scale. This compositional approach is envisioned to be active at three levels: validated sub-systems are integrated to form conceptual aircraft, which are further connected with others to perform a challenging mission capability at the SoS level. While these multiple levels represent layers of physical abstraction, each discipline is associated with tools of varying fidelity forming strata of 'analysis abstraction'. Further, the design (composition) will be guided by a suitable hierarchical complexity metric formulated for the management of complexity in both the problem (as part of the generative procedure and selection of fidelity level) and the product (i.e., is the mission

  15. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  16. Architecture Optimization of More Electric Aircraft Actuation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haitao; FU Yongling; QI Xiaoye; LANG Yan

    2011-01-01

    The optional types of power source and actuator in the aircraft are more and more diverse due to fast development in more electric technology,which makes the combinations of different power sources and actuators become extremely complex in the architecture optimization process of airborne actuation system.The traditional “trial and error” method cannot satisfy the design demands.In this paper,firstly,the composition of more electric aircraft(MEA) flight control actuation system(FCAS) is introduced,and the possible architecture quantity is calculated.Secondly,the evaluation criteria of FCAS architecture with respect to safe reliability,weight and efficiency are proposed,and the evaluation criteria values are calculated in the case that each control surface adopts the same actuator configuration.Finally,the optimization results of MEA FCAS architecture are obtained by applying genetic algorithm(GA).Compared to the traditional actuation system architecture,which only adopts servo valve controlled hydraulic actuators,the weight of the optimized more electric actuation system architecture can be reduced by 6%,and the efficiency can be improved by 30% based on the safe reliability requirements.

  17. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  18. Selected Aircraft Throttle Controller With Support Of Fuzzy Expert Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żurek Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes Zlin 143Lsi aircraft engine work parameters control support method – hourly fuel flow as a main factor under consideration. The method concerns project of aircraft throttle control support system with use of fuzzy logic (fuzzy inference. The primary purpose of the system is aircraft performance optimization, reducing flight cost at the same time and support proper aircraft engine maintenance. Matlab Software and Fuzzy Logic Toolbox were used in the project. Work of the system is presented with use of twenty test samples, five of them are presented graphically. In addition, system control surface, included in the paper, supports system all work range analysis.

  19. Nonlinear transient vibrations and coexistences of multi-instabilities induced by friction in an aircraft braking system

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillot, Fabrice; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Hardouin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    International audience Friction-induced vibration is still a cause for concern in a wide variety of mechanical systems, because it can lead to structural damage if high vibration levels are reached. Another effect is the noise produced that can be very unpleasant for end-users, thereby making it a major problem in the field of terrestrial transport. In this work the case of an aircraft braking system is examined. An analytical model with polynomial nonlinearity in the contact between rotor...

  20. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  1. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  2. Computation of wake/exhaust mixing downstream of advanced transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Teske, Milton E.; Bilanin, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    The mixing of engine exhaust with the vortical wake of high speed aircraft operating in the stratosphere can play an important role in the formation of chemical products that deplete atmospheric ozone. An accurate analysis of this type of interaction is therefore necessary as a part of the assessment of the impact of proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designs on atmospheric chemistry. This paper describes modifications to the parabolic Navier-Stokes flow field analysis in the UNIWAKE unified aircraft wake model to accommodate the computation of wake/exhaust mixing and the simulation of reacting flow. The present implementation uses a passive chemistry model in which the reacting species are convected and diffused by the fluid dynamic solution but in which the evolution of the species does not affect the flow field. The resulting analysis, UNIWAKE/PCHEM (Passive CHEMistry) has been applied to the analysis of wake/exhaust flows downstream of representative HSCT configurations. The major elements of the flow field model are described, as are the results of sample calculations illustrating the behavior of the thermal exhaust plume and the production of species important to the modeling of condensation in the wake. Appropriate steps for further development of the UNIWAKE/PCHEM model are also outlined.

  3. Aeroelastic Tailoring Study of N+2 Low Boom Supersonic Commerical Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2015-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin N+2 Low - boom Supersonic Commercial Transport (LSCT) aircraft was optimized in this study through the use of a multidisciplinary design optimization tool developed at the National Aeronautics and S pace Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center. A total of 111 design variables we re used in the first optimization run. Total structural weight was the objective function in this optimization run. Design requirements for strength, buckling, and flutter we re selected as constraint functions during the first optimization run. The MSC Nastran code was used to obtain the modal, strength, and buckling characteristics. Flutter and trim analyses we re based on ZAERO code, and landing and ground control loads were computed using an in - house code. The w eight penalty to satisfy all the design requirement s during the first optimization run was 31,367 lb, a 9.4% increase from the baseline configuration. The second optimization run was prepared and based on the big-bang big-crunch algorithm. Six composite ply angles for the second and fourth composite layers were selected as discrete design variables for the second optimization run. Composite ply angle changes can't improve the weight configuration of the N+2 LSCT aircraft. However, this second optimization run can create more tolerance for the active and near active strength constraint values for future weight optimization runs.

  4. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans....

  5. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. In an...

  6. The Pilatus Unmanned Aircraft System for Lower Atmospheric Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Agrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussell, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff I.; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents the University of Colorado Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 meters and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is pow-ered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the orientation offset between it and the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a cor-rection is applied to the raw measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to he sun. The data acquisition system was designed from the ground up in order to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors generally agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as would be expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be expected due to uneven heating of the sensor

  7. Systems study for an Integrated Digital-Electric Aircraft (IDEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, G. E.; Irish, L. A.; Bailey, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the Integrated Digital/Electric Aircraft (IDEA) Study are presented. Airplanes with advanced systems were, defined and evaluated, as a means of identifying potential high payoff research tasks. A baseline airplane was defined for comparison, typical of a 1990's airplane with advanced active controls, propulsion, aerodynamics, and structures technology. Trade studies led to definition of an IDEA airplane, with extensive digital systems and electric secondary power distribution. This airplane showed an improvement of 3% in fuel use and 1.8% in DOC relative to the baseline configuration. An alternate configuration, an advanced technology turboprop, was also evaluated, with greater improvement supported by digital electric systems. Recommended research programs were defined for high risk, high payoff areas appropriate for implementation under NASA leadership.

  8. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  9. Assimilation of IASI satellite CO fields into a global chemistry transport model for validation against aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klonecki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A modelling system for assimilation of CO total columns measured by the IASI/MetOp was developed. The system, based on a sub-optimal Kalman filter coupled with the LMDz-INCA chemistry transport model, allows both assimilating long periods of historical data and making rapid forecasts of the CO concentrations in the middle troposphere based on latest available measurements. Tests of the forecast system were conducted during the international POLARCAT campaigns. A specific treatment that takes into account the representativeness of observations at the scale of the model grid is applied to the IASI CO columns and associated errors before their assimilation in the model. This paper presents the results of assimilation of eight months of historical satellite data measured in 2008. Comparisons of the assimilated CO profiles with independent in situ CO measurements from the MOZAIC program and the POLARCAT aircraft campaigns indicate that the assimilation leads to a considerable improvement of the model simulations in the middle troposphere as compared with a control run with no assimilation. Model biases in the simulation of background values are reduced and improvement in the simulation of very high concentrations is observed. The improvement is due to the transport by the model of the information present in the IASI CO retrievals. The consistency of the improvement contributes to the validation of the IASI CO data.

  10. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  11. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  12. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Pommier, M.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Stebel, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hair, J. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Schlager, H.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Stohl, A.

    2011-04-01

    During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2-5 July and 7-10 July 2008) occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications. Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are. The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the

  13. Episodes of Cross-Polar Transport in the Arctic Troposphere During July 2008 as Seen from Models, Satellite, and Aircraft Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Pommier, M.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Stebel, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hair, J. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Schlager, H.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Stohl, A.

    2011-01-01

    During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2 5 July and 7 10 July 2008) occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications. Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are. The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the

  14. An Aircraft Navigation System Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Optimized Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-dedieu Weyepe

    2014-01-01

    Air data and inertial reference system (ADIRS) is one of the complex sub-system in the aircraft navigation system and it plays an important role into the flight safety of the aircraft. This paper propose an optimize neural network algorithm which is a combination of neural network and ant colony algorithm to improve efficiency of maintenance engineer job task.

  15. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  16. The use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS in combat operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GUGAŁA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this publication has been presented selected aspects of the wide spectrum of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS/UAV adaptation within the military structures. With regard to many years of experience of the author within the national and NATO Integrated Air Defence Command and Control System, the objective paper is also related to the Airspace Management (ASM in the light of present and future use of UAS in this environment. Wider and wider application of UAS in many areas of human life as well as in military and civilian services is forcing to take the definite steps in connection with elaboration of “New Concept of Polish Airspace Management in Context of UAS Development”, what is currently under consideration of the author. The respective publication is simultaneously the specific trial for inspiration of the civilian society to take an initiative heading for implementation of UAS out of military service.

  17. Lost in Debate: The Safety of Domestic Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonmin Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The United States is poised to integrate commercial unmanned aircraft systems (UAS into the national airspace and enable government entities to use UAS in a more expedient manner. This policy change, mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, offers new economic, social and scientific opportunities as well as enhanced law enforcement capacity. However, such benefits will be accompanied by concerns over misuse and abuse of the new technologies by criminals and terrorists. Privacy has been the focus of public debate over the more widespread use of UAS. This paper examines a variety of issues related to allowing broad UAS operations in domestic airspace, and puts forth that safety should be the top priority of policy makers in their effort to integrate UAS into the national airspace system.

  18. Can we accelerate the improvement of energy efficiency in aircraft systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joosung J. [College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    An aircraft is composed of systems that convert fuel energy to mechanical energy in order to perform work - the movement of people and cargo. Today, the fast-growing demand for air travel has outpaced the rate of improvement in the energy efficiency of aircraft systems. The increase in the total energy consumption and environmental impact of aviation necessitates a strategy to induce further technological and operational innovations to mitigate the increase in aircraft energy use and environmental effects. However, the uncertainty associated with the climate effects of jet engine emissions hinders further improvement to the energy efficiency of aircraft systems. Also the unique characteristics (e.g., trade-off between emissions species) of aircraft systems make it difficult to focus on abatement efforts. Based on a short review of how aircraft technology and operations relate to energy use and the future outlook for aircraft performance, energy use, and environmental impact, the key technology and policy issues related to improving the energy efficiency of aircraft systems are presented. Then, the drivers of technological change in aircraft systems are examined. Government regulation effects and industry characteristics as they relate to improvement of energy use are also presented. Based on these discussions, this paper provides insights on how to accelerate the induction of energy efficient, environmentally friendly innovations. (author)

  19. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  20. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  1. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  3. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  4. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue,...

  5. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies...

  6. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  7. Fuel property effects on Navy aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of ensuring compatibility of Navy aircraft with fuels that may be different than the fuels for which the equipment was designed and qualified are discussed. To avoid expensive requalification of all the engines and airframe fuel systems, methodologies to qualify future fuels by using bench-scale and component testing are being sought. Fuel blends with increasing JP5-type aromatic concentration were seen to produce less volume swell than an equivalent aromatic concentration in the reference fuel. Futhermore, blends with naphthenes, decalin, tetralin, and naphthalenes do not deviate significantly from the correlation line of aromatic blends, Similar results are found with tensile strenth and elongation. Other elastomers, sealants, and adhesives are also being tested.

  8. European activities in civil applications of drones: an overview of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Reiner

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of recent research, development and civil application of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) in Europe. It describes a European strategy for the development of civil applications of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) and reflects most of the contents of the European staff working document SWD(2012) 259 final.

  9. Testing, validation, and verification of an expert system advisor for aircraft maintenance scheduling (ESAAMS).

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieu, Christian W.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance control operates in a dynamic, high intensity environment. Maintenance work priorities are made several times daily under extremely demanding and time sensitive conditions. the person responsible for scheduling aircraft, usually the Maintenance Master Chief, draws upon years of experience when assigning priorities for both scheduled and unscheduled maintenance. An Expert System Advisor for Aircraft Maintenance Scheduling (ESAAMS) is being implemented at the Naval Postg...

  10. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  11. Understanding electrostatic charge behaviour in aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, Jill A.; Hooker, Phil; Bennett, Darrell

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents work on the simulation of electrostatic charge build-up and decay in aircraft fuel systems. A model (EC-Flow) has been developed by BAE Systems under contract to Airbus, to allow the user to assess the effects of changes in design or in refuel conditions. Some of the principles behind the model are outlined. The model allows for a range of system components, including metallic and non-metallic pipes, valves, filters, junctions, bends and orifices. A purpose-built experimental rig was built at the Health and Safety Laboratory in Buxton, UK, to provide comparison data. The rig comprises a fuel delivery system, a test section where different components may be introduced into the system, and a Faraday Pail for measuring generated charge. Diagnostics include wall currents, charge densities and pressure losses. This paper shows sample results from the fitting of model predictions to measurement data and shows how analysis may be used to explain some of the observed trends.

  12. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...

  13. Dynamics modeling and control of a transport aircraft for ultra-low altitude airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear aircraft model with heavy cargo moving inside is derived by using the separation body method, which can describe the influence of the moving cargo on the aircraft attitude and altitude accurately. Furthermore, the nonlinear system is decoupled and linearized through the input–output feedback linearization method. On this basis, an iterative quasi-sliding mode (SM flight controller for speed and pitch angle control is proposed. At the first-level SM, a global dynamic switching function is introduced thus eliminating the reaching phase of the sliding motion. At the second-level SM, a nonlinear function with the property of “smaller errors correspond to bigger gains and bigger errors correspond to saturated gains” is designed to form an integral sliding manifold, and the overcompensation of the integral term to big errors is weakened. Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the controller with strong robustness can reject both constant and time-varying model uncertainties. The performance of the proposed control strategy is verified in a maximum load airdrop mission.

  14. Symmetric solid target transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Tomov, D.; Lawrence, L; Gaehle, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The expansion of our PET isotope production with a new TR-19 cyclotron necessitated a suitable solid target transport system. None of the known existing and proposed solid target transport systems (STTS) was able to meet the technical and budget requirements of the MIR cyclotron facility [5]. A unique carrier design allowed us to develop a fully automated 50.8 mm inner diameter pneumatic tube STTS with an in-hot-cell compact form factor receiving station. The cyclotron or v...

  15. Role of convective transport on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During the wet season of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA campaign, airborne measurements of several chemical species were made onboard the French Falcon-20 (FF20 aircraft. The scientific flights were planned in order to document, on one hand the regional distribution of trace gas species related to the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, and on the other hand their spatial variability in the outflow of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs. The main objectives of this paper are the analysis of the main transport processes responsible for the observed variability, and the discussion of differences and similarities related to the convective transport by 4 different MCSs. This work is needed before using this data set for future studies of the convective transport of chemical species or for modeling work in the frame of the AMMA project. Regarding the regional distribution, five air masses types have been identified using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, and by considering relationship between the measured trace gas concentrations (O3, CO, NOx, H2O, and hydroperoxides. This paper specifically discusses the advantage of hydroperoxide measurements in order to document the impact of recent or aged convection. The highest values of O3 are found to be related to transport from the subtropical tropopause region into the mid-troposphere at latitudes as low as 10° N. The lowest ozone values have been always explained by recent uplifting from the monsoon layer where O3 is photochemically destroyed. Regarding the analysis of the MCS outflow, the CO and H2O2 enhancements are related to the age and the southernmost position of the MCS. The analysis of the long range transport of the air masses where convection occurred, shows a connection with the Persian Gulf emissions for the largest CO concentrations in MCS outflow. However for our

  16. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akgüngör, Ali Payıdar; DEMİREL, Abdulmuttalip

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  17. The Philosophy which underlies the structural tests of a supersonic transport aircraft with particular attention to the thermal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The information presented is based on data obtained from the Concorde. Much of this data also applies to other supersonic transport aircraft. The design and development of the Concorde is a joint effort of the British and French, and the structural test program is shared, as are all the other activities. Vast numbers of small specimens have been tested to determine the behavior of the materials used in the aircraft. Major components of the aircraft structure, totalling almost a complete aircraft, have been made and are being tested to help the constructors in each country in the design and development of the structure. Tests on two complete airframes will give information for the certification of the aircraft. A static test was conducted in France and a fatigue test in the United Kingdom. Fail-safe tests are being made to demonstrate the crack-propagation characteristics of the structure and its residual strength. Aspects of the structural test program are described in some detail, dealing particularly with the problems associated with the thermal cycle. The biggest of these problems is the setting up of the fatigue test on the complete airframe; therefore, this is covered more extensively with a discussion about how the test time can be shortened and with a description of the practical aspects of the test.

  18. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  19. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  20. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  1. Dynamic of SDOF elastic-plastic system subjected to aircraft impact pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the responses of elastic-plastic SDOF systems subjected to aircraft impact pulses are calculated. The results are compared with simpler pulse models and represented in the useful form of design charts. Two well-known approaches to seismic spectra are examined for the design of aircraft impact spectra. (orig.)

  2. A Radio System for Avoiding Illuminating Aircraft with a Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, W A; Melser, J F; Tu, J K; White, G A; Kassabian, K H; Bales, K; Baumgartner, B B

    2009-01-01

    When scientific experiments require transmission of powerful laser or radio beams through the atmosphere the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that precautions be taken to avoid inadvertent illumination of aircraft. Here we describe a highly reliable system for detecting aircraft entering the vicinity of a laser beam by making use of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponders required on most aircraft. This system uses two antennas, both aligned with the laser beam. One antenna has a broad beam and the other has a narrow beam. The ratio of the transponder power received in the narrow beam to that received in the broad beam gives a measure of the angular distance of the aircraft from the axis that is independent of the range or the transmitter power. This ratio is easily measured and can be used to shutter the laser when the aircraft is too close to the beam. Prototype systems operating on astronomical telescopes have produced good results.

  3. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  4. Single Neuron PID Control of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Rapid Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system is widely used in aircraft ground deicing to ensure that the operation of flights can be safe and efficient. Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combine the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. The aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system and the scheme and working principle of the system is introduced. Simulation is executed on the basis of the mathematical model of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system, which is built in this paper, according to a number of data collected by experiments which are operated on the experimental platform of deicing fluids rapid heating system. The simulation results show that the single neuron PID control strategy perform effectively on the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system. Experiments are conducted to vertify the single neuron PID control strategy, the results of which show that the single neuron PID control strategy can achieve the request in practical application of the aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system.

  5. Conceptual study of advanced VTOL transport aircraft engine; Kosoku VTOL kiyo engine no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Endo, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, M.; Sugahara, N.; Yamamoto, K. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    This report proposes the concept of an ultra-low noise engine for advanced high subsonic VTOL transport aircraft, and discusses its technological feasibility. As one of the applications of the previously reported `separated core turbofan engine,` the conceptual engine is composed of 3 core engines, 2 cruise fan engines for high subsonic cruising and 6 lift fan engines producing thrust of 98kN (10000kgf)/engine. The core turbojet engine bleeds a large amount of air at the outlet of a compressor to supply driving high-pressure air for fans to other engines. The lift fan engine is composed of a lift fan, driving combustor, turbine and speed reduction gear, and is featured by not only high operation stability and thin fan engine like a separated core engine but also ultra-low noise operation. The cruise fan engine adopts the same configuration as the lift fan engine. Since this engine configuration has no technological problems difficult to be overcome, its high technological feasibility is expected. 6 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  7. A small radiation monitoring system for aerial surveys using a hobbyist aircraft - a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a miniaturized Airborne Radiation Detection System (ARDS) proposed to be developed, which can be strapped to a small hobbyist aircraft that can be maneuvered remotely over the area of interest. The proposed ARDS consists of a radiation measurement device, a Global Positioning System (GPS) for positional information and either sufficient battery backed up memory or a small data transceiver and will need a hobbyist aircraft with a payload capacity of 2-3kg. Such miniaturized systems along with the hobbyist aircraft can be kept in all the emergency response centers spread over the country to further strengthen the emergency preparedness, involving nuclear accidents. (author)

  8. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  9. Application of wireless sensor networks to aircraft control and health management systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rama; K.; YEDAVALLI; Rohit; K.; BELAPURKAR

    2011-01-01

    Use of fly-by-wire technology for aircraft flight controls have resulted in an improved performance and reliability along with achieving reduction in control system weight. Implementation of full authority digital engine control has also resulted in more intelligent, reliable, light-weight aircraft engine control systems. Greater reduction in weight can be achieved by replacing the wire harness with a wireless communication network. The first step towards fly-by-wireless control systems is likely to be the ...

  10. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART, the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT, and for numerical aspects the limited-area chemical transport model WRF-Chem. Retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite are used as a total column CO reference for the two simulations. Main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian models. Aircraft data suggest that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT and WRF-Chem are biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight

  11. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  12. Transport In The Antarctic Lowermost Stratosphere Inferred From In-situ Aircraft Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A.; Ivanova, E.; Riediger, O.; Schmidt, U.; Strunk, M.; Volk, M.

