Sample records for aircraft transportation system

  1. Integrated Enhanced and Synthetic Vision System for Transport Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shantha Kumar


    Full Text Available A new avionics concept called integrated enhanced and synthetic vision system (IESVS is being developed to enable flight operations during adverse weather/visibility conditions even in non precision airfields. This paper presents the latest trends in IESVS, design concept of the system and the work being carried out at National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore towards indigenous development of the same for transport aircraft.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.157-163, DOI:

  2. Transport Aircraft System Identification from Wind Tunnel Data (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav


    Recent studies have been undertaken to investigate and develop aerodynamic models that predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes for transport configurations. The models retain conventional static and rotary dynamic terms but replace conventional acceleration terms with more general indicial functions. In the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program one aspect of the research is to apply these current developments to transport configurations to facilitate development of advanced controls technology. This paper describes initial application of a more general modeling methodology to the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale flight test vehicle.

  3. Synthesis from Design Requirements of a Hybrid System for Transport Aircraft Longitudinal Control. Volume 2 (United States)

    Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Sherry, Lance


    Volume I of this report presents a new method for synthesizing hybrid systems directly from desi gn requirements, and applies the method to design of a hybrid system for longitudinal control of transport aircraft. The resulting system satisfies general requirement for safety and effectiveness specified a priori, enabling formal validation to be achieved. Volume II contains seven appendices intended to make the report accessible to readers with backgrounds in human factors, flight dynamics and control, and formal logic. Major design goals are (1) system design integrity based on proof of correctness at the design level, (2) significant simplification and cost reduction in system development and certification, and (3) improved operational efficiency, with significant alleviation of human-factors problems encountered by pilots in current transport aircraft. This report provides for the first time a firm technical basis for criteria governing design and certification of avionic systems for transport aircraft. It should be of primary interest to designers of next-generation avionic systems.

  4. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.


    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  5. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft (United States)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.


    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  6. Synthesis from Design Requirements of a Hybrid System for Transport Aircraft Longitudinal Control. Volume 1 (United States)

    Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Sherry, Lance


    Volume I of this report presents a new method for synthesizing hybrid systems directly from design requirements, and applies the method to design of a hybrid system for longitudinal control of transport aircraft. The resulting system satisfies general requirement for safety and effectiveness specified a priori, enabling formal validation to be achieved. Volume II contains seven appendices intended to make the report accessible to readers with backgrounds in human factors, fli ght dynamics and control. and formal logic. Major design goals are (1) system desi g n integrity based on proof of correctness at the design level, (2), significant simplification and cost reduction in system development and certification, and (3) improved operational efficiency, with significant alleviation of human-factors problems encountered by pilots in current transport aircraft. This report provides for the first time a firm technical basis for criteria governing design and certification of avionic systems for transport aircraft. It should be of primary interest to designers of next-generation avionic systems.

  7. Optimizing Airspace System Capacity Through a Small Aircraft Transportation System: An Analysis of Economic and Operational Considerations (United States)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.


    America's air transport system is currently faced with two equally important dilemmas. First, congestion and delays associated with the overburdened hub and spoke system will continue to worsen unless dramatic changes are made in the way air transportation services are provided. Second, many communities and various regions of the country have not benefited from the air transport system, which tends to focus its attention on major population centers. An emerging solution to both problems is a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), which will utilize a new generation of advanced small aircraft to provide air transport services to those citizens who are poorly served by the hub and spoke system and those citizens who are not served at all. Using new innovations in navigation, communication, and propulsion technologies, these aircraft will enable users to safely and reliably access the over 5,000 general aviation landing facilities around the United States. A small aircraft transportation system holds the potential to revolutionize the way Americans travel and to greatly enhance the use of air transport as an economic development tool in rural and isolated communities across the nation.

  8. Small Aircraft Transportation System Simulation Analysis of the HVO and ERO Concepts (United States)

    Millsaps, Gary D.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)


    It is acknowledged that the aviation and aerospace industries are primary forces influencing the industrial development and economic well being of the United States and many countries around the world. For decades the US national air transportation system has been the model of success - safely and efficiently moving people, cargo, goods and services and generating countless benefits throughout the global community; however, the finite nature of the system and many of its components is becoming apparent. Without measurable increases in the capacity of the national air transportation system, delays and service delivery failures will eventually become intolerable. Although the recent economic slowdown has lowered immediate travel demands, that trend is reversing and cargo movement remains high. Research data indicates a conservative 2.5-3.0% annual increase in aircraft operations nationwide through 2017. Such growth will place additional strains upon a system already experiencing capacity constraints. The stakeholders of the system will continue to endure ever-increasing delays and abide lesser levels of service to many lower population density areas of the country unless more efficient uses of existing and new transportation resources are implemented. NASA s Small Aircraft Transportation System program (SATS) is one of several technologies under development that are aimed at using such resources more effectively. As part of this development effort, this report is the first in a series outlining the findings and recommendations resulting from a comprehensive program of multi-level analyses and system engineering efforts undertaken by NASA Langley Research Center s Systems Analysis Branch (SAB). These efforts are guided by a commitment to provide systems-level analysis support for the SATS program. Subsequent efforts will build upon this early work to produce additional analyses and benefits studies needed to provide the technical and economic basis for national

  9. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.


    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  10. Approach of Improving the Inertial Navigation System Error for Large Transport Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huzi; GENG Jianzhong; TANG Changhong; LI Wei


    The corresponding corrected method is proposed for the INS (INS-Inertial Navigation System) accumulated error of large transport aircraft.System errors contain aircraft position error,altitude error and speed error,one is increasing the accuracy of hardware; the other is development of low cost software algorithms.Because of improving hardware is more difficult in my country at present,developing software algorithms is essential way,which have been validated in my types of airplane.The combined heuristic algorithms (ABPNN,Advanced Back-propagation neural networks algorithm and LSM-least square method) are presented,which incorporates the effects of flight region and measured terrain height data by radar and barometer.Based on this algorithm,the appropriate match region was gotten by recognition of fiducial digital map in real time online.In process of work,the minimum of position error as a cost function and the constraint conditions are gave,the flight positions are recognized in real time and continuously,least sum of square is calculated based on LSM,in other words,the optimized result is obtained.The simulation case demonstrate that the method is very successful,the correct rate of recognition is more 90 percent.In words,the algorithm presented is economical,validation and effective.

  11. Economic effects of propulsion system technology on existing and future transport aircraft (United States)

    Sallee, G. P.


    The results of an airline study of the economic effects of propulsion system technology on current and future transport aircraft are presented. This report represents the results of a detailed study of propulsion system operating economics. The study has four major parts: (1) a detailed analysis of current propulsion system maintenance with respect to the material and labor costs encountered versus years in service and the design characteristics of the major elements of the propulsion system of the B707, b727, and B747. (2) an analysis of the economic impact of a future representative 1979 propulsion system is presented with emphasis on depreciation of investment, fuel costs and maintenance costs developed on the basis of the analysis of the historical trends observed. (3) recommendations concerning improved methods of forecasting the maintenance cost of future propulsion systems are presented. A detailed method based on the summation of the projected labor and material repair costs for each major engine module and its installation along with a shorter form suitable for quick, less detailed analysis are presented, and (4) recommendations concerning areas where additional technology is needed to improve the economics of future commercial propulsion systems are presented along with the suggested economic benefits available from such advanced technology efforts.

  12. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.


    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  13. Transport Aircraft System Identification Using Roll and Yaw Oscillatory Wind Tunnel Data (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav


    Continued studies have been undertaken to investigate and develop aerodynamic models that predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes for transport configurations. The models retain conventional static and dynamic terms but replace conventional acceleration terms with indicial functions. In the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program one aspect of the research is to apply these current developments to transport configurations to facilitate development of advanced simulation and control design technology. This paper continues development and application of a more general modeling methodology to the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale flight test vehicle. In the present study models for the lateral-directional aerodynamics are developed.

  14. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full-scale transport aircraft (United States)

    Calloway, R. S.; Knight, V. H., Jr.


    A study involving the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) of a transport category aircraft was conducted with the objective to improve occupant safety during survivable crash scenarios. in connection with this study, the first remotely-piloted Full-Scale Transport aircraft was purposely crashed into the California desert. The program was initated to demonstrate the effectiveness of an imisting kerosene (AMK), a fuel additive emplyed to reduce postcrash fires. The unmanned CID flight carried 73 life-like flight research dummies, multiple experiments, high-speed interior cabin cameras, and the high-environment Crash Response Data System. Attention is given to the design approach, a block diagram of the Crash Response Data System, measurements, the digital data subsystem, signal conditioning, telemetry, on-board recording, the power subsystem, preflight checkout and calibration, and aspects of system qualification.

  15. Unmanned aircraft systems (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  16. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.


    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  17. Robustness Analysis of Integrated LPV-FDI Filters and LTI-FTC System for a Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Khong, Thuan H.; Shin, Jong-Yeob


    This paper proposes an analysis framework for robustness analysis of a nonlinear dynamics system that can be represented by a polynomial linear parameter varying (PLPV) system with constant bounded uncertainty. The proposed analysis framework contains three key tools: 1) a function substitution method which can convert a nonlinear system in polynomial form into a PLPV system, 2) a matrix-based linear fractional transformation (LFT) modeling approach, which can convert a PLPV system into an LFT system with the delta block that includes key uncertainty and scheduling parameters, 3) micro-analysis, which is a well known robust analysis tool for linear systems. The proposed analysis framework is applied to evaluating the performance of the LPV-fault detection and isolation (FDI) filters of the closed-loop system of a transport aircraft in the presence of unmodeled actuator dynamics and sensor gain uncertainty. The robustness analysis results are compared with nonlinear time simulations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei POPA


    Full Text Available In accordance with Air Force requirements, the comparative analysis of short/medium transport aircraft comes to sustain procurement decision of short/medium transport aircraft. This paper presents, in short, the principles and the results of the comparative analysis for short/medium military transport aircraft.

  19. Alternative propulsion systems for global transport aircraft. Antriebsalternativen fuer globale Transportflugzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellenz, D.W.


    This study investigates alternatives for the propulsion of global range transport aircraft responsive to the depletion of fossile fuels as well as to certain socio-economic boundary conditions. In addition to chemical energy sources the generation of nuclear energy on board as well as the remote transmission of energy by laser radiation are considered as alternative energy sources. Conceptual studies are carried out for four Mach number regimes and for distances of 10,000, 15,000, and 20,000 km: subsonic, supersonic, hypersonic and a rocket glider. The concepts are subjected to a multiparametric, socio-economic evaluation, which is carried out separately for the points of view of the airline, the passenger, and the environment/public. The evaluation results indicate that in the subsonic regime only a nominal improvement in rank is obtained by using alternative energy sources in combination with the hydrogen-burning propfan, and that this is only true for increasing ranges. The strongest effect occures in the supersonic regime, and with increasing range. In the hypersonic regime as well as for the rocket glider, the chemical concepts constitute the only practicable solutions.

  20. Integration of an Advanced Cryogenic Electric Propulsion System (ACEPS) to Aerodynamically Efficient Subsonic Transport Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal defines innovative aerodynamic concepts and technology goals aimed at vehicle efficiency for future subsonic aircraft in the 2020 ? 2030 timeframe....

  1. Proceedings of the Aircraft Wake Vortices Conference, March 15-17, 1977, held at the Transportation Systems Center, Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    CA. Jan. 1977. 309 -1.A IM ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF AIRCRAFT WAKE VORTICES PAUL B. MACCREADY. JR. AND PETER B.S. LISSAMAN...Transportation Systems Center Civil Aviation Authority Kendall Square London Space House Cambridge MA 02142 Kingsway WC2 England Pitchford . Lynn D. Lockheed

  2. Aircraft Operations Classification System (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong


    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  3. Automated Meta-Aircraft Operations for a More Efficient and Responsive Air Transportation System (United States)

    Hanson, Curt


    A brief overview is given of the on-going NASA Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. Current status and upcoming work is previewed. The motivating factors and innovative aspects of ACT are discussed along with technical challenges and the expected system-level impacts if the project is successful. Preliminary results from the NASA G-III hardware in the loop simulation are included.

  4. Government Competitive Test Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS). Sikorsky YUH-60A Helicopter (United States)


    IN.e COPESO COMPRESOR OICN133 O-CN-G PORT... - control valve that provides regulated air ilow to the pneumatic start system. Pressure regulation...Governing Characteristics 17. In general. the HMU provides for gas generator control in the areas of acceleration limiting. stall and flameout protection...blade stall are not significant. During this evaluation, minor trends indicating an influence by compressibility and blade stall were noted. However

  5. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries (United States)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.


    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  6. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth


    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  7. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft


    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra


    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  8. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric


    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  9. Multidisciplinary design optimization of low-noise transport aircraft (United States)

    Leifsson, Leifur Thor

    The objective of this research is to examine how to design low-noise transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). The subject is approached by designing for low-noise both implicitly and explicitly. The explicit design approach involves optimizing an aircraft while explicitly constraining the noise level. An MDO framework capable of optimizing both a cantilever wing and a Strut-Braced-Wing (SBW) aircraft was developed. The objective is to design aircraft for low-airframe-noise at the approach conditions and quantify the change in weight and performance with respect to a traditionally designed aircraft. The results show that reducing airframe noise by reducing approach speed alone, will not provide significant noise reduction without a large performance and weight penalty. Therefore, more dramatic changes to the aircraft design are needed to achieve a significant airframe noise reduction. Another study showed that the trailing-edge flap can be eliminated, as well as all the noise associated with that device, without incurring a significant weight and performance penalty. Lastly, an airframe noise analysis showed that a SBW aircraft with short fuselage-mounted landing gear could have a similar or potentially a lower airframe noise level than a comparable cantilever wing aircraft. The implicit design approach involves selecting a configuration that supports a low-noise operation, and optimizing for performance. In this study a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport aircraft, with a conventional and a distributed propulsion system, was optimized for minimum take-off gross weight. The effects of distributed propulsion were studied using an MDO framework previously developed at Virginia Tech. The results show that more than two thirds of the theoretical savings of distributed propulsion are required for the BWB designs with a distributed propulsion system to have comparable gross weight as those with a conventional propulsion system. Therefore

  10. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft (United States)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.


    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  11. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas


    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  12. Aircraft control system (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)


    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  13. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.


    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  14. Review of measured vibration and noise environments experienced by passengers in aircraft and in ground transportation systems (United States)

    Stephens, D. G.


    Measured vibration and interior noise data are presented for a number of air and surface vehicles. Consideration is given to the importance of direction effects; of vehicle operations such as take-off, cruise, and landing; and of measurement location on the level and frequency of the measurements. Various physical measurement units or descriptors are used to quantify and compare the data. Results suggest the range of vibration and noise associated with a particular mode of transportation and illustrate the comparative levels in terms of each of the descriptors. Collectively, the results form a data base which may be useful in assessing the ride of existing or future systems relative to vehicles in current operation.

  15. Environmental Impact Evaluation of Aircraft at System-of-Systems Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroijen, M.J.T.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Voskuijl, M.; Curran, R.


    Next generations of civil transport aircraft will need to be evaluated not only against their behaviour as an aircraft system but also as a part of the larger air transport system. In addition to this are the sustainability issues related to for instance noise and emissions, represented by environme

  16. Conceptual design of hybrid-electric transport aircraft (United States)

    Pornet, C.; Isikveren, A. T.


    The European Flightpath 2050 and corresponding Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA) as well as the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation N+ series have elaborated aggressive emissions and external noise reduction targets according to chronological waypoints. In order to deliver ultra-low or even zero in-flight emissions levels, there exists an increasing amount of international research and development emphasis on electrification of the propulsion and power systems of aircraft. Since the late 1990s, a series of experimental and a host of burgeouning commercial activities for fixed-wing aviation have focused on glider, ultra-light and light-sport airplane, and this is proving to serve as a cornerstone for more ambitious transport aircraft design and integration technical approaches. The introduction of hybrid-electric technology has dramatically expanded the design space and the full-potential of these technologies will be drawn through synergetic, tightly-coupled morphological and systems integration emphasizing propulsion - as exemplified by the potential afforded by distributed propulsion solutions. With the aim of expanding upon the current repository of knowledge associated with hybrid-electric propulsion systems a quad-fan arranged narrow-body transport aircraft equipped with two advanced Geared-Turbofans (GTF) and two Electrical Fans (EF) in an under-wing podded installation is presented in this technical article. The assessment and implications of an increasing Degree-of-Hybridization for Useful Power (HP,USE) on the overall sizing, performance as well as flight technique optimization of fuel-battery hybrid-electric aircraft is addressed herein. The integrated performance of the concept was analyzed in terms of potential block fuel burn reduction and change in vehicular efficiency in comparison to a suitably projected conventional aircraft employing GTF-only propulsion targeting year 2035. Results showed that by increasing HP,USE, significant

  17. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич


    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  18. International aircraft ECMO transportation: first French pediatric experience. (United States)

    Rambaud, Jerome; Léger, Pierre L; Porlier, Ludovic; Larroquet, Michelle; Raffin, Herve; Pierron, Charlotte; Walti, Herve; Carbajal, Ricardo


    Refractory severe hemodynamic or respiratory failure may require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Since some patients are too sick to be transported safely to a referral ECMO center on conventional transportation, mobile ECMO transport teams have been developed. The experiences of some ECMO transport teams have already been reported, including air and international transport. We report the first French pediatric international ECMO transport by aircraft. This case shows that a long distance intervention of the pediatric ECMO transport team is feasible, even in an international setting. Long distance ECMO transportations are widely carried out for adults, but remain rare in neonates and children.

  19. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter


    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  20. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.


    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  1. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder. (United States)


    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  2. Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen (United States)

    Garcia, Richard; Barnes, Laura; Fields, MaryAnne


    This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.

  3. Global Local Structural Optimization of Transportation Aircraft Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciampa, P.D.; Nagel, B.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.


    The study presents a multilevel optimization methodology for the preliminary structural design of transportation aircraft wings. A global level is defined by taking into account the primary wing structural components (i.e., ribs, spars and skin) which are explicitly modeled by shell layered finite e

  4. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.


    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  5. Conceptual design proposal: HUGO global range/mobility transport aircraft (United States)

    Johnston, Tom; Perretta, Dave; Mcbane, Doug; Morin, Greg; Thomas, Greg; Woodward, Joe; Gulakowski, Steve


    With the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the emergence of the United Nations actively pursuing a peace keeping role in world affairs, the United States has been forced into a position as the world's leading peace enforcer. It is still a very dangerous world with seemingly never ending ideological, territorial, and economic disputes requiring the U.S. to maintain a credible deterrent posture in this uncertain environment. This has created an urgent need to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States (CONUS) to any potential world trouble spot by means of a global range/mobility transport aircraft. The most recent examples being Operation Desert Shield/Storm and Operation Restore Hope. To meet this challenge head-on, a request for proposal (RFP) was developed and incorporated into the 1992/1993 AIAA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation Graduate Team Aircraft Design Competition. The RFP calls for the conceptual design and justification of a large aircraft capable of power projecting a significant military force without surface transportation reliance.

  6. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) is proposed. The proposed methodology employs the development of a very thin (135m) hybrid...

  7. Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of an Aircraft Nodal Data Acquisition System (ANDAS) based upon the short haul Zigbee networking standard is proposed. It employs a very thin (135 um)...

  8. Aircraft System Design and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coldbeck


    Full Text Available In the 1980's the British aircraft industry changed its approach to the management of projects from a system where a project office would manage a project and rely on a series of specialist departments to support them to a more process oriented method, using systems engineering models, whose most outwardly visible signs were the introduction of multidisciplinary product teams. One of the problems with the old method was that the individual departments often had different priorities and projects would get uneven support. The change in the system was only made possible for complex designs by the electronic distribution of data giving instantaneous access to all involved in the project. In 1997 the Defence and Aerospace Foresight Panel emphasised the need for a system engineering approach if British industry was to remain competitive. The Royal Academy of Engineering recognised that the change in working practices also changed what was required of a chartered engineer and redefined their requirements in 1997 [1]. The result of this is that engineering degree courses are now judged against new criteria with more emphasis placed on the relevance to industry rather than on purely academic content. At the University of Glasgow it was realized that the students ought to be made aware of current working practices and that there ought to be a review to ensure that the degrees give students the skills required by industry. It was decided to produce a one week introduction course in systems engineering for Masters of Engineering (MEng students to be taught by both university lecturers and practitioners from a range of companies in the aerospace industry with the hope of expanding the course into a module. The reaction of the students was favourable in terms of the content but it seems ironic that the main criticism was that there was not enough discussion involving the students. This paper briefly describes the individual teaching modules and discusses the

  9. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.


    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  10. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION.../Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update Workgroup Progress...

  11. Integrating the Unmanned Aircraft System into the National Airspace System (United States)


    and the ground control system. The ground control system is comprised of several integrated components to include: avionics , fuel, navigation...accessed January 15, 2011). U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2010-2035: Eyes of the Army. Fort Rucker, Ala .: U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft

  12. Electromagnetic-Repulsion Systems For Deicing Aircraft (United States)

    Smith, Samuel O.; Zieve, Peter


    Improved eddy-current electromagnetic-repulsion deicing systems developed for use on variety of exterior aircraft surfaces like leading edges of wings, engine inlets, propellers, and helicopter rotors. Fit to exterior surfaces, as retrofits or original equipment. Systems light in weight, consume little average power, and capable of protecting against severe icing conditions.

  13. KC-130J Transport Aircraft (KC-130J) (United States)


    integrated logistics support and aircraft sustainment (follow-on case to provide support upon depletion of KU-P- SBF funds) Kuwait 3/11/2014 47.9 of products, supply chain , inventory, material movement, and warehousing until Material Support Date, scheduled for October 1, 2016, when...normal military supply system that includes NAVSUP WSS, U.S. Air Force (USAF) ALCs, and Defense Logistics Agency. Antecedent Information The antecedent

  14. Personal Aircraft Point to the Future of Transportation (United States)


    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, as well as a number of Agency innovations, have helped Duluth, Minnesota-based Cirrus Design Corporation become one of the world's leading manufacturers of general aviation aircraft. SBIRs with Langley Research Center provided the company with cost-effective composite airframe manufacturing methods, while crashworthiness testing at the Center increased the safety of its airplanes. Other NASA-derived technologies on Cirrus SR20 and SR22 aircraft include synthetic vision systems that help pilots navigate and full-plane parachutes that have saved the lives of more than 30 Cirrus pilots and passengers to date. Today, the SR22 is the world's top-selling Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-certified single-engine airplane.

  15. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews (United States)

    Wood, Kenneth E.


    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  16. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1. (United States)

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

  17. Developing aircraft photonic networks for airplane systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Henry J.; Brownjohn, Nick; Baptista, João;


    Achieving affordable high speed fiber optic communication networks for airplane systems has proved to be challenging. In this paper we describe a summary of the EU Framework 7 project DAPHNE (Developing Aircraft Photonic Networks). DAPHNE aimed to exploit photonic technology from terrestrial comm...

  18. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew


    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  19. Simulating the global transport of nitrogen oxides emissions from aircraft (United States)

    Sausen, R.; Köhler, I.


    With the atmosphere general circulation model ECHAM the passive transport of NOx emitted from global subsonic air traffic and the NOx concentration change due to these emissions are investigated. The source of NOx is prescribed according to an aircraft emission data base. The sink of NOx is parameterized as an exponential decay process with globally constant lifetime. Simulations in perpetual January and July modes are performed. Both the resulting mean and the standard deviation of the NOx mass mixing ratio are analysed. In January horizontal dispersion is more pronounced and vertical mixing is smaller than in July. In both cases the resulting quasi-stationary fields of the mass mixing ratio display a pronounced zonal asymmetry. The variability accounts up to 30% of the mean field.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an increasing need to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national security...

  1. Path-tracking Control of a Tractor-aircraft System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nengjian Wang; Hongbo Liu; Wanhui Yang


    An aircraft tractor plays a significant role as a kind of important marine transport and support equipment.It's necessary to study its controlling and manoeuvring stability to improve operation efficiency.A virtual prototyping model of the tractor-aircraft system based on Lagrange's equation of the first kind with Lagrange mutipliers was established in this paper.According to the towing characteristics,a path-tracking controller using fuzzy logic theory was designed.Direction control herein was carried out through a compensatory tracking approach.Interactive co-simulation was performed to validate the path-tracking behavior in closed-loop.Simulation results indicated that the tractor followed the reference courses precisely on a flat ground.

  2. Aircraft Electric/Hybrid-Electric Power and Propulsion Workshop Perspective of the V/STOL Aircraft Systems Tech Committee (United States)

    Hange, Craig E.


    This presentation will be given at the AIAA Electric Hybrid-Electric Power Propulsion Workshop on July 29, 2016. The workshop is being held so the AIAA can determine how it can support the introduction of electric aircraft into the aerospace industry. This presentation will address the needs of the community within the industry that advocates the use of powered-lift as important new technologies for future aircraft and air transportation systems. As the current chairman of the VSTOL Aircraft Systems Technical Committee, I will be presenting generalized descriptions of the past research in developing powered-lift and generalized observations on how electric and hybrid-electric propulsion may provide advances in the powered-lift field.

  3. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft (United States)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.


    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  4. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.


    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  5. Review of Aircraft Electric Power Systems and Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin; Guerrero, Josep M.; Wu, Xiaohao


    In recent years, the electrical power capacity is increasing rapidly in more electric aircraft (MEA), since the conventional mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic energy systems are partly replaced by electrical power system. As a consequence, capacity and complexity of aircraft electric power...... systems (EPS) will increase dramatically and more advanced aircraft EPSs need to be developed. This paper gives a brief description of the constant frequency (CF) EPS, variable frequency (VF) EPS and advanced high voltage (HV) EPS. Power electronics in the three EPS is overviewed. Keywords: Aircraft Power...... System, More Electric Aircraft, Constant Frequency, Variable Frequency, High Voltage....

  6. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation (United States)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)


    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  7. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan


    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective is to en......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...

  8. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  9. Relating a Jet-Surface Interaction Experiment to a Commercial Supersonic Transport Aircraft Using Numerical Simulations (United States)

    Dippold, Vance F. III; Friedlander, David


    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed for a commercial supersonic transport aircraft concept and experimental hardware models designed to represent the installed propulsion system of the conceptual aircraft in an upcoming test campaign. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the effects of jet-surface interactions from supersonic aircraft on airport community noise. RANS simulations of the commercial supersonic transport aircraft concept were performed to relate the representative experimental hardware to the actual aircraft. RANS screening simulations were performed on the proposed test hardware to verify that it would be free from potential rig noise and to predict the aerodynamic forces on the model hardware to assist with structural design. The simulations showed a large region of separated flow formed in a junction region of one of the experimental configurations. This was dissimilar with simulations of the aircraft and could invalidate the noise measurements. This configuration was modified and a subsequent RANS simulation showed that the size of the flow separation was greatly reduced. The aerodynamic forces found on the experimental models were found to be relatively small when compared to the expected loads from the model’s own weight.Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were completed for two configurations of a three-stream inverted velocity profile (IVP) nozzle and a baseline single-stream round nozzle (mixed-flow equivalent conditions). For the Sideline and Cutback flow conditions, while the IVP nozzles did not reduce the peak turbulent kinetic energy on the lower side of the jet plume, the IVP nozzles did significantly reduce the size of the region of peak turbulent kinetic energy when compared to the jet plume of the baseline nozzle cases. The IVP nozzle at Sideline conditions did suffer a region of separated flow from the inner stream nozzle splitter that did produce an intense, but small, region of

  10. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft (United States)


    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  11. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System (United States)

    Karr, Charles L.