    During the APE-GAIA campaign in Ushuaia, Argentina (54 S) in September/October 1999 measurements of long-lived tracers were made on board the M55 Geophys- ica aircraft with the High Altitude Gas Analyser (HAGAR), an in-situ instrument designed and built at the Institute for Meteorology and Geophysics, University of Frankfurt. HAGAR consists of a two channel gas chromatograph (GC/ECD) com- bined with a non-dispersive IR analyser which together measure the species N2O, CFC11, CFC12, H1211, SF6, and CO2. Most of the data were obtained between 50S and 70S latitude outside and inside the Antarctic polar vortex up to altitudes of about 21 km. Good coverage of samples in the lowermost stratosphere is achieved during horizontal flight legs at potential temperatures < 380K as well as vertical profiles at various latitudes. To estimate transport into the lowermost stratosphere we will present simple mass- balance calculations based on a method by Ray et al. (JGR, Vol. 104, No.D21, p. 26565-26580, 1999). With the knowledge of mixing ratios of trace gases at the 380 K isentropic surface, the tropopause, and data within the lowermost stratosphere it is pos- sible to determine the portions of air coming from above 380 K and across the extrat- ropical tropopause. In order to investigate seasonal variations, comparisons are made with NASA-ER-2 data from the ASHOE/MAESA (1994) campaign. Hemispheric dif- ferences are discussed by comparing our results with the northern hemispheric results of Ray et al.

  13. Aircraft Observations of the Tampa Urban Plume during BRACE: Transport, Photochemical, and Depositional Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.; Wellman, D.; Dasgupta, P.; Li, J.; Riemer, D.

    2003-12-01

    Staff from NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The overall objective of the aircraft measurements in BRACE was to study the emission, transport, and photochemical transformations of nitrogen and other ozone precursors in the Tampa area. Continuous instrumentation was used to measure NO, NOX, NOY, HNO3, CO, SO2, O3, CH2O, and H2O2. A semi-continuous GC technique with luminol detection was used to measure PAN. Filter packs were used to make integrated measurements of nitric acid and inorganic aerosols in both fine and bulk aerosol size fractions. Stainless steel grab cans were filled during flight for post-flight analysis of NMHCs by GC/FID/MS. The urban plume was sampled under a variety of meteorological regimes, as it was advected by the prevailing winds over the Florida peninsula (with continuing input of natural and anthropogenic precursors along the advection path) and, in other cases, over the Gulf of Mexico, where additional chemical inputs were negligible and the plume was relatively unaffected by turbulent deposition processes. Case studies will be used to compare and contrast the photochemical processes in the plume under these different regimes. The observed relationships and variations of trace gas concentrations will be used to determine the efficiency of ozone production, as well as instances of NOX or VOC limitation. Sampling the plume at varying downwind distances, over both land and water, allows the determination of overall rates of photochemical ozone production, NOX and SOX oxidation, and estimates of depositional losses of

  14. 76 FR 75565 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting....

  15. 78 FR 38076 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting....

  16. 77 FR 59020 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting....

  17. 78 FR 7816 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting....

  18. 78 FR 25100 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting....

  19. Non-Parametric, Closed-Loop Testing of Autonomy in Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I program aims to develop new methods to support safety testing for integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace (NAS)...

  20. Development of Novel, Optically-Based Instrumentation for Aircraft System Testing and Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact, robust, optically-based sensor for making temperature and multi-species concentration measurements in aircraft system ground and...

  1. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For electric propulsion systems for large aircraft it is desirable to have very light weight electric motors. Cryogenic motors offer much lighter weight than...

  2. Multi-body dynamic system simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yangang; Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju

    2013-01-01

    The flight safety is threatened by the special flight conditions and the low speed of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The aircraft carrier motion,aircraft dynamics,landing gears and wind field of sea state are comprehensively considered to dispose this multidiscipline intersection problem.According to the particular naval operating environment of the carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff,the integrated dynamic simulation models of multi-body system are developed,which involves the movement entities of the carrier,the aircraft and the landing gears,and involves takeoff instruction,control system and the deck wind disturbance.Based on Matlab/Simulink environment,the multi-body system simulation is realized.The validity of the model and the rationality of the result are verified by an example simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The simulation model and the software are suitable for the study of the multidiscipline intersection problems which are involved in the performance,flight quality and safety of carrier-based aircraft takeoff,the effects of landing gear loads,parameters of carrier deck,etc.

  3. APACHE: Integrated Hybrid Fuel Cell System for 2-Seat All Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Hordé, Théophile; Achard, Patrick; Metkemeijer, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    International audience The French APACHE project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of using a Hybrid Fuel Cell System (HFCS) as the power generator for all electric 2-seat aircrafts. This study focuses on three main topics: airworthiness of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), their hybridization with Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) batteries and systems' integration into light aircrafts. Altitude and inclination tests have been led and allow to conclude on the ability of PEMFC to operate...

  4. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  5. Progress of Aircraft System Noise Assessment with Uncertainty Quantification for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft system noise predictions have been performed for NASA modeled hybrid wing body aircraft advanced concepts with 2025 entry-into-service technology assumptions. The system noise predictions developed over a period from 2009 to 2016 as a result of improved modeling of the aircraft concepts, design changes, technology development, flight path modeling, and the use of extensive integrated system level experimental data. In addition, the system noise prediction models and process have been improved in many ways. An additional process is developed here for quantifying the uncertainty with a 95% confidence level. This uncertainty applies only to the aircraft system noise prediction process. For three points in time during this period, the vehicle designs, technologies, and noise prediction process are documented. For each of the three predictions, and with the information available at each of those points in time, the uncertainty is quantified using the direct Monte Carlo method with 10,000 simulations. For the prediction of cumulative noise of an advanced aircraft at the conceptual level of design, the total uncertainty band has been reduced from 12.2 to 9.6 EPNL dB. A value of 3.6 EPNL dB is proposed as the lower limit of uncertainty possible for the cumulative system noise prediction of an advanced aircraft concept.

  6. A Criterion Based on Closed-loop Pilot-aircraft Systems for Predicting Flying Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Wenqian; A.V.Efremov; Qu Xiangju

    2010-01-01

    During the process of aircraft design,the mathematical model of pilot control behavior characteristics is always used to predict aircraft flying qualities (FQ).This is one of the important methods to avoid pilot-aircraft adverse coupling.In order to study the FQ criterion based on closedloop pilotaircraft systems,first,an experimental database is built,which includes 40 aircraft dynamics configurations and the corresponding flight simulation results.Second,the mathematical pilot models with a set of different aircraft configurations are obtained by this experimental database.Then,two FQ criteria,NealSmith criterion and Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) criterion,are analyzed.And the relationship between the FQ level evaluated by actual pilot and the parameters of closedloop pilotaircraft systems is studied.Finally,an improved criterion of aircraft FQ is built based on the above two criteria.This new criterion is further used to predict FQ for four new aircraft dynamics configurations,and the prediction results verify its accuracy and practicability.

  7. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO

  8. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  9. Classification of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. UAS Classification/Categorization for Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Category, class, and type designations are primary means to identify appropriate aircraft certification basis, operating rules/limitations, and pilot qualifications to operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). The question is whether UAS fit into existing aircraft categories or classes, or are unique enough to justify the creation of a new category/class. In addition, the characteristics or capabilities, which define when an UAS becomes a regulated aircraft, must also be decided. This issue focuses on UAS classification for certification purposes. Several approaches have been considered for classifying UAS. They basically group into either using a weight/mass basis, or a safety risk basis, factoring in the performance of the UAS, including where the UAS would operate. Under existing standards, aircraft must have a Type Certificate and Certificate of Airworthiness, in order to be used for "compensation or hire", a major difference from model aircraft. Newer technologies may make it possible for very small UAS to conduct commercial services, but that is left for a future discussion to extend the regulated aircraft to a lower level. The Access 5 position is that UAS are aircraft and should be regulated above the weight threshold differentiating them from model airplanes. The recommended classification grouping is summarized in a chart.

  10. Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

  11. Experimental characterization of the COndensation PArticle counting System for high altitude aircraft-borne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Weigel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at a detailed characterization of an ultra-fine aerosol particle counting system for operation on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 "Geophysica" (maximum ceiling of 21 km. The COndensation PArticle counting Systems (COPAS consists of an aerosol inlet and two dual-channel continuous flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs.

    The aerosol inlet, adapted for COPAS measurements on board the M-55 "Geophysica", is described concerning aspiration, transmission, and transport losses. The counting efficiencies of the CPCs using the chlorofluorocarbon FC-43 as the working fluid are studied experimentally at two pressure conditions, 300 hPa and 70 hPa. Three COPAS channels are operated with different temperature differences between the saturator and the condenser block yielding smallest detectable particle sizes (dp50 – as 50% detection "cut off" diameters of 6 nm, 11 nm, and 15 nm, respectively, at ambient pressure of 70 hPa. The fourth COPAS channel is operated with an aerosol heating line (250°C for a determination of the non-volatile number of particles. The heating line is experimentally proven to volatilize pure H2SO4-H2O particles for a particle diameter (dp range of 11 nm<dp<200 nm.

    Additionally this study includes investigation to exclude auto-nucleation of the working fluid inside the CPCs. An instrumental inter-comparison (cross-correlation has been performed for several measurement flights and mission flights in the Arctic and the Tropics are discussed. Finally, COPAS measurements are used for an aircraft plume crossing analysis.

  12. A survey on electromagnetic interferences on aircraft avionics systems and a GSM on board system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinto, Natale; Tropea, Mauro; Fazio, Peppino; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have been characterized by an increase in the air traffic. More attention over micro-economic and macroeconomic indexes would be strategic to gather and enhance the safety of a flight and customer needing, for communicating by wireless handhelds on-board aircrafts. Thus, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed a GSM On Board (GSMOBA) system as a possible solution, allowing mobile terminals to communicate through GSM system on aircraft, avoiding electromagnetic interferences with radio components aboard. The main issues are directly related with interferences that could spring-out when mobile terminals attempt to connect to ground BTS, from the airplane. This kind of system is able to resolve the problem in terms of conformance of Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) limits, defined outside the aircraft, by using an On board BTS (OBTS) and modeling the relevant key RF parameters on the air. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of literature and previous studies about the problem, giving also a good detail of technical and normative references.

  13. Modeling and Simulation of Power Distribution System in More Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The More Electric Aircraft concept is a fast-developing trend in modern aircraft industry. With this new concept, the performance of the aircraft can be further optimized and meanwhile the operating and maintenance cost will be decreased effectively. In order to optimize the power system integrity and have the ability to investigate the performance of the overall system in any possible situations, one accurate simulation model of the aircraft power system will be very helpful and necessary. This paper mainly introduces a method to build a simulation model for the power distribution system, which is based on detailed component models. The power distribution system model consists of power generation unit, transformer rectifier unit, DC-DC converter unit, and DC-AC inverter unit. In order to optimize the performance of the power distribution system and improve the quality of the distributed power, a feedback control network is designed based on the characteristics of the power distribution system. The simulation result indicates that this new simulation model is well designed and it works accurately. Moreover, steady state performance and transient state performance of the model can fulfill the requirements of aircraft power distribution system in the realistic application.

  14. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. Link to an amendment..., special class of aircraft, or an aircraft engine or propeller, if— (a) The product qualifies under §...

  15. Sistema de encendido para motores de aviación - Ignition system for aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On May 7, 1934 José López Salmeron and Gaspar Serrano Esteve recorded their patent "ignition system for aircraft engines, automobiles and the like". A patent which was in a double ignition system Magneto-Delco, a condition that made ​​it perfect for aircraft engines, as it met the safety requirement to be a redundant ignition system, as if a failed ignition system was always the possibility that the other system functioned alternative. It analyzes the historical context of Spain in the early twentieth century and a brief history Spanish automotive

  16. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  17. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the transport package for low-level radioactive waste for subsurface disposal against aircraft impact by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural analysis of aircraft crush on the transport package for low-level radioactive waste was performed using the impact force which was already used for the evaluation of the high-level waste transport package by LSDYNA code. The transport package was deformed, and stresses due to the crush exceeded elastic range. However, plastic strains yieled in the package were far than the elongation of the materials and the body of the package did not contact the disposal packages due to the deformation of the package. Therefore, it was confirmed that the package keeps its integrity against aircraft crush. (author)

  18. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  19. A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy

    1989-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

  20. Airport in the intermodal transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of integrating of airports into the intermodal transport system is presented in this paper. The development of intermodal systems helps to use the available transport means in optimal and balanced way. The intermodality of the airport is analyzed in two areas: the airport accessibility and the integration of an airport with other transport means of domestic and international transport system. The railway transport is the main transport branch concerned to be integrated together with the air transport. The examples of existing solutions of intermodal systems in the biggest European hubs are presented with the strongest emphasis put on the airport in Frankfurt. The inhibiting and stimulating factors of the development of intermodal transport system are presented. The last part of the paper presents the conclusions how European solutions can be of the help in the process of the development of the Polish transport system.

  1. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael;

    2003-01-01

    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the application...... mission system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....

  2. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting the natural resources and heritage contained on almost 20 percent of the land in the United States. This responsibility requires acquisition of remotely sensed data throughout vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. One promising new technology for data collection is unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), which may be better suited (achieving superior science, safety, and savings) than traditional methods. UAS, regardless of their size, have the same operational components: aircraft, payloads, communications unit, and operator control unit. The aircraft is the platform that flies and carries any required payloads. For Department of the Interior missions these payloads will be either a sensor or set of sensors that can acquire the specific type of remotely sensed data that is needed. The aircraft will also carry the payload that is responsible for transmitting live airborne video images, compass headings, and location information to the operator control unit. The communications unit, which transfers information between the aircraft and the operator control unit, consists of the hardware and software required to establish both uplink and downlink communications. Finally, the operator control unit both controls and monitors the aircraft and can be operated either by a pilot on the ground or autonomously.

  4. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  5. Analysis of the Hybrid Power System for High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of single solar array on high-altitude unmanned aircraft will waste energy because of its low conversion efficiency. Furthermore, since its energy utilization is limited, the surface temperature of solar array will rise to 70°C due to the waste solar energy, thus reducing the electrical performance of the solar array. In order to reuse the energy converted into heat by solar array, a hybrid power system is presented in this paper. In the hybrid power system, a new electricity-generating method is adopted to spread the photovoltaic cell on the wing surface and arrange photothermal power in the wing box section. Because the temperature on the back of photovoltaic cell is high, it can be used as the high-temperature heat source. The lower wing surface can be a low-temperature cold source. A high-altitude unmanned aircraft was used to analyze the performances of pure solar-powered aircraft and hybrid powered aircraft. The analysis result showed that the hybrid system could reduce the area of wing by 19% and that high-altitude unmanned aircraft with a 35 m or less wingspan could raise the utilization rate of solar energy per unit area after adopting the hybrid power system.

  6. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang; Tao Huang

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the ro...

  7. Transport of north China air pollution by midlatitude cyclones: Case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aijun; Wang, Tao; Xue, Likun; Gao, Jian; Stohl, Andreas; Lei, Hengchi; Jin, Dezhen; Ren, Yu; Wang, Xuezhong; Wei, Xiaolin; Qi, Yanbin; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2009-04-01

    Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and frontal activity play important roles in the long-range transport of air pollutants by lifting them from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere (FT) in midlatitudes. In summer 2007, an aircraft study was carried out in northeast (NE) China in order to understand the role of midlatitude cyclones in air pollution transport in north and east China in warm seasons. During a flight on 27 June, high concentrations of ozone and related trace gases were observed, with maximum concentrations (O3 ˜ 140 ppbv, SO2 ˜ 14.6 ppbv, CO ˜ 1185 ppbv) recorded at an altitude of 2.6 km. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of this flight. The mesoscale meteorological model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and a Lagrangian dispersion model called FLEXPART were used to aid the diagnostic analysis of the atmospheric dynamic structure and the understanding of the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution. The flight took place in a region adjacent to a warm front associated with a weak cyclone in north China. The aircraft sampled both the WCB and warm air frontal zone of the cyclone. The simulations show that the observed high air pollution in the FT mostly originated from the North China Plain, especially the megacities Beijing and Tianjin. Their plumes were vented by a stagnant front, probably through, in part, topographic lifting by the mountains in the north, and then were quickly transported in the FT to the study region. Trajectory analysis and satellite data suggest that the observed air masses were further lifted by the WCB into the middle and upper troposphere and were exported from Asia toward North America and the Arctic.

  8. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  9. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodies commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 9 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The fairings have accumulated a total of 70,000 hours, with one ship set having over 24,000 hours service. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  10. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  11. THE CALCULATION OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF THE FRONT LANDING GEAR TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT

    OpenAIRE

    Trubachev, Sergei Ivanovych; Alekseychuk, Olga Mykolaivna

    2014-01-01

    The modeling and calculation object is the front rack of landing gear of the aircraft. To solve the problem of determining the stress-strain state of the front rack landing gear an analytical methods are inefficient due to complex geometry, so it is advisable to apply numerical simulation. The calculation of landing gear structural elements by finite element method was implemented with using the complex software ANSYS, which allows with a high degree of accuracy to determine the characteristi...

  12. Conceptual study of an advanced VTOL transport aircraft; Kosoku VTOL ki no gainen kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Endo, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, M.; Sugahara, N.; Yamamoto, K. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The concept of the advanced 100-passenger class VTOL aircraft equipped with new lift fan engines was clarified as domestic passenger aircraft for the 21st century. Under the assumption of a total weight of 40 tons, a seat fuselage diameter of 3.3m as small as possible and a short seat pitch, the airframe shape satisfying a target performance was obtained without any problems about aerodynamic stability, operability and control capability, and noise lower than that of small helicopters was also estimated. In the case of 10 tons in airframe payload and 8 tons in fuel, even if light-weight composite materials were used for most of parts including fuselage structure, a total weight summed to 42.3 tons exceeding a target by 2.3 tons. As this VTOL aircraft was limited to domestic flight use only, the total weight could be reduced without any change in airframe shape and number of passengers by reducing the payload (baggage weight can be probably reduced by 2 tons/100 passengers in the future domestic flight) and fuel (cruising range around 2500km can be secured even if fuel is reduced by 0.3 tons). In conclusion, this concept was thus technologically reasonable. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Analysis of Complexity Evolution Management and Human Performance Issues in Commercial Aircraft Automation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Sanjay S.; Hansman, R. John

    2000-01-01

    Autoflight systems in the current generation of aircraft have been implicated in several recent incidents and accidents. A contributory aspect to these incidents may be the manner in which aircraft transition between differing behaviours or 'modes.' The current state of aircraft automation was investigated and the incremental development of the autoflight system was tracked through a set of aircraft to gain insight into how these systems developed. This process appears to have resulted in a system without a consistent global representation. In order to evaluate and examine autoflight systems, a 'Hybrid Automation Representation' (HAR) was developed. This representation was used to examine several specific problems known to exist in aircraft systems. Cyclomatic complexity is an analysis tool from computer science which counts the number of linearly independent paths through a program graph. This approach was extended to examine autoflight mode transitions modelled with the HAR. A survey was conducted of pilots to identify those autoflight mode transitions which airline pilots find difficult. The transitions identified in this survey were analyzed using cyclomatic complexity to gain insight into the apparent complexity of the autoflight system from the perspective of the pilot. Mode transitions which had been identified as complex by pilots were found to have a high cyclomatic complexity. Further examination was made into a set of specific problems identified in aircraft: the lack of a consistent representation of automation, concern regarding appropriate feedback from the automation, and the implications of physical limitations on the autoflight systems. Mode transitions involved in changing to and leveling at a new altitude were identified across multiple aircraft by numerous pilots. Where possible, evaluation and verification of the behaviour of these autoflight mode transitions was investigated via aircraft-specific high fidelity simulators. Three solution

  14. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  15. Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission: Design, execution, and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Crawford, James H.; Kleb, Mary M.; Connors, Vickie S.; Bendura, Richard J.; Raper, James L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gille, John C.; Emmons, Louisa; Heald, Colette L.

    2003-10-01

    The NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission was conducted in February-April 2001 over the NW Pacific (1) to characterize the Asian chemical outflow and relate it quantitatively to its sources and (2) to determine its chemical evolution. It used two aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, operating out of Hong Kong and Yokota Air Force Base (near Tokyo), with secondary sites in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, Okinawa, and Midway. The aircraft carried instrumentation for measurements of long-lived greenhouse gases, ozone and its precursors, aerosols and their precursors, related species, and chemical tracers. Five chemical transport models (CTMs) were used for chemical forecasting. Customized bottom-up emission inventories for East Asia were generated prior to the mission to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation with the aircraft data. Validation flights were conducted for the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument and revealed little bias (6 ± 2%) in the MOPITT measurements of CO columns. A major event of transpacific Asian pollution was characterized through combined analysis of TRACE-P and MOPITT data. The TRACE-P observations showed that cold fronts sweeping across East Asia and the associated warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are the dominant pathway for Asian outflow to the Pacific in spring. The WCBs lift both anthropogenic and biomass burning (SE Asia) effluents to the free troposphere, resulting in complex chemical signatures. The TRACE-P data are in general consistent with a priori emission inventories, lending confidence in our ability to quantify Asian emissions from socioeconomic data and emission factors. However, the residential combustion source in rural China was found to be much larger than the a priori, and there were also unexplained chemical enhancements (HCN, CH3Cl, OCS, alkylnitrates) in Chinese urban plumes. The Asian source of CCl4 was found to be much

  16. Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P)Aircraft Mission: Design, Execution, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Crawford, James H.; Kleb, Mary M.; Connors, Vickie S.; Bendura, Richard J.; Raper, James L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gille, John C.; Emmons, Louisa; Heald, Colette L.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission was conducted in February-April 2001 over the NW Pacific (1) to characterize the Asian chemical outflow and relate it quantitatively to its sources and (2) to determine its chemical evolution. It used two aircraft, a DC-8 and a P-3B, operating out of Hong Kong and Yokota Air Force Base (near Tokyo), with secondary sites in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam, Okinawa, and Midway. The aircraft carried instrumentation for measurements of long-lived greenhouse gases, ozone and its precursors, aerosols and their precursors, related species, and chemical tracers. Five chemical transport models (CTMs) were used for chemical forecasting. Customized bottom-up emission inventories for East Asia were generated prior to the mission to support chemical forecasting and to serve as a priori for evaluation with the aircraft data. Validation flights were conducted for the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument and revealed little bias (6 plus or minus 2%) in the MOPITT measurements of CO columns. A major event of transpacific Asian pollution was characterized through combined analysis of TRACE-P and MOPITT data. The TRACE-P observations showed that cold fronts sweeping across East Asia and the associated warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are the dominant pathway for Asian outflow to the Pacific in spring. The WCBs lift both anthropogenic and biomass burning (SE Asia) effluents to the free troposphere, resulting in complex chemical signatures. The TRACE-P data are in general consistent with a priori emission inventories, lending confidence in our ability to quantify Asian emissions from socioeconomic data and emission factors. However, the residential combustion source in rural China was found to be much larger than the a priori, and there were also unexplained chemical enhancements (HCN, CH3Cl, OCS, alkylnitrates) in Chinese urban plumes. The Asian source of CCl4 was found to

  17. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  18. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of system models and techniques for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness is reported. Topics covered include: analysis of functional dependence: a prototype software package, METAPHOR, developed to aid the evaluation of performability; and a comprehensive performability modeling and evaluation exercise involving the SIFT computer.