    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  12. Flying Qualities Metrics and Design Guidelines for Modern Transport Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current and planned transport aircraft designs are making more use of fly-by-wire technology, allowing an unprecedented design space for control laws, including...

  13. Aircraft Low Altitude Wind Shear Detection and Warning System. (United States)

    Sinclair, Peter C.; Kuhn, Peter M.


    There is now considerable evidence to substantiate the causal relationship between low altitude wind shear (LAWS) and the recent increase in low-altitude aircraft accidents. The National Research Council has found that for the period 1964 to 1982, LAWS was involved in nearly all the weather-related air carrier fatalities. However, at present, there is no acceptable method, technique, or hardware system that provides the necessary safety margins, for spatial and timely detection of LAWS from an aircraft during the critical phases of landing and takeoff. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has addressed this matter and supports the development of an airborne system for detecting hazardous LAWS with at least a one minute warning of the potential hazard to the pilot. One of the purposes of this paper is to show from some of our preliminary flight measurement research that a forward looking infrared radiometer (FLIR) system can be used to successfully detect the cool downdraft of downbursts [microbursts/macrobursts (MB)] and thunderstorm gust front outflows that are responsible for most of the LAWS events. The FLIR system provides a much greater safety margin for the pilot than that provided by reactive designs such as inertial-air speed systems that require the actual penetration of the MB before a pilot warning can be initiated. Our preliminary results indicate that an advanced airborne FLIR system could provide the pilot with remote indication of MB threat, location, movement, and predicted MB hazards along the flight path ahead of the aircraft.In a proof-of-concept experiment, we have flight tested a prototype FLIR system (nonscanning, fixed range) near and within Colorado MBs with excellent detectability. The results show that a minimum warning time of one-four minutes (5×10 km), depending on aircraft speed, is available to the pilot prior to a MB encounter. Analysis of the flight data with respect to a modified `hazard index' indicates the severe hazard

  14. A Study on Simulation of Aircraft Maintenance and Support System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Maintenance and support are basic elements to realize the effectiveness of aircraft. For basic analysis of the characteristics of an aircraft maintenance and support system, a simulation method is presented in this paper, and the structure and realization ofthe simulation system is discussed.

  15. Advanced Navigation System for Aircraft Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Satheesh Reddy


    Full Text Available Various forms of navigation are present in today’s world, leading from satellite based navigation to several archaic forms of navigation like star gazing. Now, lots of technologies are available to achieve this but with certain limitations. For example, FOG based navigation provides accuracy with in 0.10-100 range which is not sufficient for various military applications. Therefore, there is a need to design a system which will have better accuracy and thus requires development of ring laser gyro-based inertial systems. This paper concentrates on the aided navigation system based on ring laser gyro of 0.01 deg/hr class and GPS - GLONASS to further enhance the capability of system in terms of accuracy. The usage of such systems not only provides accurate results momentarily but it also persists for longer duration with the aid of GPS - GLONASS for applications like aircraft, ship and long range missiles. The system provides accuracy of the level of 1 Nm/hr in pure navigation and 30 m with the aid of GPS - GLONASS. Apart from this, the availability of gyro-compass and baro-inertial algorithms further enhances the system capabilities and made them self dependent to the major extent.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.131-137, DOI:

  16. A historical perspective of aircrew systems effects on aircraft design


    Bauer, David O.


    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The design of the aircrew workstation often has not been an orderly part of the overall aircraft design process but rather of much lower priority than the integration of the airframe and powerplant. However, the true test of the aircraft is how well the aircrew can use the aircraft for mission performance. NAVAIR has been seeking the establishment of an Aircrew Centered System Design discipline, to be addressed as an integral part of ...

  17. 14 CFR 61.63 - Additional aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification... (United States)


    ... ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). 61.63 Section 61.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft ratings (other than for ratings at the airline transport pilot certification level). (a) General. For an additional aircraft rating on a pilot certificate, other than for an airline transport...

  18. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft. (United States)

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald


    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft.

  19. Drag/thrust analysis of jet-propelled transonic transport aircraft; definition of physical drag components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destarac, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France); Van der Vooren, J. [Senior research scientist, retired, Hoekse Waard (Netherlands)


    Drag/thrust analysis of jet-propelled transonic transport aircraft on the basis of calculated viscous flow is discussed. Unique definitions for viscous drag plus wave drag and for induced drag are established. The concept of additive through flow drag is introduced. Drag/thrust bookkeeping is given attention. All drag components can be calculated in the flow region adjacent to the aircraft, where numerical accuracy is expectingly highest. Uniform handling of complex aircraft configurations is brought within reach. Near-field/far-field drag balances are exact. Computational aspects are discussed, in particular the elimination of spurious drag sources. Numerical examples are given for a wing-body and for a wing-body-pylon-nacelle configuration. In either case, the spurious drag sources are eliminated. Acceptable agreement is obtained for the total drag in the first case, and for the installation drag in the second case. Extension of the analysis presented to propeller-driven transport aircraft is straightforward. (author)

  20. Adjoint gradient-based approach for aerodynamic optimization of transport aircraft


    Ilic, Caslav


    Aerodynamic design of transport aircraft has been steadily improved over past several decades, to the point where today highly-detailed shape control is needed to achieve further improvements. Aircraft manufacturers are therefore increasingly looking into formal optimization methods, driving high-fidelity CFD analysis of finely-parametrized candidate designs. We present an adjoint gradient-based approach for maximizing the aerodynamic performance index relevant to cruise-climb mission segment...

  1. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  2. System Synthesis in Preliminary Aircraft Design Using Statistical Methods (United States)

    DeLaurentis, Daniel; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.


    This paper documents an approach to conceptual and early preliminary aircraft design in which system synthesis is achieved using statistical methods, specifically Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). These methods are employed in order to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, a methodology incorporating three uses of these techniques is presented. First, response surface equations are formed which represent aerodynamic analyses, in the form of regression polynomials, which are more sophisticated than generally available in early design stages. Next, a regression equation for an Overall Evaluation Criterion is constructed for the purpose of constrained optimization at the system level. This optimization, though achieved in an innovative way, is still traditional in that it is a point design solution. The methodology put forward here remedies this by introducing uncertainty into the problem, resulting in solutions which are probabilistic in nature. DOE/RSM is used for the third time in this setting. The process is demonstrated through a detailed aero-propulsion optimization of a High Speed Civil Transport. Fundamental goals of the methodology, then, are to introduce higher fidelity disciplinary analyses to the conceptual aircraft synthesis and provide a roadmap for transitioning from point solutions to probabilistic designs (and eventually robust ones).

  3. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft (United States)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.


    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  4. Aircraft (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.


    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  5. Dynamics Modeling and L1 Adaptive Control of a Transport Aircraft for Heavyweight Airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Liu


    Full Text Available The longitudinal nonlinear aircraft model with cargo extraction is derived using theoretical mechanics and flight mechanics. Furthermore, the nonlinear model is approximated by a semilinear time-varying system with the cargo disturbances viewed as unknown nonlinearities, both matched and unmatched types. On this basis, a novel autopilot inner-loop based on the LQR and L1 adaptive theory is developed to reject the unknown nonlinear disturbances caused by the cargo and also to accommodate uncertainties. Analysis shows that the controller can guarantee robustness in the presence of fast adaptation, without exciting control signal oscillations and gain scheduling. The overall control system is completed with the outer-loop altitude-hold control based on a PID controller. Simulations are conducted under the condition that one transport aircraft performs maximum load airdrop mission at the height of 82 ft, using single row single platform mode. The results show the good performance of the control scheme, which can meet the airdrop mission performance indexes well, even in the presence of ±20% aerodynamic uncertainties.

  6. 49 CFR 175.310 - Transportation of flammable liquid fuel; aircraft only means of transportation. (United States)


    ... impracticable. The stowage requirements of § 175.75(a) do not apply to a person operating an aircraft under the... racks or slings. (c) Flammable liquid fuels may be carried on a cargo aircraft, subject to the...

  7. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites (United States)


    ... infrastructure and research needs; and (C) Consult with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); (4) Address both civil and public unmanned aircraft systems; (5... be flown using a data link to transmit commands to the aircraft. They may perform a variety of...

  8. C-130J Hercules Transport Aircraft (C-130J) (United States)


    delivered a total of nineteen aircraft in CY 2015 to USG and FMS customers . Twenty-four USG and five FMS C-130J aircraft are estimated for delivery in...Appropriation Prior FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2020 FY 2021 To Complete Total RDT&E 301.5 18.6 14.8 16.3 8.8 0.7 0.7 0.0 361.4 Procurement 10865.3...Prior FY 2016 FY 2017 FY 2018 FY 2019 FY 2020 FY 2021 To Complete Total Development 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Production 0 137 14 3 0 0 0 0 15 169 PB

  9. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.


    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  10. Thermal Management System for Superconducting Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft powered by hydrogen power plants or gas turbines driving electric generators connected to distributed electric motors for propulsion have the potential to...

  11. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    Control Loop – Manned Platform Ai rc ra ft Pilot Flight Computer Control Surface Deflection Aircraft Response Inertia Measurements Visual Cues Aural...dynamics, ergonomics in the control station, and the control surfaces and actuators in the air- craft. The software may contain displays, with the latency of manned aircraft that exhibit imperceptible time delays, usually less than 5 millisec- onds , which is considered a minimum

  12. Building A Flight Control System For A Modelled Aircraft


    Garratt, Paul William; Rushton, Andrew; Yilmaz, Esat


    Abstract. We modelled an aircraft based on the Airbus A320 and constructed a synthesisable flight control system. The novel feature was the use of C and VHDL, Very High Speed Inte-grated Circuit Design Language, to allow the flight control system to reside in a Field Pro-grammable Gate Array in a model aircraft or an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle. The simulator models axial, normal, transverse, pitch, roll and yaw movements. The flight control system has automatic manoeuvre envelope protection a...

  13. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)


    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  14. Method and System for Active Noise Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft (United States)

    Betzina, Mark D. (Inventor); Nguyen, Khanh Q. (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for reducing noise generated by rotating blades of a tiltrotor aircraft. A rotor-blade pitch angle associated with the tiltrotor aircraft can be controlled utilizing a swashplate connected to rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. One or more Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) signals can be transmitted and input to a swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate. A particular blade pitch oscillation (e.g., four cycles per revolution) is there-after produced in a rotating frame of reference associated with the rotating blades in response to input of an HHC signal to the swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate to thereby reduce noise associated with the rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. The HHC signal can be transmitted and input to the swashplate control actuator to reduce noise of the tiltrotor aircraft in response to a user input utilizing an open-loop configuration.

  15. Investigation of Practical Flight Control Systems for Small Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falkena, W.


    Personal air transportation utilizing small aircraft is a market that is expected to grow significantly in the near future. However, seventy times more accidents occur in this segment as compared with the commercial aviation sector. The majority of these accidents is related to handling and control

  16. Miniature Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase 1 has seen the development of a revolutionary new type of sensor for making carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and...

  17. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  18. Pickering UDM transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.J.; Vissers, J.J. [GE Canada Nuclear Products, Mechanical Engineering, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail:;; Brown, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Inspection Services Div., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)


    The Universal Delivery Machine (UDM) is a new CANDU reactor maintenance tool that allows safe, timely, and cost-effective inspection and maintenance of fuel channels. The UDM had to be transported through the Pickering nuclear station and installed onto the reactor bridge. This involved lifting the UDM between station levels, navigating it through several challenging airlock and vault areas, and traversing the bridge opening directly in front of the reactor. This paper describes the system used to transport and install the Pickering UDM. (author)

  19. Advanced energy systems (APU) for large commercial aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberger, A.; Bleil, J.; Arendt, M. [Airbus Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    The intention of using a highly integrated component using on fuel cell technology installed on board of large commercial passenger aircraft for the generation of onboard power for the systems demand during an entire aircraft mission was subject of several studies. The results of these studies have been based on the simulation of the whole system in the context of an aircraft system environment. In front of the work stood the analyses of different fuel cell technologies and the analyses of the aircraft system environment. Today onboard power is provided on ground by an APU and in flight by the main engines. In order to compare fuel cell technology with the today's usual gas turbine operational characteristics have been analysed. A second analysis was devoted to the system demand for typical aircraft categories. The MEA system concept was supposed in all cases. The favourable concept represented an aircraft propelled by conventional engines with starter generator units, providing AC electrical power, covering in total proximately half of the power demand and a component based on fuel cell technology. This component provided electrical DC power, clean potable water, thermal energy at 180 degrees Celsius and nitrogen enriched air for fire suppression and fire extinguishing agent. In opposite of a usual gas turbine based APU, this new unit was operated as the primary power system. (orig.)

  20. Construction of a Survivability Evaluation System for Military Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The evaluation indexes system of aircraft survivability is constructed for the first time from three aspects: susceptibility, vulnerability and combat resilience; the bargaining weight method is proposed to determine the weights of the indexes and evaluate aircraft survivability. The bargaining weight method brings different opinions into accord under the constraint of minimum loss, it can overcome the partial subjectivity in determining weights and evaluation, and has objectivity. The example testifies rationality and feasibility of the evaluation system.

  1. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server


    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  2. 40 CFR 141.804 - Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft water system operations and... § 141.804 Aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan. (a) Each air carrier must develop and implement an aircraft water system operations and maintenance plan for each aircraft water system that...

  3. Research on Data Distribution Service for Aircraft Collaborative Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxing Bian


    Full Text Available Aircraft designing is a complex, multi-disciplinary process, while the applications are separated from each other due to their particular design and analysis tools. The separated applications are unable to meet the collaborative designing requirements. One of the fundamental problems in Aircraft Collaborative Design System is that how to make each subsystem collaborate. The known solutions, using Existing middlewares to unify data formats, are not reliable due to the tightly coupled architecture, poor portability and reusability, large update latency, etc. To solve this problem, the paper propose that apply DDS into Aircraft Collaborative Design System, and give the solution that how to use open source projects OpenDDS in Aircraft Collaborative Design System.

  4. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft (United States)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John


    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny


    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  6. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.


    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  7. Dynamics modeling and control of large transport aircraft in heavy cargo extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper,a novel version of six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear model for transport aircraft motion in cargo extraction is developed and validated by the theoretical mechanics and flight mechanics.In this model constraint force and moment reflecting the flight dynamic effects of inner moving cargo are formulated.A methodology for a control law design in this phase is presented,which linearizes the aircraft dynamics making use of piecewise linearization and utilizes robust control technique for interval sys...

  8. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.


    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.

  9. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.


    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  10. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan


    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  11. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh


    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  12. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation (United States)

    Tischler, Mark B.


    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  13. The Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS): A system integration approach (United States)

    Benoit, Michael J.


    The Mercer Engineering Research Center (MERC), under contract to the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1989, has been actively involved in providing the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) with a robotic workcell designed to perform rework automated defastening and hole location/transfer operations on F-15 wings. This paper describes the activities required to develop and implement this workcell, known as the Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS). AARS is scheduled to be completely installed and in operation at WR-ALC by September 1994.

  14. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System (United States)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.


    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  15. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George


    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix J to Part 141 - Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than an Airline Transport Pilot Certificate J Appendix J to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. J Appendix J to Part 141—Aircraft Type Rating Course, For Other Than...

  17. Modal analysis of sailplane and transport aircraft wings using the dynamic stiffness method (United States)

    Banerjee, J. R.


    The purpose of this paper is to provide theory, results, discussion and conclusions arising from an in-depth investigation on the modal behaviour of high aspect ratio aircraft wings. The illustrative examples chosen are representative of sailplane and transport airliner wings. To achieve this objective, the dynamic stiffness method of modal analysis is used. The wing is represented by a series of dynamic stiffness elements of bending-torsion coupled beams which are assembled to form the overall dynamic stiffness matrix of the complete wing. With cantilever boundary condition applied at the root, the eigenvalue problem is formulated and finally solved with the help of the Wittrick-Williams algorithm to yield the eigenvalues and eigenmodes which are essentially the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the wing. Results for wings of two sailplanes and four transport aircraft are discussed and finally some conclusions are drawn

  18. An efficient navigation-control system for small unmanned aircraft (United States)

    Girwar-Nath, Jonathan Alejandro

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been research in the past decade for a broad range of tasks and application domains such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, traffic control, pipe line inspections, surveillance, border patrol, and communication bridging. This work describes the design and implementation of a lightweight Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) semi-autonomous Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Presented here is a methodology for System Identification utilizing the Box-Jenkins model estimator on recorded flight data to characterize the system and develop a mathematical model of the aircraft. Additionally, a novel microprocessor, the XMOS, is utilized to navigate and maneuver the aircraft utilizing a PD control system. In this thesis is a description of the aircraft and the sensor suite utilized, as well as the flight data and supporting videos for the benefit of the UAV research community.

  19. Systems and Methods for Collaboratively Controlling at Least One Aircraft (United States)

    Estkowski, Regina I. (Inventor)


    An unmanned vehicle management system includes an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control station controlling one or more unmanned vehicles (UV), a collaborative routing system, and a communication network connecting the UAS and the collaborative routing system. The collaborative routing system being configured to receive flight parameters from an operator of the UAS control station and, based on the received flight parameters, automatically present the UAS control station with flight plan options to enable the operator to operate the UV in a defined airspace.

  20. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson


    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used for scientific, emergency management, and defense missions, among others. The existing federal air regulations,...

  2. Multilevel decomposition approach to the preliminary sizing of a transport aircraft wing (United States)

    Wrenn, Gregory A.; Dovi, Augustine R.


    A multilevel/multidisciplinary optimization scheme for sizing an aircraft wing structure is described. A methodology using nonlinear programming in application to a very large engineering problem is presented. This capability is due to the decomposition approach. Over 1300 design variables are considered for this nonlinear optimization task. In addition, a mathematical link is established coupling the detail of structural sizing to the overall system performance objective, such as fuel consumption. The scheme is implemented as a three level system analyzing aircraft mission performance at the top level, the total aircraft structure as the middle level, and individual stiffened wing skin cover panels at the bottom level. Numerical show effectiveness of the method and its good convergence characteristics.

  3. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.


    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  4. An interactive system for aircraft design and optimization (United States)

    Kroo, Ilan M.


    A system for aircraft design utilizing a unique analysis architecture, graphical interface, and suite of numerical optimization methods is described in this paper. The non-procedural architecture provides extensibility and efficiency not possible with conventional programming techniques. The interface for analysis and optimization, developed for use with this method, is described and its application to example problems is discussed.

  5. In-Service Aircraft Engine System Life Monitor Using Advanced Life-Estimating Technique Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop an accurate in-service aircraft engine life monitor system for the prediction of remaining component and system life for aircraft engines....

  6. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies (United States)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.


    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  7. Single Neuron PID Control of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Rapid Heating System



    Aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system is widely used in aircraft ground deicing to ensure that the operation of flights can be safe and efficient. Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combine the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. The aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system and the scheme and working principle of the system is introduced. Simulati...

  8. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction


    Bineid, Mansour


    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Sensor and Targeting (United States)


    Civil NIIRS Reference Guide TOP 07-1-003 27 July 2010 A-7 - Cultural Criteria - LEVEL 1 Detect lines of transportation (either road or...perimeter fences. (NIIRS 3.8) TOP 07-1-003 27 July 2010 A-8 - Cultural Criteria – (Concluded) LEVEL 4 Identify potential secondary fire sources...Line 5: TIME Report the time the activity was observed, not the time you report it. Always report local or Zulu time. Line 6: EQUIPMENT

  10. Secondary Wing System for Use on an Aircraft (United States)

    Smith, Brian E. (Inventor)


    A secondary wing system for use on an aircraft augments the lift, stability, and control of the aircraft at subsonic speeds. The secondary wing system includes a mechanism that allows the canard to be retracted within the contour of the aircraft fuselage from an operational position to a stowed position. The top surface of the canard is exposed to air flow in the stowed position, and is contoured to integrate aerodynamically and smoothly within the contour of the fuselage when the canard is retracted for high speed flight. The bottom portion of the canard is substantially flat for rotation into a storage recess within the fuselage. The single canard rotates about a vertical axis at its spanwise midpoint. The canard can be positioned between a range of sweep angles during flight and a stowed position in which its span is substantially parallel to the aircraft fuselage. The canard can be deployed and retracted during flight. The deployment mechanism includes a circular mounting ring and drive mechanism that connects the canard with the fuselage and permits it to rotate and to change incidence. The deployment mechanism further includes retractable fairings which serve to streamline the wing when it is retracted into the top of the fuselage.

  11. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.


    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  12. Model Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Aircraft Systems


    Fujimore, Atsushi; Ljung, Lennart


    This article presents a parameter estimation of continuous-time polytopic models for a linear parameter varying (LPV) system. The prediction error method of linear time invariant (LTI) models is modified for polytopic models. The modified prediction error method is applied to an LPV aircraft system whose varying parameter is the flight velocity and model parameters are the stability and control derivatives (SCDs). In an identification simulation, the polytopic model is more suitable for expre...

  13. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.


    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  14. Military jet pilots have higher p-wave dispersions compared to the transport aircraft aircrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çakar


    Full Text Available Objectives: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. Material and Methods: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography. P-wave dispersions were calculated. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 36.15±8.97 years and the mean p-wave duration was 100.8±12 ms in the whole group. Forty-seven subjects were non-pilot aircrew, and 28 were pilots. Thirteen study subjects were serving in jets, 49 in helicopters, and 13 were transport aircraft pilots. Thirty-six of the helicopter and 11 of the transport aircraft aircrew were non-pilot aircrew. P-wave dispersion was the lowest in the transport aircraft aircrew, and the highest in jet pilots. P-wave dispersions were similar in the pilots and non-pilot aircrew. Twenty-three study subjects were overweight, 19 had thyroiditis, 26 had hepatosteatosis, 4 had hyperbilirubinemia, 2 had hypertension, and 5 had hyperlipidemia. The PWD was significantly associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Serum uric acid levels were associated with p-wave durations. Serum TSH levels were the most important predictor of PWD. Conclusions: When TSH levels were associated with PWD, uric acid levels were associated with p-wave duration in the military aircrew. The jet pilots had higher PWDs. These findings reveal that military jet pilots may have a higher risk of developing atrial fibrillation, and PWD should be recorded during periodical examinations.

  15. Experimental investigation of the vortical activity in the close wake of a simplified military transport aircraft (United States)

    Bury, Yannick; Jardin, Thierry; Klöckner, Andreas


    This paper focuses on the experimental characterization of the vortex structures that develop in the aft fuselage region and in the wake of a simplified geometry of a military transport aircraft. It comes within the framework of the military applications of airflow influence on airdrop operations. This work relies on particle image velocimetry measurements combined with a vortex-tracking approach. Complex vortex dynamics is revealed, in terms of vortex positions, intensities, sizes, shapes and fluctuation levels, for both closed and opened cargo-door and ramp airdrop configurations.

  16. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.


    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  17. A novel posture alignment system for aircraft wing assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin ZHANG; Bao-guo YAO; Ying-lin KE


    A novel 6-degree of freedom (DOF) posture alignment system, based on 3-DOF positioners, is presented for the assembly of aircraft wings. Each positioner is connected with the wing through a rotational and adsorptive half-ball shaped end-effector, and the positioners together with the wing are considered as a 3-PPPS (P denotes a prismatic joint and S denotes a spherical joint) redundantly actuated parallel mechanism. The kinematic model of this system is established and a trajectory planning method is introduced. A complete analysis of inverse dynamics is carried out with the Newton-Euler algorithm, which is used to find the desired actuating torque in the design and path planning phase. Simulation analysis of the displacement and actuating torque of each joint of the positioners based on inverse kinematics and dynamics is conducted, and the results show that the system is feasible for the posture alignment of aircraft wings.

  18. Development of Longitudinal Equivalent System Models for Selected U.S. Navy Tactical Aircraft (United States)


    revaraa side II nacaaaary and Identlly by block number) Aircraft Longitudinal Flying Qualities Equivalent Systems Frequency Response a twin turbofan powered, land and carrier based, subsonic, anti- submarine warfare aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via a...based, supersonic fighter aircraft . Longitudinal control is accomplished via an irreversible mechanical flight control system which transmits

  19. 76 FR 9495 - Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders (United States)


    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 1 RIN 2120-AJ81 Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders... propeller operation for powered gliders that qualify as light-sport aircraft. DATES: The effective date for... aircraft (LSA) had a fixed or autofeathering propeller system. The restriction to ``autofeathering''...

  20. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turboelectric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  1. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.


    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  2. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC) (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.


    A collection of computer programs for aircraft system identification is described and demonstrated. The programs, collectively called System IDentification Programs for AirCraft, or SIDPAC, were developed in MATLAB as m-file functions. SIDPAC has been used successfully at NASA Langley Research Center with data from many different flight test programs and wind tunnel experiments. SIDPAC includes routines for experiment design, data conditioning, data compatibility analysis, model structure determination, equation-error and output-error parameter estimation in both the time and frequency domains, real-time and recursive parameter estimation, low order equivalent system identification, estimated parameter error calculation, linear and nonlinear simulation, plotting, and 3-D visualization. An overview of SIDPAC capabilities is provided, along with a demonstration of the use of SIDPAC with real flight test data from the NASA Glenn Twin Otter aircraft. The SIDPAC software is available without charge to U.S. citizens by request to the author, contingent on the requestor completing a NASA software usage agreement.

  3. Semi-automatic aircraft control system (United States)

    Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor)


    A flight control type system which provides a tactile readout to the hand of a pilot for directing elevator control during both approach to flare-out and departure maneuvers. For altitudes above flare-out, the system sums the instantaneous coefficient of lift signals of a lift transducer with a generated signal representing ideal coefficient of lift for approach to flare-out, i.e., a value of about 30% below stall. Error signals resulting from the summation are read out by the noted tactile device. Below flare altitude, an altitude responsive variation is summed with the signal representing ideal coefficient of lift to provide error signal readout.

  4. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.


    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Logistics Applications (United States)


    useful in this role: Yellow Jacket to find bomb-planters, Copperhead with SAR, Sentinel Hawk for route surveillance, and the Autonomous Rotorcraft...magnetic, acoustic, and seismic data. Scorpion, Silent Watch, Omnisensor, Vistas, and the Tactical Remote Sensor System represent the newest suites of

  6. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  7. Aircraft Performance Analysis in Conceptual Design Phase based on System-of-Systems Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yifeng


    Full Text Available To obtain a competitive design in aircraft conceptual design phase, this paper propose an aircraft performance analysis method based on system-of-systems (SoS simulations. The analysis process includes design space exploration and mission effectiveness analysis and the stochastic nature in SoS mission is captured based on a Monte Carlo method. Meanwhile as an example, the performance of UAVs which are applied in earthquake search and rescue SoS is analysed based on SoS simulations. The results show that the level of aircraft performance which leads to an optimum SoS effectiveness could be designed below the maximum performance. And it is necessary to apply SoS simulations into aircraft conceptual design phase to help designers optimize aircraft performance.