  19. 76 FR 32258 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ..., Aircraft Registration System; 65 FR 19,518 (Apr. 11, 2000). As stated in the System Notice, however, one of... Order 13563, Sec. 7(d), ``General Provisions,'' 76 FR 3,821 (Jan. 21, 2011), ``Improving Regulation and..., NATA, General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA), Sprint United Management Company,...

  20. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  1. Technology developments for laminar boundary layer control on subsonic transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fischer, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of laminar flow control (LFC) technology developments is presented, along with a description of NASA's broadened program concerning laminar flow concepts for commercial transports. Topics covered include developments in LFC airfoils, wing surface panels, and leading-edge systems, as well as the effects of high altitude ice particles and insect impacts. It is suggested that the electron beam perforated titanium surface is superior to the Dynapore surface. The Douglas LFC wing design, the Krueger flap, the Lockheed, and the Douglas leading-edge concepts are covered. Future research includes an evaluation of a hybrid LFC concept, which combines LFC suction in the leading-edge region with natural laminar flow over the wing box.

  2. Assimilating aircraft-based measurements to improve forecast accuracy of volcanic ash transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Lin, H.X.; Heemink, A.W.; Segers, A.J.; Lu, S.; Palsson, T.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajokull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash transport forecast in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs

  3. Assimilating aircraft-based measurements to improve forecast accuracy of volcanic ash transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Lin, H.X.; Heemink, A.W.; Segers, A.J.; Lu, S.; Palsson, T.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash transport forecast in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs

  4. A methodology for the probabilistic assessment of system effectiveness as applied to aircraft survivability and susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Danielle Suzanne

    2001-07-01

    Significant advances have been made recently in applying probabilistic methods to aerospace vehicle concepts. Given the explosive changes in today's political, social, and technological climate, it makes practical sense to try and extrapolate these methods to the campaign analysis level. This would allow the assessment of rapidly changing threat environments as well as technological advancements, aiding today's decision makers. These decision makers use this information in three primary ways: resource allocation, requirements definition, and trade studies between system components. In effect, these decision makers are looking for a way to quantify system effectiveness. Using traditional definitions, one can categorize an aerospace concept, such as an aircraft, as the system. Design and analysis conducted on the aircraft will result in system level Measures of Effectiveness. System effectiveness, therefore, becomes a function of only that aircraft's design variables and parameters. While this method of analysis can result in the design of a vehicle that is optimized to its own mission and performance requirements, the vehicle remains independent of its role for which it was created: the warfighting environment. It is therefore proposed that the system be redefined as the warfighting environment (campaign analysis) and the problem be considered to have a system of systems formulation. A methodology for the assessment of military system effectiveness is proposed. Called POSSEM (PrObabilisitic System of System Effectiveness Methodology), the methodology describes the creation of an analysis pathway that links engineering level changes to campaign level measures of effectiveness. The methodology includes probabilistic analysis techniques in order to manage the inherent uncertainties in the problem, which are functions of human decision making, rapidly changing threats, and the incorporation of new technologies. An example problem is presented, in which aircraft

  5. Transport coefficients of relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It becomes increasingly important to know the strength of dissipative effects in relativistic hydrodynamics. Recently, scientists have strongly focused on shear viscosity. Nevertheless, heat flow, being proportional to spatial gradients of e.g. chemical potential over temperature, can also be an important effect in studies of relativistic fluid dynamics. We investigated the heat conductivity coefficient for an ultrarelativistic Boltzmann-gas, using our partonic transport model BAMPS. BAMPS solves the relativistic Boltzmann-equation numerically for arbitrary different particle species. We use pQCD scattering cross-sections. Furthermore, the response of a charged, relativistic gas onto an external electric field determines the electric conductivity. We investigated the electric conductivity of different model systems using three different methods: analytic transport theory, linear response via Green-Kubo formulae in equilibrium BAMPS-setups, and applying the textbook-picture of linear response to BAMPS. We plan to investigate the electric conductivity with the recently improved 2<->3 processes from BAMPS and compare the results with lattice QCD.

  6. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.

    1995-05-01

    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  7. Verification of the CFD simulation system SAUNA for complex aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathon A.; Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the verification for complex aircraft configurations of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. A brief description of the complete system is given, including its unique use of differing grid generation strategies (structured, unstructured or both) depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The majority of the paper focuses on the application of SAUNA to a variety of configurations from the military aircraft, civil aircraft and missile areas. Mesh generation issues are discussed for each geometry and experimental data are used to assess the accuracy of the inviscid (Euler) model used. It is shown that flexibility and accuracy are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.

  8. Motion-Base Simulator Evaluation of an Aircraft Using an External Vision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Arthur, J. J.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.; Harrison, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Twelve air transport-rated pilots participated as subjects in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of eXternal Vision Systems (XVS) as enabling technologies for future supersonic aircraft without forward facing windows. Three head-up flight display concepts were evaluated -a monochromatic, collimated Head-up Display (HUD) and a color, non-collimated XVS display with a field-of-view (FOV) equal to and also, one significantly larger than the collimated HUD. Approach, landing, departure, and surface operations were conducted. Additionally, the apparent angle-of-attack (AOA) was varied (high/low) to investigate the vertical field-of-view display requirements and peripheral, side window visibility was experimentally varied. The data showed that lateral approach tracking performance and lateral landing position were excellent regardless of AOA, display FOV, display collimation or whether peripheral cues were present. However, the data showed glide slope approach tracking appears to be affected by display size (i.e., FOV) and collimation. The monochrome, collimated HUD and color, uncollimated XVS with Full FOV display had (statistically equivalent) glide path performance improvements over the XVS with HUD FOV display. Approach path performance results indicated that collimation may not be a requirement for an XVS display if the XVS display is large enough and employs color. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness also indicated that an uncollimated XVS display may be feasible. Motion cueing appears to have improved localizer tracking and touchdown sink rate across all displays.

  9. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  10. Transport theory and systems theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastović Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of singular nonlinear transport equation is obtained via corresponding neutron or photon kinetic equation. The conditions for convergence of the non stationary transport process to ward the pure dif fusion across the equilibriums are presented. For such purpose the method of transport scattering is exploited. The goal of these results is optimization of fusion fuels via neutron diagnostics.

  11. Transport of north China air pollution by mid-latitude cyclones: A case study of aircraft measurements in summer 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, A.; Wang, T.; Xue, L.; Gao, J.; Stohl, A.; Lei, H.; Jin, D.; Ren, Y.; Wang, X.; Wei, X.; Qi, Y.; Liu, J.; Zhang, X.

    2008-12-01

    Meteorological processes such as warm conveyor belts (WCBs) and frontal activities, which are related to extratropical cyclones, have been recognized to play important roles in the long-range transport of air pollutants by lifting them from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) into the free troposphere (FT) in mid- latitudes. To understand the transport mechanism and regional impact of air pollution transport in north and east China by mid-latitude cyclones in warm seasons, an aircraft study was carried out in northeast (NE) China in the summer of 2007. During a flight on 27 June, high concentrations of ozone and related trace gases as well as high values of the aerosol scattering coefficient (Bsp) were observed, with maximum concentrations (O3~ 140 ppbv, SO2 ~ 14.6 ppbv, CO ~ 1185 ppbv) recorded at an altitude of 2.6 km in the FT. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of this flight. Mesoscale meteorological simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model aided the diagnostic analysis of the atmospheric dynamic structure in the low troposphere and helped in the understanding of the transport characteristics of regional and local air pollution. Based on the WRF output, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART, was used to conduct backward simulations and calculate the source-receptor relationship. The study was undertaken in a region in NE China adjacent to a warm front associated with a weak cyclone in north China. Trajectory analysis and atmospheric structure analysis suggest that the aircraft sampled both the WCB and warm air frontal zone of the cyclone. The backward Lagrangian simulations show that the observed high air pollution in the FT mostly originated from the North China Plain (NCP), especially the northern part containing the megacities Beijing and Tianjin. Their plumes were vented by a stagnant front, probably through, in part, topographic lifting by the mountains in the north, and then were quickly (within 1 to 2 days

  12. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  13. Classical transport in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  14. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  15. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  16. Aircraft health and usage monitoring system for in-flight strain measurement of a wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Yurim; Kim, Yoon-Young; Shrestha, Pratik; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an aircraft health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. This study aims to implement and evaluate the HUMS for in-flight strain monitoring of aircraft structures. An optical-fiber-based HUMS was developed and applied to an ultralight aircraft that has a rectangular wing shape with a strut-braced configuration. FBG sensor arrays were embedded into the wing structure during the manufacturing process for effective sensor implementation. Ground and flight tests were conducted to verify the integrity and availability of the installed FBG sensors and HUMS devices. A total of 74 flight tests were conducted using the HUMS implemented testbed aircraft, considering various maneuvers and abnormal conditions. The flight test results revealed that the FBG-based HUMS was successfully implemented on the testbed aircraft and operated normally under the actual flight test environments as well as providing reliable in-flight strain data from the FBG sensors over a long period of time.

  17. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  18. On the use of a compact optical fiber sensor system in aircraft structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Nezih; Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Rocha, Bruno; Sun, Zhigang

    2012-06-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been identified as an area of significant potential for advanced aircraft maintenance programs that ensure continued airworthiness, enhanced operational safety and reduced life cycle cost. Several sensors and sensory systems have been developed for the implementation of such health monitoring capability. Among a wide range of developed technologies, fiber optic sensor technology, in particular fiber Bragg grating based emerged as one of the most promising for aircraft structural applications. This paper is set to explore the suitability of using a new Fiber Bragg Grating sensor (FBG) system developed for operation in two modes, low and high speed sensing modes, respectively. The suitability of the system for potential use in aircraft load monitoring and damage detection applications has been demonstrated. Results from FBG sensor system were in good agreement with results from conventional resistive strain gauges, validating this capability for load monitoring. For damage detection, the FBG sensor system was able to detect acoustic waves generated 52 inches (1.32 m) away. The initial results, obtained in a full stale experimentation, demonstrate the potential of using FBG sensors for both load monitoring and damage detection in aircraft environment.

  19. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  20. Evaluation of UWB communication for in-flight entertainment system in the aircraft cabin

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Roxana; Lecointre, Aubin; Dragomirescu, Daniela; Gayraud, Thierry; Berthou, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    International audience This paper deals with the embedded network dedicated to the entertainment system of passenger cabin in an aircraft. The work described in this paper focuses on a wireless solution to interconnect the main components of this system. The selected solution is UWB with smart antennas. This solution is proved to be able to provide the system with the needed bandwidth. The self-configuration capability of the system is also demonstrated.

  1. Development of a LTE system-level simulator for aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz López, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Desenvolupament d'un simulador per a estudiar el rendiment de les xarxes LTE dintre d'una cabina d'avió. Consistirà en una unitat de processament, una API i una GUI. [ANGLÈS] Mobile broadband has changed the way we live and work. The way we communicate is becoming enriched with higher speeds and exciting new services both at home, on the road and on aircraft. Nowadays, a growing number of aircraft count with on-board Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) that enables the use of mob...

  2. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 10 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left-hand and right-hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 79,568 hours, with one ship set having nearly 28,000 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history obtained in this program indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  3. CFD Variability for a Civil Transport Aircraft Near Buffet-Onset Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    A CFD sensitivity analysis is conducted for an aircraft at several conditions, including flow with substantial separation (buffet onset). The sensitivity is studied using two different Navier-Stokes computer codes, three different turbulence models, and two different grid treatments of the wing trailing edge. This effort is a follow-on to an earlier study of CFD variation over a different aircraft in buffet onset conditions. Similar to the earlier study, the turbulence model is found to have the largest effect, with a variation of 3.8% in lift at the buffet onset angle of attack. Drag and moment variation are 2.9% and 23.6%, respectively. The variations due to code and trailing edge cap grid are smaller than that due to turbulence model. Overall, the combined approximate error band in CFD due to code, turbulence model, and trailing edge treatment at the buffet onset angle of attack are: 4% in lift, 3% in drag, and 31% in moment. The CFD results show similar trends to flight test data, but also exhibit a lift curve break not seen in the data.

  4. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  5. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger. PMID:25823010

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Vegetation Mapping: Very High Resolution Multispectral Imagery and Terrain Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the interest in using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for remote sensing of natural resources has been growing considerably. Over the last few years, we have used a small UAS equipped with a low-cost digital camera to acquire thousands of images (6-8 cm GSD), which have been orthore...

  7. A Methodology to Enable Automatic 3D Routing of Aircraft Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; La Rocca, G.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Harness 3D routing in aircraft Electrical Wiring Interconnection System (EWIS) design is very complex because of both the intrinsic complexity of EWIS and the increasing number of design constraints. The complexity hinders the improvement of the design efficiency and makes the design error prone. Co

  8. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  9. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate...

  10. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft.

  11. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  12. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  13. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  14. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  15. Evaluation of a new JMA aircraft flask sampling system and laboratory trace gas analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tsuboi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We established and evaluated a flask air sampling system on a cargo C-130H aircraft, as well as a trace gas measurement system for the flask samples, as part of a new operational monitoring program of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA. Air samples were collected during each flight, between Kanagawa Prefecture (near Tokyo and Minamitorishima (an island located nearly 2000 km southeast of Tokyo, from the air-conditioning system on the aircraft. Prior to the operational employment of the sampling system, a quality assurance test of the sampled air was made by specially coordinated flights at a low altitude of 1000 ft over Minamitorishima and comparing the flask values with those obtained at the surface. Based on our storage tests, the flask samples remained nearly stable until analyses. The trace gas measurement system has, in addition to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR and vacuum ultraviolet resonance fluorescence (VURF analyzers, two laser-based analyzers using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS. Laboratory tests of the laser-based analyzers for measuring flask samples indicated relatively high reproducibility with overall precisions of less than ±0.06 ppm for CO2, ±0.68 ppb for CH4, ±0.36 ppb for CO, and ±0.03 ppb for N2O. Flask air sample measurements, conducted concurrently on different analyzers were compared. These comparisons showed a negligible bias in the averaged measurements between the laser-based measurement techniques and the other methods currently in use. We also estimated that there are no significant isotope effects for CH4, CO and N2O using standard gases with industrial isotopic compositions to calibrate the laser-based analyzers, but CO2 was found to possess isotope effects larger than its analytical precision.

  16. Transport Efficiency of Gas-jet Tape Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WandXudong; MaRuichang; XieYuanxiang; XingYebin; XuShuwei; LiZhankui

    2003-01-01

    The Gas-jet Tape Transport System (GTTS) was used in several on-line experiments. The transport efficiency of GTTS was studied with three different inorganic salts, PbI2, PbC12 and NaC1, by using a 252 Cf source. The fission fragments of 252Cf were transported and collected by the GTTS before measurement. Nitrogen gas was used as a substitute of cxpensive Helium gas, in consideration of longer stopping range of fragments. The fragments were also directly collected on Aluminum foils with thickness of 50μm for original yield measurement.

  17. Ikhana: Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions. Monographs in Aerospace History, Number 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., obtained a civil version of the General Atomics MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system and modified it for research purposes. Proposed missions included support of Earth science research, development of advanced aeronautical technology, and improving the utility of unmanned aerial systems in general. The project team named the aircraft Ikhana a Native American Choctaw word meaning intelligent, conscious, or aware in order to best represent NASA research goals. Building on experience with these and other unmanned aircraft, NASA scientists developed plans to use the Ikhana for a series of missions to map wildfires in the western United States and supply the resulting data to firefighters in near-real time. A team at NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., developed a multispectral scanner that was key to the success of what became known as the Western States Fire Missions. Carried out by team members from NASA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Interagency Fire Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., these flights represented an historic achievement in the field of unmanned aircraft technology.

  18. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  19. A National MagLev Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The case for a national high-speed magnetic-levitation (MagLev) transportation system is presented. Focus is on current issues facing the country, such as national security, the economy, transportation, technology, and the environment. NASA s research into MagLev technology for launch assist is also highlighted. Further, current socio-cultural norms regarding motor-vehicle-based transportation systems are questioned in light of the problems currently facing the U.S. The multidisciplinary benefits of a long-distance MagLev system support the idea that such a system would be an important element of a truly multimodal U.S. transportation infrastructure.

  20. Measurements in the Functional Mock Up Test of the NAL QSTOL Aircraft Control System

    OpenAIRE

    TADA, Akira; Ogawa,Toshio; YAMATO, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tadao; Okada, Noriaki; 多田, 章; 小川, 敏雄; 大和, 裕幸; 内田, 忠夫; 岡田, 典秋

    1987-01-01

    In the functional mock up test of NAL QSTOL Research Aircraft control system, measurements were planned and conducted with the intention of obtaining both real time results to support the development immediately, and reserved data suitable for academically rigorous and detailed analyses from various points of view. The physical quantities of 208 system variables were converted to analogue voltage signals, and supplied from junction boxes to devices for recordings and analyses. The system char...

  1. Legal aspects of the air transportation of pregnant women having children on board the aircraft and especially the definition of citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Липець, Людмила

    2016-01-01

    The article defines the legal aspects of the air transport of pregnant women having children on board the aircraft and especially the definition of citizenship. The author makes a conclusion that the national legislation contains gaps and conflicts with respect to international legislation regulating these issues. English abstract L. Lуpets Legal aspects of the air transportation of pregnant women having children onboardtheaircraftandespeciallythedefinitionofcitizenship Thearticledefinesthel...

  2. 78 FR 23329 - Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting Meeting Announcement... attend and participate in an Aircraft Access to SWIM Working Group Meeting scheduled for Thursday, May 16... to SWIM The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) program is a...

  3. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  4. Evaluating the compliance of Keck's LGSAO automated aircraft protection system with FAA adopted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Campbell, Randy; Murphy, Thomas W.

    2014-07-01

    The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) applied for and received a determination of no-objection from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) operations using an automated aircraft protection system (APS) in late 2013. WMKO's APS, named AIRSAFE, uses transponder based aircraft detection (TBAD) to replace human aircraft spotters. The FAA required WMKO to self-certify AIRSAFE compliance with SAE Aerospace Standard 6029A: "Performance Criteria for Laser Control Measures Used for Aviation Safety"[1] (AS- 6029A). AS-6029A prescribes performance and administrative criteria for an APS; essentially, requiring AIRSAFE to adequately protect all types of aircraft, traveling at any speed, altitude, distance and direction reasonably expected in the operating environment. A description of the analysis that comprises this compliance evaluation is the main focus of this paper. Also discussed is the AIRSAFE compliance with AS-6029A administrative criteria that includes characterization of site specific air traffic, failure modes, limitations, operating procedures, preventative maintenance procedures, and periodic system test procedures.

  5. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Subramanyam

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalore, provides the system designer an effective means to tune the various subsy stems for better performance. The paper focuses on all these aspects to bring out the importance of simulation in the overall fighter aircraft weapon system design.

  6. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  7. Digital System e-Prognostics for Critical Aircraft Computer Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Raytheon, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative prognostics approach for aircraft digital electronics. The...

  8. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Studying Spatial Abundance of Ungulates: Relevance to Spatial Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. Low cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts’ distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. In this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the ungulate community of Doñana National Park (South-western Spain) by ...

  9. A New Wireless Architecture for In-Flight Entertainment Systems Inside Aircraft Cabin

    OpenAIRE

    Akl, Ahmed; Gayraud, Thierry; Berthou, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    International audience A primary difficulty when investigating communication requirements rises when a very specific field as an aircraft cabin is considered. The diverse needs of passengers are often incompatible to the strict constraints inside the cabin. Nowadays In-Flight Entertainment (IFE) systems, for instance, are widely spread in modern flights. An IFE system usually consists of a Seat Electronic Box, the passengers terminal hardware, plus a Passengers Control Unit, the remote con...

  10. Navigation systems for approach and landing of VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S. F.; Mohr, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The formulation and implementation of navigation systems used for research investigations in the V/STOLAND avionics system are described. The navigation systems prove position and velocity in a cartestian reference frame aligned with the runway. They use filtering techniques to combine the raw position data from navaids (e.g., TACAN, MLS) with data from onboard inertial sensors. The filtering techniques which use both complementary and Kalman filters, are described. The software for the navigation systems is also described.