  8. Real-Time Minimization of Tracking Error for Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha; Kaneshige, John T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S.; Kulkarni, Nilesh V.; Burken, John


    This technology presents a novel, stable, discrete-time adaptive law for flight control in a Direct adaptive control (DAC) framework. Where errors are not present, the original control design has been tuned for optimal performance. Adaptive control works towards achieving nominal performance whenever the design has modeling uncertainties/errors or when the vehicle suffers substantial flight configuration change. The baseline controller uses dynamic inversion with proportional-integral augmentation. On-line adaptation of this control law is achieved by providing a parameterized augmentation signal to a dynamic inversion block. The parameters of this augmentation signal are updated to achieve the nominal desired error dynamics. If the system senses that at least one aircraft component is experiencing an excursion and the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, then the neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft operation may be changed.

  9. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.


    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  10. 78 FR 65153 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security... (United States)


    ... Learjet Model 45 series airplanes. The Model 45 series airplanes are swept-wing aircraft equipped with two... type certification basis for Learjet Model 45 series airplanes. System Security Protection for Aircraft... ensure that continued airworthiness of the aircraft is maintained, including all...

  11. System Design for Transitional Aircraft Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.T. Mo


    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force and industry are undergoing significant changes in the way they work together in capability enhancement programs. There are capability gaps in maintaining and supporting current obligations during major asset acquisition, which has migrated into the front line of Royal Air Force Fighter Groups as a new capability. This paper examines a steady state support solution and argues that in order to interchange from one support solution to a new architecture there must be a period for transition, which may need its own interim business model and operational service. A preliminary study of several existing support solutions reveals the generic elements that need to be parameterized and traced through the support system architecture trajectory.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR


    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  13. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program (United States)

    White, John J.


    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  14. Aircraft wire system laboratory development : phase I progress report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinallo, Michael Anthony; Lopez, Christopher D.


    An aircraft wire systems laboratory has been developed to support technical maturation of diagnostic technologies being used in the aviation community for detection of faulty attributes of wiring systems. The design and development rationale of the laboratory is based in part on documented findings published by the aviation community. The main resource at the laboratory is a test bed enclosure that is populated with aged and newly assembled wire harnesses that have known defects. This report provides the test bed design and harness selection rationale, harness assembly and defect fabrication procedures, and descriptions of the laboratory for usage by the aviation community.

  15. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.


    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  16. Assimilation of IASI satellite CO fields into a global chemistry transport model for validation against aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klonecki


    Full Text Available A modelling system for assimilation of CO total columns measured by the IASI/MetOp was developed. The system, based on a sub-optimal Kalman filter coupled with the LMDz-INCA chemistry transport model, allows both assimilating long periods of historical data and making rapid forecasts of the CO concentrations in the middle troposphere based on latest available measurements. Tests of the forecast system were conducted during the international POLARCAT campaigns. A specific treatment that takes into account the representativeness of observations at the scale of the model grid is applied to the IASI CO columns and associated errors before their assimilation in the model. This paper presents the results of assimilation of eight months of historical satellite data measured in 2008. Comparisons of the assimilated CO profiles with independent in situ CO measurements from the MOZAIC program and the POLARCAT aircraft campaigns indicate that the assimilation leads to a considerable improvement of the model simulations in the middle troposphere as compared with a control run with no assimilation. Model biases in the simulation of background values are reduced and improvement in the simulation of very high concentrations is observed. The improvement is due to the transport by the model of the information present in the IASI CO retrievals. The consistency of the improvement contributes to the validation of the IASI CO data.

  17. Experimental study of UTM-LST generic half model transport aircraft (United States)

    Ujang, M. I.; Mat, S.; Perumal, K.; Mohd. Nasir, M. N.


    This paper presents the experimental results from the investigation carried out at the UTM Low Speed wind tunnel facility (UTM-LST) on a half model generic transport aircraft at several configurations of primary control surfaces (flap, aileron and elevator). The objective is to measure the aerodynamic forces and moments due to the configuration changes. The study is carried out at two different speeds of 26.1 m/s and 43.1 m/s at corresponding Reynolds number of 1 × 106 and 2 × 106, respectively. Angle of attack of the model is varied between -2o to 20o. For the flaps, the deflection applied is 0o, 5o and 10o. Meanwhile, for aileron and elevator, the deflection applied is between -10o and 10o. The results show the differences in aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft at different control surfaces configurations. The results obtained indicate that a laminar separation bubble developed on the surface of the wing at lower angles of attack and show that the separation process is delayed when the Reynolds number is increased.

  18. Projection-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control of a Transport Aircraft for Heavyweight Airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Liu


    Full Text Available An autopilot inner loop that combines backstepping control with adaptive function approximation is developed for airdrop operations. The complex nonlinear uncertainty of the aircraft-cargo model is factorized into a known matrix and an uncertainty function, and a projection-based adaptive approach is proposed to estimate this function. Using projection in the adaptation law bounds the estimated function and guarantees the robustness of the controller against time-varying external disturbances and uncertainties. The convergence properties and robustness of the control method are proved via Lyapunov theory. Simulations are conducted under the condition that one transport aircraft performs a maximum load airdrop task at a height of 82 ft, using single row single platform mode. The results show good performance and robust operation of the controller, and the airdrop mission performance indexes are satisfied, even in the presence of ±15% uncertainty in the aerodynamic coefficients, ±0.01 rad/s pitch rate disturbance, and 20% actuators faults.

  19. A self-reorganizing digital flight control system for aircraft (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Caglayan, A. K.


    This paper presents a design method for digital self-reorganizing control systems which is optimally tolerant of failures in aircraft sensors. The functions of this system are accomplished with software instead of the popular and costly technique of hardware duplication. The theoretical development, based on M-ary hypothesis testing, results in a bank of M Kalman filters operating in parallel in the failure detection logic. A moving window of the innovations of each Kalman filter drives the detection logic to decide the failure state of the system. The detection logic also selects the optimal state estimate (for control logic) from the bank of Kalman filters. The design process is applied to the design of a self-reorganizing control system for a current configuration of the space shuttle orbiter at Mach 5 and 120,000 feet. The failure detection capabilities of the system are demonstrated using a real-time simulation of the system with noisy sensors.

  20. Episodes of Cross-Polar Transport in the Arctic Troposphere During July 2008 as Seen from Models, Satellite, and Aircraft Observations (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Pommier, M.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Stebel, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hair, J. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Schlager, H.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Stohl, A.


    During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2 5 July and 7 10 July 2008) occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications. Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are. The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the

  1. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations (United States)

    Sodemann, H.; Pommier, M.; Arnold, S. R.; Monks, S. A.; Stebel, K.; Burkhart, J. F.; Hair, J. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Schlager, H.; Blechschmidt, A.-M.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Stohl, A.


    During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2-5 July and 7-10 July 2008) occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications. Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are. The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight the

  2. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo


    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  3. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan


    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  4. Multi-level systems modeling and optimization for novel aircraft (United States)

    Subramanian, Shreyas Vathul

    This research combines the disciplines of system-of-systems (SoS) modeling, platform-based design, optimization and evolving design spaces to achieve a novel capability for designing solutions to key aeronautical mission challenges. A central innovation in this approach is the confluence of multi-level modeling (from sub-systems to the aircraft system to aeronautical system-of-systems) in a way that coordinates the appropriate problem formulations at each level and enables parametric search in design libraries for solutions that satisfy level-specific objectives. The work here addresses the topic of SoS optimization and discusses problem formulation, solution strategy, the need for new algorithms that address special features of this problem type, and also demonstrates these concepts using two example application problems - a surveillance UAV swarm problem, and the design of noise optimal aircraft and approach procedures. This topic is critical since most new capabilities in aeronautics will be provided not just by a single air vehicle, but by aeronautical Systems of Systems (SoS). At the same time, many new aircraft concepts are pressing the boundaries of cyber-physical complexity through the myriad of dynamic and adaptive sub-systems that are rising up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) scale. This compositional approach is envisioned to be active at three levels: validated sub-systems are integrated to form conceptual aircraft, which are further connected with others to perform a challenging mission capability at the SoS level. While these multiple levels represent layers of physical abstraction, each discipline is associated with tools of varying fidelity forming strata of 'analysis abstraction'. Further, the design (composition) will be guided by a suitable hierarchical complexity metric formulated for the management of complexity in both the problem (as part of the generative procedure and selection of fidelity level) and the product (i.e., is the mission

  5. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  6. Architecture Optimization of More Electric Aircraft Actuation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haitao; FU Yongling; QI Xiaoye; LANG Yan


    The optional types of power source and actuator in the aircraft are more and more diverse due to fast development in more electric technology,which makes the combinations of different power sources and actuators become extremely complex in the architecture optimization process of airborne actuation system.The traditional “trial and error” method cannot satisfy the design demands.In this paper,firstly,the composition of more electric aircraft(MEA) flight control actuation system(FCAS) is introduced,and the possible architecture quantity is calculated.Secondly,the evaluation criteria of FCAS architecture with respect to safe reliability,weight and efficiency are proposed,and the evaluation criteria values are calculated in the case that each control surface adopts the same actuator configuration.Finally,the optimization results of MEA FCAS architecture are obtained by applying genetic algorithm(GA).Compared to the traditional actuation system architecture,which only adopts servo valve controlled hydraulic actuators,the weight of the optimized more electric actuation system architecture can be reduced by 6%,and the efficiency can be improved by 30% based on the safe reliability requirements.

  7. Selected Aircraft Throttle Controller With Support Of Fuzzy Expert Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żurek Józef


    Full Text Available The paper describes Zlin 143Lsi aircraft engine work parameters control support method – hourly fuel flow as a main factor under consideration. The method concerns project of aircraft throttle control support system with use of fuzzy logic (fuzzy inference. The primary purpose of the system is aircraft performance optimization, reducing flight cost at the same time and support proper aircraft engine maintenance. Matlab Software and Fuzzy Logic Toolbox were used in the project. Work of the system is presented with use of twenty test samples, five of them are presented graphically. In addition, system control surface, included in the paper, supports system all work range analysis.

  8. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid turbo-electric aircraft with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors have the potential to transform the aircraft...

  9. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. In an...

  10. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that utilize superconducting motors to drive a number of distributed turbofans. Conventional...

  11. Navy’s Advanced Aircraft Armament System Program Concept Objectives (United States)


    growth. For the ground crew, the task complexity growth is even greater and the effects appear in downed aircraft and lower aircraft availabilty . To...aircraft or coaaercial usage . Many suppliers and high annual deaand rate - ; unliaitad opportunity coapetition. 12-15 Table 4 STANDARDIZATION

  12. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.


    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  13. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas


    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  14. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems (United States)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.


    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  15. The Effect of Reducing Cruise Altitude on the Topology and Emissions of a Commercial Transport Aircraft



    In recent years, research has been conducted for alternative commercial transonic aircraft design configurations, such as the strut- braced wing and the truss-braced wing aircraft designs, in order to improve aircraft performance and reduce the impact of aircraft emissions as compared to a typical cantilever wing design. Research performed by Virginia Tech in conjunction with NASA Langley Research Center shows that these alternative configurations result in 20% or more reduction in fuel...

  16. 75 FR 27273 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft (United States)


    ... component of that system in air transport, it should not fail except under extreme or highly abnormal... are confident that these enhancements to current regulatory requirements will result in a higher...

  17. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions. (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C


    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  18. Design of aircraft turbine fan drive gear transmission system (United States)

    Dent, E.; Hirsch, R. A.; Peterson, V. W.


    The following basic types of gear reduction concepts were studied as being feasible power train systems for a low-bypass-ratio, single-spool, geared turbofan engine for general aircraft use: (1) single-stage external-internal reduction, (2) gears (offset shafting), (3) multiple compound idler gear system (concentric shafting), and (4) star gear planetary system with internal ring gear final output member (concentric shafting-counterrotation). In addition, studies were made of taking the accessories drive power off both the high-speed and low-speed shafting, using either face gears or spiral bevel gears. Both antifriction and sleeve-type bearings were considered for the external-internal and star-planet reduction concepts.

  19. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen


    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...... data. The interpretation in the particle mode regime sheds light on the mechanisms for thermal conductivity in normal vitreous silica....

  20. An Aircraft Navigation System Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Optimized Neural Network Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-dedieu Weyepe


    Air data and inertial reference system (ADIRS) is one of the complex sub-system in the aircraft navigation system and it plays an important role into the flight safety of the aircraft. This paper propose an optimize neural network algorithm which is a combination of neural network and ant colony algorithm to improve efficiency of maintenance engineer job task.

  1. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer


    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  2. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research (United States)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry


    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  3. Role of convective transport on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet


    Full Text Available During the wet season of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA campaign, airborne measurements of several chemical species were made onboard the French Falcon-20 (FF20 aircraft. The scientific flights were planned in order to document, on one hand the regional distribution of trace gas species related to the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere, and on the other hand their spatial variability in the outflow of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs. The main objectives of this paper are the analysis of the main transport processes responsible for the observed variability, and the discussion of differences and similarities related to the convective transport by 4 different MCSs. This work is needed before using this data set for future studies of the convective transport of chemical species or for modeling work in the frame of the AMMA project. Regarding the regional distribution, five air masses types have been identified using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, and by considering relationship between the measured trace gas concentrations (O3, CO, NOx, H2O, and hydroperoxides. This paper specifically discusses the advantage of hydroperoxide measurements in order to document the impact of recent or aged convection. The highest values of O3 are found to be related to transport from the subtropical tropopause region into the mid-troposphere at latitudes as low as 10° N. The lowest ozone values have been always explained by recent uplifting from the monsoon layer where O3 is photochemically destroyed. Regarding the analysis of the MCS outflow, the CO and H2O2 enhancements are related to the age and the southernmost position of the MCS. The analysis of the long range transport of the air masses where convection occurred, shows a connection with the Persian Gulf emissions for the largest CO concentrations in MCS outflow. However for our

  4. Analysis of the consequences of aircraft manufacturers’ system integration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Lopes Guerra


    Full Text Available This is a theoretical-conceptual, which aimed to identify some likely consequences of the integration model systems that have been adopted in the aerospace industry by major aircraft manufacturers in the world. In the model of system integration, these manufacturers maintain internally the activities associated with their basic skills and transfer their skills to peripheral suppliers. We identified the following consequences: the growth of strategic alliances in the airline industry, the internationalization of aeronautical chains, with the strengthening of productive activities in some geographic regions; challenges related to the domestic supplier base and the consolidation of national chains, the greatest power suppliers of the first layer, the contribution to the dissemination of knowledge among supply chains, and the potential emergence of new competitors.

  5. System Convergence in Transport Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.


    level-of-service attributes (e.g., travel time and cost) offered to travellers. An important source of complexity is the congestion, which causes increasing demand to affect travel time in a non-linear way. Transport models most often involve separate models for traffic assignment and demand modelling......A fundamental premise of most applied transport models is the existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium solution that balances demand x(t) and supply t(x). The demand consists of the people that travel in the transport system and on the defined network, whereas the supply consists of the resulting...... iterating between a route-choice (demand) model and a time-flow (supply) model. It is generally recognised that a simple iteration scheme where the level-of-service level is fed directly to the route-choice and vice versa may exhibit an unstable pattern and lead to cyclic unstable solutions. It can be shown...

  6. Dynamics modeling and control of a transport aircraft for ultra-low altitude airdrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ri


    Full Text Available The nonlinear aircraft model with heavy cargo moving inside is derived by using the separation body method, which can describe the influence of the moving cargo on the aircraft attitude and altitude accurately. Furthermore, the nonlinear system is decoupled and linearized through the input–output feedback linearization method. On this basis, an iterative quasi-sliding mode (SM flight controller for speed and pitch angle control is proposed. At the first-level SM, a global dynamic switching function is introduced thus eliminating the reaching phase of the sliding motion. At the second-level SM, a nonlinear function with the property of “smaller errors correspond to bigger gains and bigger errors correspond to saturated gains” is designed to form an integral sliding manifold, and the overcompensation of the integral term to big errors is weakened. Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the controller with strong robustness can reject both constant and time-varying model uncertainties. The performance of the proposed control strategy is verified in a maximum load airdrop mission.

  7. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth


    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  8. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016 (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.


    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  9. European activities in civil applications of drones: an overview of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) (United States)

    Creutzburg, Reiner


    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of recent research, development and civil application of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) in Europe. It describes a European strategy for the development of civil applications of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) and reflects most of the contents of the European staff working document SWD(2012) 259 final.

  10. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz


    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  11. Multi-spectrum-based enhanced synthetic vision system for aircraft DVE operations (United States)

    Kashyap, Sudesh K.; Naidu, V. P. S.; Shanthakumar, N.


    This paper focus on R&D being carried out at CSIR-NAL on Enhanced Synthetic Vision System (ESVS) for Indian regional transport aircraft to enhance all weather operational capabilities with safety and pilot Situation Awareness (SA) improvements. Flight simulator has been developed to study ESVS related technologies and to develop ESVS operational concepts for all weather approach and landing and to provide quantitative and qualitative information that could be used to develop criteria for all-weather approach and landing at regional airports in India. Enhanced Vision System (EVS) hardware prototype with long wave Infrared sensor and low light CMOS camera is used to carry out few field trials on ground vehicle at airport runway at different visibility conditions. Data acquisition and playback system has been developed to capture EVS sensor data (image) in time synch with test vehicle inertial navigation data during EVS field experiments and to playback the experimental data on ESVS flight simulator for ESVS research and concept studies. Efforts are on to conduct EVS flight experiments on CSIR-NAL research aircraft HANSA in Degraded Visual Environment (DVE).

  12. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010 (United States)


    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  13. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.


    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  14. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design (United States)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.


    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  15. Integrated Network of Optimizations for Aircraft Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  16. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms for many aircraft subsystems are steadily maturing. Unfortunately there is little experience integrating these technologies into...

  17. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.


    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  18. Experimental studies of thermal environment and contaminant transport in a commercial aircraft cabin with gaspers on. (United States)

    Li, B; Duan, R; Li, J; Huang, Y; Yin, H; Lin, C-H; Wei, D; Shen, X; Liu, J; Chen, Q


    Gaspers installed in commercial airliner cabins are used to improve passengers' thermal comfort. To understand the impact of gasper airflow on the air quality in a cabin, this investigation measured the distributions of air velocity, air temperature, and gaseous contaminant concentration in five rows of the economy-class section of an MD-82 commercial aircraft. The gaseous contaminant was simulated using SF6 as a tracer gas with the source located at the mouth of a seated manikin close to the aisle. Two-fifths of the gaspers next to the aisle were turned on in the cabin, and each of them supplied air at a flow rate of 0.66 l/s. The airflow rate in the economy-class cabin was controlled at 10 l/s per passenger. Data obtained in a previous study of the cabin with all gaspers turned off were used for comparison. The results show that the jets from the gaspers had a substantial impact on the air velocity and contaminant transport in the cabin. The air velocity in the cabin was higher, and the air temperature slightly more uniform, when the gaspers were on than when they were off, but turning on the gaspers may not have improved the air quality.

  19. The NASA-Langley Wake Vortex Modelling Effort in Support of an Operational Aircraft Spacing System (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.


    Two numerical modelling efforts, one using a large eddy simulation model and the other a numerical weather prediction model, are underway in support of NASA's Terminal Area Productivity program. The large-eddy simulation model (LES) has a meteorological framework and permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, humidity, and atmospheric turbulence. Results from the numerical simulations are being used to assist in the development of algorithms for an operational wake-vortex aircraft spacing system. A mesoscale weather forecast model is being adapted for providing operational forecast of winds, temperature, and turbulence parameters to be used in the terminal area. This paper describes the goals and modelling approach, as well as achievements obtained to date. Simulation results will be presented from the LES model for both two and three dimensions. The 2-D model is found to be generally valid for studying wake vortex transport, while the 3-D approach is necessary for realistic treatment of decay via interaction of wake vortices and atmospheric boundary layer turbulence. Meteorology is shown to have an important affect on vortex transport and decay. Presented are results showing that wake vortex transport is unaffected by uniform fog or rain, but wake vortex transport can be strongly affected by nonlinear vertical change in the ambient crosswind. Both simulation and observations show that atmospheric vortices decay from the outside with minimal expansion of the core. Vortex decay and the onset three-dimensional instabilities are found to be enhanced by the presence of ambient turbulence.

  20. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for commuter aircraft (United States)

    Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J. D.; Downing, D. R.


    Commuter aircraft typically have low wing loadings, and fly at low altitudes, and so they are susceptible to undesirable accelerations caused by random atmospheric turbulence. Larger commercial aircraft typically have higher wing loadings and fly at altitudes where the turbulence level is lower, and so they provide smoother rides. This project was initiated based on the goal of making the ride of the commuter aircraft as smooth as the ride experienced on the major commercial airliners. The objectives of this project were to design a digital, longitudinal mode ride quality augmentation system (RQAS) for a commuter aircraft, and to investigate the effect of selected parameters on those designs.

  1. Aircraft Alerting Systems Criteria Study. Volume II. Human Factors Guidelines for Aircraft Alerting Systems (United States)


    Amelang, Manfred and Lasogga, Frank, What Effect Does the Warning of Reactions Have on the Reaction Time, N74-31584. Scientific Translation Service, Santa...on Binaural Hearing in Noise, Translations Beltone Institute Rearing Research, No. 18, 196S, 42 p. Ferrarese, J. A., Flight Monitoring and Analysis...Instrument Landing System, (In German with English abstract), Dtsch Luft Raumfahrt.Mitt, 74-03, 1974, pp. 86-96. Henneman , R. H., and Long, E. R., A

  2. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.


    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  3. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann


    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART, the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT, and for numerical aspects the limited-area chemical transport model WRF-Chem. Retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite are used as a total column CO reference for the two simulations. Main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian models. Aircraft data suggest that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT and WRF-Chem are biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO fields, the results also highlight

  4. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.


    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  5. A Radio System for Avoiding Illuminating Aircraft with a Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, W A; Melser, J F; Tu, J K; White, G A; Kassabian, K H; Bales, K; Baumgartner, B B


    When scientific experiments require transmission of powerful laser or radio beams through the atmosphere the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that precautions be taken to avoid inadvertent illumination of aircraft. Here we describe a highly reliable system for detecting aircraft entering the vicinity of a laser beam by making use of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponders required on most aircraft. This system uses two antennas, both aligned with the laser beam. One antenna has a broad beam and the other has a narrow beam. The ratio of the transponder power received in the narrow beam to that received in the broad beam gives a measure of the angular distance of the aircraft from the axis that is independent of the range or the transmitter power. This ratio is easily measured and can be used to shutter the laser when the aircraft is too close to the beam. Prototype systems operating on astronomical telescopes have produced good results.

  6. Single Neuron PID Control of Aircraft Deicing Fluids Rapid Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen


    Full Text Available Aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system is widely used in aircraft ground deicing to ensure that the operation of flights can be safe and efficient. Aiming at the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing system, this paper presents the single neuron PID control strategy which combine the advantage of conventional PID control with artificial neuron control. The aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system and the scheme and working principle of the system is introduced. Simulation is executed on the basis of the mathematical model of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system, which is built in this paper, according to a number of data collected by experiments which are operated on the experimental platform of deicing fluids rapid heating system. The simulation results show that the single neuron PID control strategy perform effectively on the temperature turbulence problem of aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system. Experiments are conducted to vertify the single neuron PID control strategy, the results of which show that the single neuron PID control strategy can achieve the request in practical application of the aircraft deicing fluids rapid heating system.

  7. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft (United States)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.


    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.

  8. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over Systems Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling (United States)


    Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling Prior to February 2016, the Navy had planned to...pages in the publication and whether the publication is printed in color or black and white . Pricing and ordering information is posted on GAO’s

  9. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements (United States)

    Henriksen, Steve


    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  10. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  11. Research on advanced transportation systems (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka


    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  12. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Feng; Li Yan; Tang Tian-Jin


    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects.Considering the imaging performance,flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows.For aircrafts operating at high speeds,the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic,but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes.The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with,respectively,a fiat window,a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared.Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard,aerodynamic drag,narcissus effect,and imaging performance,so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application.

  13. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.


    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  14. Episodes of cross-polar transport in the Arctic troposphere during July 2008 as seen from models, satellite, and aircraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sodemann


    Full Text Available During the POLARCAT summer campaign in 2008, two episodes (2–5 July and 7–10 July 2008 occurred where low-pressure systems traveled from Siberia across the Arctic Ocean towards the North Pole. The two cyclones had extensive smoke plumes from Siberian forest fires and anthropogenic sources in East Asia embedded in their associated air masses, creating an excellent opportunity to use satellite and aircraft observations to validate the performance of atmospheric transport models in the Arctic, which is a challenging model domain due to numerical and other complications.

    Here we compare transport simulations of carbon monoxide (CO from the Lagrangian transport model FLEXPART and the Eulerian chemical transport model TOMCAT with retrievals of total column CO from the IASI passive infrared sensor onboard the MetOp-A satellite. The main aspect of the comparison is how realistic horizontal and vertical structures are represented in the model simulations. Analysis of CALIPSO lidar curtains and in situ aircraft measurements provide further independent reference points to assess how reliable the model simulations are and what the main limitations are.

    The horizontal structure of mid-latitude pollution plumes agrees well between the IASI total column CO and the model simulations. However, finer-scale structures are too quickly diffused in the Eulerian model. Applying the IASI averaging kernels to the model data is essential for a meaningful comparison. Using aircraft data as a reference suggests that the satellite data are biased high, while TOMCAT is biased low. FLEXPART fits the aircraft data rather well, but due to added background concentrations the simulation is not independent from observations. The multi-data, multi-model approach allows separating the influences of meteorological fields, model realisation, and grid type on the plume structure. In addition to the very good agreement between simulated and observed total column CO

  15. A Systems Engineering Methodology for the Advanced Tactical Aircraft. (United States)


    became apparent that this aircraft was not compatable with Hauy requirements, a new platforn was required. This integration and development effort...Reuiew, U. 1. No. 4, Autunn 1977. 31. Hall, U. 0., " Hauy Aduances RTA Start, [ulls fl-GE Upgrade Retrofit," Rerospace Daily, U. 129, p. 161, 2 October...1984. 32. " Hauy Explores Heu Subsonic Attack Aircraft to Replace A-6,’" Nuiation Meek a Space Technoloo, p. 28, 22 April 1985. 33. Dornhein 11. N

  16. The NATO Unmanned Aircraft System Human Systems Integration Guidebook (United States)


    High level indicators of where human system interactions may occur • Textual descriptions of the overall human component of the system • Use cases...for specific team tasks  Type of interaction – i.e., collaborate, coordinate, supervise, etc.  Team cohesiveness indicators – i.e., trust

  17. Application of wireless sensor networks to aircraft control and health management systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rama; K.; YEDAVALLI; Rohit; K.; BELAPURKAR


    Use of fly-by-wire technology for aircraft flight controls have resulted in an improved performance and reliability along with achieving reduction in control system weight. Implementation of full authority digital engine control has also resulted in more intelligent, reliable, light-weight aircraft engine control systems. Greater reduction in weight can be achieved by replacing the wire harness with a wireless communication network. The first step towards fly-by-wireless control systems is likely to be the ...