  11. California's Methane Budget derived from CalNex P-3 Aircraft Observations and the WRF-STILT Lagrangian Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, G. W.; Xiang, B.; Kort, E. A.; Daube, B.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Wecht, K.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Angevine, W. M.; Trainer, M.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We present constraints on California emission inventories of methane (CH4) using atmospheric observations from nine NOAA P-3 flights during the California Nexus (CalNex) campaign in May and June of 2010. Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) and a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) and calibrated to NOAA standards in-flight. Five flights sampled above the northern and southern central valley and an additional four flights probed the south coast air basin, quantifying emissions from the Los Angeles basin. The data show large (>100 ppb) CH4 enhancements associated with point and area sources such as cattle and manure management, landfills, wastewater treatment, gas production and distribution infrastructure, and rice agriculture. We compare aircraft observations to modeled CH4 distributions by accounting for a) transport using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorology, b) emissions from inventories such as EDGAR and ones constructed from California-specific state and county databases, each gridded to 0.1° x 0.1° resolution, and c) spatially and temporally evolving boundary conditions such as GEOS-Chem and a NOAA aircraft profile measurement derived curtain imposed at the edge of the WRF domain. After accounting for errors associated with transport, planetary boundary layer height, lateral boundary conditions, seasonality of emissions, and the spatial resolution of surface emission prior estimates, we find that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) CH4 budget is a factor of 1.64 too low. Using a Bayesian inversion to the flight data, we estimate California's CH4 budget to be 2.5 TgCH4/yr, with emissions from cattle and manure management, landfills, rice, and natural gas infrastructure, representing roughly 82%, 26%, 9% and 32% (sum = 149% with other sources accounting for the additional 15%) of the current CARB CH4 budget estimate of 1.52 TgCH4

  12. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  13. Design and Evaluation of a Wireless Sensor Network Based Aircraft Strength Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system.

  14. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  15. Auralization of NASA N+2 Aircraft Concepts from System Noise Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russel H.

    2016-01-01

    Auralization of aircraft flyover noise provides an auditory experience that complements integrated metrics obtained from system noise predictions. Recent efforts have focused on auralization methods development, specifically the process by which source noise information obtained from semi-empirical models, computational aeroacoustic analyses, and wind tunnel and flight test data, are used for simulated flyover noise at a receiver on the ground. The primary focus of this work, however, is to develop full vehicle auralizations in order to explore the distinguishing features of NASA's N+2 aircraft vis-à-vis current fleet reference vehicles for single-aisle and large twin-aisle classes. Some features can be seen in metric time histories associated with aircraft noise certification, e.g., tone-corrected perceived noise level used in the calculation of effective perceived noise level. Other features can be observed in sound quality metrics, e.g., loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation strength and tone-to-noise ratio. A psychoacoustic annoyance model is employed to establish the relationship between sound quality metrics and noise certification metrics. Finally, the auralizations will serve as the basis for a separate psychoacoustic study aimed at assessing how well aircraft noise certification metrics predict human annoyance for these advanced vehicle concepts.

  16. Evaluation of Braided Stiffener Concepts for Transport Aircraft Wing Structure Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Dexter, H. Benson (Editor); Markus, Alan; Rohwer, Kim

    1995-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Stiffeners, wing spars, floor beams, and fuselage frames are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage requirements are met. Braiding is an automated process for obtaining near-net shape preforms for fabrication of components for structural applications. Previous test results on braided composite materials obtained at NASA Langley indicate that damage tolerance requirements can be met for some applications. In addition, the braiding industry is taking steps to increase the material through-put to be more competitive with other preform fabrication processes. Data are presented on the compressive behavior of three braided stiffener preform fabric constructions as determined from individual stiffener crippling test and three stiffener wide panel tests. Stiffener and panel fabrication are described and compression data presented for specimens tested with and without impact damage. In addition, data are also presented on the compressive behavior of the stitched stiffener preform construction currently being used by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace in the NASA ACT wing development program.

  17. Analysis of events resulting from an accident involving a transport aircraft carrying plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the impact on health of an aircraft accident resulting in the release into the atmosphere of the reprocessing product PuO2. The consequences associated with the inhalation of the initial cloud, the passage into suspension of the powder deposited on the ground and the contamination of the food chain were therefore evaluated as a function of the quantity released. It was deduced that the risk of inhalation is by far the greatest. The countermeasures likely to be implemented during emergency action were subjected to analysis. In particular, it appeared that the impact of the first cloud could not really be mitigated but that it was possible to take effective action against the other consequences. Research was undertaken to establish tolerable release quantities which could if necessary be used as acceptance criteria for packaging tests. This indicated that a release in the range 10-100 g would give rise to controllable consequences, at least in a rural environment. The calculations relating to the estimation of the acute toxicity associated with the inhalation of Plutonium and details of the emergency action plan are given in appendix

  18. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  19. Anti-aliasing in Aircraft Cockpit Display System Based on Modified Bresenham Algorithm and Virtual Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved Bresenham algorithm is proposed in order to improve the display effect of the digital instrument display systems in aircraft and aviation simulators with following the ARINC 661 specification. According to the algorithm, the pixel brightness is calculated according to the proportional relation of the distance to the pixel for realizing the anti-aliasing. In Combine with areal sampled and double buffer image processing technology, the idea can increase the operation efficiency compared with the traditional method. In accordance with the analysis of the ARINC 661, the air data system instrument is implemented in the VAPS. Experimental results reveal that the improved algorithm and digital image processing technology can indeed solve display distortion problems more effectively and accurately, the display effect is improved obviously. The implemented schemes can achieve the airborne electronic display system on the high performance and satisfy aircraft airworthiness requirements and standards

  20. Modelling of the automatic stabilization system of the aircraft course by a fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonova, T.; Syryamkin, V.; Vasilyeva, T.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of the present paper concerns the development of a fuzzy model of the system of an aircraft course stabilization. In this work modelling of the aircraft course stabilization system with the application of fuzzy logic is specified. Thus the authors have used the data taken for an ordinary passenger plane. As a result of the study the stabilization system models were realised in the environment of Matlab package Simulink on the basis of the PID-regulator and fuzzy logic. The authors of the paper have shown that the use of the method of artificial intelligence allows reducing the time of regulation to 1, which is 50 times faster than the time when standard receptions of the management theory are used. This fact demonstrates a positive influence of the use of fuzzy regulation.

  1. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  2. Preliminary weight and cost estimates for transport aircraft composite structural design concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary weight and cost estimates have been prepared for design concepts utilized for a transonic long range transport airframe with extensive applications of advanced composite materials. The design concepts, manufacturing approach, and anticipated details of manufacturing cost reflected in the composite airframe are substantially different from those found in conventional metal structure and offer further evidence of the advantages of advanced composite materials.

  3. 75 FR 27273 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...-181'' final rules in 1990 and 1991. 55 FR 52401 (December 21, 1990); 56 FR 66124 (December 20, 1991... transportation. Sec. 178.602. In the HM-181 advance notice of proposed rulemaking (47 FR 16268 (April 15, 1982)) and the notice of proposed rulemaking (52 FR 16482 (May 5, 1987)), we proposed to require...

  4. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  5. Emerging Applications for Cyber Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌旭; 侯云飞; 徐宏力; 黄刘生; 李旭; 乔春明; 张龙飞

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in connected vehicles and autonomous driving are going to change the face of ground trans-portation as we know it. This paper describes the design and evaluation of several emerging applications for such a cyber transportation system (CTS). These applications have been designed using holistic approaches, which consider the unique roles played by the human drivers, the transportation system, and the communication network. They can improve driver safety and provide on-road infotainment. They can also improve transportation operations and efficiency, thereby benefiting travelers and attracting investment from both government agencies and private businesses to deploy infrastructures and bootstrap the evolutionary process of CTS.

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems against Air Threats: The Semi-Direct Control System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelman, Frank; Heerkens, Hans; Feichtinger, Walter; Hensellek, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned cargo aircraft (UCA), which we may see being developed in the coming years, have characteristics that make them suitable for a variety of military operations. The absence of flightcrew and the resulting freedom to use novel configurations reduce costs. The decoupling of aircraft and crew wh

  7. The Effect of Icing on the Dispatch Reliability of Small Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Melinda M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated a program to promote the use of small aircraft as an additional option for national public transportation. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) asserted the idea of everyday individuals piloting themselves on trips, within a specified distance range, using a small (4 person), piston powered, un-pressurized aircraft and small airports in close proximity to their origin and destination. This thesis inves...

  8. Design and evaluation of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Information seeking by human operators of technical systems is considered. Types of information and forms of presentation are discussed and important issues reviewed. This broad discussion provides a framework within which flight management is considered. The design of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft is discussed. The aiding possibilities of a computer-based system are emphasized. Results of an experimental evaluation of a prototype system are presented. It is concluded that a computer-based information system can substantially lessen the frequency of human errors.

  9. Model-Based Thermal Management Functions for Aircraft Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabe, Daniel; Lienig, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Thermal Management Function (TMF) and its design process developed in the framework of the Clean Sky project. This TMF is capable of calculating optimized control signals in real-time for thermal management systems by using model-based system knowledge. This can be either a physical model of the system or a data record generated from this model. The TMF provides control signals to the air and vapor cycle which are possible sources of cooling power, as well as load...

  10. Interoperability of satellite-based augmentation systems for aircraft navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Donghai

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is pioneering a transformation of the national airspace system from its present ground based navigation and landing systems to a satellite based system using the Global Positioning System (GPS). To meet the critical safety-of-life aviation positioning requirements, a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS), the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), is being implemented to support navigation for all phases of flight, including Category I precision approach. The system is designed to be used as a primary means of navigation, capable of meeting the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and therefore must satisfy the accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements. In recent years there has been international acceptance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), spurring widespread growth in the independent development of SBASs. Besides the FAA's WAAS, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service System (EGNOS) and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau's MTSAT-Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) are also being actively developed. Although all of these SBASs can operate as stand-alone, regional systems, there is increasing interest in linking these SBASs together to reduce costs while improving service coverage. This research investigated the coverage and availability improvements due to cooperative efforts among regional SBAS networks. The primary goal was to identify the optimal interoperation strategies in terms of performance, complexity and practicality. The core algorithms associated with the most promising concepts were developed and demonstrated. Experimental verification of the most promising concepts was conducted using data collected from a joint international test between the National Satellite Test Bed (NSTB) and the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB). This research clearly shows that a simple switch between SBASs made by the airborne equipment is the most effective choice for achieving the

  11. A preliminary design study of a laminar flow control wing of composite materials for long range transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinford, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an aircraft wing design study are reported. The selected study airplane configuration is defined. The suction surface, ducting, and compressor systems are described. Techniques of manufacturing suction surfaces are identified and discussed. A wing box of graphite/epoxy composite is defined. Leading and trailing edge structures of composite construction are described. Control surfaces, engine installation, and landing gear are illustrated and discussed. The preliminary wing design is appraised from the standpoint of manufacturing, weight, operations, and durability. It is concluded that a practical laminar flow control (LFC) wing of composite material can be built, and that such a wing will be lighter than an equivalent metal wing. As a result, a program of suction surface evaluation and other studies of configuration, aerodynamics, structural design and manufacturing, and suction systems are recommended.

  12. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to develop algorithms for online health monitoring and prognostics (prediction of the remaining life of a component or system) in...

  13. Smac–Fdi: A Single Model Active Fault Detection and Isolation System for Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducard Guillaume J.J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a single model active fault detection and isolation system (SMAC-FDI which is designed to efficiently detect and isolate a faulty actuator in a system, such as a small (unmanned aircraft. This FDI system is based on a single and simple aerodynamic model of an aircraft in order to generate some residuals, as soon as an actuator fault occurs. These residuals are used to trigger an active strategy based on artificial exciting signals that searches within the residuals for the signature of an actuator fault. Fault isolation is carried out through an innovative mechanism that does not use the previous residuals but the actuator control signals directly. In addition, the paper presents a complete parameter-tuning strategy for this FDI system. The novel concepts are backed-up by simulations of a small unmanned aircraft experiencing successive actuator failures. The robustness of the SMAC-FDI method is tested in the presence of model uncertainties, realistic sensor noise and wind gusts. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the computational efficiency of the method and its ability to run on small microcontrollers.

  14. Control of an electro-hydrostatic actuation system for the nose landing gear of an "all electric aircraft"

    OpenAIRE

    Greissner, Carsten; Carl, Udo

    2004-01-01

    The EU research Project Power Optimised Aircraft (POA) investigates the approach to replace primary hydraulic supply by extended electric power systems towards a More or All Electric Aircraft. This contribution presents an electrically powered actuation system for nose landing gears using an EHA (electrohydrostatic actuator) approach. One motor pump unit supplies door and gear actuation as well as the steering system. Different control strategies for the individual actuators are introduced. T...

  15. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  16. Artificial feel system using magneto-rheological fluid on aircraft control stick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Vignesh; Kim, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    The conventional feel system in aircraft occupies large space in the cockpit and has complicated designs. The primary objective of this research is to develop an artificial feel force system that can overcome some drawbacks of the current system. A novel feel system using magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is constructed to precisely control the shear stress under the magnetic field. To validate the functionality of the MR artificial feel system, the final system is fabricated and multiple tests are performed to acquire force-velocity characteristics that are compared to the mathematical model derived. In addition, the PID closed loop control algorithm is developed to simulate the dynamic system model. Both experimental and simulation results are compared to validate the derived system model. The system response time and sampling rates are evaluated and compared to the conventional system at the end. It is concluded that the developed artificial feel system can precisely control and acts as a fail proof system when incorporated with a modern fly-by-wire aircraft system.

  17. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  18. Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft System Noise Assessment with Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Olson, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    A system noise assessment of a hybrid wing body configuration was performed using NASA s best available aircraft models, engine model, and system noise assessment method. A propulsion airframe aeroacoustic effects experimental database for key noise sources and interaction effects was used to provide data directly in the noise assessment where prediction methods are inadequate. NASA engine and aircraft system models were created to define the hybrid wing body aircraft concept as a twin engine aircraft with a 7500 nautical mile mission. The engines were modeled as existing technology high bypass ratio turbofans. The baseline hybrid wing body aircraft was assessed at 22 dB cumulative below the FAA Stage 4 certification level. To determine the potential for noise reduction with relatively near term technologies, seven other configurations were assessed beginning with moving the engines two fan nozzle diameters upstream of the trailing edge and then adding technologies for reduction of the highest noise sources. Aft radiated noise was expected to be the most challenging to reduce and, therefore, the experimental database focused on jet nozzle and pylon configurations that could reduce jet noise through a combination of source reduction and shielding effectiveness. The best configuration for reduction of jet noise used state-of-the-art technology chevrons with a pylon above the engine in the crown position. This configuration resulted in jet source noise reduction, favorable azimuthal directivity, and noise source relocation upstream where it is more effectively shielded by the limited airframe surface, and additional fan noise attenuation from acoustic liner on the crown pylon internal surfaces. Vertical and elevon surfaces were also assessed to add shielding area. The elevon deflection above the trailing edge showed some small additional noise reduction whereas vertical surfaces resulted in a slight noise increase. With the effects of the configurations from the

  19. A contract-based methodology for aircraft electric power system design

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzo, P; H. Xu; Ozay, N; Finn, JB; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, AL; Murray, RM; Donzé, A; Seshia, SA

    2014-01-01

    In an aircraft electric power system, one or more supervisory control units actuate a set of electromechanical switches to dynamically distribute power from generators to loads, while satisfying safety, reliability, and real-time performance requirements. To reduce expensive redesign steps, this control problem is generally addressed by minor incremental changes on top of consolidated solutions. A more systematic approach is hindered by a lack of rigorous design methodologies that allow estim...

  20. Passive Viscoelastic Constrained Layer Damping Application for a Small Aircraft Landing Gear System

    OpenAIRE

    Gallimore, Craig Allen

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this report was to test several common viscoelastic polymers and identify key attributes of their applicability to a small aircraft landing gear system for improved damping performance. The applied viscoelastic damping treatment to the gear was of a constrained layer type, promoting increased shear deformation over free surface treatments, and therefore enhanced energy dissipation within the viscoelastic layer. A total of eight materials were tested and analyzed using cy...

  1. NASA rotor system research aircraft flight-test data report: Helicopter and compound configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, R. E.; Kufeld, R. M.; Cross, J. L.; Hodge, R. W.; Ericson, W. F.; Carter, R. D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The flight test activities of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, from June 30, 1981 to August 5, 1982 are reported. Tests were conducted in both the helicopter and compound configurations. Compound tests reconfirmed the Sikorsky flight envelope except that main rotor blade bending loads reached endurance at a speed about 10 knots lower than previously. Wing incidence changes were made from 0 to 10 deg.

  2. Approach for Service Life Extension of Explosive Devices for Aircraft Escape Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The service life evaluation of explosive devices used in a wide variety of aircraft escape systems is described. The purpose was to develop a service extension approach, supported by tests on candidate devices, to evaluate the effects of service, age, and degradation, and allow responsible, conservative, service life determinations. An overview is given on the recommended approach and experimental procedures for accurate service evaluations with test results on rigid and flexible explosive transfer lines, one-way transfers, and flexible linear shaped charges.

  3. Evaluation of Management System Effectiveness in the Preparation of the Aircraft for Flight in Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdane Ruta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flight delays in aviation enterprises are related to air traffic management and technical centers. This can happen for various reasons: untimely removal of defects, lack of spare parts, deficiencies in maintenance scheduling, etc. Another reason may be inefficient management in the system of preparing the aircraft for departure. The article suggests a possible option of such an assessment as well as the results obtained from the use of this methodology applied to a specific airline.

  4. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) activities at the Department of the Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Hutt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting and managing the natural resources and heritage on almost 20% of the land in the United States. The DOI’s mission requires access to remotely sensed data over vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology has the potential to enable the DOI to be a better steward of the land by: (1) Improving natural hazard forecasting and the analysis of the impacts. (2) Improving the understanding of climate change to better plan for likely impacts. (3) Developing precipitation and evaporation forecasting to better manage water resources. (4) Monitoring Arctic ice change and its impacts on ecosystems, coasts, and transportation. (5) Increasing safety and effectiveness of wildland fire management. (6) Enhancing search and rescue capabilities. (7) Broadening the abilities to monitor environmental or landscape conditions and changes. (8) Better understanding and protecting the Nation’s ecosystems. The initial operational testing and evaluations performed by the DOI have proven that UAS technology can be used to support many of the Department’s activities. UAS technology provides scientists a way to look longer, closer and more frequently at some of Earth’s most remote areas—places that were previously too dangerous or expensive to monitor in detail. The flexibility of operations and relative low cost to purchase and operate Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) enhances the ability to track long-term landscape and environmental change. The initial testing indicates the operational costs are approximately 10% of traditional manned aircraft. In addition, users can quickly assess landscape-altering events such as wildland fires, floods and volcanoes. UAS technology will allow the DOI to do more with less and in the process enhance the Department’s ability to provide unbiased scientific information to help stakeholders make

  5. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  6. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  7. Fly-by-light flight control system architectures for tactical military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jack; Jones, Jack E.; Shaw, Brad

    1995-05-01

    Requirements for future advanced tactical aircraft identify the need for flight control system architectures that provide a higher degree of performance with regard to electromagnetic interference immunity, communication bus data rate, propulsion/utility subsystem integration, and affordability. Evolution of highly centralized, digital, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion/utility control system is achieved as modular functions are implemented and integrated by serial, digital, fiber optics communication links. These adaptable architectures allow the user to configure the fly-by-light system to meet unique safety requirements, system performance, and design to cost targets.

  8. Method of Choosing the Information Technology System Supporting Management of the Military Aircraft Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing the information technology system, the task of which is to support the management process of the military aircraft operation. The proposed method is based on surveys conducted among direct users of IT systems used in aviation of the Polish Armed Forces. The analysis of results of the surveys was conducted using statistical methods. The paper was completed with practical conclusions related to further usefulness of the individual information technology systems. In the future, they can be extremely useful in the process of selecting the best solutions and integration of the information technology systems

  9. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  10. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands. (paper)

  11. Effects of higher order control systems on aircraft approach and landing longitudinal handling qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, M. A.; Dazzo, J. J.; Silverthorn, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of approach and landing longitudinal flying qualities, based on data generated using a variable stability NT-33 aircraft combined with significant control system dynamics is described. An optimum pilot lead time for pitch tracking, flight path angle tracking, and combined pitch and flight path angle tracking tasks is determined from a closed loop simulation using integral squared error (ISE) as a performance measure. Pilot gain and lead time were varied in the closed loop simulation of the pilot and aircraft to obtain the best performance for different control system configurations. The results lead to the selection of an optimum lead time using ISE as a performance criterion. Using this value of optimum lead time, a correlation is then found between pilot rating and performance with changes in the control system and in the aircraft dynamics. It is also shown that pilot rating is closely related to pilot workload which, in turn, is related to the amount of lead which the pilot must generate to obtain satisfactory response. The results also indicate that the pilot may use pitch angle tracking for the approach task and then add flight path angle tracking for the flare and touchdown.

  12. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands. PMID:25405953

  13. Sidetone-level considerations in aircraft communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, S. E.

    1981-06-01

    It is known that the loudness of an individual's speech is governed by two possibly related feedback phenomena: the 'sidetone-amplification effect', the tendency for a speaker to decrease his vocal effort when he hears his voice at an amplified level, and the 'Lombard effect', the tendency for a speaker to increase his vocal intensity in the presence of noise. The limited noise cancelling capabilities of current microphones are the major source of system amplified noise listeners ears. It may be possible to reduce the level of this source of noise, and hence increase a system's signal to noise ratio and speech intelligibility, by optimizing the level of a speaker's transmit sidetones to elicit an increase in his vocal output.

  14. The IAGOS Information System: From the aircraft measurements to the users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Damien; Thouret, Valérie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2013-04-01

    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System, http://www.iagos.org) aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of atmospheric chemical composition throughout the troposphere and in the UTLS. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation industry. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks proving a unique global observation system: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species both reactive and greenhouse gases (O3, CO, NOx, NOy, H2O, CO2, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is deployed monthly as a flying laboratory aboard one aircraft. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. Today, 5 aircraft are flying with the MOZAIC (3) or IAGOS-CORE (2) instrumentation namely 3 aircraft from Lufthansa, 1 from Air Namibia, and 1 from China Airlines Taiwan. A main improvement and new aspect of the IAGOS-CORE instrumentation compared to MOZAIC is to deliver the raw data in near real time (i.e. as soon as the aircraft lands data are transmitted). After a first and quick validation of the O3 and CO measurements, preliminary data are made available in the central database for both the MACC project (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and scientific research groups. In addition to recorded measurements, the database also contains added-value products such as meteorological information (tropopause height, air mass backtrajectories) and lagrangian model outputs (FLEXPART). Data access is handled by open

  15. Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and...

  16. Conflict Detection Metrics for Aircraft Sense and Avoid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsten, Fredrik; Nordlund, Per-Johan; Gustafsson, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The task of an airborne collision avoidance system is to continuously evaluate the risk of collision and in the case of too high risk initiate an evasive action. The traditional way to assess risk is to focus on a critical point of time. A recently proposed alternative is to evaluate the cumulated risk over time. It is the purpose of this contribution to evaluate the difference between these two concepts and also to validate an approximate method for computing the cumulated risk, suitable for...

  17. On-Board Visual Tracking with Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Ashraf; Semke, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a real time tracking algorithm that runs on a 1.2 GHz PC/104 computer on-board a small UAV. The algorithm uses zero mean normalized cross correlation to detect and locate an object in the image. A kalman filter is used to make the tracking algorithm computationally efficient. Object position in an image frame is predicted using the motion model and a search window, centered at the predicted position is generated. Object position is updated with the measurement from object detection. The detected position is sent to the motion controller to move the gimbal so that the object stays at the center of the image frame. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and the system is able to work in two different methods. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The system is capable of re-detecting an object, in t...

  18. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.

    2013-01-01

    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  19. SOLUTION MANAGMET’S TASK INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT IN CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Hazarkhanov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In this article the methods of increase the efficiency of the compensation of indignations of theonboard integrated control systems of Unmanned Aircrafts are considered. On the basis of generalizationthe disadvantages of inertial and satellite navigation systems it was revealed, that as a result of theinsufficient compensation of indignations these systems lose a stable condition. They are exposed to barriersand there is unlimited growth of mistakes in time. For the solution of this actual problem of the onboardintegrated control systems a method of increase the efficiency of the compensation of indignations of nonstationarylinear systems in the conditions of uncertainty with the observer and with the correction bymistake of recovery was suggested. For this purpose the conditions of uncertainty were mathematicallystated, the equations of the onboard integrated control systems were completed, as non-stationary object ofmanagement, the observer with correction by mistake of recovery and a matrix of factor of strengthening ofthe observer are made. As a result the system is asymptotically stable to low-frequency indignations and theaccumulation of an error in time at high-frequency indignations is eliminated.Keywords: a condition of uncertainty, a matrix of factor of strengthening of the observer, iasymptoticalstability, low-frequency and high-frequency indignations, nertial and satellite navigation systems, nonstationarylinear systems, onboard integrated control systems, the observer with a correction by mistake ofrecovery, unmanned aircrafts.

  20. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  1. Digital Aircraft Sheet Metal Part Manufacturing System and Its Key Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Junbiao; Liu; Chuang

    2007-01-01

    The architecture of digital sheet metal manufacturing system is proposed based on the classification of sheet metal manufacturing information.The essence of digital manufacturing is the definition,management and transfer of information,and the key technologies are brought forward and described.It is pointed out that knowledge-based manufacturing elements design is necessary to make digital technology efficient.The management of all kinds of sheet metal manufacturing element information is to build single source of manufacturing data.Multi-state model-based digital transfer and coordination method is designed to provide a foundation for digital manufacturing of aircraft sheet metal part.The application of digital sheet metal manufacturing is exemplified with an aircraft sheet metal part.The application result is compared to that of the traditional analog transfer technology.It is shown that the developed technology can improve part quality,shorten manufacturing time and lower manufacturing cost.

  2. Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, M.

    1976-01-01

    An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.

  3. A survey of autonomous vision-based See and Avoid for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadyen, Aaron; Mejias, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the vision-based See and Avoid problem for unmanned aircraft. The unique problem environment and associated constraints are detailed, followed by an in-depth analysis of visual sensing limitations. In light of such detection and estimation constraints, relevant human, aircraft and robot collision avoidance concepts are then compared from a decision and control perspective. Remarks on system evaluation and certification are also included to provide a holistic review approach. The intention of this work is to clarify common misconceptions, realistically bound feasible design expectations and offer new research directions. It is hoped that this paper will help us to unify design efforts across the aerospace and robotics communities.

  4. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  5. Trajectory Management of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS in Emergency Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Majka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aircraft must be characterized by a level of safety, similar to that of manned aircraft, when performing flights over densely populated areas. Dangerous situations or emergencies are frequently connected with the necessity to change the profiles and parameters of a flight as well as the flight plans. The aim of this work is to present the methods used to determine an Unmanned Aircraft System’s (UAS flight profile after a dangerous situation or emergency occurs. The analysis was limited to the possibility of an engine system emergency and further flight continuing along a trajectory of which the shape depends on the type of the emergency. The suggested method also enables the determination of an optimal flying trajectory, based on the territory of a special protection zone (for example, large populated areas, in the case of an emergency that would disable continuation of the performed task. The method used in this work allows researchers, in a simplified way, to solve a variation task using the Ritz–Galerkin method, consisting of an approximate solution of the boundary value problem to determine the optimal flight path. The worked out method can become an element of the on-board system supporting UAS flight control.

  6. Model-Checking Real-Time Properties of an Aircraft Landing Gear System Using Fiacre

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomieu, Bernard; Dal Zilio, Silvano; Fronc, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    International audience We describe our experience with modeling the landing gear system of an aircraft using the formal specification language Fiacre. Our model takes into account the behavior and timing properties of both the physical parts and the control software of this system. We use this formal model to check safety and real-time properties on the system but also to find a safe bound on the maximal time needed for all gears to be down and locked (assuming the absence of failures). Ou...

  7. Buffet induced structural/flight-control system interaction of the X-29A aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, David F.; Clarke, Robert

    1991-01-01

    High angle-of-attack flight regime research is currently being conducted for modern fighter aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight regime provides enhanced maneuverability to fighter pilots in combat situations. Flight research data are being acquired to compare and validate advanced computational fluid dynamic solutions and wind-tunnel models. High angle-of-attack flight creates unique aerodynamic phenomena including wing rock and buffet on the airframe. These phenomena increase the level of excitation of the structural modes, especially on the vertical and horizontal stabilizers. With high gain digital flight-control systems, this structural response may result in an aeroservoelastic interaction. A structural interaction on the X-29A aircraft was observed during high angle-of-attack flight testing. The roll and yaw rate gyros sensed the aircraft's structural modes at 11, 13, and 16 Hz. The rate gyro output signals were then amplified through the flight-control laws and sent as commands to the flaperons and rudder. The flight data indicated that as the angle of attack increased, the amplitude of the buffet on the vertical stabilizer increased, which resulted in more excitation to the structural modes. The flight-control system sensors and command signals showed this increase in modal power at the structural frequencies up to a 30 degree angle-of-attack. Beyond a 30 degree angle-of-attack, the vertical stabilizer response, the feedback sensor amplitude, and control surface command signal amplitude remained relatively constant. Data are presented that show the increased modal power in the aircraft structural accelerometers, the feedback sensors, and the command signals as a function of angle of attack. This structural interaction is traced from the aerodynamic buffet to the flight-control surfaces.

  8. The German Saenger space transportation system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  9. Iron Transport Systems in Neisseria meningitidis†

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins-Balding, Donna; Ratliff-Griffin, Melanie; Stojiljkovic, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Acquisition of iron and iron complexes has long been recognized as a major determinant in the pathogenesis of Neisseria meningitidis. In this review, high-affinity iron uptake systems, which allow meningococci to utilize the human host proteins transferrin, lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and haptoglobin-hemoglobin as sources of essential iron, are described. Classic features of bacterial iron transport systems, such as regulation by the iron-responsive repressor Fur and TonB-dependent transport act...

  10. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observati...

  11. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, V

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe was performed by comparing the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns. Whenever possible the models were run over the four-year period 1995–1998 and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a ...

  12. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, V

    2003-01-01

    International audience A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe was performed by comparing the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns. Whenever possible the models were run over the four-year period 1995–1998 and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach a...

  13. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    International audience A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all...

  14. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpol...

  15. Study for the optimization of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency. Volume 1: Methodology, criteria, aeroelastic model definition and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.

    1985-01-01

    Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.

  16. Piezomechatronic-based systems in aircraft, space, and defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, T.; Claeyssen, F.; LeLetty, R.; Sosnicki, O.; Pages, A.; Vazquez Carazo, A.

    2009-05-01

    mechatronic based system such like, piezo micro-scanning stage for IR camera resolution enhancement, piezo active flap on helicopter blade for noise reduction, micro amplified piezo actuator for tilting MAV rotor, hollow piezo actuator for external laser cavity tuning of a space LIDAR, in order to discuss the state-of-the-art performance and deduce further needs.

  17. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  18. The drive for Aircraft Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, R. L., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1984-01-01

    NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program, which began in 1976, has mounted a development effort in four major transport aircraft technology fields: laminar flow systems, advanced aerodynamics, flight controls, and composite structures. ACEE has explored two basic methods for achieving drag-reducing boundary layer laminarization: the use of suction through the wing structure (via slots or perforations) to remove boundary layer turbulence, and the encouragement of natural laminar flow maintenance through refined design practices. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted for wide bodied aircraft equipped with high aspect ratio supercritical wings and winglets. Maneuver load control and pitch-active stability augmentation control systems reduce fuel consumption by reducing the drag associated with high aircraft stability margins. Composite structures yield lighter airframes that in turn call for smaller wing and empennage areas, reducing induced drag for a given payload. In combination, all four areas of development are expected to yield a fuel consumption reduction of 40 percent.

  19. Methodological Approach for Performing Human Reliability and Error Analysis in Railway Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, billions of dollars are being spent annually world wide to develop, manufacture, and operate transportation system such trains, ships, aircraft, and motor vehicles. Around 70 to 90 percent oftransportation crashes are, directly or indirectly, the result of human error. In fact, with the development of technology, system reliability has increased dramatically during the past decades, while human reliability has remained unchanged over the same period. Accordingly, human error is now considered as the most significant source of accidents or incidents in safety-critical systems. The aim of the paper is the proposal of a methodological approach to improve the transportation system reliability and in particular railway transportation system. The methodology presented is based on Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Remote Sensing and Scientific Research: Classification and Considerations of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Watts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have evolved rapidly over the past decade driven primarily by military uses, and have begun finding application among civilian users for earth sensing reconnaissance and scientific data collection purposes. Among UAS, promising characteristics are long flight duration, improved mission safety, flight repeatability due to improving autopilots, and reduced operational costs when compared to manned aircraft. The potential advantages of an unmanned platform, however, depend on many factors, such as aircraft, sensor types, mission objectives, and the current UAS regulatory requirements for operations of the particular platform. The regulations concerning UAS operation are still in the early development stages and currently present significant barriers to entry for scientific users. In this article we describe a variety of platforms, as well as sensor capabilities, and identify advantages of each as relevant to the demands of users in the scientific research sector. We also briefly discuss the current state of regulations affecting UAS operations, with the purpose of informing the scientific community about this developing technology whose potential for revolutionizing natural science observations is similar to those transformations that GIS and GPS brought to the community two decades ago.

  1. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Used over Western U.S. Rangelands to Characterize Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.

    2015-12-01

    New remote sensing methods to quantify terrestrial ecosystems have developed rapidly over the past 10 years. New platforms with improved aeronautical capabilities have become known as Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). In addition to the new aircraft, sensors are becoming smaller and some can fit into limited payload bays. The miniaturization process is well underway, but much remains to be done. Rather than using a wide variety of sensors, a limited number of instruments is recommended. At the moment we fly 2-3 instruments (digital SLR camera, 6-band multispectral camera, and single video camera). Our flights are primarily over low population density western U.S. rangeland with objectives to assess rangeland health, active erosion, vegetation change, phenology, livestock movement, and vegetation type consumed by grazing animals. All of our UAS flights are made using a serpentine flight path with overlapping images at an altitude of 700 ft (215 m). This altitude allows hyperspatial imagery with a resolution of 5-15 cm depending upon the sensor being used, and it allows determination of vegetation type based on the plant structure and vegetation geometries, or by multispectral analysis. In addition to advances in aircraft and sensor technology, image processing software has become more sophisticated. Future development is necessary, and we can expect improvement in sensors, aircraft, data collection, and application to terrestrial ecosystems. Of 17 ARS research laboratories across the country four laboratories are interested in future UAS applications and another 13 already have at least one UAS. In 2015 the Federal Aviation Administration proposed a framework of recommendations that would allow routine use of certain small UAS (those weighing less than 55 lb (25 kg)). Although these new regulations will provide increased flexibility in how flights are made, other operations will still require the use of a Certificate of Authorization.

  2. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  3. Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO2 using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Paris

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01 of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS+BB and oceanic (OC CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom 3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS+BB+OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology are −4.4±0.9 (−4.2±0.9, −3.9±0.9 (−4.5±0.9, and −5.2±0.9 (−4.9±0.9 Pg C yr−1 , respectively. The regional a posteriori fluxes are broadly consistent in the sign and magnitude of the TransCom-3 study for 1992–1996, but we find larger net sinks over northern and southern continents. We find large departures from our a priori over Europe during summer 2003, over temperate Eurasia during 2004, and over North America during 2005, reflecting an incomplete description of terrestrial carbon dynamics. We find GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 a posteriori CO2 concentrations reproduce the observed surface trend of 1.91–2.43 ppm yr−1, depending on latitude, within 0.15 ppm yr−1 (0.2 ppm yr−1 and the seasonal cycle within 0.2 ppm (0.2 ppm at all latitudes. We find the a posteriori model reproduces the aircraft vertical profile measurements of CO2 over North America and Siberia generally within 1.5 ppm in the free and upper troposphere but can be biased by up to 4–5 ppm in the boundary layer at the start and end of the growing season. The model has a small negative bias in the free troposphere CO2 trend (1.95–2.19 ppm yr−1 compared to AIRS data which has a trend of 2.21–2.63 ppm yr−1 during 2004–2006, consistent with surface data. Model CO2 concentrations in the upper troposphere, evaluated using CONTRAIL (Comprehensive

  4. Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO2 using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Paris

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01 of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman Filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS + BB and oceanic (OC CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom-3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS + BB + OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology are −4.4 ± 0.9 (−4.2 ± 0.9, −3.9 ± 0.9 (−4.5 ± 0.9, and −5.2 ± 0.9 (−4.9 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, respectively. After taking into account anthropogenic fossil fuel and bio-fuel emissions, the global annual net CO2 emissions for 2004–2006 are estimated to be 4.0 ± 0.9 (4.2 ± 0.9, 4.8 ± 0.9 (4.2 ± 0.9, and 3.8 ± 0.9 (4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, respectively. The estimated 3-yr total net emission for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology is equal to 12.5 (12.4 PgC, agreeing with other recent top-down estimates (12–13 PgC. The regional a posteriori fluxes are broadly consistent in the sign and magnitude of the TransCom-3 study for 1992–1996, but we find larger net sinks over northern and southern continents. We find large departures from our a priori over Europe during summer 2003, over temperate Eurasia during 2004, and over North America during 2005, reflecting an incomplete description of terrestrial carbon dynamics. We find GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 a posteriori CO2 concentrations reproduce the observed surface trend of 1.91–2.43 ppm yr−1 (parts per million per year, depending on latitude, within 0.15 ppm yr−1 (0.2 ppm yr−1 and the seasonal cycle within 0.2 ppm (0.2 ppm at all latitudes. We find the a posteriori model reproduces the aircraft vertical profile measurements of CO2 over North America and Siberia generally within 1

  5. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  6. Multiple criteria analysis of remotely piloted aircraft systems for monitoring the crops vegetation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, L.; Luculescu, M. C.; Zamfira, S. C.; Boer, A. L.; Pop, S.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) used for monitoring the crops vegetation status. The study focuses on two types of RPAS, namely the flying wing and the multi-copter. The following criteria were taken into account: technical characteristics, power consumption, flight autonomy, flight conditions, costs, data acquisition systems used for monitoring, crops area and so on. Based on this analysis, advantages and disadvantages are emphasized offering a useful tool for choosing the proper solution according to the specific application conditions.

  7. Application of an advanced computerized structural design system to an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.; Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A structural design study of an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft has been made using the integrated design system, ATLAS, and a relatively large analytical finite-element model containing 8500 degrees of freedom. This paper focuses on structural design methods developed and used in support of the study with emphasis on aeroelasticity. The use of ATLAS permitted (1) automatic resizing of the wing structure for multiple load conditions, (2) rapid evaluation of aeroelastic effects, and (3) an iterative approach to the correction of flutter deficiencies. The significant results of the study are discussed along with the advantages derived from the use of an advanced structural design system in preliminary design studies.

  8. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially- designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that is was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 20 states through which it would travel

  9. Supporting the Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS) for Global Science Observations in Civil and Segregated Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, B. L.; Reider. K/

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are growing more popular within the earth science community as a way to augment measurements currently made with manned aircraft. UAS arc uniquely suited for applications that require long dwell times and/or in locations that are generally too dangerous for manned aircraft. Environmental monitoring in areas like the Arctic or obtaining data within a hurricane are just a couple of examples of many applications to which UAS are ideally suited. However, UAS are not without their challenges. Most unmanned aircraft are unable to meet current airspace regulations that are in place for manned aircraft, and specific airspace standards and regulations for unmanned aircraft do not exist. As a result, gaining access to civil airspace for flights is very difficult around the world. Under Term of Reference 48 within the ISPRS Commission 1, WGI/I: Standardization of Aircraft Interfaces, efforts have been made to understand and quantify the current state of UAS airspace access on a global scale. The results of these efforts will be presented along with examples of successful science missions that have been conducted internationally during the past year.

  10. Design of a lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaravelu, A.; Goddard, H.; Gold, R.; Greenwell, S.; Lander, J.; Nordell, B.; Stepp, K.; Styer, M.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a good transportation infrastructure is a major requirement for the establishment of a permanent lunar base. Transportation is characterized by the technology available in a specific time frame and the need to transport personnel and cargo between Earth and Moon, and between lunar bases. In our study, attention was first focused on developing a transportation system for the first generation lunar base. As a first step, a tracked-type multipurpose lunar transportation vehicle was considered as a possible mode of transportation and a detailed study was conducted on the various aspects of the vehicle. Since the vehicle is composed of many moving parts, exposing it to the environment of the Moon, where fine dust particles are prevalent, can cause problems associated with lubrication and friction. The vehicle also posed problems concerning weight and power. Hence, several modifications were made to the above design ideas conceptually, and a Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS) is proposed as a more effective alternative with the following objectives: (1) minimizing the transportation of construction material and fuel from Earth or maximizing the use of the lunar material; (2) use of novel materials and light-weight structures; (3) use of new manufacturing methods and technology such as magnetic levitation using superconducting materials; and (4) innovative concepts of effectively utilizing the exotic lunar conditions, i.e., high thermal gradients, lack of atmosphere, lower gravity, etc. To achieve the above objectives of designing transportation systems from concept to operation, the project was planned in three phases: (1) conceptual design; (2) detailed analysis and synthesis; and (3) construction, testing, evaluation, and operation. In this project, both phases 1 and 2 have been carried out and work on phase 3 is in progress. In this paper, the details of the Lunar ARTS are discussed and the future work on the vehicle are

  11. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

  12. Design of an airborne Fourier transform visible hyperspectral imaging system for light aircraft environmental remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard John, III; Butler, Eugene W.; Rafert, Bruce; Sellar, R. Glenn

    1995-06-01

    Kestrel Corporation and the Florida Institute of Technology have designed, and are now manufacturing, a Fourier transform visible hyperspectral imager system for use in a single engine light aircraft. The system is composed of a Sagnac-based interferometer optical subsystem, a data management system, and an aircraft attitude and current position sybsystem. The system is designed to have better than 5 nm spectral resolution at 450 nm, operates over the 440 nm to 1150 nm spectral band and has a 2D spatial resolution of 0.8 mrad. An internal calibration source is recorded with every frame of data to retain radiometric accuracy. The entire system fits into a Cessna 206 and uses a conventional downward looking view port located in the baggage compartment. During operation, data are collected at a rate of 15 Mbytes per second and stored direct to a disk array. Data storage has been sized to accommodate 56 minutes of observations. Designed for environmental mapping, this Fourier transform imager has uses in emergency response and military operations.