  18. A Parametrical Transport Aircraft Fuselage Model for Preliminary Sizing and Beyond


    Schwinn, Dominik; Kohlgrüber, Dieter; Scherer, Julian; Siemann, Martin


    Aircraft design generally comprises three consecutive phases: Conceptual, preliminary and detailed design phase. The preliminary design phase is of particular interest as the basic layout of the primary structure is defined. Up to date, semi-analytical methods are widely used in this design stage to estimate the structural mass. Although these methods lead to adequate results for the major aircraft components of standard configurations, the evaluation of new configurations (e.g. box wing, ble...

  19. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  20. The NASA aircraft noise prediction program improved propeller analysis system (United States)

    Nguyen, L. Cathy


    The improvements and the modifications of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and the Propeller Analysis System (PAS) are described. Comparisons of the predictions and the test data are included in the case studies for the flat plate model in the Boundary Layer Module, for the effects of applying compressibility corrections to the lift and pressure coefficients, for the use of different weight factors in the Propeller Performance Module, for the use of the improved retarded time equation solution, and for the effect of the number grids in the Transonic Propeller Noise Module. The DNW tunnel test data of a propeller at different angles of attack and the Dowty Rotol data are compared with ANOPP predictions. The effect of the number of grids on the Transonic Propeller Noise Module predictions and the comparison of ANOPP TPN and DFP-ATP codes are studied. In addition to the above impact studies, the transonic propeller noise predictions for the SR-7, the UDF front rotor, and the support of the enroute noise test program are included.

  1. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances) (United States)


    son acheminement vers le convertisseur embarque, ainsi que la plus grande fiabilite de 1’OBOGS compare aux systemes ä oxygene liquide traditionnels...Standardisation Coordination Committee. Minimum Physiological Requirements for Aircrew Demand Breathing Systems. Air Standard 61/101/6A, Washington DC ...Washington DC 1981. 5. Ernsting J, and Stewart WK, Introduction to Oxygen Deprivation at Reduced Barometric Pressure in: Gilles JA, Ed., A Textbook of

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Monitoring Department of the Interior Lands (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.; Quirk, B.


    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology is quickly evolving and will have a significant impact on Earth science research. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an operational test and evaluation of UAS to see how this technology supports the mission of the Department of the Interior (DOI). Over the last 4 years, the USGS, working with many partners, has been actively conducting proof of concept UAS operations, which are designed to evaluate the potential of UAS technology to support the mandated DOI scientific, resource and land management missions. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyze the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management and law enforcement missions. Using small UAS (sUAS), the USGS is able to tailor solutions to meet project requirements by obtaining very high resolution video data, acquiring thermal imagery, detecting chemical plumes, and generating digital terrain models at a fraction of the cost of conventional surveying methods. UAS technology is providing a mechanism to collect timely remote sensing data at a low cost and at low risk over DOI lands that can be difficult to monitor and consequently enhances our ability to provide unbiased scientific information to better enable decision makers to make informed decisions. This presentation describes the UAS technology and infrastructure being employed, the application projects already accomplished, lessons learned and future of UAS within the DOI. We fully expect that by 2020 UAS will emerge as a primary platform for all DOI remote sensing applications. Much like the use of Internet technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), UAS have the potential of enabling the DOI to be better stewards of the land.

  3. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan


    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  4. Non-Parametric, Closed-Loop Testing of Autonomy in Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I program aims to develop new methods to support safety testing for integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace (NAS) with...

  5. 76 FR 75565 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Meeting....

  6. 78 FR 25100 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting....

  7. Development of Novel, Optically-Based Instrumentation for Aircraft System Testing and Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact, robust, optically-based sensor for making temperature and multi-species concentration measurements in aircraft system ground and...

  8. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For electric propulsion systems for large aircraft it is desirable to have very light weight electric motors. Cryogenic motors offer much lighter weight than...

  9. 78 FR 38076 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems... of the Aeronautics Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. The meeting will be held for the purpose... and Space Administration Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-1578, or...

  10. Multi-body dynamic system simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yangang; Wang Weijun; Qu Xiangju


    The flight safety is threatened by the special flight conditions and the low speed of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The aircraft carrier motion,aircraft dynamics,landing gears and wind field of sea state are comprehensively considered to dispose this multidiscipline intersection problem.According to the particular naval operating environment of the carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff,the integrated dynamic simulation models of multi-body system are developed,which involves the movement entities of the carrier,the aircraft and the landing gears,and involves takeoff instruction,control system and the deck wind disturbance.Based on Matlab/Simulink environment,the multi-body system simulation is realized.The validity of the model and the rationality of the result are verified by an example simulation of carrier-based aircraft ski-jump takeoff.The simulation model and the software are suitable for the study of the multidiscipline intersection problems which are involved in the performance,flight quality and safety of carrier-based aircraft takeoff,the effects of landing gear loads,parameters of carrier deck,etc.

  11. Classical transport in disordered systems (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  12. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław


    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  13. Progress of Aircraft System Noise Assessment with Uncertainty Quantification for the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (United States)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping


    Aircraft system noise predictions have been performed for NASA modeled hybrid wing body aircraft advanced concepts with 2025 entry-into-service technology assumptions. The system noise predictions developed over a period from 2009 to 2016 as a result of improved modeling of the aircraft concepts, design changes, technology development, flight path modeling, and the use of extensive integrated system level experimental data. In addition, the system noise prediction models and process have been improved in many ways. An additional process is developed here for quantifying the uncertainty with a 95% confidence level. This uncertainty applies only to the aircraft system noise prediction process. For three points in time during this period, the vehicle designs, technologies, and noise prediction process are documented. For each of the three predictions, and with the information available at each of those points in time, the uncertainty is quantified using the direct Monte Carlo method with 10,000 simulations. For the prediction of cumulative noise of an advanced aircraft at the conceptual level of design, the total uncertainty band has been reduced from 12.2 to 9.6 EPNL dB. A value of 3.6 EPNL dB is proposed as the lower limit of uncertainty possible for the cumulative system noise prediction of an advanced aircraft concept.

  14. Real-time monitoring system of composite aircraft wings utilizing Fibre Bragg Grating sensor (United States)

    Vorathin, E.; Hafizi, Z. M.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Lim, K. S.


    Embedment of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in composite aircraft wings leads to the advancement of structural condition monitoring. The monitored aircraft wings have the capability to give real-time response under critical loading circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to develop a real-time FBG monitoring system for composite aircraft wings to view real-time changes when the structure undergoes some static loadings and dynamic impact. The implementation of matched edge filter FBG interrogation system to convert wavelength variations to strain readings shows that the structure is able to response instantly in real-time when undergoing few loadings and dynamic impact. This smart monitoring system is capable of updating the changes instantly in real-time and shows the weight induced on the composite aircraft wings instantly without any error. It also has a good agreement with acoustic emission (AE) sensor in the dynamic test.

  15. A Criterion Based on Closed-loop Pilot-aircraft Systems for Predicting Flying Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Wenqian; A.V.Efremov; Qu Xiangju


    During the process of aircraft design,the mathematical model of pilot control behavior characteristics is always used to predict aircraft flying qualities (FQ).This is one of the important methods to avoid pilot-aircraft adverse coupling.In order to study the FQ criterion based on closedloop pilotaircraft systems,first,an experimental database is built,which includes 40 aircraft dynamics configurations and the corresponding flight simulation results.Second,the mathematical pilot models with a set of different aircraft configurations are obtained by this experimental database.Then,two FQ criteria,NealSmith criterion and Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) criterion,are analyzed.And the relationship between the FQ level evaluated by actual pilot and the parameters of closedloop pilotaircraft systems is studied.Finally,an improved criterion of aircraft FQ is built based on the above two criteria.This new criterion is further used to predict FQ for four new aircraft dynamics configurations,and the prediction results verify its accuracy and practicability.

  16. Electromagnetic launch systems for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertola Luca


    Full Text Available This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA.

  17. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2 (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis


    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  18. 14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft... (United States)


    ...; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. Link to an amendment..., special class of aircraft, or an aircraft engine or propeller, if— (a) The product qualifies under §...

  19. Transport Efficiency of Gas-jet Tape Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WandXudong; MaRuichang; XieYuanxiang; XingYebin; XuShuwei; LiZhankui


    The Gas-jet Tape Transport System (GTTS) was used in several on-line experiments. The transport efficiency of GTTS was studied with three different inorganic salts, PbI2, PbC12 and NaC1, by using a 252 Cf source. The fission fragments of 252Cf were transported and collected by the GTTS before measurement. Nitrogen gas was used as a substitute of cxpensive Helium gas, in consideration of longer stopping range of fragments. The fragments were also directly collected on Aluminum foils with thickness of 50μm for original yield measurement.

  20. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.


    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  1. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.


    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  2. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transportation system (United States)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggests and researches one of his methods of flights to outer Space, described in book "Non Rocket Flights in Space", which is prepared and offered for publication. In given report the method and facilities named "Bolonkin Transport System" (BTS) for delivering of payload and people to Moon and back is presented. BTS can be used also for free trip to outer Space up at altitude 60,000 km and more. BTS can be applying as a trust system for atmospheric supersonic aircrafts, and as a free energy source. This method uses, in general, the rotary and kinetic energy of the Moon. The manuscript contains the theory and results of computation of special Project. This project uses three cables (main and two for driving of loads) from artificial material: fiber, whiskers, nanotubes, with the specific tensile strength (ratio the tensile stress to density) k=/=4*10^7 or more. The nanotubes with same and better parameters are received in scientific laboratories. Theoretical limit of nanotubes SWNT is about k=100*10^7. The upper end of the cable is connected to the Moon. The lower end of the cable is connected to an aircraft (or buoy), which flies (i.e. glides or slides) in Earth atmosphere along the planet's surface. The aircraft (and Moon) has devices, which allows the length of cables to be changed. The device would consists of a spool, motor, brake, transmission, and controller. The facility could have devices for delivering people and payloads t o the Moon and back using the suggested Transport System. The delivery devices include: containers, cables, motors, brakes, and controllers. If the aircraft is small and the cable is strong the motion of the Moon can be used to move the airplane. For example (see enclosed project), if the airplane weighs 15 tons and has an aerodynamic ratio (the lift force to the drag force) equal 5, a thrust of 3000 kg would be enough for the aircraft to fly for infinity without requiring any fuel. The aircraft could use a small turbine engine

  3. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft (United States)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James


    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  4. A survey on electromagnetic interferences on aircraft avionics systems and a GSM on board system overview (United States)

    Vinto, Natale; Tropea, Mauro; Fazio, Peppino; Voznak, Miroslav


    Recent years have been characterized by an increase in the air traffic. More attention over micro-economic and macroeconomic indexes would be strategic to gather and enhance the safety of a flight and customer needing, for communicating by wireless handhelds on-board aircrafts. Thus, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed a GSM On Board (GSMOBA) system as a possible solution, allowing mobile terminals to communicate through GSM system on aircraft, avoiding electromagnetic interferences with radio components aboard. The main issues are directly related with interferences that could spring-out when mobile terminals attempt to connect to ground BTS, from the airplane. This kind of system is able to resolve the problem in terms of conformance of Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) limits, defined outside the aircraft, by using an On board BTS (OBTS) and modeling the relevant key RF parameters on the air. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of literature and previous studies about the problem, giving also a good detail of technical and normative references.

  5. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth


    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data have been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  6. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.


    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Power Distribution System in More Electric Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangang Yang


    Full Text Available The More Electric Aircraft concept is a fast-developing trend in modern aircraft industry. With this new concept, the performance of the aircraft can be further optimized and meanwhile the operating and maintenance cost will be decreased effectively. In order to optimize the power system integrity and have the ability to investigate the performance of the overall system in any possible situations, one accurate simulation model of the aircraft power system will be very helpful and necessary. This paper mainly introduces a method to build a simulation model for the power distribution system, which is based on detailed component models. The power distribution system model consists of power generation unit, transformer rectifier unit, DC-DC converter unit, and DC-AC inverter unit. In order to optimize the performance of the power distribution system and improve the quality of the distributed power, a feedback control network is designed based on the characteristics of the power distribution system. The simulation result indicates that this new simulation model is well designed and it works accurately. Moreover, steady state performance and transient state performance of the model can fulfill the requirements of aircraft power distribution system in the realistic application.

  8. Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project (United States)

    Diehl, J. J.


    The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

  9. Sistema de encendido para motores de aviación - Ignition system for aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual


    Full Text Available On May 7, 1934 José López Salmeron and Gaspar Serrano Esteve recorded their patent "ignition system for aircraft engines, automobiles and the like". A patent which was in a double ignition system Magneto-Delco, a condition that made ​​it perfect for aircraft engines, as it met the safety requirement to be a redundant ignition system, as if a failed ignition system was always the possibility that the other system functioned alternative. It analyzes the historical context of Spain in the early twentieth century and a brief history Spanish automotive

  10. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  11. Developments in silicon carbide for aircraft propulsion system applications (United States)

    Przybylko, Stephen J.


    The physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide make it the foremost semiconductor material for high-temperature, radiation-resistant, and high-power electronic devices. These attributes make SiC particularly suitable for application to aircraft engines. Recent proof-of-concept efforts have verified SiC's potential. Field-effect transistors have shown high-temperature operating capability from 350 C to 650 C. JFETs, MOSFETs, and MESFETs have been fabricated. Ultraviolet photodiodes with high quantum efficiencies and extremely low dark currents have been fabricated and tested. Blue light-emitting diodes are for sale in production quantities as are one-inch diameter wafers. These developments have established a sufficient level of confidence to pursue the development of devices for aircraft-engine applications.

  12. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power (United States)


    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  13. MQ-9 Reaper Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-9 Reaper) (United States)


    Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense...Milestone C ACAT II Block 1 FEB 2008 FEB 2008 FEB 2008 FEB 2008 IOT &E for Block 1 MAY 2008 MAY 2008 MAY 2008 MAY 2008 RAA SEP 2010 JUN 2012 JUN 2012 JUN...Control Station IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation PMAI - Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory PO - Program Office RAA - Required Assets

  14. Application of Powered High Lift Systems to STOL Aircraft Design. (United States)


    performance of the S-3A VIKING aircraft was performed. 00 1403 smvw or I Nov ba to NDE ~uv (page 1) 9/34T ases-ea orf iI pil WinR? I=10C I.7 * - -ONE t...D. E. Wilcox and J. A. Cochrane, Tune 1979. 4-4 "QSRA Delivered to Research Center", Aviation Week & Space Technology, Vol. 109, No. 7, p. 20, 14

  15. A review and update of the NASA aircraft noise prediction program propeller analysis system (United States)

    Golub, Robert A.; Nguyen, L. Cathy


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) Propeller Analysis System (PAS) is a set of computational modules for predicting the aerodynamics, performance, and noise of propellers. The ANOPP PAS has the capability to predict noise levels for propeller aircraft certification and produce parametric scaling laws for the adjustment of measured data to reference conditions. A technical overview of the prediction techniques incorporated into the system is presented. The prediction system has been applied to predict the noise signature of a variety of propeller configurations including the effects of propeller angle of attack. A summary of these validation studies is discussed with emphasis being placed on the wind tunnel and flight test programs sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the Piper Cherokee Lance aircraft. A number of modifications and improvements have been made to the system and both DEC VAX and IBM-PC versions of the system have been added to the original CDC NOS version.

  16. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael;


    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the application...... system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....

  17. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.


    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  18. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodies commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 9 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The fairings have accumulated a total of 70,000 hours, with one ship set having over 24,000 hours service. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  19. Unmanned Carrier-based Aircraft System: Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its Requirements and Available Resources (United States)


    UNMANNED CARRIER -BASED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its Requirements and Available...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Carrier -based Aircraft System: Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its...UNMANNED CARRIER -BASED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM Navy Needs to Demonstrate Match between Its Requirements and Available Resources Why GAO Did This Study The

  20. Mountain Search and Rescue with Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Silvagni, Mario; Tonoli, Andrea; Zenerino, Enrico; Chiaberge, Marcello


    Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) also known as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are nowadays becoming more and more popular in several applications. Even though a complete regulation is not yet available all over the world, researches, tests and some real case applications are wide spreading. These technologies can bring many benefits also to the mountain operations especially in emergencies and harsh environmental conditions, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) and avalanche rescue missions. In fact, during last decade, the number of people practicing winter sports in backcountry environment is increased and one of the greatest hazards for recreationists and professionals are avalanches. Often these accidents have severe consequences leading, mostly, to asphyxia-related death, which is confirmed by the hard drop of survival probability after ten minutes from the burying. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the time of burial. Modern avalanche beacon (ARTVA) interface guides the rescuer during the search phase reducing its time. Even if modern avalanche beacons are valid and reliable, the seeking range influences the rescue time. Furthermore, the environment and morphologic conditions of avalanches usually complicates the rescues. The recursive methodology of this kind of searching offers the opportunity to use automatic device like drones (RPAS). These systems allow performing all the required tasks autonomously, with high accuracy and without exposing the rescuers to additional risks due to secondary avalanches. The availability of highly integrated electronics and subsystems specifically meant for the applications, better batteries, miniaturized payload and, in general, affordable prices, has led to the availability of small RPAS with very good performances that can give interesting application opportunities in unconventional environments. The present work is one of the outcome from the experience made by the authors in RPAS fields and in Mechatronics

  1. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. van Donkelaar


    Full Text Available We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April–May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS for 2000–2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800–600 hPa, with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500–900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72–85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30% and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by

  2. Assimilating aircraft-based measurements to improve forecast accuracy of volcanic ash transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Lin, H.X.; Heemink, A.W.; Segers, A.J.; Lu, S.; Palsson, T.


    The 2010 Eyjafjallajokull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash transport forecast in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs

  3. Assimilating aircraft-based measurements to improve forecast accuracy of volcanic ash transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, G.; Lin, H.X.; Heemink, A.W.; Segers, A.J.; Lu, S.; Palsson, T.


    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption had serious consequences to civil aviation. This has initiated a lot of research on volcanic ash transport forecast in recent years. For forecasting the volcanic ash transport after eruption onset, a volcanic ash transport and diffusion model (VATDM) needs

  4. Emerging Applications for Cyber Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌旭; 侯云飞; 徐宏力; 黄刘生; 李旭; 乔春明; 张龙飞


    Recent advances in connected vehicles and autonomous driving are going to change the face of ground trans-portation as we know it. This paper describes the design and evaluation of several emerging applications for such a cyber transportation system (CTS). These applications have been designed using holistic approaches, which consider the unique roles played by the human drivers, the transportation system, and the communication network. They can improve driver safety and provide on-road infotainment. They can also improve transportation operations and efficiency, thereby benefiting travelers and attracting investment from both government agencies and private businesses to deploy infrastructures and bootstrap the evolutionary process of CTS.

  5. Aircraft conceptual design modelling incorporating reliability and maintainability predictions


    Vaziry-Zanjany , Mohammad Ali (F)


    A computer assisted conceptual aircraft design program has been developed (CACAD). It has an optimisation capability, with extensive break-down in maintenance costs. CACAD's aim is to optimise the size, and configurations of turbofan-powered transport aircraft. A methodology was developed to enhance the reliability of current aircraft systems, and was applied to avionics systems. R&M models of thermal management were developed and linked with avionics failure rate and its ma...

  6. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts (United States)


    ... Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. The existing AD... Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 57, Wings....

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014 (United States)

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.


    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting the natural resources and heritage contained on almost 20 percent of the land in the United States. This responsibility requires acquisition of remotely sensed data throughout vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. One promising new technology for data collection is unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), which may be better suited (achieving superior science, safety, and savings) than traditional methods. UAS, regardless of their size, have the same operational components: aircraft, payloads, communications unit, and operator control unit. The aircraft is the platform that flies and carries any required payloads. For Department of the Interior missions these payloads will be either a sensor or set of sensors that can acquire the specific type of remotely sensed data that is needed. The aircraft will also carry the payload that is responsible for transmitting live airborne video images, compass headings, and location information to the operator control unit. The communications unit, which transfers information between the aircraft and the operator control unit, consists of the hardware and software required to establish both uplink and downlink communications. Finally, the operator control unit both controls and monitors the aircraft and can be operated either by a pilot on the ground or autonomously.

  8. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per


    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...... system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider the long term goal. In a short term proposal for 2030 it is concluded that it is possible both to reduce CO2 emissions substantially and, at the same time, gain socio-economic benefits. Biofuels is not able to solve...

  9. Analysis of the Hybrid Power System for High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun


    Full Text Available The application of single solar array on high-altitude unmanned aircraft will waste energy because of its low conversion efficiency. Furthermore, since its energy utilization is limited, the surface temperature of solar array will rise to 70°C due to the waste solar energy, thus reducing the electrical performance of the solar array. In order to reuse the energy converted into heat by solar array, a hybrid power system is presented in this paper. In the hybrid power system, a new electricity-generating method is adopted to spread the photovoltaic cell on the wing surface and arrange photothermal power in the wing box section. Because the temperature on the back of photovoltaic cell is high, it can be used as the high-temperature heat source. The lower wing surface can be a low-temperature cold source. A high-altitude unmanned aircraft was used to analyze the performances of pure solar-powered aircraft and hybrid powered aircraft. The analysis result showed that the hybrid system could reduce the area of wing by 19% and that high-altitude unmanned aircraft with a 35 m or less wingspan could raise the utilization rate of solar energy per unit area after adopting the hybrid power system.

  10. Advanced Aircraft Electrical System (AAES). Definition and Prototype Design for F-14 Aircraft (GPMS) (United States)


    system BIRAM Bit input random access memory BL Butt line BRG Braking BT Bus tie CADC Central air data computer C&A Caution & Advisory CB Circuit breaker ...only memory PMS Phoenix Missile System QAD Quick assembly disconnect RAM Random access memory RCCB Remote controlled circuit breaker RDC Right main dc...display HVDC High voltage dc vii ICS Intercommunication system IDENT Identification IDG Integrated drive generator IFF Identification friend or foe IFU

  11. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft (United States)

    Zavala, Eddie


    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  12. The acoustics of aircraft engine-duct systems (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kaiser, J. E.; Telionis, D. P.


    Noise generated in aircraft engines is usually suppressed by acoustically treating the engine ducts. The optimization of this treatment requires an understanding of the transmission and attenuation of the acoustic waves. A critical review is presented of the state of the art regarding methods of determining the transmission and attenuation parameters and the effect on these parameters of (1) acoustic properties of liners, (2) the mean velocity, including uniform and shear profiles and nonparallel flow, (3) axial and transverse temperature gradients, (4) slowly and abruptly varying cross sections, and (5) finite-amplitude waves and nonlinear duct liners.

  13. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance (United States)


    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  14. MQ-9 Reaper Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-9 Reaper) (United States)


    and Contractor Logistics Support (CLS). Spain 12/21/2015 0 5.8 FMS case SP-D- GAI provides funding for studies and site surveys for airworthiness...France 12/7/2015 0 5.7 FMS case FR-D- GAI provides funding for technical assistance support of the MQ-9 Reaper Block 5 aircraft, for Tech Assistance...64.1 FMS case UK-D- GAY provides funding for CLS. Netherlands 9/30/2014 0 3.1 FMS case NE-D-GAO provides funding for airworthiness certification as

  15. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N


    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  16. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin. (United States)

    Isukapalli, Sastry S; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P


    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  17. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying


    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  18. Diffusive gas transport through flooded rice systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Groot, T.; Hout, van de B.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.


    A fully mechanistic model based on diffusion equations for gas transport in a flooded rice system is presented. The model has transport descriptions for various compartments in the water-saturated soil and within the plant. Plant parameters were estimated from published data and experiments independ

  19. Tankering Fuel on U.S. Air Force Transport Aircraft: An Assessment of Cost Savings (United States)


    fuel use accounts for a large proportion of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) total petroleum use—about 50 percent according to a 2012 analysis aircraft (more than is required for the flight) when traveling from origins where jet fuel is less expensive than at the destination and is a...spending on petroleum rose 381 percent between fiscal year (FY) 2005 and FY 2011—even though its petroleum use decreased 4 percent over the same period

  20. Analysis of Complexity Evolution Management and Human Performance Issues in Commercial Aircraft Automation Systems (United States)

    Vakil, Sanjay S.; Hansman, R. John


    Autoflight systems in the current generation of aircraft have been implicated in several recent incidents and accidents. A contributory aspect to these incidents may be the manner in which aircraft transition between differing behaviours or 'modes.' The current state of aircraft automation was investigated and the incremental development of the autoflight system was tracked through a set of aircraft to gain insight into how these systems developed. This process appears to have resulted in a system without a consistent global representation. In order to evaluate and examine autoflight systems, a 'Hybrid Automation Representation' (HAR) was developed. This representation was used to examine several specific problems known to exist in aircraft systems. Cyclomatic complexity is an analysis tool from computer science which counts the number of linearly independent paths through a program graph. This approach was extended to examine autoflight mode transitions modelled with the HAR. A survey was conducted of pilots to identify those autoflight mode transitions which airline pilots find difficult. The transitions identified in this survey were analyzed using cyclomatic complexity to gain insight into the apparent complexity of the autoflight system from the perspective of the pilot. Mode transitions which had been identified as complex by pilots were found to have a high cyclomatic complexity. Further examination was made into a set of specific problems identified in aircraft: the lack of a consistent representation of automation, concern regarding appropriate feedback from the automation, and the implications of physical limitations on the autoflight systems. Mode transitions involved in changing to and leveling at a new altitude were identified across multiple aircraft by numerous pilots. Where possible, evaluation and verification of the behaviour of these autoflight mode transitions was investigated via aircraft-specific high fidelity simulators. Three solution

  1. Insect vision based collision avoidance system for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (United States)

    Jaenisch, Holger; Handley, James; Bevilacqua, Andrew


    Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) are designed to operate in many of the same areas as manned aircraft; however, the limited instantaneous field of regard (FOR) that RPA pilots have limits their ability to react quickly to nearby objects. This increases the danger of mid-air collisions and limits the ability of RPA's to operate in environments such as terminals or other high-traffic environments. We present an approach based on insect vision that increases awareness while keeping size, weight, and power consumption at a minimum. Insect eyes are not designed to gather the same level of information that human eyes do. We present a novel Data Model and dynamically updated look-up-table approach to interpret non-imaging direction sensing only detectors observing a higher resolution video image of the aerial field of regard. Our technique is a composite hybrid method combining a small cluster of low resolution cameras multiplexed into a single composite air picture which is re-imaged by an insect eye to provide real-time scene understanding and collision avoidance cues. We provide smart camera application examples from parachute deployment testing and micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) full motion video (FMV).

  2. 78 FR 19063 - Airworthiness Approval for Aircraft Forward-Looking Windshear and Turbulence Radar Systems (United States)


    ... Turbulence Radar Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Request for comment... approval for aircraft forward-looking windshear and turbulence radar systems. The planned advisory circular..., Airborne Weather Radar Equipment. The objective is to leverage the installation specific guidance from...

  3. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John


    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  4. Models and techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of aircraft computing systems (United States)

    Meyer, J. F.


    Progress in the development of system models and techniques for the formulation and evaluation of aircraft computer system effectiveness is reported. Topics covered include: analysis of functional dependence: a prototype software package, METAPHOR, developed to aid the evaluation of performability; and a comprehensive performability modeling and evaluation exercise involving the SIFT computer.