  13. Demonstration results of fly-by-light flight control system architectures for tactical military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Jack; Shaw, Brad; Jones, Jack E.

    1996-10-01

    Requirements for future advanced tactical aircraft identify the need for flight control system architectures that provide a higher degree of performance with regard to electromagnetic interference immunity, communication bus data rate, propulsion/utility subsystem integration, and affordability. Evolution for highly centralized, digital, fly-by-light flight/propulsion/utility control system is achieved as modular functions are implemented and integrated by serial digital fiberoptic communication links. These adaptable architectures allow the user to configure the fly- by-light system to meet unique safety requirements, system performance, and design-to-cost targets. This paper presents results of the open and closed loop system demonstrations of Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware architecture building blocks integrated with SAE AS-1773 communication bus at MDA.

  14. Preliminary description of the transportation operations systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a preliminary description of the transportation operations systems designed to ship spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) from waste generator sites to authorized waste receiving facilities. It is an initial effort to define the operations system and identifies the activities and system components necessary to provide complete transportation capability. It is intended that this be a project level working document to facilitate dialog for further identification of system elements and functional requirements. This process will lead to issuance of a System Requirements and Description (SRD) document for the transportation operations systems and will identify detailed system functional requirements, performance criteria, and functional interfaces. The transportation system is quite complex and is influenced by a large number of external factors and interfaces. Some of these interfaces (such as the repository) are just now being developed. Others (such as utility-handling capabilities) are currently in existence and must be accommodated or modified. Additionally, the allocation of requirements is likewise both developing (with the repository) and somewhat fixed. 16 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Supercharging system behavior for high altitude operation of an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Different supercharging architectures have been compared for an aircraft 2T engine. • The supercharging architectures are compared to minimize the fuel consumption. • The architecture with the highest conversion efficiency was determined. - Abstract: Different studies on both 2- and 4-stroke engines have shown how the choice of different supercharging architectures can influence engine performance. Among them, architectures coupling one turbocharger with a mechanical compressor or two turbochargers are found to be the most performing in terms of engine output power and efficiency. However, defining the best supercharging architecture for aircraft 2-stroke engines is a quite complex task because the supercharging system as well as the ambient conditions influence the engine performance/efficiency. This is due to the close interaction between supercharging, trapping, scavenging and combustion processes. The aim of the present work is the comparison between different architectures (single turbocharger, double turbocharger, single turbocharger combined with a mechanical compressor, single turbocharger with an electrically-assisted turbocharger, with intercooler or aftercooler) designed to supercharge an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine for general aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles characterized by a very high altitude operation and long fuel distance. A 1D model of the engine purposely designed has been used to compare the performance of the different supercharging systems in terms of power, fuel consumption, and their effect on trapping and scavenging efficiency at different altitudes. The analysis shows that the engine target power is reached by a 2 turbochargers architecture; in this way, in fact, the cylinder filling, and consequently the engine performance, are maximized. Moreover, it is shown that the performance of a 2 turbochargers architecture performance can be further improved connecting electrically and not mechanically the low

  16. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  17. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  18. Fielding a structural health monitoring system on legacy military aircraft: A business perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Marcel J. [Dept. of Gas Turbines and Structural Integrity, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-12-15

    An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks.

  19. 14 CFR 33.71 - Lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.71 Lubrication system. (a... in which an aircraft is expected to operate. (b) Oil strainer or filter. There must be an...

  20. Potential uses of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in weed research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jon; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose;

    2013-01-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with cameras have not been adopted in weed research, but offer low-cost sensing with high flexibility in terms of spatial resolution. A small rotary-wing UAS was tested as part of a search for an inexpensive, user-friendly and reliable aircraft for practical...... in the range from 0.3 to 17.1 mm per pixel. This finding is important because spatial resolution is inversely related to sensing capacity. We captured 20 plots comprising a total of about 0.2 ha in one image at 50 m altitude without losing information about the cultivation impacts on vegetation compared...

  1. Research on Aircraft Noise Evaluation System%飞机噪声评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颖; 谢实海; 陈荣生

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation system of aircraft noise and environment noise should be integrated,because aircraft noise belongs to environment noise.At the same time,there should be some difference in the evaluation system of aircraft noise.For solving this contradiction,this article puts forward a new evaluation system of aircraft noise.This new system unifies the evaluation of aircraft noise and other environment noise effectively,and adds a new evaluation index single-event noise exposure level.The system not only considers the characteristics of aircraft noise,which is different from other traffic noise,but also adds aircraft noise to other traffic noise,which can reflect sound environment around airport really.This system has practical worthiness and theory significance.%飞机噪声的共性决定其评价体系应于环境噪声评价体系统一,而飞机噪声的个性决定其评价方法必须有别于一般环境噪声评价.本文通过对飞机噪声的共性与个性的分析,建立了一种新的飞机噪声评价体系,它不仅考虑到飞机噪声不同于其他交通噪声的特点,而且有效地统一了飞机噪声与城市区域环境噪声的评价体系.新体系可以将机场周围飞机噪声与其他交通噪声叠加,真实地反映机场周围声环境,具有一定的实用价值和理论指导意义.

  2. System Noise Assessment and the Potential for a Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Gern, Frank H.; VanZante, Dale E.

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was conducted for a hybrid wing body freighter aircraft concept configured with three open rotor engines. The primary objective of the study was to determine the aircraft system level noise given the significant impact of installation effects including shielding the open rotor noise by the airframe. The aircraft was designed to carry a payload of 100,000 lbs on a 6,500 nautical mile mission. An experimental database was used to establish the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects including those from shielding by the airframe planform, interactions with the control surfaces, and additional noise reduction technologies. A second objective of the study applied the impacts of projected low noise airframe technology and a projection of advanced low noise rotors appropriate for the NASA N+2 2025 timeframe. With the projection of low noise rotors and installation effects, the aircraft system level was 26.0 EPNLdB below Stage 4 level with the engine installed at 1.0 rotor diameters upstream of the trailing edge. Moving the engine to 1.5 rotor diameters brought the system level noise to 30.8 EPNLdB below Stage 4. At these locations on the airframe, the integrated level of installation effects including shielding can be as much as 20 EPNLdB cumulative in addition to lower engine source noise from advanced low noise rotors. And finally, an additional set of technology effects were identified and the potential impact at the system level was estimated for noise only without assessing the impact on aircraft performance. If these additional effects were to be included it is estimated that the potential aircraft system noise could reach as low as 38.0 EPNLdB cumulative below Stage 4.

  3. The WIPP transportation system - Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a first-of-a-kind transportation system. Included is a total transport package that includes a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved type B container, a lightweight tractor, a custom-designed trailer, specially trained drivers, and a satellite-based shipment tracking system. In the development effort, the DOE has been exceptionally sensitive and responsive to public concerns and the need for safety in the transport of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Having established the system, the next step was to demonstrate its readiness to transport TRU waste to the WIPP site. The paper discusses normal operations, off-normal events, adverse weather, safe parking areas, tractor replacement, accident notification, TRUPACT-2, route deviations, and vehicle inspections. The DOE, with the assistance of the various state organizations, has taken a close look at the preparation and implementation of the WIPP transportation system. These measures will ensure that it remains safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the US

  4. STRUCTURAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE AIRCRAFT LIQUID-GAS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dmitrii G. Kolykhalov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Тhis article is devoted to the gas-liquid systems of the aircraft and their structural and technological analysis. The paper shows the characteristics of pipelines, considers the types of working fluids and gases and covers the range of perceived internal pressures. The paper presents the classification of pipelines of flying vehicles from the point of view of their working conditions, taking into account the perceived internal pressure. The article also shows the classification scheme of major groups and types of pipe connections and fittings. The article focuses on the scheme of permanent joints made with soldering and welding, as well as the split of mobile and fixed joints of different types. The authors study the combined connections. The authors have also developed classification schemes of aircraft piping systems that depend on the system pressure. A classification scheme of piping connections, depending on the method of connection, mobility, presence of seals is singled out. The research is ilustrated with examples of compounds of different types.

  5. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  6. 76 FR 5 - Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... sport pilots. For aircraft design, low performance within the constraints of light weight and structural... because it establishes minimum standards required in the interest of safety for the design of aircraft... applications of light-sport aircraft (LSA) design. In 2004, the FAA issued the final rule ``Certification...

  7. Characterisation of a hybrid, fuel-cell-based propulsion system for small unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, D.; Lehmkuehler, K.; Gong, A.; Harvey, J. R.; Brian, G.; Palmer, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced hybrid powerplants combining a fuel cell and battery can enable significantly higher endurance for small, electrically powered unmanned aircraft systems, compared with batteries alone. However, detailed investigations of the static and dynamic performance of such systems are required to address integration challenges. This article describes a series of tests used to characterise the Horizon Energy Systems' AeroStack hybrid, fuel-cell-based powertrain. The results demonstrate that a significant difference can exist between the dynamic performance of the fuel-cell system and its static polarisation curve, confirming the need for detailed measurements. The results also confirm that the AeroStack's lithium-polymer battery plays a crucial role in its response to dynamic load changes and protects the fuel cell from membrane dehydration and fuel starvation. At low static loads, the AeroStack fuel cell recharges the battery with currents up to 1 A, which leads to further differences with the polarisation curve.

  8. Multi-Domain Modeling and Simulation of an Aircraft System for Advanced Vehicle-Level Reasoning Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : F. Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simulation based health monitoring system test-bed for aircraft systems. The purpose of the test-bed is to provide a technology neutral basis for implementing and evaluation of reasoning systems on vehicle level and software architecture in support of the safety and maintenance process. This simulation test-bed will provide the sub-system level results and data which can be fed to the VLRS to generate vehicle level reasoning to achieve broader level diagnoses. This paper describes real-time system architecture and concept of operations for the aircraft major sub-systems. The four main components in the real-time test-bed are the aircraft sub-systems (e.g. battery, fuel, engine, generator, heating and lighting system simulation model, fault insertion unit, health monitoring data processing and user interface. In this paper, we adopted a component based modelling paradigm for the implementation of the virtual aircraft systems. All of the fault injections are currently implemented via software. The fault insertion unit allows for the repeatable injection of faults into the system. The simulation test-bed has been tested with many different faults which were undetected on system level to process and detect on the vehicle level reasoning. This article also shows how one system fault can affect the overall health of the vehicle.

  9. On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System Issues, Challenges, Operational Restrictions, Certification, and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos; Piegl, Les A

    2012-01-01

    This book presents, in a comprehensive way, current unmanned aviation regulation, airworthiness certification, special aircraft categories, pilot certification, federal aviation requirements, operation rules, airspace classes and regulation development models. It discusses unmanned aircraft systems levels of safety derived mathematically based on the corresponding levels for manned aviation. It provides an overview of the history and current status of UAS airworthiness and operational regulation worldwide. Existing regulations have been developed considering the need for a complete regulatory framework for UAS. It focuses on UAS safety assessment and functional requirements, achieved in terms of defining an “Equivalent Level of Safety”, or ELOS, with that of manned aviation, specifying what the ELOS requirement entails for UAS regulations. To accomplish this, the safety performance of manned aviation is first evaluated, followed by a novel model to derive reliability requirements for achieving target lev...

  10. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  13. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  14. Steps Towards Scalable and Modularized Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C. Dauer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aircraft (UA applications impose a variety of computing tasks on the on-board computer system. From a research perspective, it is often more convenient to evaluate algorithms on bigger aircraft as they are capable of lifting heavier loads and thus more powerful computational units. On the other hand, smaller systems are often less expensive and operation is less restricted in many countries. This paper thus presents a conceptual design for flight software that can be evaluated on the UA of convenient size. The integration effort required to transfer the algorithm to different sized UA is significantly reduced. This scalability is achieved by using exchangeable payload modules and a flexible process distribution on different processing units. The presented approach is discussed using the example of the flight software of a 14 kg unmanned helicopter and an equivalent of 1.5 kg. The proof of concept is shown by means of flight performance in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

  15. Multi-dimensional scattering properties diagnosis system of scale aircraft model in an anechoic chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chufeng Hu; Zhou Zhou; Nanjing Li; Kun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the concept of “diagnosis”, a simple and ef-fective broadband radar cross section (RCS) measurement system is constructed, and some multi-dimensional scattering properties diagnosis techniques are presented based on the system. Firstly, a stepped-frequency signal is employed to achieve high range resolution, combining with a variety of signal processing tech-niques. Secondly, cross-range resolution is gained with a rotating table, and the high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) imaging of the scale model is obtained by the microwave imaging theory. Fi-nal y, two receiving antennas with a smal distance in altitude are used, and the three-dimensional (3-D) height distribution of scattering points on the scale model is extracted from the phase of images. Some typical bodies and a scale aircraft model are diagnosed in an anechoic chamber. The experimental results show that, after scaling with a metal sphere, the accurate one-dimensional (1-D) RCS pattern of the model is obtained, and it has a large dynamic range. When the bandwidth of the transmit-ting signal is 4 GHz, the resolution of the 2-D image can reach to 0.037 5 m. The 3-D height distribution of scattering points is given by interferometric measurement. This paper provides a feasible way to obtain high-precision scattering properties parameters of the scale aircraft model in a conventional rectangular anechoic chamber.

  16. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  17. Calibration of 5-hole Probe for Flow Angles from Advanced Technologies Testing Aircraft System Flight Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Parameswaran

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigations carried out to calibrate the 5-hole probe for flow angles from advanced technologies testing aircraft system flight data. The flight tests were carriedout with gear up and at nominal mid-centre of gravity location for two landing flap positions, Of= IN and 14°. Dynamic manoeuvres were executed to excite the short period and Dutch roll mode of the aircraft. In addition, pull up, push down and steady sideslip manoeuvres were also carried out. The data compatibility check on the recorded flight data has been carried out using maximum likelihood output error algorithm to estimate the bias, scale factor, and time delay in the pressure measurements from the 5-hole probe mounted on a noseboom in front of aircraft nose . Through a way of kinematic consistency checking, flight-validated scale factors, biases, and time delays are determined for the differential pressure measurements for both angle of attack and angle of sideslip. Also, the dynamic pressure measurement is found to have time delays. Based on the earlier investigations, it is once again confirmed that the measurements of attitude angles, obtained from the inertial platform, clearly indicate time delays referred to the other signals like linear accelerations and angular rates which are measured with the dedicated flight instrumentation package.The identified time delays in attitude angles agreed well with the inertial platform specifications. The estimates of sensitivity coefficients and scale factors from the flight data analysis correlates reasonably well with the manufacturer Rosemount calibration curves for the tested Mach range 0.23-0.53 . The flight data analysis at Mach number of about 0.59 indicateMach dependency for the angle of attack.

  18. A design study of a reaction control system for a V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to a short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft reaction control system (RCS) design study. The STOVL fighter/attack aircraft employs an existing turbofan engine, and its hover requirement places a premium on weight reduction, which eliminates prospective nonairbreathing RCSs. A simple engine compressor bleed RCS degrades overall performance to an unacceptable degree, and the supersonic requirement precludes the large volume alternatives of thermal or ejector thrust augmentation systems as well as the ducting of engine exhaust gases and the use of a dedicated turbojet. The only system which addressed performance criteria without requiring major engine modifications was a dedicated load compressor driven by an auxilliary power unit.

  19. Development of an advanced pitch active control system for a wide body jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Wiley A.; Rising, Jerry J.; Davis, Walt J.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced PACS control law was developed for a commercial wide-body transport (Lockheed L-1011) by using modern control theory. Validity of the control law was demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley visual motion simulator. The PACS design objective was to develop a PACS that would provide good flying qualities to negative 10 percent static stability margins that were equivalent to those of the baseline aircraft at a 15 percent static stability margin which is normal for the L-1011. Also, the PACS was to compensate for high-Mach/high-g instabilities that degrade flying qualities during upset recoveries and maneuvers. The piloted flight simulation tests showed that the PACS met the design objectives. The simulation demonstrated good flying qualities to negative 20 percent static stability margins for hold, cruise and high-speed flight conditions. Analysis and wind tunnel tests performed on other Lockheed programs indicate that the PACS could be used on an advanced transport configuration to provide a 4 percent fuel savings which results from reduced trim drag by flying at negative static stability margins.

  20. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  1. Eigenvalue assignment based on standard characteristic polynominal in design of aircraft control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aijun; Lv, Yang; Wang, Changqing

    2008-10-01

    Design method of eigenvalue assignment based on standard characteristic polynomial, as well as mathematical solving process of the method, is proposed in this paper so as to resolve the uncertainty of ideal eigenvalue choice in modern control theory and the difficultly in engineering implementation of modern control system design methods. Longitudinal stability holding control system of an aircraft was designed and simulated by employing proposed method. Dynamic character and robust performance simulation of the system are given. Simulation results show that the method achieves the control quality and has better robustness than another method. There is only one design parameter which is easy to calculate. So, the method is characterized as simple design, logical structure, easy programming and convenient for engineering implementation.

  2. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  3. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  4. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  5. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Clark

    2015-01-01

    Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models) that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our ...

  6. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely shared in near real time at several DOI- USGS locations. Analysis tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

  8. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  9. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  10. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  11. Design of PID Controllers of Anti-aircraft Artillery Servo System with Multiple Performance Specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin-ya; SHENG An-dong; WANG Yuan-gang

    2007-01-01

    A novel design method for determining the proportional-integral-derivative(PID) controller gains of an anti-aircraft artillery servo system with multiple performance specifications based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. First, a performance criterion evolution function combined with the system maximum displacement settling time, rise time, overshoot, steady state error, constant velocity tracking error and sine wave tracking error is defined. Second, the optimization problem of PID controller parameters and the searching procedure of PSO algorithm are constructed. Finally, the optimal or near optimal PID controller parameters are fast and easily obtained by solving the above optimization problem on the given controller parameter space following the PSO searching procedure. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  12. Inviscid and viscous flow modelling of complex aircraft configurations using the CFD simulation system sauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.; Shaw, Jonathon A.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the flow modelling capabilities of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. This system is aimed primarily at complex aircraft configurations and possesses a unique grid generation strategy in its use of block-structured, unstructured or hybrid grids, depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The main focus of the paper is in demonstrating the recently developed multi-grid, block-structured grid, viscous flow capability of SAUNA, through its evaluation on a number of configurations. Inviscid predictions are also presented, both as a means of interpreting the viscous results and with a view to showing more completely the capabilities of SAUNA. It is shown that accuracy and flexibility are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.

  13. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  14. 飞机天线系统EMC设计%EMC design of aircraft antenna system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亮; 李峰; 王涛涛

    2012-01-01

    飞机天线系统EMC设计的主题思想就是为了保证所有机载设备都能够相互无干扰地调和工作,即各天线在能够正常工作的同时,不会干扰其他天线的工作,还要兼顾天线的性能和工程安装要求,满足整机机载设备正常工作,任务设备也能够正常工作.采用仿真软件进行天线系统电磁兼容的仿真计算后制作了1∶1飞机壳体,进行了天线布局的缩比模型模拟测试,得出了整个飞机的天线布局方案.并提出当出现天线间隔离度太小,可能导致相互间干扰时,从系统层面上考虑分时或分频工作,而需要同时工作的不同频率的天线,应在系统链路上附加滤波器等措施,提高天线发射机对谐波和三阶交调系数的抑制.%EMC design purpose of the aircraft antenna system is to ensure that all the airborne equipments work normally without interaction interference. In addition, the design takes into account of the antenna performance and requirements of the antenna engineering installation, so as to meet the normal work of other airborne equipments. The simulation software is adopted to perform the simulation calculation of the electromagnetic compatibility of the antenna system in this paper. A 1:1 aircraft shell was produced to carry out the scale-reduced model simulation testing for the antenna layout. The scheme of the entire aircraft antenna layout was obtained. A conclusion that when the isolation degree is too small. it is supposed that the in teraction interference may occur. The time-shearing and frequency demultiplication were considered in the system level. When more antennas work simultaneously at different frequencies, an additional filter should be put into the periodic line of the system or other measures should be taken to improve the inhibition ability of antenna transmitter in the harmonic and third order intermodulation coefficient.

  15. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.

    2014-05-01

    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  16. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or...

  17. Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power System for HALE Aircraft by means of Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in the research of feasibility to use high altitude long endurance (HALE aircrafts in order to provide mobile communications. The use of HALEs for telecommunication networks has the potential to deliver a wide range of communication services (from high-quality voice to high-definition videos, as well as high-data-rate wireless channels cost effectively. One of the main challenges of this technology is to design its power supply system, which must provide the enough energy for long time flights in a reliable way. In this paper a photovoltaic/hydrogen system is proposed as power system for a HALE aircraft due its high power density characteristic. In order to obtain the optimal sizing for photovoltaic/hydrogen system a particle swarm optimizer (PSO is used. As a case study, theoretical design of the photovoltaic/hydrogen power system for three different HALE aircrafts located at 18° latitude is presented. At this latitude, the range of solar radiation intensity was from 310 to 450 Wh/sq·m/day. The results obtained show that the photovoltaic/hydrogen systems calculated by PSO can operate during one year with efficacies ranging between 45.82% and 47.81%. The obtained sizing result ensures that the photovoltaic/hydrogen system supplies adequate energy for HALE aircrafts.