    If the presently installed three-phase ac transmission system on aircraft were replaced by a higher voltage dc ( HVDC ) transmission using a ground...from one- to two-thirds of the total electrical system weight. HVDC may have some disadvantages such as higher short-circuit currents, some increase in

  6. Flight tests of three-dimensional path-redefinition algorithms for transition from Radio Navigation (RNAV) to Microwave Landing System (MLS) navigation when flying an aircraft on autopilot (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.


    This report contains results of flight tests for three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first algorithm, called Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track and altitude error at transition by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called Tangent Path, also eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track and altitude errors and chooses a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called Continued Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross-track, altitude, and track angle errors by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. The flight tests were conducted on the Transportation Systems Research Vehicle, a small twin-jet transport aircraft modified for research under the Advanced Transport Operating Systems program at Langley Research Center. The flight tests showed that the algorithms provided a smooth transition to MLS.

  7. An artificial intelligence-based structural health monitoring system for aging aircraft (United States)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Tang, Stanley S.; Chen, K. L.


    To reduce operating expenses, airlines are now using the existing fleets of commercial aircraft well beyond their originally anticipated service lives. The repair and maintenance of these 'aging aircraft' has therefore become a critical safety issue, both to the airlines and the Federal Aviation Administration. This paper presents the results of an innovative research program to develop a structural monitoring system that will be used to evaluate the integrity of in-service aerospace structural components. Currently in the final phase of its development, this monitoring system will indicate when repair or maintenance of a damaged structural component is necessary.

  8. A reappraisal of transport aircraft needs 1985 - 2000: Perceptions of airline management in a changing economic, regulatory, and technological environment (United States)

    Spencer, F. A.


    Views of the executives of 24 major, national, regional, and commuter airlines concerning the effect of recent regulatory, economic, and technological changes on the roles they see for their airlines, and consequent changes in their plans for acquiring aircraft for the 1985 to 2000 period were surveyed. Differing perceptions on the economic justification for new-technology jets in the context of the carriers' present and projected financial conditions are outlined. After examining the cases for new or intermediate size jets, the study discusses turboprop powered transports, including the carriers' potential interest in an advanced technology, high-speed turboprop or prop-fan. Finally, the implications of foreign competition are examined in terms of each carrier's evaluation of the quality and financial offerings, as well as possible 'Buy American' policy predisposition.

  9. A methodology for the probabilistic assessment of system effectiveness as applied to aircraft survivability and susceptibility (United States)

    Soban, Danielle Suzanne


    Significant advances have been made recently in applying probabilistic methods to aerospace vehicle concepts. Given the explosive changes in today's political, social, and technological climate, it makes practical sense to try and extrapolate these methods to the campaign analysis level. This would allow the assessment of rapidly changing threat environments as well as technological advancements, aiding today's decision makers. These decision makers use this information in three primary ways: resource allocation, requirements definition, and trade studies between system components. In effect, these decision makers are looking for a way to quantify system effectiveness. Using traditional definitions, one can categorize an aerospace concept, such as an aircraft, as the system. Design and analysis conducted on the aircraft will result in system level Measures of Effectiveness. System effectiveness, therefore, becomes a function of only that aircraft's design variables and parameters. While this method of analysis can result in the design of a vehicle that is optimized to its own mission and performance requirements, the vehicle remains independent of its role for which it was created: the warfighting environment. It is therefore proposed that the system be redefined as the warfighting environment (campaign analysis) and the problem be considered to have a system of systems formulation. A methodology for the assessment of military system effectiveness is proposed. Called POSSEM (PrObabilisitic System of System Effectiveness Methodology), the methodology describes the creation of an analysis pathway that links engineering level changes to campaign level measures of effectiveness. The methodology includes probabilistic analysis techniques in order to manage the inherent uncertainties in the problem, which are functions of human decision making, rapidly changing threats, and the incorporation of new technologies. An example problem is presented, in which aircraft

  10. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft (United States)

    Stone, R. H.


    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 10 years of service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left-hand and right-hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a solid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K (300 F) service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 79,568 hours, with one ship set having nearly 28,000 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems, or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history obtained in this program indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  11. Maintenance-free lead acid battery for inertial navigation systems aircraft (United States)

    Johnson, William R.; Vutetakis, David G.


    Historically, Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (INS) Batteries have utilized vented nickel-cadmium batteries for emergency DC power. The United States Navy and Air Force developed separate systems during their respective INS developments. The Navy contracted with Litton Industries to produce the LTN-72 and Air Force contracted with Delco to produce the Carousel IV INS for the large cargo and specialty aircraft applications. Over the years, a total of eight different battery national stock numbers (NSNs) have entered the stock system along with 75 battery spare part NSNs. The Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program is working with the Aircraft Battery Group at Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division, Naval Air Systems Command (AIR 536), Wright Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, and Concorde Battery Corporation to produce a standard INS battery. This paper discusses the approach taken to determine whether the battery should be replaced and to select the replacement chemistry. The paper also discusses the battery requirements, aircraft that the battery is compatible with, and status of Navy flight evaluation. Projected savings in avoided maintenance in Navy and Air Force INS Systems is projected to be $14.7 million per year with a manpower reduction of 153 maintenance personnel. The new INS battery is compatible with commercially sold INS systems which represents 66 percent of the systems sold.

  12. Verification of the CFD simulation system SAUNA for complex aircraft configurations (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathon A.; Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.


    This paper is concerned with the verification for complex aircraft configurations of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. A brief description of the complete system is given, including its unique use of differing grid generation strategies (structured, unstructured or both) depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The majority of the paper focuses on the application of SAUNA to a variety of configurations from the military aircraft, civil aircraft and missile areas. Mesh generation issues are discussed for each geometry and experimental data are used to assess the accuracy of the inviscid (Euler) model used. It is shown that flexibility and accuracy are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov


    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  14. The German Saenger space transportation system concept (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  15. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status. (United States)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.


    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  16. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms (United States)


    to be equipped with Flight Management Systems (FMSs) that use sophisticated digital computers to assist pilots, allowing them to fly more fuel...some basic data is prepared. These include calculations of aircraft position projeted on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, and...Administration FMS Flight Management System GA General Aviation NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation System NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence

  17. On the use of a compact optical fiber sensor system in aircraft structural health monitoring (United States)

    Mrad, Nezih; Guo, Honglei; Xiao, Gaozhi; Rocha, Bruno; Sun, Zhigang


    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been identified as an area of significant potential for advanced aircraft maintenance programs that ensure continued airworthiness, enhanced operational safety and reduced life cycle cost. Several sensors and sensory systems have been developed for the implementation of such health monitoring capability. Among a wide range of developed technologies, fiber optic sensor technology, in particular fiber Bragg grating based emerged as one of the most promising for aircraft structural applications. This paper is set to explore the suitability of using a new Fiber Bragg Grating sensor (FBG) system developed for operation in two modes, low and high speed sensing modes, respectively. The suitability of the system for potential use in aircraft load monitoring and damage detection applications has been demonstrated. Results from FBG sensor system were in good agreement with results from conventional resistive strain gauges, validating this capability for load monitoring. For damage detection, the FBG sensor system was able to detect acoustic waves generated 52 inches (1.32 m) away. The initial results, obtained in a full stale experimentation, demonstrate the potential of using FBG sensors for both load monitoring and damage detection in aircraft environment.

  18. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance (United States)


    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  19. System Noise Assessment of Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft With Open Rotor Propulsion (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Thomas, Russell H.


    An aircraft system noise study is presented for the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft concept with three open rotor engines mounted on the upper surface of the airframe. It is shown that for such an aircraft, the cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is about 24 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. While this makes the design acoustically viable in meeting the regulatory requirements, even with the consideration of more stringent noise regulations of a possible Stage 5 in the next decade or so, the design will likely meet stiff competitions from aircraft with turbofan engines. It is shown that the noise levels of the BWB design are held up by the inherently high noise levels of the open rotor engines and the limitation on the shielding benefit due to the practical design constraint on the engine location. Furthermore, it is shown that the BWB design has high levels of noise from the main landing gear, due to their exposure to high speed flow at the junction between the center body and outer wing. These are also the reasons why this baseline BWB design does not meet the NASA N+2 noise goal of 42 dB below Stage 4. To identify approaches that may further reduce noise, parametric studies are also presented, including variations in engine location, vertical tail and elevon variations, and airframe surface acoustic liner treatment effect. These have the potential to further reduce noise but they are only at the conceptual stage.

  20. Aircraft health and usage monitoring system for in-flight strain measurement of a wing structure (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Yurim; Kim, Yoon-Young; Shrestha, Pratik; Kim, Chun-Gon


    This paper presents an aircraft health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. This study aims to implement and evaluate the HUMS for in-flight strain monitoring of aircraft structures. An optical-fiber-based HUMS was developed and applied to an ultralight aircraft that has a rectangular wing shape with a strut-braced configuration. FBG sensor arrays were embedded into the wing structure during the manufacturing process for effective sensor implementation. Ground and flight tests were conducted to verify the integrity and availability of the installed FBG sensors and HUMS devices. A total of 74 flight tests were conducted using the HUMS implemented testbed aircraft, considering various maneuvers and abnormal conditions. The flight test results revealed that the FBG-based HUMS was successfully implemented on the testbed aircraft and operated normally under the actual flight test environments as well as providing reliable in-flight strain data from the FBG sensors over a long period of time.

  1. Study for Air Vehicles at High Speeds, Identifying the Potential Benefits to Transport Aircraft of a Continuously Variable Geometry Trailing-Edge Structure that can be Utilized for Aircraft Control, Trim, Load-Alleviation, and High Lift (United States)


    Fig. 1.1.29 NOTIONAL NEXT GENERATION MOBILTY & TRANSPORTS & CIVIL AIRCRAFT ESTOL CONCEPTS NASA ...This subject is in revival currently. Early proving work has been conducted by NASA on FA- 18 formations. In the time-scale to 2012, Ref.15 mentions...flight research ( NASA & AFRL) into Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) on a Gulfstream-III, Fig.1.1.23. The conventional TE flaps (19 ft span x

  2. Unmanned aircraft system measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Knuth


    Full Text Available In September 2009, a series of long-range unmanned aircraft system (UAS flights collected basic atmospheric data over the Terra Nova Bay polynya in Antarctica. Air temperature, wind, pressure, relative humidity, radiation, skin temperature, GPS, and operational aircraft data were collected and quality controlled for scientific use. The data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC for free access (doi:10.1594/USAP/0739464.

  3. Design of a digital ride quality augmentation system for a commuter aircraft (United States)

    Hammond, T. A.; Downing, D. R.; Amin, S. P.; Paduano, J.


    Commuter aircraft with low wing loading that operate at low altitudes are particularly susceptible to unwanted accelerations caused by atmospheric gusts. This paper describes the design and analysis of a longitudinal digital Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS). The RQAS designs were conducted for a Cessna 402B aircraft using the flaps and the elevator as the control surfaces. The designs are generated using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and analyzed in both the time and frequency domains. Nominal designs are presented at five flight conditions that cover a total mission. Trade-off studies are conducted to investigate the effect of sample time, computational delay time, servo bandwidth and control power.

  4. Vertical Navigation Control Laws and Logic for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (United States)

    Hueschen, Richard M.; Khong, Thuan H.


    A vertical navigation (VNAV) outer-loop control system was developed to capture and track the vertical path segments of energy-efficient trajectories that are being developed for high-density operations in the evolving Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The VNAV control system has a speed-on-elevator control mode to pitch the aircraft for tracking a calibrated airspeed (CAS) or Mach number profile and a path control mode for tracking the VNAV altitude profile. Mode control logic was developed for engagement of either the speed or path control modes. The control system will level the aircraft to prevent it from flying through a constraint altitude. A stability analysis was performed that showed that the gain and phase margins of the VNAV control system significantly exceeded the design gain and phase margins. The system performance was assessed using a six-deg-of-freedom non-linear transport aircraft simulation and the performance is illustrated with time-history plots of recorded simulation data.

  5. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  6. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  7. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  8. TRANSIMS: Transportation analysis and simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.; Beckman, R.; Baggerly, K. [and others


    This document summarizes the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) Project, the system`s major modules, and the project`s near-term plans. TRANSIMS will employ advanced computational and analytical techniques to create an integrated regional transportation systems analysis environment. The simulation environment will include a regional population of individual travelers and freight loads with travel activities and plans, whose individual interactions will be simulated on the transportation system, and whose environmental impact will be determined. We will develop an interim operational capability (IOC) for each major TRANSIMS module during the five-year program. When the IOC is ready, we will complete a specific case study to confirm the IOC features, applicability, and readiness.

  9. A Methodology to Enable Automatic 3D Routing of Aircraft Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; La Rocca, G.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.


    Harness 3D routing in aircraft Electrical Wiring Interconnection System (EWIS) design is very complex because of both the intrinsic complexity of EWIS and the increasing number of design constraints. The complexity hinders the improvement of the design efficiency and makes the design error prone. Co

  10. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft.

  11. 75 FR 2925 - Sixteenth Plenary Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    ... Closing Session Attendance is open to the interested public but limited to space availability. With the...: Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of... FAA Status Reports Special Committee Status Overview Requirements & Architecture Product Team...

  12. 76 FR 24957 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203: Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    ... interested public but limited to space availability. With the approval of the chairman, members of the public...: Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of... Workgroup Sense and Avoid Workgroup Ad Hoc Group Report Architecture Group Report Modeling and...

  13. 78 FR 7816 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems... of the Aeronautics Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. The meeting will be held for the purpose..., Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-1578, or . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  14. 77 FR 59020 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems... of the Aeronautics Committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). The meeting will be held for the..., Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-1578, or . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  15. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01. (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  16. Active gust load alleviation system for flexible aircraft: Mixed feedforward/feedback approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Hromcik, Martin; Hanis, Tomas


    Lightweight flexible blended-wing-body (BWB) aircraft concept seems as a highly promising configuration for future high capacity airliners which suffers from reduced stiffness for disturbance loads such as gusts. A robust feedforward gust load alleviation system (GLAS) was developed to alleviate ...

  17. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System... (United States)


    ... Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) were also applied prior to the codification of Sec. 23.1308. There are... the aircraft is certified (such as volcanic ash or operation above placard speeds) need not be..., including lightning. The EEC system lightning and High-Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) effects that...

  18. Optimization via CFD of aircraft hot-air anti-icing systems (United States)

    Pellissier, Mathieu Paul Constantin

    In-flight icing is a major concern in aircraft safety and a non-negligible source of incidents and accidents, and is still a serious hazard today. It remains consequently a design and certification challenge for aircraft manufacturers. The aerodynamic performance of an aircraft can indeed degrade rapidly when flying in icing conditions, leading to incidents or accidents. In-flight icing occurs when an aircraft passes through clouds containing supercooled water droplets at or below freezing temperature. Droplets impinge on its exposed surfaces and freeze, causing roughness and shape changes that increase drag, decrease lift and reduce the stall angle of attack, eventually inducing flow separation and stall. This hazardous ice accretion is prevented by the use of dedicated anti-icing systems, among which hot-air-types are the most common for turbofan aircraft. This work presents a methodology for the optimization of such aircraft hot-air-type anti-icing systems, known as Piccolo tubes. Having identified through 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) the most critical in-flight icing conditions, as well as determined thermal power constraints, the objective is to optimize the heat distribution in such a way to minimize power requirements, while meeting or exceeding all safety regulation requirements. To accomplish this, an optimization method combining 3D CFD, Reduced-Order Models (ROM) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) is constructed to determine the optimal configuration of the Piccolo tube (angles of jets, spacing between holes, and position from leading edge). The methodology successfully results in increasingly optimal configurations from three up to five design variables.

  19. Evaluation of a new JMA aircraft flask sampling system and laboratory trace gas analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tsuboi


    Full Text Available We established and evaluated a flask air sampling system on a cargo C-130H aircraft, as well as a trace gas measurement system for the flask samples, as part of a new operational monitoring program of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA. Air samples were collected during each flight, between Kanagawa Prefecture (near Tokyo and Minamitorishima (an island located nearly 2000 km southeast of Tokyo, from the air-conditioning system on the aircraft. Prior to the operational employment of the sampling system, a quality assurance test of the sampled air was made by specially coordinated flights at a low altitude of 1000 ft over Minamitorishima and comparing the flask values with those obtained at the surface. Based on our storage tests, the flask samples remained nearly stable until analyses. The trace gas measurement system has, in addition to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR and vacuum ultraviolet resonance fluorescence (VURF analyzers, two laser-based analyzers using wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS. Laboratory tests of the laser-based analyzers for measuring flask samples indicated relatively high reproducibility with overall precisions of less than ±0.06 ppm for CO2, ±0.68 ppb for CH4, ±0.36 ppb for CO, and ±0.03 ppb for N2O. Flask air sample measurements, conducted concurrently on different analyzers were compared. These comparisons showed a negligible bias in the averaged measurements between the laser-based measurement techniques and the other methods currently in use. We also estimated that there are no significant isotope effects for CH4, CO and N2O using standard gases with industrial isotopic compositions to calibrate the laser-based analyzers, but CO2 was found to possess isotope effects larger than its analytical precision.

  20. California's Methane Budget derived from CalNex P-3 Aircraft Observations and the WRF-STILT Lagrangian Transport Model (United States)

    Santoni, G. W.; Xiang, B.; Kort, E. A.; Daube, B.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Wecht, K.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Angevine, W. M.; Trainer, M.; Nehrkorn, T.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Wofsy, S. C.


    We present constraints on California emission inventories of methane (CH4) using atmospheric observations from nine NOAA P-3 flights during the California Nexus (CalNex) campaign in May and June of 2010. Measurements were made using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS) and a cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) and calibrated to NOAA standards in-flight. Five flights sampled above the northern and southern central valley and an additional four flights probed the south coast air basin, quantifying emissions from the Los Angeles basin. The data show large (>100 ppb) CH4 enhancements associated with point and area sources such as cattle and manure management, landfills, wastewater treatment, gas production and distribution infrastructure, and rice agriculture. We compare aircraft observations to modeled CH4 distributions by accounting for a) transport using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorology, b) emissions from inventories such as EDGAR and ones constructed from California-specific state and county databases, each gridded to 0.1° x 0.1° resolution, and c) spatially and temporally evolving boundary conditions such as GEOS-Chem and a NOAA aircraft profile measurement derived curtain imposed at the edge of the WRF domain. After accounting for errors associated with transport, planetary boundary layer height, lateral boundary conditions, seasonality of emissions, and the spatial resolution of surface emission prior estimates, we find that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) CH4 budget is a factor of 1.64 too low. Using a Bayesian inversion to the flight data, we estimate California's CH4 budget to be 2.5 TgCH4/yr, with emissions from cattle and manure management, landfills, rice, and natural gas infrastructure, representing roughly 82%, 26%, 9% and 32% (sum = 149% with other sources accounting for the additional 15%) of the current CARB CH4 budget estimate of 1.52 TgCH4

  1. Advanced turboprop testbed systems study. Volume 1: Testbed program objectives and priorities, drive system and aircraft design studies, evaluation and recommendations and wind tunnel test plans (United States)

    Bradley, E. S.; Little, B. H.; Warnock, W.; Jenness, C. M.; Wilson, J. M.; Powell, C. W.; Shoaf, L.


    The establishment of propfan technology readiness was determined and candidate drive systems for propfan application were identified. Candidate testbed aircraft were investigated for testbed aircraft suitability and four aircraft selected as possible propfan testbed vehicles. An evaluation of the four candidates was performed and the Boeing KC-135A and the Gulfstream American Gulfstream II recommended as the most suitable aircraft for test application. Conceptual designs of the two recommended aircraft were performed and cost and schedule data for the entire testbed program were generated. The program total cost was estimated and a wind tunnel program cost and schedule is generated in support of the testbed program.

  2. Methodological Approach for Performing Human Reliability and Error Analysis in Railway Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice


    Full Text Available Today, billions of dollars are being spent annually world wide to develop, manufacture, and operate transportation system such trains, ships, aircraft, and motor vehicles. Around 70 to 90 percent oftransportation crashes are, directly or indirectly, the result of human error. In fact, with the development of technology, system reliability has increased dramatically during the past decades, while human reliability has remained unchanged over the same period. Accordingly, human error is now considered as the most significant source of accidents or incidents in safety-critical systems. The aim of the paper is the proposal of a methodological approach to improve the transportation system reliability and in particular railway transportation system. The methodology presented is based on Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA.

  3. Effects of cosmic radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adriane C.M.; Federico, Claudio A.; Pereira Junior, Evaldo C.F.; Goncalez, Odair L., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Modern avionics systems use new electronic technologies devices that, due to their high degree of sophistication and miniaturization, are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation, particularly the effect called 'Single Event Effect' (SEE) produced by neutron. Studies regarding the effects of radiation on electronic systems for space applications, such as satellites and orbital stations, have already been in progress for several years. However, tolerance requirements and specific studies, focusing on testing dedicated to avionics, have caused concern and gained importance in the last decade as a result of the accidents attributed to SEE in aircraft. Due to the development of a higher ceiling, an increase in airflow and a greater autonomy of certain aircrafts, the problem regarding the control of ionizing radiation dose received by the pilots, the crew and sensitive equipment became important in the areas of occupational health, radiation protection and flight safety. This paper presents an overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on devices and embedded systems in aircrafts, identifying and classifying these effects in relation to their potential risks in each device class. The assessment of these effects in avionics is a very important and emerging issue nowadays, which is being discussed by groups of the international scientific community; however, in South America, groups working in this area are still unknown. Consequently, this work is a great contribution and significantly valuable to the area of aeronautical engineering and flight safety associated to the effects of radiation on electronic components embedded in aircraft. (author)

  4. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Many developments are taking place in the area of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for traffic purposes. Many of the current ITS applications are mainly aimed at increasing comfort while driving and at improving accessibility. In addition, systems like the alcolock and the seatbelt lock are being

  5. Evaluation of Braided Stiffener Concepts for Transport Aircraft Wing Structure Applications (United States)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Dexter, H. Benson (Editor); Markus, Alan; Rohwer, Kim


    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Stiffeners, wing spars, floor beams, and fuselage frames are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage requirements are met. Braiding is an automated process for obtaining near-net shape preforms for fabrication of components for structural applications. Previous test results on braided composite materials obtained at NASA Langley indicate that damage tolerance requirements can be met for some applications. In addition, the braiding industry is taking steps to increase the material through-put to be more competitive with other preform fabrication processes. Data are presented on the compressive behavior of three braided stiffener preform fabric constructions as determined from individual stiffener crippling test and three stiffener wide panel tests. Stiffener and panel fabrication are described and compression data presented for specimens tested with and without impact damage. In addition, data are also presented on the compressive behavior of the stitched stiffener preform construction currently being used by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace in the NASA ACT wing development program.

  6. Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Process Modeling for Large Transport Aircraft Wing Structures (United States)

    Knott, Tamara W.; Loos, Alfred C.


    Resin film infusion (RFI) is a cost-effective method for fabricating stiffened aircraft wing structures. The RFI process lends itself to the use of near net shape textile preforms manufactured through a variety of automated textile processes such as knitting and braiding. Often, these advanced fiber architecture preforms have through-the-thickness stitching for improved damage tolerance and delamination resistance. The challenge presently facing RFI is to refine the process to ensure complete infiltration and cure of a geometrically complex shape preform with the high fiber volume fraction needed for structural applications. An accurate measurement of preform permeability is critical for successful modeling of the RFI resin infiltration process. Small changes in the permeability can result in very different infiltration behavior and times. Therefore, it is important to accurately measure the permeabilities of the textile preforms used in the RFI process. The objective of this investigation was to develop test methods that can be used to measure the compaction behavior and permeabilities of high fiber volume fraction, advanced fiber architecture textile preforms. These preforms are often highly compacted due to through-the-thickness stitching used to improve damage tolerance. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated and used to measure both transverse and in-plane permeabilities. The fixtures were used to measure the permeabilities of multiaxial warp knit and triaxial braided preforms at fiber volume fractions from 55% to 65%. In addition, the effects of stitching characteristics, thickness, and batch variability on permeability and compaction behavior were investigated.

  7. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results. [fuel development for high-speed civil transport aircraft (United States)

    Rollbuhler, Jim


    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  8. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.O.


    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  9. Large Aircraft Component Transport Based on Omni-Directional Mobile and Multi-Point Supporting%基于全向移动与多点柔性支撑的飞机大部件运输技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚定; 佘晶; 黄翔; 徐燕


    为实现飞机大部件车间叛运输机动灵活,基于全向移动技术,提出了一种飞机大部件全向移动运输平台,以满足大尺寸空间、重载条件的运输作业要求;为改变当首企业一车一用、专车专用现象,基于秉性的思想,提出了一种多点柔性支撑系统.结合某型飞机机翼大部件特点,实际研制了一辆全向移动柔性运输架车样车,在此基础上开发了相应控制与离线鳊程系统.研究结果表明:架丰可以实现较高精度的全向移动,具有较大的灵活性,能够满足飞机部件柔性运输要求.%To flexibly transport the large aircraft components in workshops, one type of omni-directional transporting platform of large aircraft component based on omni-directional technology is presented to meet the transportation requirements of large size and heavy load. To change the present condition that one car for a single use, as well as one car for a special use, a novel type of multi-point flexible supporting tool system based on the flexible supporting tool is proposed. Considering the characteristics of one certain type of aircraft wing components, an omni-directional transporting platform prototype is manufactured. And then the corresponding control and programming system is developed. Research result shows that higher accuracy and greater flexibility of transporting can be achieved by using omni-directional technology, and the requirements of aircraft component flexible transporting can be perfectly met.

  10. Evaluating the compliance of Keck's LGSAO automated aircraft protection system with FAA adopted criteria (United States)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Campbell, Randy; Murphy, Thomas W.


    The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) applied for and received a determination of no-objection from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) operations using an automated aircraft protection system (APS) in late 2013. WMKO's APS, named AIRSAFE, uses transponder based aircraft detection (TBAD) to replace human aircraft spotters. The FAA required WMKO to self-certify AIRSAFE compliance with SAE Aerospace Standard 6029A: "Performance Criteria for Laser Control Measures Used for Aviation Safety"[1] (AS- 6029A). AS-6029A prescribes performance and administrative criteria for an APS; essentially, requiring AIRSAFE to adequately protect all types of aircraft, traveling at any speed, altitude, distance and direction reasonably expected in the operating environment. A description of the analysis that comprises this compliance evaluation is the main focus of this paper. Also discussed is the AIRSAFE compliance with AS-6029A administrative criteria that includes characterization of site specific air traffic, failure modes, limitations, operating procedures, preventative maintenance procedures, and periodic system test procedures.

  11. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Subramanyam


    Full Text Available Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalore, provides the system designer an effective means to tune the various subsy stems for better performance. The paper focuses on all these aspects to bring out the importance of simulation in the overall fighter aircraft weapon system design.

  12. Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of Unmanned Aircraft System Detect-and-Avoid Thresholds (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek


    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.