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  20. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M. [Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  1. CDMA Technology for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bera, Rabindranath; Bera, Jitendranath; Sil, Sanjib; Mondal, Dipak; Dhar, Sourav; Kandar, Debdatta

    2007-01-01

    Scientists and Technologists involved in the development of radar and remote sensing systems all over the world are now trying to involve themselves in saving of manpower in the form of developing a new application of their ideas in Intelligent Transport system(ITS). The world statistics shows that by incorporating such wireless radar system in the car would decrease the world road accident by 8-10% yearly. The wireless technology has to be chosen properly which is capable of tackling the sev...

  2. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 1: Europe, July 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, F.A.

    1980-07-01

    The development and implementation of aircraft noise control regulations in various European states are described. The countries include the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Topics discussed include noise monitoring, airport curfews, land use planning, and the government structure for noise regulation.

  3. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  4. Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (cosi) for Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (rpas) - System Overview and First Performance Evaluation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, A. A.; Baeck, P.; Nuyts, D.; Delalieux, S.; Livens, S.; Blommaert, J.; Delauré, B.; Boonen, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper gives an overview of the new COmpact hyperSpectral Imaging (COSI) system recently developed at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Belgium) and suitable for remotely piloted aircraft systems. A hyperspectral dataset captured from a multirotor platform over a strawberry field is presented and explored in order to assess spectral bands co-registration quality. Thanks to application of line based interference filters deposited directly on the detector wafer the COSI camera is compact and lightweight (total mass of 500g), and captures 72 narrow (FWHM: 5nm to 10 nm) bands in the spectral range of 600-900 nm. Covering the region of red edge (680 nm to 730 nm) allows for deriving plant chlorophyll content, biomass and hydric status indicators, making the camera suitable for agriculture purposes. Additionally to the orthorectified hypercube digital terrain model can be derived enabling various analyses requiring object height, e.g. plant height in vegetation growth monitoring. Geometric data quality assessment proves that the COSI camera and the dedicated data processing chain are capable to deliver very high resolution data (centimetre level) where spectral information can be correctly derived. Obtained results are comparable or better than results reported in similar studies for an alternative system based on the Fabry-Pérot interferometer.

  5. Sea Ice Topography Profiling using Laser Altimetry from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Roger Ian

    Arctic sea ice is undergoing a dramatic transition from a perennial ice pack with a high prevalence of old multiyear ice, to a predominantly seasonal ice pack comprised primarily of young first-year and second-year ice. This transition has brought about changes in the sea ice thickness and topography characteristics, which will further affect the evolution and survivability of the ice pack. The varying ice conditions have substantial implications for commercial operations, international affairs, regional and global climate, our ability to model climate dynamics, and the livelihood of Arctic inhabitants. A number of satellite and airborne missions are dedicated to monitoring sea ice, but they are limited by their spatial and temporal resolution and coverage. Given the fast rate of sea ice change and its pervasive implications, enhanced observational capabilities are needed to augment the current strategies. The CU Laser Profilometer and Imaging System (CULPIS) is designed specifically for collecting fine-resolution elevation data and imagery from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and has a great potential to compliment ongoing missions. This altimeter system has been integrated into four different UAS, and has been deployed during Arctic and Antarctic science campaigns. The CULPIS elevation measurement accuracy is shown to be 95±25 cm, and is limited primarily by GPS positioning error (<25 cm), aircraft attitude determination error (<20 cm), and sensor misalignment error (<20 cm). The relative error is considerably smaller over short flight distances, and the measurement precision is shown to be <10 cm over a distance of 200 m. Given its fine precision, the CULPIS is well suited for measuring sea ice topography, and observed ridge height and ridge separation distributions are found to agree with theoretical distributions to within 5%. Simulations demonstrate the inability of course-resolution measurements to accurately represent the theoretical distributions

  6. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  7. Aircraft landing gear extension and retraction control system diagnostics, prognostics and health management

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains the Group Design Project (GDP) work and Individual Research Project (IRP) work. The target of this GDP was to design a long range flying wing passenger aircraft to meet the increasing global aircraft demand. The name of this flying wing aircraft is FW-11. This is a project cooperated between Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) and Cranfield University. The writer was involved in the conceptual design stage of this project. The author was in cha...

  8. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a trend towards studying ever smaller devices. Improved experimental techniques have made new experiments possible, one class of which is electron transport through molecules and artificially manufactured structures like quantum dots. In this type of systems...... spinless resonant 7 site chain, studying the effect of repulsive interaction inside the chain. We demonstrate that both weak and strong interactions inside the chain lead to Coulomb blockade renormalization of the resonances in the conductance spectrum. Additionally the strongly interacting case sharpens...... the resonances significantly, such that strong interaction inside the chain tends to suppress the off-resonance transport. Next we consider interacting resonant level models, studying the effect of repulsive interaction on the contact links. We demonstrate that even a small leak of the interaction in the system...

  9. Development of energy and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic development and the advancement of technology is presented as a process of substituting old forms of satisfying human needs by new ones or, more precisely, as a sequence of such substitutions. The examples, reconstructed from historical records, describe the quantitative, technological changes in energy and transport systems. The analysis of historical replacement of old by new technologies has shown that most of these processes can be described by simple rules that are captured in the logistic substitution model, and that technological substitution, expressed in terms of market shares, follows characteristic S-shaped curves. To illustrate the properties of the approach examples are given of how new energy forms replaced their predecessors. To further explore the method similar substitution processes in transport systems are described. 21 refs, 23 figs, 1 tab

  10. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  11. Utilizing High Fidelity Simulations in Multidisciplinary Optimization of Aircraft Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue,...

  12. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent development of magnesium diboride superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting coils for heavy aircraft...

  13. Development of cask and transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transportation of spent fuels to the AFR interim storage facility and disposal repository are necessary in Korea. Therefore, an emphasis has been concentrated to develop the design and fabrication technology of commercial casks. A conceptual design of the temperature and deformation measuring systems in the cask, which will be used for mock-up tests has been performed. Preliminary design data of the cask for 7 spent PWR fuels have been obtained in the course of study. (author)

  14. Behaviorally Mediated Larval Transport in Upwelling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Highly advective upwelling systems along the western margins of continents are widely believed to transport larvae far offshore in surface currents resulting in larval wastage, limited recruitment, and increased population connectivity. However, suites of larval behaviors effectively mediate interspecific differences in the extent of cross-shelf migrations between nearshore adult habitats and offshore larval habitats. Interspecific differences in behavior determining whether larvae complete d...

  15. Modern and prospective technologies for weather modification activities: A look at integrating unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; DeFelice, Tom P.

    2016-09-01

    Present-day weather modification technologies are scientifically based and have made controlled technological advances since the late 1990s, early 2000s. The technological advances directly related to weather modification have primarily been in the decision support and evaluation based software and modeling areas. However, there have been some technological advances in other fields that might now be advanced enough to start considering their usefulness for improving weather modification operational efficiency and evaluation accuracy. We consider the programmatic aspects underlying the development of new technologies for use in weather modification activities, identifying their potential benefits and limitations. We provide context and initial guidance for operators that might integrate unmanned aircraft systems technology in future weather modification operations.

  16. Extension of service life of rigid transfer lines /SMDC/. [explosive components for aircraft escape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a life evaluation program on rigid explosive transfer lines, which are used to initiate aircraft emergency crew escape functions, are presented in order to provide quantitative information on rigid explosive transfer lines which can contribute to responsible, conservative, service life determinations. The program involved the development of a test methodology, testing of the three types of transfer lines in use in the U.S., testing of these lines following a repeat of the thermal test conducted in the original qualification, and conducting a degradation investigation. Results from the testing of more than 800 components showed that rigid explosive transfer lines were not affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. The explosive degradation limits were approximated and the mechanisms examined. It is concluded that the service lives of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered for extension in order to provide cost savings and increased system reliability.

  17. Certificação de Operadores de Unmanned Aircraft Systems Militares

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende explanar ao leitor quais os requisitos que deverão ser observados pela Autoridade Aeronáutica Nacional (AAN) no processo de certificação de operadores de Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) militares. Não sendo de todo uma novidade falar de UAS, e muito menos da exploração de caráter militar, a premente necessidade de harmonização no espaço aéreo europeu e a delimitação cada vez maior de espaços aéreos segregados impõe a criação de regulamentação para os mesmos, te...

  18. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  19. Aircraft Measurements of Convective System Vertical Structure and Coldpools during the DYNAMO Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, N.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Chen, S. S.; Wang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    The DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) field experiment employed a large number of measurement platforms with which to study environmental and convective cloud system characteristics of the MJO initiation region in the Indian Ocean. One such platform, the NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft, provided mobility to sample convective cloud systems along with the surrounding environment. The tail-mounted, X-band Doppler radar allowed a pseudo-dual-Doppler analysis technique to study system kinematics and derive vertical wind motion. GPS dropwindsondes provided a robust means for thermodynamic characterization both in and around the sampled convective cloud systems. This presentation will focus on the relationships between coldpool strength and depth (along with other environmental characteristics) and the vertical structure of convective systems. In addition, a comparison of the DYNAMO observations to previous results in the region (e.g. TOGA COARE) will be presented. Differences in organizational aspects of convective clouds into mesoscale convective systems between the studies will provide a context of regional differences, which may serve as a basis for future model simulations.

  20. Eddy current measurement system evaluation for corrosion depth determination on cast aluminum aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Greving, Dan; Kinney, Andy; Vensel, Fred; Ohm, Jim; Peeler, Mike

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current (EC) technique was developed to determine the corrosion depth on a bare flange face of a cast aluminum A356-T6 aircraft engine structure. The EC response and the corrosion depths determined through metallurgical cross sections were used to develop an empirical relation between EC response and depth. The EC technique and depth determination are used to inspect the engine structures during overhaul to determine if they are fit for continued service. An accurate and reliable Non-Destructive Inspection is required to ensure that structures returned to service are safe for continued operation. NDE system reliability demonstrations of the eddy current technique are traditionally reported in terms of Probability of Detection (POD) data using MIL-HDBK-1823A. However, the calculation of POD data is based on a simple linear predictive model that is valid only if certain criteria are met. These are: 1) NDE system response is measurable (i.e. continuous data), 2) Flaw size is known and measurable (i.e. continuous data), 3) relationship between the NDE system response and flaw size is linear (or linear on a log scale), 4) variation in measured responseresponse around a predicted response for a given flaw size is normally distributed, 5) the variation around the predicted response is constant (i.e. variation does not change with flaw size), and 6) inherent variability in the NDE system is known and fully understood. In this work, a Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) of the Eddy Current System was used to address some of these concerns. This work was completed on two aircraft structures having varying corrosion depths. The data were acquired in a random manner at fifty regions of interests (ROIs). Three operators participated in this study, and each operator measured Eddy Current response three times in each ROI. In total, there were four hundred and fifty data points collected. Following this, the two structures were sectioned for measuring corrosion depth. The

  1. Development of a flight data acquisition system for small unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Scott

    Current developments surrounding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles have produced a need for a high quality data acquisition platform developed specifically a research environment. This work was undertaken to produce such a system that is low cost, extensible, and better supports fixed wing research through the inclusion of a custom vane based air data probe capable of measuring airspeed, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This was accomplished by starting with the open source Pixhawk system as the core and then modifying the device firmware and adding sensors to suit the needs of current aerospace research at OSU. An overview of each component of the system is presented, as well as a description of various firmware modifications to the stock Pixhawk system. Tests were then performed on all of the major sensors using bench testing, wind tunnel analysis, and flight maneuvers to determine the final performance of each part of the system. This research shows that all of the critical sensors on the data acquisition platform produce data acceptable for flight research. The accelerometer has been shown to have an overall tolerance of +/-0.0545 m/s², with +/-0.223 deg/s for the gyroscopic sensor, +/-1.32 hPa for the barometric sensor, +/-0.318 m/s for the airspeed sensor, +/-1.65 °C for the outside air temperature sensor, and +/-0.00115 V for the analog to digital converter. The stock calibration curve for the airspeed sensor was determined to be correct to within +/-0.5 in H2O through wind tunnel testing, and an experimental step input analysis on the flow direction vanes showed that worst case steady state error and time to damp are acceptable for the system. Power spectral density and spectral coherence analysis of flight data was used to show that the custom air data probe is capable of following the flight dynamics of a given aircraft to within a 10 percent tolerance across a range of frequencies. Finally, general performance of the system was proven using

  2. Next generation: In-space transportation system(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Fredrick; Redus, Jerry; Kelley, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the next generation In-Space Transportation System presents a unique challenge to the design of a propulsion system for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Never before have the requirements for long-life, multiple mission use, space basing, high reliability, man-rating, and minimum maintenance come together with performance in one system that must protect the lives of space travelers, support the mission logistics needs, and do so at an acceptable cost. The challenge that is presented is to quantify the bounds of these requirements. The issue is one of degree. The length of acceptable life in space, the time it takes for reuse to pay off, and the degree to which space basing is practical (full, partial, or expended) are the issues that determine the reusable bounds of a design and include dependability, contingency capabilities, resilency, and minimum dependence on a maintenance node in preparation for and during a mission. Missions to planet earth, other non-NASA missions, and planetary missions will provide important but less demanding requirements for the transportation systems of the future. The mission proposed for the SEI require a family of transportation vehicles to meet the requirements for establishing a permanent human presence on the Moon and eventually on Mars. Specialized vehicles are needed to accomplish the different phases of each mission. These large scale missions require assembly in space and will provide the greatest usage of the planned integrated transportation system. The current approach to defining the In-Space Transportation System for the SEI Moon missions with later Mars mission applications is presented. Several system development options, propulsion concepts, current/proposed activities are reviewed, and key propulsion design criteria, issues, and technology challenges for the next generation In-Space Transportation System(s) are outlined.

  3. neu-VISION: an explosives detection system for transportation security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Kieffer; Penn, David

    2008-04-01

    Terrorists were targeting commercial airliners long before the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Despite heightened security measures, commercial airliners remain an attractive target for terrorists, as evidenced by the August 2006 terrorist plot to destroy as many as ten aircraft in mid-flight from the United Kingdom to the United States. As a response to the security threat air carriers are now required to screen 100-percent of all checked baggage for explosives. The scale of this task is enormous and the Transportation Security Administration has deployed thousands of detection systems. Although this has resulted in improved security, the performance of the installed systems is not ideal. Further improvements are needed and can only be made with new technologies that ensure a flexible Concept of Operations and provide superior detection along with low false alarm rates and excellent dependability. To address security needs Applied Signal Technology, Inc. is developing an innovative and practical solution to meet the performance demands of aviation security. The neu-VISION TM system is expected to provide explosives detection performance for checked baggage that both complements and surpasses currently deployed performance. The neu-VISION TM system leverages a 5 year R&D program developing the Associated Particle Imaging (API) technique; a neutron based non-intrusive material identification and imaging technique. The superior performance afforded by this neutron interrogation technique delivers false alarm rates much lower than deployed technologies and "sees through" dense, heavy materials. Small quantities of explosive material are identified even in the cluttered environments.

  4. Complexity of Multi-Modal Transportation and Systems of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karcanias, N.; Hessami, A. G.; Alonso, E

    2015-01-01

    The multi-modal transportation comprising diverse infrastructures, means & operations, energy resources, rules & regulations and a broad community of stakeholders constitute a complex yet real candidate for formalisation, analysis and optimization. It is shown that the complexity of the system is best described by viewing the challenges of its complexity as a System of Systems (SoS). The objective of this paper is to make an attempt to define and formalise the loose concept of “System of Syst...

  5. Aircraft Landing Gear, Ice and Rain Control Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame):9067.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with operation, inspection, troubleshooting, and repair of aircraft landing gear, ice and rain control systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe…

  6. Conceptual design, evaluation and research identification for Remote Augmented Propulsive Lift Systems (RALS) with ejectors for VTOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W. S.; Konarski, M.; Sutherland, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    Ejector concepts for use with a remote augmented lift system (RALS) exhaust nozzle were studied. A number of concepts were considered and three were selected as having the greatest promise of providing the desired aircraft and exhaust gas cooling and lift enhancement. A scale model test program is recommended to explore the effects of the more important parameters on ejector performance.

  7. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  8. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  9. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles...... as part of the energy system are quantified....

  10. A measurement system for continuous observations of CO2, CH4, H2O and CO onboard passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Christoph; Filges, Annette; Franke, Harald; Klaus, Christoph; Chen, Huilin

    2013-04-01

    Improved quantification and understanding of surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) caused by natural as well as anthropogenic processes is of paramount importance in a world of a changing climate and ever increasing emissions. Top-down estimation of GHG fluxes is traditionally done by inverse transport modeling, using GHG observations from a global network of stations. Uncertainties in modeled vertical transport rates (moist convection, turbulent mixing, stratosphere-troposphere exchange) however greatly affect the quality of flux estimates. More recently, remote sensing of vertical column mole fractions of GHGs have become available for inverse modeling, reducing the impact of vertical transport uncertainties to first order. However, those need validation against in-situ observations. A strategy for regular, global in-situ atmospheric profiling of GHGs, covering at least the troposphere, is thus needed to provide validation of remote sensing and of forward transport modeling of GHGs, to serve as input for inverse modeling, and to reduce the impact of transport uncertainties. IAGOS-ERI (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System - European Research Infrastructure) exploits the synergy between globally operating civil aviation and the need for long-term monitoring of atmospheric composition. Within the framework of IAGOS-ERI a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) based measurement system for greenhouse gases was designed, tested, and qualified for deployment on commercial airliners. The design meets requirements regarding physical dimensions (size, weight), performance (long-term stability, low maintenance, robustness, full automation) and safety issues (fire prevention regulations, airworthiness). The system uses components of a commercially available CRDS instrument (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.) mounted into a frame suitable for integration in the avionics bay of the Airbus A-340. The first of the IAGOS GHG packages is scheduled for

  11. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  12. Real-time fault detection method based on belief rule base for aircraft navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xin; Wang Shicheng; Zhang Jinsheng; Fan Zhiliang; Min Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Real-time and accurate fault detection is essential to enhance the aircraft navigation system's reliability and safety.The existent detection methods based on analytical model draws back at simultaneously detecting gradual and sudden faults.On account of this reason,we propose an online detection solution based on non-analytical model.In this article,the navigation system fault detection model is established based on belief rule base (BRB),where the system measuring residual and its changing rate are used as the inputs of BRB model and the fault detection function as the output.To overcome the drawbacks of current parameter optimization algorithms for BRB and achieve online update,a parameter recursive estimation algorithm is presented for online BRB detection model based on expectation maximization (EM) algorithm.Furthermore,the proposed method is verified by navigation experiment.Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to effectively realize online parameter evaluation in navigation system fault detection model.The output of the detection model can track the fault state very well,and the faults can be diagnosed in real time and accurately.In addition,the detection ability,especially in the probability of false detection,is superior to offline optimization method,and thus the system reliability has great improvement.

  13. Smart Transportation Application using Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Mohammad Al Shammary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant increase is noticed in the utilization of mobile applications for different purposes in the past decade. These applications can improve any individual’s way of life in many aspects such as communication, collaborative work, learning, location services, data collection, exploring, testing and analysis. One of the most interesting mobile applications is using it for tracking by having personal locators. These locators can track children, people on work, the elderly for personal protection etc. The intention behind developing this mobile application is to provide a smart transportation system to it users and to track their movements. Some of the essential features of this application are • Getting familiar with the shortest path from source to destination in advance. • Aware of approximate time of arrival to destination. • Knowing the capacity of vehicle used for transportation. • Short Message Service.

  14. Design of an aircraft landing system using dual-frequency GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hiroyuki

    There is a strong demand for new all-weather navigation aids to support aircraft precision approach and landing. The Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is one such navigation aid that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate aircraft location. LAAS is required to provide very high levels of accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability, and the integrity requirement of one undetected navigation failure in a billion approaches has been a critical challenge in the design of this system. Tremendous efforts have developed methods to guarantee integrity for various potential anomalies that might threaten LAAS-aided landing. Currently, almost all these risks are mitigated by existing methods. One issue that remains is the risk due to ionosphere anomalies. This dissertation introduces novel integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies that take advantage of GPS modernization---undergoing changes in the GPS system that enhance civil user capabilities. This modernization includes adding new GPS civil signals, and these signals make possible multiple-frequency techniques. This research focuses on two types of dual-frequency carrier-smoothing methods---Divergence-Free Smoothing and Ionosphere-Free Smoothing---and develops integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies using these methods. Simulations show that the first algorithm, using Ionosphere-Free Smoothing, can achieve 96% to 99.9% availability at best over a broad region of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This level of availability is unacceptably low for practical use. However, a benefit is that the resulting availability is not a function of the ionosphere condition. The second algorithm, based on Divergence-Free Smoothing, is shown by simulations to achieve more than 99.9% availability over more than 70% of CONUS under nominal ionosphere conditions. However, it has the potential to completely lose availability under severe ionosphere conditions. Taking

  15. Numerical simulation of the actuation system for the ALDF's propulsion control valve. [Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the actuation system for the propulsion control valve (PCV) of the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility was developed during the preliminary design of the PCV and used throughout the entire project. The simulation is based on a predictive model of the PCV which is used to evaluate and design the actuation system. The PCV controls a 1.7 million-pound thrust water jet used in propelling a 108,000-pound test carriage. The PCV can open and close in 0.300 second and deliver over 9,000 gallons of water per sec at pressures up to 3150 psi. The numerical simulation results are used to predict transient performance and valve opening characteristics, specify the hydraulic control system, define transient loadings on components, and evaluate failure modes. The mathematical model used for numerically simulating the mechanical fluid power system is described, and numerical results are demonstrated for a typical opening and closing cycle of the PCV. A summary is then given on how the model is used in the design process.