  13. Amino acid transport by prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: evidence for a broad-range transport system. (United States)

    Tam, E; Pate, J L


    Prosthecae purified from cells of Asticcaulis biprosthecum possess active transport systems that transport all 20 amino acids tested. Using ascorbate-reduced phenazine methosulphate in the presence of oxygen, all 20 amino acids are accumulated against a concentration gradient by isolated prosthecae. Results of experiments testing the inhibition of transport of one amino acid by another, and of experiments testing the exchange of exogenous amino acids with those preloaded in prosthecae, along with characteristics of mutants defective in amino acid transport, suggest the presence in prosthecae of three amino acid transport systems. One, the general or G system, transports at least 18 of the 20 amino acids tested. Another system, referred to as the proline or P system, transports seven amino acids (including proline) that are also transported by the G system. The third system transports only glutamate and aspartate, and is referred to as the acidic amino acid transport system or A system.

  14. Digital System e-Prognostics for Critical Aircraft Computer Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in cooperation with Raytheon, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative prognostics approach for aircraft digital electronics. The...

  15. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system. (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J


    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies.

  16. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning


    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  17. Simulation of Fighter Aircraft Weapon Systems for Design and Performance Evaluation


    P. S. Subramanyam


    Simulation forms an essential tool in the system design and performance evaluation of fighter aircraft weapon systems. The various guidance strategies used for weapons like guns, missiles, bombs in the air-to-air or air-to-ground missions, for aiding the pilot for an effective delivery have been studied through extensive off-line and pilot-in-loop simulation. The pilot workload analysis carried out in the high fidelity cockpit simulator at the Aeronautical Development Agency , Bangalor...

  18. Marine TACAIR Challenge 2020: Team the Joint Strike Fighter with the Next Unmanned Aircraft System (United States)


    35. "Oh, we know it’s the game changer!" they remark in jest. Though sarcastic in expression, their experience bears tmth in that any single system...a1.·ea of operations. The UAS CONOPS briefly mentions terms such as manned-unmanned teaming ( MUT ), cross cueing, and information fusion. JSF...tactical unmanned aircraft system MEU - Marine expeditionary unit MUM manned-unmanned MUT - manned-unmanned team(ing) NSFS - naval surface fire

  19. Refrigerant Charge Management and Control for Next-Generation Aircraft Vapor Compression Systems (Postprint) (United States)


    Compressor Oil Separator Condenser Receiver VCSRF System (R134a) Liquid Injection Cooling Glycol Load Oil Filter / Driers T TT T P, T P, T...Advanced electronic packages are challenging aircraft thermal management systems (TMS) in terms of higher cooling loads. This trend is forecast to...includes a variable speed screw compressor from Fairchild Controls Corporation, a Danfoss 70kW condenser (B3-095-72-H), two Emerson expansion valves

  20. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.


    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  1. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)


    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  2. An investigation of an active landing gear system to reduce aircraft vibrations caused by landing impacts and runway excitations (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.; Li, Weiji


    A mathematical model is developed to control aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation using an active landing gear system. Equations are derived to describe the integrated aircraft-active system. The nonlinear characteristics of the system are modelled and it is actively controlled using a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) strategy. The performance of this system and its corresponding passive system are compared using numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that the impact loads and the vertical displacement of the aircraft's centre of gravity caused by landing and runway excitations are greatly reduced using the active system, which result in improvements to the performance of the landing gear system, benefits the aircraft's fatigue life, taxiing performance, crew/passenger comfort and reduces requirements on the unevenness of runways.

  3. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene


    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  4. Design and Evaluation of a Wireless Sensor Network Based Aircraft Strength Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system.

  5. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.


    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  6. Mixing Ventilation System in a Single-Aisle Aircraft Cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Zhang, Chen; Wojcik, Kamil


    and present a design procedure of the system. Finally, a personalised ventilation system will be described, which can be used together with the mixing ventilation system. The experiments are made in a full-scale, left side mock-up of a single-aisle (Boeing 737) cabin with four seats. The four passengers...

  7. Auralization of NASA N+2 Aircraft Concepts from System Noise Predictions (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russel H.


    Auralization of aircraft flyover noise provides an auditory experience that complements integrated metrics obtained from system noise predictions. Recent efforts have focused on auralization methods development, specifically the process by which source noise information obtained from semi-empirical models, computational aeroacoustic analyses, and wind tunnel and flight test data, are used for simulated flyover noise at a receiver on the ground. The primary focus of this work, however, is to develop full vehicle auralizations in order to explore the distinguishing features of NASA's N+2 aircraft vis-à-vis current fleet reference vehicles for single-aisle and large twin-aisle classes. Some features can be seen in metric time histories associated with aircraft noise certification, e.g., tone-corrected perceived noise level used in the calculation of effective perceived noise level. Other features can be observed in sound quality metrics, e.g., loudness, sharpness, roughness, fluctuation strength and tone-to-noise ratio. A psychoacoustic annoyance model is employed to establish the relationship between sound quality metrics and noise certification metrics. Finally, the auralizations will serve as the basis for a separate psychoacoustic study aimed at assessing how well aircraft noise certification metrics predict human annoyance for these advanced vehicle concepts.

  8. Anti-aliasing in Aircraft Cockpit Display System Based on Modified Bresenham Algorithm and Virtual Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sun


    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved Bresenham algorithm is proposed in order to improve the display effect of the digital instrument display systems in aircraft and aviation simulators with following the ARINC 661 specification. According to the algorithm, the pixel brightness is calculated according to the proportional relation of the distance to the pixel for realizing the anti-aliasing. In Combine with areal sampled and double buffer image processing technology, the idea can increase the operation efficiency compared with the traditional method. In accordance with the analysis of the ARINC 661, the air data system instrument is implemented in the VAPS. Experimental results reveal that the improved algorithm and digital image processing technology can indeed solve display distortion problems more effectively and accurately, the display effect is improved obviously. The implemented schemes can achieve the airborne electronic display system on the high performance and satisfy aircraft airworthiness requirements and standards

  9. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.


    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  10. Modelling of the automatic stabilization system of the aircraft course by a fuzzy logic method (United States)

    Mamonova, T.; Syryamkin, V.; Vasilyeva, T.


    The problem of the present paper concerns the development of a fuzzy model of the system of an aircraft course stabilization. In this work modelling of the aircraft course stabilization system with the application of fuzzy logic is specified. Thus the authors have used the data taken for an ordinary passenger plane. As a result of the study the stabilization system models were realised in the environment of Matlab package Simulink on the basis of the PID-regulator and fuzzy logic. The authors of the paper have shown that the use of the method of artificial intelligence allows reducing the time of regulation to 1, which is 50 times faster than the time when standard receptions of the management theory are used. This fact demonstrates a positive influence of the use of fuzzy regulation.

  11. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.


    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  12. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson


    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  13. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study (United States)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.


    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  14. Design and evaluation of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft (United States)

    Rouse, S. H.; Rouse, W. B.; Hammer, J. M.


    Information seeking by human operators of technical systems is considered. Types of information and forms of presentation are discussed and important issues reviewed. This broad discussion provides a framework within which flight management is considered. The design of an onboard computer-based information system for aircraft is discussed. The aiding possibilities of a computer-based system are emphasized. Results of an experimental evaluation of a prototype system are presented. It is concluded that a computer-based information system can substantially lessen the frequency of human errors.

  15. Unique Aspects of Flight Testing Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)


    High Altitude Endurance HCI Human Computer Interface INS Inertial Navigation System IR Infrared JITC Joint Interoperability Testing Command...highlighting some of the unique aspects of flight testing unmanned air vehicle systems. It is intended to provide a practical set of guidelines in support of...of unmanned aviation systems, it is especially important that even minor changes to the baseline code be carefully reviewed, and that regression

  16. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary (United States)


    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  17. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana


    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with pr

  18. Model Based Aircraft Upset Detection and Recovery System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes a system for detecting upset conditions and providing the corresponding control recovery actions to maintain flight integrity for general...

  19. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)


    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  20. Control of an electro-hydrostatic actuation system for the nose landing gear of an "all electric aircraft"


    Greissner, Carsten; Carl, Udo


    The EU research Project Power Optimised Aircraft (POA) investigates the approach to replace primary hydraulic supply by extended electric power systems towards a More or All Electric Aircraft. This contribution presents an electrically powered actuation system for nose landing gears using an EHA (electrohydrostatic actuator) approach. One motor pump unit supplies door and gear actuation as well as the steering system. Different control strategies for the individual actuators are introduced. T...

  1. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi


    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  2. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, David


    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge - the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications - such as FEL driver accelerators - this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators.* Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL (which has an ob...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  4. Study for the optimization of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency. Volume 1: Methodology, criteria, aeroelastic model definition and results (United States)

    Radovcich, N. A.; Dreim, D.; Okeefe, D. A.; Linner, L.; Pathak, S. K.; Reaser, J. S.; Richardson, D.; Sweers, J.; Conner, F.


    Work performed in the design of a transport aircraft wing for maximum fuel efficiency is documented with emphasis on design criteria, design methodology, and three design configurations. The design database includes complete finite element model description, sizing data, geometry data, loads data, and inertial data. A design process which satisfies the economics and practical aspects of a real design is illustrated. The cooperative study relationship between the contractor and NASA during the course of the contract is also discussed.

  5. Smac–Fdi: A Single Model Active Fault Detection and Isolation System for Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducard Guillaume J.J.


    Full Text Available This article presents a single model active fault detection and isolation system (SMAC-FDI which is designed to efficiently detect and isolate a faulty actuator in a system, such as a small (unmanned aircraft. This FDI system is based on a single and simple aerodynamic model of an aircraft in order to generate some residuals, as soon as an actuator fault occurs. These residuals are used to trigger an active strategy based on artificial exciting signals that searches within the residuals for the signature of an actuator fault. Fault isolation is carried out through an innovative mechanism that does not use the previous residuals but the actuator control signals directly. In addition, the paper presents a complete parameter-tuning strategy for this FDI system. The novel concepts are backed-up by simulations of a small unmanned aircraft experiencing successive actuator failures. The robustness of the SMAC-FDI method is tested in the presence of model uncertainties, realistic sensor noise and wind gusts. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the computational efficiency of the method and its ability to run on small microcontrollers.

  6. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark


    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  7. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.


    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  8. Electromagnetic Aircraft Launching System: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Costs? (United States)


    levitation ( MAGLEV ) trains . State-of-the-art systems make up the components of the system. There are several benefits the EIV1ALS has over the current...around for’ many years in other applications such as magnetic levitation (MAGL~V) trains . State-of-the-ali systems make up the components of the...detail the aspect of training a new rate to maintain and service i the new technology. Also, due to no significant testing done on Electro Magnetic

  9. Interoperability of satellite-based augmentation systems for aircraft navigation (United States)

    Dai, Donghai

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is pioneering a transformation of the national airspace system from its present ground based navigation and landing systems to a satellite based system using the Global Positioning System (GPS). To meet the critical safety-of-life aviation positioning requirements, a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS), the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), is being implemented to support navigation for all phases of flight, including Category I precision approach. The system is designed to be used as a primary means of navigation, capable of meeting the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and therefore must satisfy the accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements. In recent years there has been international acceptance of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), spurring widespread growth in the independent development of SBASs. Besides the FAA's WAAS, the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service System (EGNOS) and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau's MTSAT-Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS) are also being actively developed. Although all of these SBASs can operate as stand-alone, regional systems, there is increasing interest in linking these SBASs together to reduce costs while improving service coverage. This research investigated the coverage and availability improvements due to cooperative efforts among regional SBAS networks. The primary goal was to identify the optimal interoperation strategies in terms of performance, complexity and practicality. The core algorithms associated with the most promising concepts were developed and demonstrated. Experimental verification of the most promising concepts was conducted using data collected from a joint international test between the National Satellite Test Bed (NSTB) and the EGNOS System Test Bed (ESTB). This research clearly shows that a simple switch between SBASs made by the airborne equipment is the most effective choice for achieving the

  10. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) activities at the Department of the Interior (United States)

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Hutt, Michael E.


    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting and managing the natural resources and heritage on almost 20% of the land in the United States. The DOI’s mission requires access to remotely sensed data over vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology has the potential to enable the DOI to be a better steward of the land by: (1) Improving natural hazard forecasting and the analysis of the impacts. (2) Improving the understanding of climate change to better plan for likely impacts. (3) Developing precipitation and evaporation forecasting to better manage water resources. (4) Monitoring Arctic ice change and its impacts on ecosystems, coasts, and transportation. (5) Increasing safety and effectiveness of wildland fire management. (6) Enhancing search and rescue capabilities. (7) Broadening the abilities to monitor environmental or landscape conditions and changes. (8) Better understanding and protecting the Nation’s ecosystems. The initial operational testing and evaluations performed by the DOI have proven that UAS technology can be used to support many of the Department’s activities. UAS technology provides scientists a way to look longer, closer and more frequently at some of Earth’s most remote areas—places that were previously too dangerous or expensive to monitor in detail. The flexibility of operations and relative low cost to purchase and operate Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) enhances the ability to track long-term landscape and environmental change. The initial testing indicates the operational costs are approximately 10% of traditional manned aircraft. In addition, users can quickly assess landscape-altering events such as wildland fires, floods and volcanoes. UAS technology will allow the DOI to do more with less and in the process enhance the Department’s ability to provide unbiased scientific information to help stakeholders make

  11. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems. (United States)

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.


    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  12. Model Updating in Online Aircraft Prognosis Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this research is to develop algorithms for online health monitoring and prognostics (prediction of the remaining life of a component or system) in...

  13. Evaluation of Management System Effectiveness in the Preparation of the Aircraft for Flight in Faulty Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdane Ruta


    Full Text Available Most flight delays in aviation enterprises are related to air traffic management and technical centers. This can happen for various reasons: untimely removal of defects, lack of spare parts, deficiencies in maintenance scheduling, etc. Another reason may be inefficient management in the system of preparing the aircraft for departure. The article suggests a possible option of such an assessment as well as the results obtained from the use of this methodology applied to a specific airline.

  14. Method of Choosing the Information Technology System Supporting Management of the Military Aircraft Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barszcz Piotr


    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of choosing the information technology system, the task of which is to support the management process of the military aircraft operation. The proposed method is based on surveys conducted among direct users of IT systems used in aviation of the Polish Armed Forces. The analysis of results of the surveys was conducted using statistical methods. The paper was completed with practical conclusions related to further usefulness of the individual information technology systems. In the future, they can be extremely useful in the process of selecting the best solutions and integration of the information technology systems

  15. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)


    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  16. Liners for ion transport membrane systems (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis


    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  17. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene


    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  18. Effects of higher order control systems on aircraft approach and landing longitudinal handling qualities (United States)

    Pasha, M. A.; Dazzo, J. J.; Silverthorn, J. T.


    An investigation of approach and landing longitudinal flying qualities, based on data generated using a variable stability NT-33 aircraft combined with significant control system dynamics is described. An optimum pilot lead time for pitch tracking, flight path angle tracking, and combined pitch and flight path angle tracking tasks is determined from a closed loop simulation using integral squared error (ISE) as a performance measure. Pilot gain and lead time were varied in the closed loop simulation of the pilot and aircraft to obtain the best performance for different control system configurations. The results lead to the selection of an optimum lead time using ISE as a performance criterion. Using this value of optimum lead time, a correlation is then found between pilot rating and performance with changes in the control system and in the aircraft dynamics. It is also shown that pilot rating is closely related to pilot workload which, in turn, is related to the amount of lead which the pilot must generate to obtain satisfactory response. The results also indicate that the pilot may use pitch angle tracking for the approach task and then add flight path angle tracking for the flare and touchdown.

  19. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.


    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  20. Advanced Techniques in Crash Impact Protection and Emergency Egress from Air Transport Aircraft (United States)


    to follow relatively simple written or oral instructions. .Requires moderate recall . CO2 critical level of about 8% reached sensation consider the proper- ties of an upper torso restraint, whether it be an airbag or an Air Force harness. Therefore, in devel- oping specifications...accomplished by passive restraint systems such as the airbag . The lap belt may be eliminated to yield a purely pas- sive restraint system provided

  1. Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and...

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) software description (United States)

    Wolverton, David A.; Dickson, Richard W.; Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.


    The flight software developed for the Flight Management/Flight Controls (FM/FC) MicroVAX computer used on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle for Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research is described. The FM/FC software computes navigation position estimates, guidance commands, and those commands issued to the control surfaces to direct the aircraft in flight. Various modes of flight are provided for, ranging from computer assisted manual modes to fully automatic modes including automatic landing. A high-level system overview as well as a description of each software module comprising the system is provided. Digital systems diagrams are included for each major flight control component and selected flight management functions.

  3. Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO2 using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Paris


    Full Text Available We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01 of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS+BB and oceanic (OC CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom 3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS+BB+OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology are −4.4±0.9 (−4.2±0.9, −3.9±0.9 (−4.5±0.9, and −5.2±0.9 (−4.9±0.9 Pg C yr−1 , respectively. The regional a posteriori fluxes are broadly consistent in the sign and magnitude of the TransCom-3 study for 1992–1996, but we find larger net sinks over northern and southern continents. We find large departures from our a priori over Europe during summer 2003, over temperate Eurasia during 2004, and over North America during 2005, reflecting an incomplete description of terrestrial carbon dynamics. We find GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 a posteriori CO2 concentrations reproduce the observed surface trend of 1.91–2.43 ppm yr−1, depending on latitude, within 0.15 ppm yr−1 (0.2 ppm yr−1 and the seasonal cycle within 0.2 ppm (0.2 ppm at all latitudes. We find the a posteriori model reproduces the aircraft vertical profile measurements of CO2 over North America and Siberia generally within 1.5 ppm in the free and upper troposphere but can be biased by up to 4–5 ppm in the boundary layer at the start and end of the growing season. The model has a small negative bias in the free troposphere CO2 trend (1.95–2.19 ppm yr−1 compared to AIRS data which has a trend of 2.21–2.63 ppm yr−1 during 2004–2006, consistent with surface data. Model CO2 concentrations in the upper troposphere, evaluated using CONTRAIL (Comprehensive

  4. Evaluating a 3-D transport model of atmospheric CO2 using ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Paris


    Full Text Available We evaluate the GEOS-Chem atmospheric transport model (v8-02-01 of CO2 over 2003–2006, driven by GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorology from the NASA Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, using surface, aircraft and space-borne concentration measurements of CO2. We use an established ensemble Kalman Filter to estimate a posteriori biospheric+biomass burning (BS + BB and oceanic (OC CO2 fluxes from 22 geographical regions, following the TransCom-3 protocol, using boundary layer CO2 data from a subset of GLOBALVIEW surface sites. Global annual net BS + BB + OC CO2 fluxes over 2004–2006 for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology are −4.4 ± 0.9 (−4.2 ± 0.9, −3.9 ± 0.9 (−4.5 ± 0.9, and −5.2 ± 0.9 (−4.9 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, respectively. After taking into account anthropogenic fossil fuel and bio-fuel emissions, the global annual net CO2 emissions for 2004–2006 are estimated to be 4.0 ± 0.9 (4.2 ± 0.9, 4.8 ± 0.9 (4.2 ± 0.9, and 3.8 ± 0.9 (4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr−1, respectively. The estimated 3-yr total net emission for GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 meteorology is equal to 12.5 (12.4 PgC, agreeing with other recent top-down estimates (12–13 PgC. The regional a posteriori fluxes are broadly consistent in the sign and magnitude of the TransCom-3 study for 1992–1996, but we find larger net sinks over northern and southern continents. We find large departures from our a priori over Europe during summer 2003, over temperate Eurasia during 2004, and over North America during 2005, reflecting an incomplete description of terrestrial carbon dynamics. We find GEOS-4 (GEOS-5 a posteriori CO2 concentrations reproduce the observed surface trend of 1.91–2.43 ppm yr−1 (parts per million per year, depending on latitude, within 0.15 ppm yr−1 (0.2 ppm yr−1 and the seasonal cycle within 0.2 ppm (0.2 ppm at all latitudes. We find the a posteriori model reproduces the aircraft vertical profile measurements of CO2 over North America and Siberia generally within 1

  5. Building Toward an Unmanned Aircraft System Training Strategy (United States)


    Requirements •System Safety Analysis •Inputs to: -CDD -ISP -STA -IBR -Acq Strategy -Affordability Assessment -Cost/Manpower Est. SVR PRR •Initial...PCA – Physical Configuration Audit PRR – Production Readiness Review PPP – Program Protection Plan PSI – Product Support Integrator PSP – Product

  6. The IAGOS Information System: From the aircraft measurements to the users. (United States)

    Boulanger, Damien; Thouret, Valérie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.


    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System, aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of atmospheric chemical composition throughout the troposphere and in the UTLS. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation industry. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks proving a unique global observation system: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species both reactive and greenhouse gases (O3, CO, NOx, NOy, H2O, CO2, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is deployed monthly as a flying laboratory aboard one aircraft. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. Today, 5 aircraft are flying with the MOZAIC (3) or IAGOS-CORE (2) instrumentation namely 3 aircraft from Lufthansa, 1 from Air Namibia, and 1 from China Airlines Taiwan. A main improvement and new aspect of the IAGOS-CORE instrumentation compared to MOZAIC is to deliver the raw data in near real time (i.e. as soon as the aircraft lands data are transmitted). After a first and quick validation of the O3 and CO measurements, preliminary data are made available in the central database for both the MACC project (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) and scientific research groups. In addition to recorded measurements, the database also contains added-value products such as meteorological information (tropopause height, air mass backtrajectories) and lagrangian model outputs (FLEXPART). Data access is handled by open

  7. Evaluation of the Relative Contribution of Observing Systems in Reanalyses: Aircraft Temperature Bias and Analysis Innovations (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Dasilva, Arindo M.


    Reanalyses have become important sources of data in weather and climate research. While observations are the most crucial component of the systems, few research projects consider carefully the multitudes of assimilated observations and their impact on the results. This is partly due to the diversity of observations and their individual complexity, but also due to the unfriendly nature of the data formats. Here, we discuss the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and a companion dataset, the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO). GIO is simply a post-processing of the assimilated observations and their innovations (forecast error and analysis error) to a common spatio-temporal grid, following that of the MERRA analysis fields. This data includes in situ, retrieved and radiance observations that are assimilated and used in the reanalysis. While all these disparate observations and statistics are in a uniform easily accessible format, there are some limitations. Similar observations are binned to the grid, so that multiple observations are combined in the gridding process. The data is then implicitly thinned. Some details in the meta data may also be lost (e.g. aircraft or station ID). Nonetheless, the gridded observations should provide easy access to all the observations input to the reanalysis. To provide an example of the GIO data, a case study evaluating observing systems over the United States and statistics is presented, and demonstrates the evaluation of the observations and the data assimilation. The GIO data is used to collocate 200mb Radiosonde and Aircraft temperature measurements from 1979-2009. A known warm bias of the aircraft measurements is apparent compared to the radiosonde data. However, when larger quantities of aircraft data are available, they dominate the analysis and the radiosonde data become biased against the forecast. When AMSU radiances become available the radiosonde and aircraft analysis and

  8. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart


    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Hazarkhanov


    Full Text Available Abstract. In this article the methods of increase the efficiency of the compensation of indignations of theonboard integrated control systems of Unmanned Aircrafts are considered. On the basis of generalizationthe disadvantages of inertial and satellite navigation systems it was revealed, that as a result of theinsufficient compensation of indignations these systems lose a stable condition. They are exposed to barriersand there is unlimited growth of mistakes in time. For the solution of this actual problem of the onboardintegrated control systems a method of increase the efficiency of the compensation of indignations of nonstationarylinear systems in the conditions of uncertainty with the observer and with the correction bymistake of recovery was suggested. For this purpose the conditions of uncertainty were mathematicallystated, the equations of the onboard integrated control systems were completed, as non-stationary object ofmanagement, the observer with correction by mistake of recovery and a matrix of factor of strengthening ofthe observer are made. As a result the system is asymptotically stable to low-frequency indignations and theaccumulation of an error in time at high-frequency indignations is eliminated.Keywords: a condition of uncertainty, a matrix of factor of strengthening of the observer, iasymptoticalstability, low-frequency and high-frequency indignations, nertial and satellite navigation systems, nonstationarylinear systems, onboard integrated control systems, the observer with a correction by mistake ofrecovery, unmanned aircrafts.

  10. A Model-Following Technique for Insensitive Aircraft Control Systems. (United States)


    Harvey and Pope(131 and Vinkler[301 compared several different methods in their works, while Shenkar [261 and Ashkenazi[2i extended the most promising...Following for In- sensitive Control works, let us consider the simple, first-order system used by Shenkar [261. The plant is described by x -(1 + Ar)x + u...representative of the methods of Vinkler, Asikenazi, and Shenkar ), and Model Following for Insensitive Control (MrIC). For the LQR design, we assume that our

  11. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system (United States)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)


    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  12. A Differential Thrust Controller for Air Cushion Landing System Aircraft (United States)


    8217 control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced approximately 70% by the addition...assistance with explanations of the ACLS. Credit should also be given to Lieutenant John Pinnel , a classmate at the Air Force Institute of Technology...the system with and without the control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced

  13. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M. [Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)


    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  14. Digital Aircraft Sheet Metal Part Manufacturing System and Its Key Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Junbiao; Liu; Chuang


    The architecture of digital sheet metal manufacturing system is proposed based on the classification of sheet metal manufacturing information.The essence of digital manufacturing is the definition,management and transfer of information,and the key technologies are brought forward and described.It is pointed out that knowledge-based manufacturing elements design is necessary to make digital technology efficient.The management of all kinds of sheet metal manufacturing element information is to build single source of manufacturing data.Multi-state model-based digital transfer and coordination method is designed to provide a foundation for digital manufacturing of aircraft sheet metal part.The application of digital sheet metal manufacturing is exemplified with an aircraft sheet metal part.The application result is compared to that of the traditional analog transfer technology.It is shown that the developed technology can improve part quality,shorten manufacturing time and lower manufacturing cost.

  15. Optimality study of a gust alleviation system for light wing-loading STOL aircraft (United States)

    Komoda, M.


    An analytical study was made of an optimal gust alleviation system that employs a vertical gust sensor mounted forward of an aircraft's center of gravity. Frequency domain optimization techniques were employed to synthesize the optimal filters that process the corrective signals to the flaps and elevator actuators. Special attention was given to evaluating the effectiveness of lead time, that is, the time by which relative wind sensor information should lead the actual encounter of the gust. The resulting filter is expressed as an implicit function of the prescribed control cost. A numerical example for a light wing loading STOL aircraft is included in which the optimal trade-off between performance and control cost is systematically studied.

  16. A survey of autonomous vision-based See and Avoid for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Mcfadyen, Aaron; Mejias, Luis


    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the vision-based See and Avoid problem for unmanned aircraft. The unique problem environment and associated constraints are detailed, followed by an in-depth analysis of visual sensing limitations. In light of such detection and estimation constraints, relevant human, aircraft and robot collision avoidance concepts are then compared from a decision and control perspective. Remarks on system evaluation and certification are also included to provide a holistic review approach. The intention of this work is to clarify common misconceptions, realistically bound feasible design expectations and offer new research directions. It is hoped that this paper will help us to unify design efforts across the aerospace and robotics communities.