  16. A One Dimensional, Time Dependent Inlet/Engine Numerical Simulation for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrard, Doug; Davis, Milt, Jr.; Cole, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have developed a closely coupled computer simulation system that provides a one dimensional, high frequency inlet/engine numerical simulation for aircraft propulsion systems. The simulation system, operating under the LeRC-developed Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL), closely coupled a supersonic inlet with a gas turbine engine. The supersonic inlet was modeled using the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code, and the gas turbine engine was modeled using the Aerodynamic Turbine Engine Code (ATEC). Both LAPIN and ATEC provide a one dimensional, compressible, time dependent flow solution by solving the one dimensional Euler equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Source terms are used to model features such as bleed flows, turbomachinery component characteristics, and inlet subsonic spillage while unstarted. High frequency events, such as compressor surge and inlet unstart, can be simulated with a high degree of fidelity. The simulation system was exercised using a supersonic inlet with sixty percent of the supersonic area contraction occurring internally, and a GE J85-13 turbojet engine.

  17. An Interactive Energy System with Grid, Heating and Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    occurring with power generation purposes, there is an interest on extending this tendency to other strategic systems like the heating, gas and transportation. This implies that at least an important part of these systems will have to be electrified. From a power system perspective, this means...... and economic aspects of these networks, an active demand response represents a promising solution. This research work is based on the opportunity of interacting the electrical power system and the heating, gas and transportation systems to ensure a correct and efficient operation of the distribution systems...... that it will have to undergo a significant load increase in the future. Due to its nature, most of this load is expected to be accommodated at the power distribution level. This implies a need for finding new alternatives to operate and control the medium and low voltage networks. Considering the technical...

  18. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  19. Multi-stage LTL transport systems in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to unify concepts and to describe the multi-stage transport systems and their integratyion to supply chain management. Multi-stage distribution systems are common logistics management, and often they are assimilated to multi-stage transport strategies. However, transport is often considered as an external operation or a specific stage, even when it is a multi-stage system. First, the paper presents the main concepts of multi-stage transport systems by defining the concept an m...

  20. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  1. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert

    1992-10-01

    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  2. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  3. Unmanned aircraft systems for studying spatial abundance of ungulates: relevance to spatial epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasona, José A; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Acevedo, Pelayo; Negro, Juan J; Torres, María J; Gortázar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. Low cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts' distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. In this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the ungulate community of Doñana National Park (South-western Spain) by modelling species host (red deer, fallow deer and cattle) abundance at fine spatial scale. The use of UAS high-resolution images has allowed us to collect data to model the environmental determinants of host abundance, and in a further step to evaluate their relationships with the spatial risk of TB throughout the ungulate community. We discuss the ecological, epidemiological and logistic conditions under which UAS may contribute to study the wildlife/livestock sanitary interface, where the spatial aggregation of hosts becomes crucial. These findings are relevant for planning and implementing research, fundamentally when managing disease in multi-host systems, and focusing on risky areas. Therefore, managers should prioritize the implementation of control strategies to reduce disease of conservation, economic and social relevance. PMID:25551673

  4. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  5. Estimation of dynamic rotor loads for the rotor systems research aircraft: Methodology development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.

  6. An alternative flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flight control system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta M. BALINT

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build up a flight control system for an unmanned aircraft whose flightcontrol system fails during a longitudinal flight with constant forward velocity. This task isaccomplished using only the system of differential equations, which governs the movement of theaircraft around its center of mass. Numerical simulation is given.

  7. An analytical approach to air defense: cost, effectiveness and SWOT analysis of employing fighter aircraft and modern SAM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Orcun; Kocaman, Ibrahim; Topcu, Yucel; Karaca, Volkan

    2012-05-01

    The problem of defending a specific airspace is among the main issues a military commander to solve. Proper protection of own airspace is crucial for mission success at the battlefield. The military doctrines of most world armed forces involve two main options of defending the airspace. One of them is utilizing formations of fighter aircraft, which is a flexible choice. The second option is deploying modern SAM (Surface to Air Missile) systems, which is more expansive. On the other hand the decision makers are to cope with miscellaneous restrictions such as the budgeting problems. This study defines air defense concept according to modern air warfare doctrine. It considers an air defense scenario over an arbitrary airspace and compares the performance and cost-effectiveness of employing fighter aircraft and SAM systems. It also presents SWOT (Strenghts - Weakness - Opportunities - Threats) analyses of air defense by fighter aircraft and by modern SAMs and tries to point out whichever option is better. We conclude that deploying SAMs has important advantages over using fighter aircraft by means of interception capacity within a given time period and is cost-effective.

  8. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard

    2016-04-01

    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  9. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command

  10. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  11. GeoTrack: bio-inspired global video tracking by networks of unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooah, Prabir; Collins, Gaemus E.; Hespanha, João P.

    2009-05-01

    Research from the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) has identified swarming algorithms used by flocks of birds and schools of fish that enable these animals to move in tight formation and cooperatively track prey with minimal estimation errors, while relying solely on local communication between the animals. This paper describes ongoing work by UCSB, the University of Florida (UF), and the Toyon Research Corporation on the utilization of these algorithms to dramatically improve the capabilities of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to cooperatively locate and track ground targets. Our goal is to construct an electronic system, called GeoTrack, through which a network of hand-launched UAS use dedicated on-board processors to perform multi-sensor data fusion. The nominal sensors employed by the system will EO/IR video cameras on the UAS. When GMTI or other wide-area sensors are available, as in a layered sensing architecture, data from the standoff sensors will also be fused into the GeoTrack system. The output of the system will be position and orientation information on stationary or mobile targets in a global geo-stationary coordinate system. The design of the GeoTrack system requires significant advances beyond the current state-of-the-art in distributed control for a swarm of UAS to accomplish autonomous coordinated tracking; target geo-location using distributed sensor fusion by a network of UAS, communicating over an unreliable channel; and unsupervised real-time image-plane video tracking in low-powered computing platforms.

  12. Adaptive Noise Cancellation System for Low Frequency Transmission of Sound in Open Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a structural/acoustic model of a section of a large aircraft to help define the sensor/actuator architecture that was used in a hardware demonstration of adaptive noise cancellation. Disturbances considered were representative of propeller-induced disturbances from an open fan aircraft. Controller on and controller off results from a hardware demonstration on a portion of a large aircraft are also included. The use of the model has facilitated the development of a new testing technique, closely related to modal testing, that can be used to find good structural actuator locations for adaptive noise cancellation.

  13. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. Remediation of these sites requires extensive sampling to determine the extent of the contamination, to monitor clean-up and remediation progress, and for post-closure monitoring of facilities. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. Such systems would accelerate and thereby reduce the cost of clean-up and remediation efforts by (1) providing critical analytical data more rapidly, and (2) eliminating the handling, shipping and manpower associated with sample shipments. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site's specific needs

  14. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  15. Experimental characterization of the COndensation PArticle counting System for high altitude aircraft-borne application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A characterization of the ultra-fine aerosol particle counter COPAS (COndensation PArticle counting System for operation on board the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysika is presented. The COPAS instrument consists of an aerosol inlet and two dual-channel continuous flow Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs operated with the chlorofluorocarbon FC-43. It operates at pressures between 400 and 50 hPa for aerosol detection in the particle diameter (dp range from 6 nm up to 1 μm. The aerosol inlet, designed for the M-55, is characterized with respect to aspiration, transmission, and transport losses. The experimental characterization of counting efficiencies of three CPCs yields dp50 (50% detection particle diameter of 6 nm, 11 nm, and 15 nm at temperature differences (ΔT between saturator and condenser of 17°C, 30°C, and 33°C, respectively. Non-volatile particles are quantified with a fourth CPC, with dp50=11 nm. It includes an aerosol heating line (250°C to evaporate H2SO4-H2O particles of 11 nm<dp<200 nm at pressures between 70 and 300 hPa. An instrumental in-flight inter-comparison of the different COPAS CPCs yields correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.985. The particle emission index for the M-55 in the range of 1.4–8.4×1016 kg−1 fuel burned has been estimated based on measurements of the Geophysika's own exhaust.

  16. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 2: Pacific Basin, August 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, F.A.

    1980-08-01

    Noise control measures at the international airports of Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore were studied. Factors in noise control, such as government structure are examined. The increasing power of environmental agencies vis-a-vis aviation departments is noted. The following methods of dealing with aircraft noise are examined by type of control: noise at the source control noise emmission controls, zoning, building codes, subsidies for relocation, insulation, loss in property values, and for TV, radio and telephone interference and noise-related landing charges.

  17. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  18. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  19. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  20. Risk management model in road transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  1. Unmanned transportation automating system; Mujin hanso jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashihara, I.; Takeichi, T.; Asai, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-18

    This paper introduces a small unmanned transportation automating system intended to automate production facilities. Small automated guided vehicles (AGV) are available in a small object transporting vehicle and an ultra low floor vehicle. A cylinder head material AGV transports materials from a casting process to an outdoor sand removing process, and the system was demanded to have a single line section and an optimal run to pass each other. Giving and receiving the signals became also necessary with other devices such as existing casting machines and automatic doors. The automotive parts transporting and storing system is a system to assemble parts accommodating buckets in an automatic warehouse, supply the buckets to assembly lines, and return empty buckets to the warehouse. In order to utilize the installation space effectively, the buckets should be moved onto a two-step conveyer, and because the lower conveyer has a part moving height as low as 220 mm above the ground, an ultra low floor AGV was used. Safety measures include a photo sensor to detect obstacles, stoppage of drive at bumper contact, and an area sensor equipped on both sides of the parts moving machine. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Auto-normalization algorithm for robotic precision drilling system in aircraft component assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wei; Zhou Weixue; Zhou Wei; Liao Wenhe; Zeng Yuanfan

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed to detect the normal vector to product surface in real time for the robotic precision drilling system in aircraft component assembly,and the auto-normalization algorithm is presented based on the detection system.Firstly,the deviation between the normal vector and the spindle axis is measured by the four laser displacement sensors installed at the head of the multi-function end effector.Then,the robot target attitude is inversely solved according to the auto-normalization algorithm.Finally,adjust the robot to the target attitude via pitch and yaw rotations about the tool center point and the spindle axis is corrected in line with the normal vector simultaneously.To test and verify the auto-normalization algorithm,an experimental platform is established in which the laser tracker is introduced for accurate measurement.The results show that the deviations between the corrected spindle axis and the normal vector are all reduced to less than 0.5°,with the mean value 0.32°.It is demonstrated the detection method and the autonormalization algorithm are feasible and reliable.

  3. Unlocking the potential of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, C.; Riddell, K.; Barchyn, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS, researchers and other non-military users through the US Federal Aviation Administration's Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FAAMRA), there are many regulatory hurdles before they are fully accepted and integrated into the National Airspace System. In this talk we will provide a brief overview of the regulatory landscape for sUAS, both in the USA and in Canada, where sUAS regulations are more flexible. We critically outline potential advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for EO applications under current and potential regulations. We find advantages: relatively low cost, potentially high temporal resolution, rapidly improving technology, and operational flexibility. We also find disadvantages: limited temporal and spatial extent, limited accuracy assessment and methodological development, and an immature regulatory landscape. From a case study we show an example of the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain map (DTM) from sUAS imagery. We also compare the sUAS DTM to a LiDAR DTM. Our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR. Overall, we are encouraged about the potential of sUAS for geophysical measurements; however, understanding and compliance with regulations is paramount to ensure that research is conducted legally and responsibly. Because UAS are new outside of military operations, we hope researchers will proceed carefully to ensure this great scientific opportunity remains a long term tool.

  4. Longitudinal Absolute Stability of a BWB Aircraft-Pilot System with Saturated Actuator Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alice STATE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the P(ilot I(n-the-Loop O(scillations of the second category (with rate and position liming in the closed loop pilot-vehicle system, caused by the dynamic coupling between the human pilot and the aircraft. The analysis is made in the context of the longitudinal motion and the theoretical model of the airplane presented in this article is a (Blended(Wing (Body tailless configuration. In what concerns the human operator, this is expressed by the Synchronous Pilot Model, which is represented by a simple gain, without a specific delay. The Routh-Hurwitz criterion is used in order to analyze the longitudinal stability of the low-order pilot-airplane system without the influence of actuator nonlinearity (this means that the unsaturated actuator model is employed for the mentioned algebraic criterion. Most emphasis is put on the frequency Popov criterion, which is used to investigate the absolute stability property of the short-period model in the presence of the actuator rate saturation, in the condition of the Lurie problem. The transfer function of the longitudinal BWB model, obtained from open-loop analysis, has a double pole at the origin and, for the absolute stability feedback structure that contains the nonlinearity of the saturation type, the Popov frequency-domain inequalities are applied to the PIO II problem in this critical case.

  5. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  6. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  7. Flight service evaluation of kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft: Flight service report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 7 years service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a slid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 52,500 hours, with one ship set having 17.700 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  8. Probing stratospheric transport and chemistry with new balloon and aircraft observations of the meridional and vertical N2O isotope distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive set of stratospheric balloon and aircraft samples was analyzed for the position-dependent isotopic composition of nitrous oxide (N2O. Results for a total of 220 samples from between 1987 and 2003 are presented, nearly tripling the number of mass-spectrometric N2O isotope measurements in the stratosphere published to date. Cryogenic balloon samples were obtained at polar (Kiruna/Sweden, 68° N, mid-latitude (southern France, 44° N and tropical sites (Hyderabad/India, 18° N. Aircraft samples were collected with a newly-developed whole air sampler on board of the high-altitude aircraft M55 Geophysica during the EUPLEX 2003 campaign. For mixing ratios above 200 nmol mol−1, relative isotope enrichments (δ values and mixing ratios display a compact relationship, which is nearly independent of latitude and season and which can be explained equally well by Rayleigh fractionation or mixing. However, for mixing ratios below 200 nmol mol−1 this compact relationship gives way to meridional, seasonal and interannual variations. A comparison to a previously published mid-latitude balloon profile even shows large zonal variations, justifying the use of three-dimensional (3-D models for further data interpretation. In general, the magnitude of the apparent fractionation constants (i.e., apparent isotope effects increases continuously with altitude and decreases from the equator to the North Pole. Only the latter observation can be understood qualitatively by the interplay between the time-scales of N2O photochemistry and transport in a Rayleigh fractionation framework. Deviations from Rayleigh fractionation behavior also occur where polar vortex air mixes with nearly N2O-free upper stratospheric/mesospheric air (e.g., during the boreal winters of 2003 and possibly 1992. Aircraft observations in the polar vortex at mixing ratios below 200 nmol mol−1 deviate from isotope variations expected for both Rayleigh fractionation and two

  9. Two-Aircraft Dynamic System on Approach. Flight Path and noise Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Nahayo, F.; Khardi, S.; Haddou, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and to solve a mathematical model of two-aircraft optimal control problem reducing noise during the approach. This is a non-convex optimal control problem governed by ordinary non-linear differential equations. A Symplectic Partitioned Runge-Kutta discretization and the Pontryaguin maximum principle are used. Discretization scheme provides a sufficiently high order requiring a computation of the partial derivatives of the aircraft dynamic parameters. The no...

  10. Designing an Interactive Local and Global Decision Support System for Aircraft Carrier Deck Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Jason Christopher; Cummings, M.L.; Roy, Nicholas; Banerjee, Ashis; Schulte, Axel

    2011-01-01

    In the near future, unmanned aerial vehicles will become part of the naval aircraft carrier operating environment. This will add significant complexity to an already highly constrained and dangerous environment. The move towards a shared manned-unmanned environment with an increasing operational tempo in a reduced manning environment will mean more automation is needed in the planning and scheduling of aircraft, ground vehicles, and crew in these complex environments. However, whi...

  11. Propagating fronts in reaction-transport systems with memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: ayadav1@lsu.edu; Fedotov, Sergei [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1DQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sergei.fedotov@manchester.ac.uk; Mendez, Vicenc [Grup de Fisica Estadistica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: vicenc.mendez@uab.es; Horsthemke, Werner [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: whorsthe@smu.edu

    2007-11-26

    In reaction-transport systems with non-standard diffusion, the memory of the transport causes a coupling of reactions and transport. We investigate the effect of this coupling for systems with Fisher-type kinetics and obtain a general analytical expression for the front speed. We apply our results to the specific case of subdiffusion.

  12. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Integrating the power and transport system, in the future energy system planning, influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system as well as the transport system. For analysing the integrated power and transport system a new model capable of calculating...... optimal investments in both power plants and vehicle technologies is presented in this article. The model includes the interactions between the power system and the transport system including the competition between flexibility measures such as hydrogen storage in combination with electrolysis, heat...

  13. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  14. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  15. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  16. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  17. Characterization of a Quadrotor Unmanned Aircraft System for Aerosol-Particle-Concentration Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James M; Stokes, M Dale; Bonnardel, Jim; Bertram, Timothy H

    2016-02-01

    High-spatial-resolution, near-surface vertical profiling of atmospheric chemical composition is currently limited by the availability of experimental platforms that can sample in constrained environments. As a result, measurements of near-surface gradients in trace gas and aerosol particle concentrations have been limited to studies conducted from fixed location towers or tethered balloons. Here, we explore the utility of a quadrotor unmanned aircraft system (UAS) as a sampling platform to measure vertical and horizontal concentration gradients of trace gases and aerosol particles at high spatial resolution (1 m) within the mixed layer (0-100 m). A 3D Robotics Iris+ autonomous quadrotor UAS was outfitted with a sensor package consisting of a two-channel aerosol optical particle counter and a CO2 sensor. The UAS demonstrated high precision in both vertical (±0.5 m) and horizontal positions (±1 m), highlighting the potential utility of quadrotor UAS drones for aerosol- and trace-gas measurements within complex terrain, such as the urban environment, forest canopies, and above difficult-to-access areas such as breaking surf. Vertical profiles of aerosol particle number concentrations, acquired from flights conducted along the California coastline, were used to constrain sea-spray aerosol-emission rates from coastal wave breaking. PMID:26730457

  18. Insect detection and nitrogen management for irrigated potatoes using remote sensing from small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Rondon, Silvia I.; Hamm, Philip B.; Turner, Robert W.; Bruce, Alan E.; Brungardt, Josh J.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing with small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has potential applications in agriculture because low flight altitudes allow image acquisition at very high spatial resolution. We set up experiments at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center with different platforms and sensors to assess advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for precision farming. In 2013, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of N fertilizer, and followed the changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over time. In late June, there were no differences in chlorophyll content or leaf area index (LAI) among the 3 higher application rates. Consistent with the field data, only plots with the lowest rate of applied N were distinguished by low NDVI. In early August, N deficiency was determined by NDVI, but it was too late to mitigate losses in potato yield and quality. Populations of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) may rapidly increase, devouring the shoots, thus early detection and treatment could prevent yield losses. In 2014, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of CPB infestation. Over one day, damage from CPB in some plots increased from 0 to 19%. A visual ranking of damage was not correlated with the total number of CPB or treatment. Plot-scale vegetation indices were not correlated with damage, although the damaged area determined by object-based feature extraction was highly correlated. Methods based on object-based image analysis of sUAS data have potential for early detection and reduced cost.

  19. The Application of Decomposition to the Large Scale Synthesis/Design Optimization of Aircraft Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. von Spakovsky

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available An application of a decomposition approach for large-scale optimization (i.e., the Iterative Local-Global Optimization (ILGO approach developed by Muñoz and von Spakovsky (2001 is presented. The synthesis / design optimization of a turbofan engine coupled to an environmental control system for a military aircraft was carried out. The problem was solved for a given mission (i.e. a load / environmental profile composed of fifteen segments. The number of decision (independent variables both discrete and continuous for this highly non-linear optimization problem was one hundred fifty-three. Both the thermodynamic and physical (weight and volume simulations were carried out using state-of-the art tools. Three objective functions were investigated: take-off gross weight, mission fuel consumption and total cost, and no observable differences were found in the final results. In addition to the mathematical foundations for global convergence presented in Muñoz and von Spakovsky (2000b, 2001, convergence was validated numerically by solving the entire mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP problem without decomposition using a subset of the independent variables. The constant value of the shadow prices (or linear behavior of the Optimum Response Surface – OSR played a major role in global convergence of the ILGO approach.

  20. CDMA Technology for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bera, Rabindranath; Sil, Sanjib; Mondal, Dipak; Dhar, Sourav; Kandar, Debdatta

    2007-01-01

    Scientists and Technologists involved in the development of radar and remote sensing systems all over the world are now trying to involve themselves in saving of manpower in the form of developing a new application of their ideas in Intelligent Transport system(ITS). The world statistics shows that by incorporating such wireless radar system in the car would decrease the world road accident by 8-10% yearly. The wireless technology has to be chosen properly which is capable of tackling the severe interferences present in the open road. A combined digital technology like Spread spectrum along with diversity reception will help a lot in this regard. Accordingly, the choice is for FHSS based space diversity system which will utilize carrier frequency around 5.8 GHz ISM band with available bandwidth of 80 MHz and no license. For efficient design, the radio channel is characterized on which the design is based. Out of two available modes e.g. Communication and Radar modes, the radar mode is providing the conditiona...