  17. The Future Of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Support of the Marine Expeditionary Unit (United States)


    two vertical-takeoff aircraft. 9 Weight (lbs) Range (nm) Speed ( max knts) Ceiling (ft) Endurance (hrs) Pay- load (lbs) Systems...has a BriteStar FLIR, which can provide ISR and has stations or “ planks ” that can fit varying weapons systems or payloads that support the other four...designate and shoot targets, all with a respecTable 10-hour endurance. The AH-6X is also designed with a “ plank ” system that can support the addition

  18. Methods of aircraft fuel system protection against low-temperature failures of its serviceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. Ф. Максютинський


    Full Text Available The following aircraft fuel system protection methods against low-temperature failures of its serviceability have been considered: the method of fuel temperature stabilization in the tanks at a predetermined level, also method of hydrocleaning of low-temperature deposits from the fuel pump filter. By the application of calculations and experimental research we have determined parameters of the system for the fuel temperature stabilization by means of utilization of heat at the radiator of the air-conditioning system and the effectiveness of the hydrocleaning of low-temperature deposits. The design of punched collector and the effective modes of hydrocleaning have been proposed

  19. Trajectory Management of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS in Emergency Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Majka


    Full Text Available Unmanned aircraft must be characterized by a level of safety, similar to that of manned aircraft, when performing flights over densely populated areas. Dangerous situations or emergencies are frequently connected with the necessity to change the profiles and parameters of a flight as well as the flight plans. The aim of this work is to present the methods used to determine an Unmanned Aircraft System’s (UAS flight profile after a dangerous situation or emergency occurs. The analysis was limited to the possibility of an engine system emergency and further flight continuing along a trajectory of which the shape depends on the type of the emergency. The suggested method also enables the determination of an optimal flying trajectory, based on the territory of a special protection zone (for example, large populated areas, in the case of an emergency that would disable continuation of the performed task. The method used in this work allows researchers, in a simplified way, to solve a variation task using the Ritz–Galerkin method, consisting of an approximate solution of the boundary value problem to determine the optimal flight path. The worked out method can become an element of the on-board system supporting UAS flight control.

  20. Aircraft Hydraulic System Leakage Detection and Servicing Recommendations Method (United States)


    accumulators, filters, and consumers, that include all the actuators connected to the hydraulic power such as flight controls , brake and landing...Conference, October 4-8 Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Merrit, H. E., (1967), Hydraulic Control Systems. New York: John Willey & Sons. Vianna, W. O. L...2008), Modelagem e Análise do Sistema Hidráulico de uma Aeronave Comercial Regional. M.Sc. Thesis. Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José

  1. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  2. On-Board Visual Tracking with Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Ashraf; Semke, William


    This paper presents the development of a real time tracking algorithm that runs on a 1.2 GHz PC/104 computer on-board a small UAV. The algorithm uses zero mean normalized cross correlation to detect and locate an object in the image. A kalman filter is used to make the tracking algorithm computationally efficient. Object position in an image frame is predicted using the motion model and a search window, centered at the predicted position is generated. Object position is updated with the measurement from object detection. The detected position is sent to the motion controller to move the gimbal so that the object stays at the center of the image frame. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and the system is able to work in two different methods. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The system is capable of re-detecting an object, in t...

  3. System of systems design: Evaluating aircraft in a fleet context using reliability and non-deterministic approaches (United States)

    Frommer, Joshua B.

    This work develops and implements a solution framework that allows for an integrated solution to a resource allocation system-of-systems problem associated with designing vehicles for integration into an existing fleet to extend that fleet's capability while improving efficiency. Typically, aircraft design focuses on using a specific design mission while a fleet perspective would provide a broader capability. Aspects of design for both the vehicles and missions may be, for simplicity, deterministic in nature or, in a model that reflects actual conditions, uncertain. Toward this end, the set of tasks or goals for the to-be-planned system-of-systems will be modeled more accurately with non-deterministic values, and the designed platforms will be evaluated using reliability analysis. The reliability, defined as the probability of a platform or set of platforms to complete possible missions, will contribute to the fitness of the overall system. The framework includes building surrogate models for metrics such as capability and cost, and includes the ideas of reliability in the overall system-level design space. The concurrent design and allocation system-of-systems problem is a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. This study considered two system-of-systems problems that seek to simultaneously design new aircraft and allocate these aircraft into a fleet to provide a desired capability. The Coast Guard's Integrated Deepwater System program inspired the first problem, which consists of a suite of search-and-find missions for aircraft based on descriptions from the National Search and Rescue Manual. The second represents suppression of enemy air defense operations similar to those carried out by the U.S. Air Force, proposed as part of the Department of Defense Network Centric Warfare structure, and depicted in MILSTD-3013. The two problems seem similar, with long surveillance segments, but because of the complex nature of aircraft design

  4. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1 (United States)

    Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.


    Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

  5. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas


    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...... the conductance. The methods have been applied to a number of specific systems, includ- ing monatomic gold chains, atomic point contacts, and metal-molecule-metal configurations. These studies have clarified the inelastic effects in the elec- tron transport and characterized the vibrational modes that couple...... to the current. For instance, the dominant scattering for gold chains could be traced back to the longitudinal “alternating bond-length” mode. Furthermore, the results have been compared critically with experimental measurements for the different systems, and provided a microscopic understanding for the im...

  6. The Efficiency of the Bimodal System Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger


    Full Text Available The development of fast railway results in an increased applicationof Trailer Train bimodal system transportation. Thetraffic costs are multiply reduced, particularly the variablecosts. On the other hand the environmental pollution from exhaustgases is also reduced. Therefore, by the year 2010 cargotransport should be preponderant~v used which would be characterisedby fast electric trains producing less noise, at lowercosts and with clean environment.

  7. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center


    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  8. Flight system design for a receiver aircraft to perform autonomous aerial refueling provided with relative position data link (United States)

    Awni, Kahtan A.

    An automatic aerial refueling system was developed that is capable of controlling the receiving aircraft to rendezvous, dock and station keep the receiver refueling probe in the tanker refueling probe. The automatic refueling system consisted of an active trajectory generator, a guidance system and a control system. The active trajectory generator continuously updated the commanded rendezvous trajectory to be flown by the receiver aircraft. This active trajectory generator concept incorporated design variables that the designer could use to specify the time sequence of the rendezvous and docking maneuver. The output of the trajectory generator was then the command to the flight systems guidance and control systems. To demonstrate this automatic aerial refueling system concept, a detailed design of the flight system algorithms was done for typical aerial refueling mission with a heavy jet tanker aircraft similar to the KC135 and the SIAI-Marchetti S-211 Jet Trainer as a receiver aircraft. The systems gains were selected to minimize the control surface activity while achieving adequate tracking. A simulation was developed that included the flight system algorithms, linear models of the receiver aircraft, atmospheric and tanker wake disturbance models. The performance of the aerial refueling system design was then evaluated in a batch computer simulator. The simulation study demonstrated results showed better disturbance rejection relative to the controller performance while minimizing the utilization of the control surfaces. Results also demonstrated the ability to schedule rendezvous.

  9. Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System. (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Arisona, Stefan Müller; Erath, Alexander; Qu, Huamin


    Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

  10. Study on longitudinal optimum location of transport aircraft nacelle and pylons%运输机短舱挂架纵向位置优选数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷熙薇; 桑为民; 段卓毅; 冯海勇; 张彦军


    针对运输机的翼/身/架/舱干扰问题,本文基于Euler方程,采用笛卡尔直角网格,应用有限体积法对全机绕流流场进行数值计算,分析和比较了短舱挂架不同前伸量、下沉量的影响,提出了基于最佳前伸量和下沉量的优选配合位置,并与初始位置的全机气动特性进行对比.结果表明,获得的短舱挂架优选配合位置使全机气动特性得到了明显改善和提高.%To resolve the problem of the interference between the wing/body/pylon/nacelle of the large transport aircraft, this paper uses the Elder equation with the Cartesian grid and finite volume method to calculate the flow characteristic of the aircraft with different amounts of protrusion and subsidence of the nacelle and pylon, also analyse and compare the aerodynamic performance. The optimized position is selected and demonstrated. The numerical result shows that the aerodynamic performance of the transportation aircraft is obviously improved for the new optimized position of the nacelle and pylon.

  11. Immunity-based detection, identification, and evaluation of aircraft sub-system failures (United States)

    Moncayo, Hever Y.

    This thesis describes the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an integrated Artificial Immune System (AIS) for detection, identification, and evaluation of a wide variety of sensor, actuator, propulsion, and structural failures/damages including the prediction of the achievable states and other limitations on performance and handling qualities. The AIS scheme achieves high detection rate and low number of false alarms for all the failure categories considered. Data collected using a motion-based flight simulator are used to define the self for an extended sub-region of the flight envelope. The NASA IFCS F-15 research aircraft model is used and represents a supersonic fighter which include model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The flight simulation tests are designed to analyze and demonstrate the performance of the immunity-based aircraft failure detection, identification and evaluation (FDIE) scheme. A general robustness analysis is also presented by determining the achievable limits for a desired performance in the presence of atmospheric perturbations. For the purpose of this work, the integrated AIS scheme is implemented based on three main components. The first component performs the detection when one of the considered failures is present in the system. The second component consists in the identification of the failure category and the classification according to the failed element. During the third phase a general evaluation of the failure is performed with the estimation of the magnitude/severity of the failure and the prediction of its effect on reducing the flight envelope of the aircraft system. Solutions and alternatives to specific design issues of the AIS scheme, such as data clustering and empty space optimization, data fusion and duplication removal, definition of features, dimensionality reduction, and selection of cluster/detector shape are also

  12. Piezomechatronic-based systems in aircraft, space, and defense applications (United States)

    Maillard, T.; Claeyssen, F.; LeLetty, R.; Sosnicki, O.; Pages, A.; Vazquez Carazo, A.


    mechatronic based system such like, piezo micro-scanning stage for IR camera resolution enhancement, piezo active flap on helicopter blade for noise reduction, micro amplified piezo actuator for tilting MAV rotor, hollow piezo actuator for external laser cavity tuning of a space LIDAR, in order to discuss the state-of-the-art performance and deduce further needs.

  13. Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Remote Sensing and Scientific Research: Classification and Considerations of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Watts


    Full Text Available Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have evolved rapidly over the past decade driven primarily by military uses, and have begun finding application among civilian users for earth sensing reconnaissance and scientific data collection purposes. Among UAS, promising characteristics are long flight duration, improved mission safety, flight repeatability due to improving autopilots, and reduced operational costs when compared to manned aircraft. The potential advantages of an unmanned platform, however, depend on many factors, such as aircraft, sensor types, mission objectives, and the current UAS regulatory requirements for operations of the particular platform. The regulations concerning UAS operation are still in the early development stages and currently present significant barriers to entry for scientific users. In this article we describe a variety of platforms, as well as sensor capabilities, and identify advantages of each as relevant to the demands of users in the scientific research sector. We also briefly discuss the current state of regulations affecting UAS operations, with the purpose of informing the scientific community about this developing technology whose potential for revolutionizing natural science observations is similar to those transformations that GIS and GPS brought to the community two decades ago.

  14. A multi-layer robust adaptive fault tolerant control system for high performance aircraft (United States)

    Huo, Ying

    Modern high-performance aircraft demand advanced fault-tolerant flight control strategies. Not only the control effector failures, but the aerodynamic type failures like wing-body damages often result in substantially deteriorate performance because of low available redundancy. As a result the remaining control actuators may yield substantially lower maneuvering capabilities which do not authorize the accomplishment of the air-craft's original specified mission. The problem is to solve the control reconfiguration on available control redundancies when the mission modification is urged to save the aircraft. The proposed robust adaptive fault-tolerant control (RAFTC) system consists of a multi-layer reconfigurable flight controller architecture. It contains three layers accounting for different types and levels of failures including sensor, actuator, and fuselage damages. In case of the nominal operation with possible minor failure(s) a standard adaptive controller stands to achieve the control allocation. This is referred to as the first layer, the controller layer. The performance adjustment is accounted for in the second layer, the reference layer, whose role is to adjust the reference model in the controller design with a degraded transit performance. The upmost mission adjust is in the third layer, the mission layer, when the original mission is not feasible with greatly restricted control capabilities. The modified mission is achieved through the optimization of the command signal which guarantees the boundedness of the closed-loop signals. The main distinguishing feature of this layer is the the mission decision property based on the current available resources. The contribution of the research is the multi-layer fault-tolerant architecture that can address the complete failure scenarios and their accommodations in realities. Moreover, the emphasis is on the mission design capabilities which may guarantee the stability of the aircraft with restricted post

  15. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.


    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  16. Multiple criteria analysis of remotely piloted aircraft systems for monitoring the crops vegetation status (United States)

    Cristea, L.; Luculescu, M. C.; Zamfira, S. C.; Boer, A. L.; Pop, S.


    The paper presents an analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) used for monitoring the crops vegetation status. The study focuses on two types of RPAS, namely the flying wing and the multi-copter. The following criteria were taken into account: technical characteristics, power consumption, flight autonomy, flight conditions, costs, data acquisition systems used for monitoring, crops area and so on. Based on this analysis, advantages and disadvantages are emphasized offering a useful tool for choosing the proper solution according to the specific application conditions.

  17. Sensors of a Beechcraft C90 Aircraft for Extension of Data Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS


    Full Text Available In-flight data acquisition is a key point in the aircraft design process. For the control of a simulated prototype using the control surfaces, state variables such as acceleration, pitch rate for longitudinal motion, and roll rate or slideslip angle for lateral-directional motion are commonly defined as control variables. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risk of in -flight laboratory modification through extension of data acquisition system for collection of additional data related to pilot command input and the reaction of the system.

  18. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft (United States)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.


    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  19. Smart Transportation Application using Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Mohammad Al Shammary


    Full Text Available Significant increase is noticed in the utilization of mobile applications for different purposes in the past decade. These applications can improve any individual’s way of life in many aspects such as communication, collaborative work, learning, location services, data collection, exploring, testing and analysis. One of the most interesting mobile applications is using it for tracking by having personal locators. These locators can track children, people on work, the elderly for personal protection etc. The intention behind developing this mobile application is to provide a smart transportation system to it users and to track their movements. Some of the essential features of this application are • Getting familiar with the shortest path from source to destination in advance. • Aware of approximate time of arrival to destination. • Knowing the capacity of vehicle used for transportation. • Short Message Service.

  20. Transport in low-dimensional mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syzranov, Sergey


    The work is devoted to the physics of graphene-based optoelectronics and arrays of Josephson junctions. The first part deals with transport in a graphene p-n junction irradiated by an electromagnetic field. The photocurrent in such device is calculated analytically and compared to those observed in the recent experiments on graphene photodetectors. It is shown that in a clean effectively one-dimensional junction the photocurrent oscillates as a function of gate voltages due to the interference between electron paths accompanied by the resonant photon absorption. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of a Drude-like theory for the transport of Cooper pairs in weakly disordered Josephson networks and to finding the conductivity and the characteristic temperature of the commencement of strong localization. Also, it is shown that the low-temperature superconductor-insulator transition is necessarily of the first order in all 3D and in most 2D systems.

  1. A fault diagnosis based reconfigurable longitudinal control system for managing loss of air data sensors for a civil aircraft


    Varga, Andreas; Ossmann, Daniel; Joos, Hans-Dieter


    An integrated fault diagnosis based fault tolerant longitudinal control system architecture is proposed for civil aircraft which can accommodate partial or total losses of angle of attack and/or calibrated airspeed sensors. A triplex sensor redundancy is assumed for the normal operation of the aircraft using a gain scheduled longitudinal normal control law. The fault isolation functionality is provided by a bank of 6 fault detection filters, which individually monitor each of the 6 sensors us...

  2. Progress in photonic transport network systems (United States)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi


    The network paradigm is changing rapidly spurred by the dramatic increase in IP traffic and recent progress in photonic network technologies. A key requirement, enhancing the performance of existing IP-based multimedia communication networks, can be most effectively achieved by introducing optical path technologies that exploit wavelength routing. Cost effective and reliable optical cross-connection is essential. Different optical switch technologies have been proposed and tested. Among them, the PLC (Planer Lightwave Circuit) switch has demonstrated excellent performance, particularly with regard to system reliability. Network control mechanisms based on the overlay and peer model models have been developed. The presentation will highlight some of the key system technologies. To develop very large scale and robust networks, effective traffic engineering capabilities are necessary. This will be achieved through optical path control. To develop future IP-centric networks, an operation mechanism based on distributed control is important. The degree to which the necessary transport and IP routing functions are integrated will determine system cost-effectiveness. The Photonic MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) router, which integrates all the functions and provides seamless operation between IP and optical layers, has been proposed and developed. The technical feasibility of a recent prototype system has been proven. Finally, some of the cutting-edge photonic transport technologies that we have recently developed are demonstrated; these technologies will enable us to achieve another level of network performance enhancement in the future.

  3. 78 FR 57454 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council (United States)


    ... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for applications. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MarAd) is seeking applications for membership on the Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council...

  4. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.


    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  5. Management of analytical redundancy in digital flight control systems for aircraft (United States)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Price, D. B.


    This paper presents a design method for optimal redundancy management for nonlinear systems with application to highly maneuvering aircraft. The approach taken is based on selecting the failure states to be covered by the system design and constructing a cost function that represents the cost of making an incorrect decision. The decision logic which minimizes the cost requires a bank of extended Kalman filters running in parallel. This produces a severe computational requirement. To reduce this requirement, a suboptimal logic is developed based on using a nonlinear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters with filter gains and decision logic selected using steady-state results obtained from a linearization of the vehicle and sensor dynamics. The design process is then applied to designing a redundancy management system for the F8-C aircraft. Results indicate that the system is superior in failure detection to a system using the same structure but using a linear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters.

  6. Design, Specification, and Synthesis of Aircraft Electric Power Systems Control Logic (United States)

    Xu, Huan

    Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, networking, and physical processes. Substantial research challenges exist in the design and verification of such large-scale, distributed sensing, actuation, and control systems. Rapidly improving technology and recent advances in control theory, networked systems, and computer science give us the opportunity to drastically improve our approach to integrated flow of information and cooperative behavior. Current systems rely on text-based specifications and manual design. Using new technology advances, we can create easier, more efficient, and cheaper ways of developing these control systems. This thesis will focus on design considerations for system topologies, ways to formally and automatically specify requirements, and methods to synthesize reactive control protocols, all within the context of an aircraft electric power system as a representative application area. This thesis consists of three complementary parts: synthesis, specification, and design. The first section focuses on the synthesis of central and distributed reactive controllers for an aircraft elec- tric power system. This approach incorporates methodologies from computer science and control. The resulting controllers are correct by construction with respect to system requirements, which are formulated using the specification language of linear temporal logic (LTL). The second section addresses how to formally specify requirements and introduces a domain-specific language for electric power systems. A software tool automatically converts high-level requirements into LTL and synthesizes a controller. The final sections focus on design space exploration. A design methodology is proposed that uses mixed-integer linear programming to obtain candidate topologies, which are then used to synthesize controllers. The discrete-time control logic is then verified in real-time by two methods: hardware and simulation. Finally, the problem of partial observability and

  7. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  8. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh


    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles ...

  9. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert


    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  10. Fielding a structural health monitoring system on legacy military aircraft: A business perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Marcel J. [Dept. of Gas Turbines and Structural Integrity, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    An important trend in the sustainment of military aircraft is the transition from preventative maintenance to condition based maintenance (CBM). For CBM, it is essential that the actual system condition can be measured and the measured condition can be reliably extrapolated to a convenient moment in the future in order to facilitate the planning process while maintaining flight safety. Much research effort is currently being made for the development of technologies that enable CBM, including structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Great progress has already been made in sensors, sensor networks, data acquisition, models and algorithms, data fusion/mining techniques, etc. However, the transition of these technologies into service is very slow. This is because business cases are difficult to define and the certification of the SHM systems is very challenging. This paper describes a possibility for fielding a SHM system on legacy military aircraft with a minimum amount of certification issues and with a good prospect of a positive return on investment. For appropriate areas in the airframe the application of SHM will reconcile the fail-safety and slow crack growth damage tolerance approaches that can be used for safeguarding the continuing airworthiness of these areas, combining the benefits of both approaches and eliminating the drawbacks.

  11. Research on Aircraft Noise Evaluation System%飞机噪声评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颖; 谢实海; 陈荣生


    The evaluation system of aircraft noise and environment noise should be integrated,because aircraft noise belongs to environment noise.At the same time,there should be some difference in the evaluation system of aircraft noise.For solving this contradiction,this article puts forward a new evaluation system of aircraft noise.This new system unifies the evaluation of aircraft noise and other environment noise effectively,and adds a new evaluation index single-event noise exposure level.The system not only considers the characteristics of aircraft noise,which is different from other traffic noise,but also adds aircraft noise to other traffic noise,which can reflect sound environment around airport really.This system has practical worthiness and theory significance.%飞机噪声的共性决定其评价体系应于环境噪声评价体系统一,而飞机噪声的个性决定其评价方法必须有别于一般环境噪声评价.本文通过对飞机噪声的共性与个性的分析,建立了一种新的飞机噪声评价体系,它不仅考虑到飞机噪声不同于其他交通噪声的特点,而且有效地统一了飞机噪声与城市区域环境噪声的评价体系.新体系可以将机场周围飞机噪声与其他交通噪声叠加,真实地反映机场周围声环境,具有一定的实用价值和理论指导意义.

  12. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors (United States)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  13. Potential uses of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in weed research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jon; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose


    Small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with cameras have not been adopted in weed research, but offer low-cost sensing with high flexibility in terms of spatial resolution. A small rotary-wing UAS was tested as part of a search for an inexpensive, user-friendly and reliable aircraft for practical...... with ground truth data. UAS imagery also gave excellent results in logarithmic sprayer experiments in oilseed rape, where we captured 37 m long plots in each image from an altitude of 35 m. Furthermore, perennial weeds could be mapped from UAS images. These first experiences with a small rotary-wing UAS show...

  14. First Report of Using Portable Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) for Search and Rescue. (United States)

    Van Tilburg, Christopher


    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), colloquially called drones, are used commonly for military, government, and civilian purposes, including both commercial and consumer applications. During a search and rescue mission in Oregon, a UAS was used to confirm a fatality in a slot canyon; this eliminated the need for a dangerous rappel at night by rescue personnel. A second search mission in Oregon used several UAS to clear terrain. This allowed search of areas that were not accessible or were difficult to clear by ground personnel. UAS with cameras may be useful for searching, observing, and documenting missions. It is possible that UAS might be useful for delivering equipment in difficult areas and in communication.

  15. Adaptive control in an aircraft propulsion system and system integration with flight control; Kokukiyo enigne - tekio seigyo gijutsu oyobi hiko seigyo tono togo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatome, S.; Seo, N.; Negoro, T.; Kaneda, S.; Matsushita, T.; Kono, Y.; Kanbe, K.; Fujiwara, K. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    Aircraft engine controllers incorporating computer technology have enabled the highly automated control of the entire engine system, and consequently have been put to practical use as Full-Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC). In future such FADEC technology will be evolved and combined into an Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) system which will automatically optimize the whole aircraft propulsion system. In this paper the application of the adaptive control, part of the IFPC technology, is described. (author)

  16. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.


    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  17. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee


    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dmitrii G. Kolykhalov


    Full Text Available Тhis article is devoted to the gas-liquid systems of the aircraft and their structural and technological analysis. The paper shows the characteristics of pipelines, considers the types of working fluids and gases and covers the range of perceived internal pressures. The paper presents the classification of pipelines of flying vehicles from the point of view of their working conditions, taking into account the perceived internal pressure. The article also shows the classification scheme of major groups and types of pipe connections and fittings. The article focuses on the scheme of permanent joints made with soldering and welding, as well as the split of mobile and fixed joints of different types. The authors study the combined connections. The authors have also developed classification schemes of aircraft piping systems that depend on the system pressure. A classification scheme of piping connections, depending on the method of connection, mobility, presence of seals is singled out. The research is ilustrated with examples of compounds of different types.

  19. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.


    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  20. Multi-Domain Modeling and Simulation of an Aircraft System for Advanced Vehicle-Level Reasoning Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : F. Khan


    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simulation based health monitoring system test-bed for aircraft systems. The purpose of the test-bed is to provide a technology neutral basis for implementing and evaluation of reasoning systems on vehicle level and software architecture in support of the safety and maintenance process. This simulation test-bed will provide the sub-system level results and data which can be fed to the VLRS to generate vehicle level reasoning to achieve broader level diagnoses. This paper describes real-time system architecture and concept of operations for the aircraft major sub-systems. The four main components in the real-time test-bed are the aircraft sub-systems (e.g. battery, fuel, engine, generator, heating and lighting system simulation model, fault insertion unit, health monitoring data processing and user interface. In this paper, we adopted a component based modelling paradigm for the implementation of the virtual aircraft systems. All of the fault injections are currently implemented via software. The fault insertion unit allows for the repeatable injection of faults into the system. The simulation test-bed has been tested with many different faults which were undetected on system level to process and detect on the vehicle level reasoning. This article also shows how one system fault can affect the overall health of the vehicle.

  1. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  2. Risk management model in road transport systems (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.


    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  3. On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System Issues, Challenges, Operational Restrictions, Certification, and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos; Piegl, Les A


    This book presents, in a comprehensive way, current unmanned aviation regulation, airworthiness certification, special aircraft categories, pilot certification, federal aviation requirements, operation rules, airspace classes and regulation development models. It discusses unmanned aircraft systems levels of safety derived mathematically based on the corresponding levels for manned aviation. It provides an overview of the history and current status of UAS airworthiness and operational regulation worldwide. Existing regulations have been developed considering the need for a complete regulatory framework for UAS. It focuses on UAS safety assessment and functional requirements, achieved in terms of defining an “Equivalent Level of Safety”, or ELOS, with that of manned aviation, specifying what the ELOS requirement entails for UAS regulations. To accomplish this, the safety performance of manned aviation is first evaluated, followed by a novel model to derive reliability requirements for achieving target lev...

  4. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.


    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  5. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.


    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  7. 76 FR 5 - Feathering Propeller Systems for Light-Sport Aircraft Powered Gliders (United States)


    ... aircraft, if powered, would be limited to a fixed or ground adjustable propeller.'' We determined that ``a... found in multi-engine aircraft, automatically feather a propeller in the event of a power loss during... manual feathering propeller on an LSA powered glider could impose a hazard to the aircraft...

  8. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies (United States)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.


    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  9. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC... (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or...

  10. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.


    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  11. Large Aircraft Robotic Paint Stripping (LARPS) system and the high pressure water process (United States)

    See, David W.; Hofacker, Scott A.; Stone, M. Anthony; Harbaugh, Darcy


    The aircraft maintenance industry is beset by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines on air emissions, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, dwindling labor markets, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) safety guidelines, and increased operating costs. In light of these factors, the USAF's Wright Laboratory Manufacturing Technology Directorate and the Aircraft Division of the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center initiated a MANTECH/REPTECH effort to automate an alternate paint removal method and eliminate the current manual methylene chloride chemical stripping methods. This paper presents some of the background and history of the LARPS program, describes the LARPS system, documents the projected operational flow, quantifies some of the projected system benefits and describes the High Pressure Water Stripping Process. Certification of an alternative paint removal method to replace the current chemical process is being performed in two phases: Process Optimization and Process Validation. This paper also presents the results of the Process Optimization for metal substrates. Data on the coating removal rate, residual stresses, surface roughness, preliminary process envelopes, and technical plans for process Validation Testing will be discussed.

  12. Concept of Operations for Commercial and Business Aircraft Synthetic Vision Systems. 1.0 (United States)

    Williams Daniel M.; Waller, Marvin C.; Koelling, John H.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Capron, William R.; Barry, John S.; Gifford, Richard B.; Doyle, Thomas M.


    A concept of operations (CONOPS) for the Commercial and Business (CaB) aircraft synthetic vision systems (SVS) is described. The CaB SVS is expected to provide increased safety and operational benefits in normal and low visibility conditions. Providing operational benefits will promote SVS implementation in the Net, improve aviation safety, and assist in meeting the national aviation safety goal. SVS will enhance safety and enable consistent gate-to-gate aircraft operations in normal and low visibility conditions. The goal for developing SVS is to support operational minima as low as Category 3b in a variety of environments. For departure and ground operations, the SVS goal is to enable operations with a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system is an integrated display concept that provides a virtual visual environment. The SVS virtual visual environment is composed of three components: an enhanced intuitive view of the flight environment, hazard and obstacle defection and display, and precision navigation guidance. The virtual visual environment will support enhanced operations procedures during all phases of flight - ground operations, departure, en route, and arrival. The applications selected for emphasis in this document include low visibility departures and arrivals including parallel runway operations, and low visibility airport surface operations. These particular applications were selected because of significant potential benefits afforded by SVS.

  13. Propagating fronts in reaction-transport systems with memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail:; Fedotov, Sergei [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1DQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Mendez, Vicenc [Grup de Fisica Estadistica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail:; Horsthemke, Werner [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail:


    In reaction-transport systems with non-standard diffusion, the memory of the transport causes a coupling of reactions and transport. We investigate the effect of this coupling for systems with Fisher-type kinetics and obtain a general analytical expression for the front speed. We apply our results to the specific case of subdiffusion.

  14. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan


    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  15. Comparison of dynamic Bayesian network approaches for online diagnosis of aircraft system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于劲松; 冯威; 唐荻音; 刘浩


    The online diagnosis for aircraft system has always been a difficult problem. This is due to time evolution of system change, uncertainty of sensor measurements, and real-time requirement of diagnostic inference. To address this problem, two dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) approaches are proposed. One approach prunes the DBN of system, and then uses particle filter (PF) for this pruned DBN (PDBN) to perform online diagnosis. The problem is that estimates from a PF tend to have high variance for small sample sets. Using large sample sets is computationally expensive. The other approach compiles the PDBN into a dynamic arithmetic circuit (DAC) using an offline procedure that is applied only once, and then uses this circuit to provide online diagnosis recursively. This approach leads to the most computational consumption in the offline procedure. The experimental results show that the DAC, compared with the PF for PDBN, not only provides more reliable online diagnosis, but also offers much faster inference.

  16. A National Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport Systems : Proposals for Improving Urban Transportation in Russian Cities


    World Bank


    In many Russian cities, these growing demands for mobility are not adequately met by the existing urban transport infrastructure and services. Most municipalities have had difficulties in planning and managing the development of their urban transport systems in a coherent manner, which is a precondition for successful resolution of the existing transport problems. In addition, there is a n...

  17. In-flight measurements of aircraft propeller deformation by means of an autarkic fast rotating imaging system (United States)

    Stasicki, Boleslaw; Boden, Fritz


    The non-intrusive in-flight measurement of the deformation and pitch of the aircraft propeller is a demanding task. The idea of an imaging system integrated and rotating with the aircraft propeller has been presented on the 30th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics (ICHSIP30) in 2012. Since then this system has been constructed and tested in the laboratory as well as on the real aircraft. In this paper we outline the principle of Image Pattern Correlation Technique (IPCT) based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and describe the construction of a dedicated autarkic 3D camera system placed on the investigated propeller and rotating at its full speed. Furthermore, the results of the first ground and in-flight tests are shown and discussed. This development has been found by the European Commission within the 7th frame project AIM2 (contract no. 266107).

  18. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 1: Europe, July 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, F.A.


    The development and implementation of aircraft noise control regulations in various European states are described. The countries include the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Topics discussed include noise monitoring, airport curfews, land use planning, and the government structure for noise regulation.

  19. Multi-Agent Systems for Transportation Planning and Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Moonen (Hans)


    textabstractMany transportation problems are in fact coordination problems: problems that require communication, coordination and negotiation to be optimally solved. However, most software systems targeted at transportation have never approached it this way, and have instead concentrated on centrali

  20. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.


    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13......Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport......% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies...

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.


    In anticipation of transforming the research methods and resource management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is conducting missions using small UAS- sUAS platforms (logistically difficult, cost prohibitive or technically impossible to obtain consistent, reliable, timely information. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate to ensure the safe and cost effective adoption of UAS technology. While the USGS is concentrating on operating sUAS, the immense value of increased flight time and more robust sensor capabilities available on larger platforms cannot be ignored. We are partnering with several groups including the Department of Homeland Security, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Defense, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for access to data collected from their fleet of high altitude, long endurance (HALE) UAS. The HALE systems include state of the art sensors including Electro-Optical, Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The data being collected by High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) systems is can be routinely shared in near real time at several DOI- USGS locations. Analysis tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

  2. Active fault tolerant control for vertical tail damaged aircraft with dissimilar redundant actuation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Wang Shaoping; Wang Xingjian; Shi Cun; Mileta M. Tomovic


    This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control strategy for an aircraft with dissim-ilar redundant actuation system (DRAS) that has suffered from vertical tail damage. A damage degree coefficient based on the effective vertical tail area is introduced to parameterize the damaged flight dynamic model. The nonlinear relationship between the damage degree coefficient and the corresponding stability derivatives is considered. Furthermore, the performance degradation of new input channel with electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) is also taken into account in the dam-aged flight dynamic model. Based on the accurate damaged flight dynamic model, a composite method of linear quadratic regulator (LQR) integrating model reference adaptive control (MRAC) is proposed to reconfigure the fault-tolerant control law. The numerical simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control strategy with accurate flight dynamic model. The results also indicate that aircraft with DRAS has better fault-tolerant control ability than the traditional ones when the vertical tail suffers from serious damage.

  3. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  4. Transport in active systems crowded by obstacles (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond


    The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the system. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the active motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a system containing many active Janus motors is studied to investigate how an active environment influences the transport of non-active species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an active medium is found to be enhanced in systems with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.

  5. Design of PID Controllers of Anti-aircraft Artillery Servo System with Multiple Performance Specifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin-ya; SHENG An-dong; WANG Yuan-gang


    A novel design method for determining the proportional-integral-derivative(PID) controller gains of an anti-aircraft artillery servo system with multiple performance specifications based on a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. First, a performance criterion evolution function combined with the system maximum displacement settling time, rise time, overshoot, steady state error, constant velocity tracking error and sine wave tracking error is defined. Second, the optimization problem of PID controller parameters and the searching procedure of PSO algorithm are constructed. Finally, the optimal or near optimal PID controller parameters are fast and easily obtained by solving the above optimization problem on the given controller parameter space following the PSO searching procedure. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controllers.

  6. A methodology for the efficient integration of transient constraints in the design of aircraft dynamic systems (United States)

    Phan, Leon L.

    The motivation behind this thesis mainly stems from previous work performed at Hispano-Suiza (Safran Group) in the context of the European research project "Power Optimised Aircraft". Extensive testing on the COPPER Bird RTM, a test rig designed to characterize aircraft electrical networks, demonstrated the relevance of transient regimes in the design and development of dynamic systems. Transient regimes experienced by dynamic systems may have severe impacts on the operation of the aircraft. For example, the switching on of a high electrical load might cause a network voltage drop inducing a loss of power available to critical aircraft systems. These transient behaviors are thus often regulated by dynamic constraints, requiring the dynamic signals to remain within bounds whose values vary with time. The verification of these peculiar types of constraints, which generally requires high-fidelity time-domain simulation, intervenes late in the system development process, thus potentially causing costly design iterations. The research objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology that integrates the verification of dynamic constraints in the early specification of dynamic systems. In order to circumvent the inefficiencies of time-domain simulation, multivariate dynamic surrogate models of the original time-domain simulation models are generated, building on a nonlinear system identification technique using wavelet neural networks (or wavenets), which allow the multiscale nature of transient signals to be captured. However, training multivariate wavenets can become computationally prohibitive as the number of design variables increases. Therefore, an alternate approach is formulated, in which dynamic surrogate models using sigmoid-based neural networks are used to emulate the transient behavior of the envelopes of the time-domain response. Thus, in order to train the neural network, the envelopes are extracted by first separating the scales of the dynamic response

  7. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.


    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  8. Inviscid and viscous flow modelling of complex aircraft configurations using the CFD simulation system sauna (United States)

    Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.; Shaw, Jonathon A.


    This paper is concerned with the flow modelling capabilities of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. This system is aimed primarily at complex aircraft configurations and possesses a unique grid generation strategy in its use of block-structured, unstructured or hybrid grids, depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The main focus of the paper is in demonstrating the recently developed multi-grid, block-structured grid, viscous flow capability of SAUNA, through its evaluation on a number of configurations. Inviscid predictions are also presented, both as a means of interpreting the viscous results and with a view to showing more completely the capabilities of SAUNA. It is shown that accuracy and flexibility are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.


    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  10. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation (United States)

    Glende, W. L. B.


    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  11. Development of an Unmanned Aircraft System and Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Science Research (United States)

    Brady, J. J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Escapita, I. J.


    There is a fundamental need to improve capacities for monitoring environmental change using remote sensing technologies. Recently, researchers have begun using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to expand and improve upon remote sensing capabilities. Limitations to most non-military and relatively small-scale Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) include a need to develop more reliable communications between ground and aircraft, tools to optimize flight control, real time data processing, and visually ascertaining the quantity of data collected while in air. Here we present a prototype software system that has enhanced communication between ground and the vehicle, can synthesize near real time data acquired from sensors on board, can log operation data during flights, and can visually demonstrate the amount and quality of data for a sampling area. This software has the capacity to greatly improve the utilization of UAS in the environmental sciences. The software system is being designed for use on a paraglider UAV that has a suite of sensors suitable for characterizing the footprints of eddy covariance towers situated in the Chihuahuan Desert and in the Arctic. Sensors on board relay operational flight data (airspeed, ground speed, latitude, longitude, pitch, yaw, roll, acceleration, and video) as well as a suite of customized sensors. Additional sensors can be added to an on board laptop or a CR1000 data logger thereby allowing data from these sensors to be visualized in the prototype software. This poster will describe the development, use and customization of our UAS and multimedia will be available during AGU to illustrate the system in use. UAV on workbench in the lab UAV in flight

  12. Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (cosi) for Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (rpas) - System Overview and First Performance Evaluation Results (United States)

    Sima, A. A.; Baeck, P.; Nuyts, D.; Delalieux, S.; Livens, S.; Blommaert, J.; Delauré, B.; Boonen, M.


    This paper gives an overview of the new COmpact hyperSpectral Imaging (COSI) system recently developed at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Belgium) and suitable for remotely piloted aircraft systems. A hyperspectral dataset captured from a multirotor platform over a strawberry field is presented and explored in order to assess spectral bands co-registration quality. Thanks to application of line based interference filters deposited directly on the detector wafer the COSI camera is compact and lightweight (total mass of 500g), and captures 72 narrow (FWHM: 5nm to 10 nm) bands in the spectral range of 600-900 nm. Covering the region of red edge (680 nm to 730 nm) allows for deriving plant chlorophyll content, biomass and hydric status indicators, making the camera suitable for agriculture purposes. Additionally to the orthorectified hypercube digital terrain model can be derived enabling various analyses requiring object height, e.g. plant height in vegetation growth monitoring. Geometric data quality assessment proves that the COSI camera and the dedicated data processing chain are capable to deliver very high resolution data (centimetre level) where spectral information can be correctly derived. Obtained results are comparable or better than results reported in similar studies for an alternative system based on the Fabry-Pérot interferometer.

  13. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.


    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  14. Solar thermal aircraft (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.


    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  15. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  16. Aircraft Noise Prediction



    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  17. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun


    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  18. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)


    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  19. Research requirements for a real-time flight measurements and data analysis system for subsonic transport high-lift research (United States)

    Whitehead, Julia H.; Harris, Franklin K.; Lytle, Carroll D.


    A multiphased research program to obtain detailed flow characteristics on a multielement high-lift flap system is being conducted on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (B737-100 aircraft) at NASA Langley Research Center. Upcoming flight tests have required the development of a highly capable and flexible flight measurement and data analysis instrumentation system. This instrumentation system will be more comprehensive than any of the systems used on previous high-lift flight experiment at NASA Langley. The system will provide the researcher near-real-time information for decision making needed to modify a flight test in order to further examine unexpected flow conditions. This paper presents the research requirements and instrumentation design concept for an upcoming flight experiment for the subsonic transport high-lift research program. The flight experiment objectives, the measurement requirements, the data acquisition system, and the onboard data analysis and display capabilities are described.

  20. Nonlinear Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems (United States)


    Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems.” The PI is Ying-Cheng Lai from Arizona State University. The duration of the project was 12/1/2008...military systems may contain some graphene components. To understand various fundamental aspects of quantum transport dynamics is key to developing...conductance fluctuations, not seen previously in any quantum transport systems. This phenomenon has profound implications to the development of graphene

  1. Utilizing High Fidelity Simulations in Multidisciplinary Optimization of Aircraft Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aircraft design is a complex process requiring interactions and exchange of information among multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, strength, fatigue, controls,...

  2. Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Coils for Electric Propulsion Systems for Large Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent development of magnesium diboride superconducting wires makes possible the potential to have much lighter weight superconducting coils for heavy aircraft...

  3. Modern and prospective technologies for weather modification activities: A look at integrating unmanned aircraft systems (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan; DeFelice, Tom P.


    Present-day weather modification technologies are scientifically based and have made controlled technological advances since the late 1990s, early 2000s. The technological advances directly related to weather modification have primarily been in the decision support and evaluation based software and modeling areas. However, there have been some technological advances in other fields that might now be advanced enough to start considering their usefulness for improving weather modification operational efficiency and evaluation accuracy. We consider the programmatic aspects underlying the development of new technologies for use in weather modification activities, identifying their potential benefits and limitations. We provide context and initial guidance for operators that might integrate unmanned aircraft systems technology in future weather modification operations.

  4. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, C.R.


    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation. (DLC)

  5. Aircraft Measurements of Convective System Vertical Structure and Coldpools during the DYNAMO Project (United States)

    Guy, N.; Jorgensen, D. P.; Chen, S. S.; Wang, Q.


    The DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) field experiment employed a large number of measurement platforms with which to study environmental and convective cloud system characteristics of the MJO initiation region in the Indian Ocean. One such platform, the NOAA P-3 instrumented aircraft, provided mobility to sample convective cloud systems along with the surrounding environment. The tail-mounted, X-band Doppler radar allowed a pseudo-dual-Doppler analysis technique to study system kinematics and derive vertical wind motion. GPS dropwindsondes provided a robust means for thermodynamic characterization both in and around the sampled convective cloud systems. This presentation will focus on the relationships between coldpool strength and depth (along with other environmental characteristics) and the vertical structure of convective systems. In addition, a comparison of the DYNAMO observations to previous results in the region (e.g. TOGA COARE) will be presented. Differences in organizational aspects of convective clouds into mesoscale convective systems between the studies will provide a context of regional differences, which may serve as a basis for future model simulations.

  6. A development of logistics management models for the Space Transportation System (United States)

    Carrillo, M. J.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Abell, J. B.; Lippiatt, T. F.


    A new analytic queueing approach was described which relates stockage levels, repair level decisions, and the project network schedule of prelaunch operations directly to the probability distribution of the space transportation system launch delay. Finite source population and limited repair capability were additional factors included in this logistics management model developed specifically for STS maintenance requirements. Data presently available to support logistics decisions were based on a comparability study of heavy aircraft components. A two-phase program is recommended by which NASA would implement an integrated data collection system, assemble logistics data from previous STS flights, revise extant logistics planning and resource requirement parameters using Bayes-Lin techniques, and adjust for uncertainty surrounding logistics systems performance parameters. The implementation of these recommendations can be expected to deliver more cost-effective logistics support.

  7. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft (United States)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.


    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  8. Eddy current measurement system evaluation for corrosion depth determination on cast aluminum aircraft structure (United States)

    Singh, Surendra; Greving, Dan; Kinney, Andy; Vensel, Fred; Ohm, Jim; Peeler, Mike


    An eddy current (EC) technique was developed to determine the corrosion depth on a bare flange face of a cast aluminum A356-T6 aircraft engine structure. The EC response and the corrosion depths determined through metallurgical cross sections were used to develop an empirical relation between EC response and depth. The EC technique and depth determination are used to inspect the engine structures during overhaul to determine if they are fit for continued service. An accurate and reliable Non-Destructive Inspection is required to ensure that structures returned to service are safe for continued operation. NDE system reliability demonstrations of the eddy current technique are traditionally reported in terms of Probability of Detection (POD) data using MIL-HDBK-1823A. However, the calculation of POD data is based on a simple linear predictive model that is valid only if certain criteria are met. These are: 1) NDE system response is measurable (i.e. continuous data), 2) Flaw size is known and measurable (i.e. continuous data), 3) relationship between the NDE system response and flaw size is linear (or linear on a log scale), 4) variation in measured responseresponse around a predicted response for a given flaw size is normally distributed, 5) the variation around the predicted response is constant (i.e. variation does not change with flaw size), and 6) inherent variability in the NDE system is known and fully understood. In this work, a Measurement System Evaluation (MSE) of the Eddy Current System was used to address some of these concerns. This work was completed on two aircraft structures having varying corrosion depths. The data were acquired in a random manner at fifty regions of interests (ROIs). Three operators participated in this study, and each operator measured Eddy Current response three times in each ROI. In total, there were four hundred and fifty data points collected. Following this, the two structures were sectioned for measuring corrosion depth. The

  9. The Exchange Value Embedded In A Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan


    This paper shows that a well designed transport system has an embedded exchange value by serving as a market for potential exchange between consumers. Under suitable conditions, one can improve the welfare of consumers in the system simply by allowing some exchange of goods between consumers during transportation without incurring additional transportation costs. We propose an explicit valuation formula to measure this exchange value for a given compatible transport system. This value is always nonnegative and bounded from above. Criteria based on transport structures, preferences and prices are provided to determine the existence of a positive exchange value. Finally, we study a new optimal transport problem with an objective taking into account of both transportation cost and exchange value.

  10. Structuring a Sustainable Transportation System in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正> Since the implementation of the Master Plan of Beijing in 1993, Beijing has acquired economic development continually, and the construction of urban transportation has gained obvious achievements. But with the continually high-speed development of Beijing’s economy, the quickened tenor of urbanization and traffic motorization, the increasing need for transportation and amount of motor

  11. Aircraft automatic digital flight control system with inversion of the model in the feed-forward path (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.


    A full-flight-envelope automatic trajectory control system concept is being investigated at Ames Research Center. This concept was developed for advanced aircraft configurations with severe nonlinear characteristics. A feature of the system is an inverse of the complete nonlinear aircraft model as part of the feed-forward control path. Simulation and flight tests have been reported at previous Digital Avionics Systems conferences. A new method for the continuous real-time inversion of the aircraft model using a Newton-Raphson trim algorithm instead of the original inverse table look-up procedure has been developed. The results of a simulation study of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft using the new inversion technique are presented. Maneuvers were successfully carried out in all directions in the vertical-attitude hover mode. Transition runs from conventional flight through the region of lift-curve-slope reversal at an angle of attack of about 32 deg and to hover at zero speed in the vertical attitude showed satisfactory transient response. Simulations were also conducted in conventional flight at high subsonic speed in steep climb and with turns up to 4 g. Successful flight tests of the system with the new model-inversion technique in a UH-1H helicopter have recently been carried out.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available El transporte es uno de los elementos más relevantes para la competitividad de las empresas y las ciudades, pues un sistema de transporte inadecuado genera altos costos y bajos niveles de servicio al cliente, lo que fi nalmente produce un impacto económico para ambas partes. Este artículo presenta una revisión de herramientas tecnológicas que hacen parte de los sistemas de transporte inteligentes (ITS, sistemas utilizados para el mejoramiento del desempeño y seguridad del transporte, no solo de carga sino también de pasajeros y en diferentes modos. El artículo comienza con una descripción sobre los sistemas de transporte ITS, seguido por la presentación de los benefi cios de estos sistemas y fi nalmente se realiza una revisión de las diferentes herramientas que enmarcan los ITS.

  13. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective (United States)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.


    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  14. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka


    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  15. Real-time fault detection method based on belief rule base for aircraft navigation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xin; Wang Shicheng; Zhang Jinsheng; Fan Zhiliang; Min Haibo


    Real-time and accurate fault detection is essential to enhance the aircraft navigation system's reliability and safety.The existent detection methods based on analytical model draws back at simultaneously detecting gradual and sudden faults.On account of this reason,we propose an online detection solution based on non-analytical model.In this article,the navigation system fault detection model is established based on belief rule base (BRB),where the system measuring residual and its changing rate are used as the inputs of BRB model and the fault detection function as the output.To overcome the drawbacks of current parameter optimization algorithms for BRB and achieve online update,a parameter recursive estimation algorithm is presented for online BRB detection model based on expectation maximization (EM) algorithm.Furthermore,the proposed method is verified by navigation experiment.Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to effectively realize online parameter evaluation in navigation system fault detection model.The output of the detection model can track the fault state very well,and the faults can be diagnosed in real time and accurately.In addition,the detection ability,especially in the probability of false detection,is superior to offline optimization method,and thus the system reliability has great improvement.

  16. Adaptive Optimal Control Using Frequency Selective Information of the System Uncertainty With Application to Unmanned Aircraft. (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Hocht, Leonhard; Heise, Christian; Holzapfel, Florian


    A new efficient adaptive optimal control approach is presented in this paper based on the indirect model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture for improvement of adaptation and tracking performance of the uncertain system. The system accounts here for both matched and unmatched unknown uncertainties that can act as plant as well as input effectiveness failures or damages. For adaptation of the unknown parameters of these uncertainties, the frequency selective learning approach is used. Its idea is to compute a filtered expression of the system uncertainty using multiple filters based on online instantaneous information, which is used for augmentation of the update law. It is capable of adjusting a sudden change in system dynamics without depending on high adaptation gains and can satisfy exponential parameter error convergence under certain conditions in the presence of structured matched and unmatched uncertainties as well. Additionally, the controller of the MRAC system is designed using a new optimal control method. This method is a new linear quadratic regulator-based optimal control formulation for both output regulation and command tracking problems. It provides a closed-form control solution. The proposed overall approach is applied in a control of lateral dynamics of an unmanned aircraft problem to show its effectiveness.

  17. Applying Required Navigation Performance Concept for Traffic Management of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; D'Souza, Sarah N.; Johnson, Marcus A.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Modi, Hemil C.; Nikaido, Ben; Hasseeb, Hashmatullah


    In anticipation of a rapid increase in the number of civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) operations, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that will investigate airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. One aspect a UTM system must consider is the correlation between UAS operations (such as vehicles, operation areas and durations), UAS performance requirements, and the risk to people and property in the operational area. This paper investigates the potential application of the International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept to relate operational risk with trajectory conformance requirements. The approach is to first define a method to quantify operational risk and then define the RNP level requirement as a function of the operational risk. Greater operational risk corresponds to more accurate RNP level, or smaller tolerable Total System Error (TSE). Data from 19 small UAS flights are used to develop and validate a formula that defines this relationship. An approach to assessing UAS-RNP conformance capability using vehicle modeling and wind field simulation is developed to investigate how this formula may be applied in a future UTM system. The results indicate the modeled vehicles flight path is robust to the simulated wind variation, and it can meet RNP level requirements calculated by the formula. The results also indicate how vehicle-modeling fidelity may be improved to adequately verify assessed RNP level.

  18. Design of an aircraft landing system using dual-frequency GNSS (United States)

    Konno, Hiroyuki

    There is a strong demand for new all-weather navigation aids to support aircraft precision approach and landing. The Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is one such navigation aid that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to estimate aircraft location. LAAS is required to provide very high levels of accuracy, integrity, continuity, and availability, and the integrity requirement of one undetected navigation failure in a billion approaches has been a critical challenge in the design of this system. Tremendous efforts have developed methods to guarantee integrity for various potential anomalies that might threaten LAAS-aided landing. Currently, almost all these risks are mitigated by existing methods. One issue that remains is the risk due to ionosphere anomalies. This dissertation introduces novel integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies that take advantage of GPS modernization---undergoing changes in the GPS system that enhance civil user capabilities. This modernization includes adding new GPS civil signals, and these signals make possible multiple-frequency techniques. This research focuses on two types of dual-frequency carrier-smoothing methods---Divergence-Free Smoothing and Ionosphere-Free Smoothing---and develops integrity algorithms for ionosphere anomalies using these methods. Simulations show that the first algorithm, using Ionosphere-Free Smoothing, can achieve 96% to 99.9% availability at best over a broad region of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). This level of availability is unacceptably low for practical use. However, a benefit is that the resulting availability is not a function of the ionosphere condition. The second algorithm, based on Divergence-Free Smoothing, is shown by simulations to achieve more than 99.9% availability over more than 70% of CONUS under nominal ionosphere conditions. However, it has the potential to completely lose availability under severe ionosphere conditions. Taking

  19. Transport jet aircraft noise abatement in foreign countries: Growth, structure, impact. Volume 2: Pacific Basin, August 1980. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, F.A.


    Noise control measures at the international airports of Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, and Singapore were studied. Factors in noise control, such as government structure are examined. The increasing power of environmental agencies vis-a-vis aviation departments is noted. The following methods of dealing with aircraft noise are examined by type of control: noise at the source control noise emmission controls, zoning, building codes, subsidies for relocation, insulation, loss in property values, and for TV, radio and telephone interference and noise-related landing charges.

  20. Efficient super-resolution image reconstruction applied to surveillance video captured by small unmanned aircraft systems (United States)

    He, Qiang; Schultz, Richard R.; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry


    The concept surrounding super-resolution image reconstruction is to recover a highly-resolved image from a series of low-resolution images via between-frame subpixel image registration. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient super-resolution algorithm, and then apply it to the reconstruction of real video data captured by a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Small UAS aircraft generally have a wingspan of less than four meters, so that these vehicles and their payloads can be buffeted by even light winds, resulting in potentially unstable video. This algorithm is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy, in which a coarsely super-resolved image sequence is first built from the original video data by image registration and bi-cubic interpolation between a fixed reference frame and every additional frame. It is well known that the median filter is robust to outliers. If we calculate pixel-wise medians in the coarsely super-resolved image sequence, we can restore a refined super-resolved image. The primary advantage is that this is a noniterative algorithm, unlike traditional approaches based on highly-computational iterative algorithms. Experimental results show that our coarse-to-fine super-resolution algorithm is not only robust, but also very efficient. In comparison with five well-known super-resolution algorithms, namely the robust super-resolution algorithm, bi-cubic interpolation, projection onto convex sets (POCS), the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm, and the iterated back projection algorithm, our proposed algorithm gives both strong efficiency and robustness, as well as good visual performance. This is particularly useful for the application of super-resolution to UAS surveillance video, where real-time processing is highly desired.